An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.
A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
A family of neuronal calcium-sensor proteins that interact with and regulate potassium channels, type A.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A synthetic pregnadiene derivative with anti-aldosterone activity.
An actinomycete used for production of commercial ANTIBIOTICS and as a host for gene cloning.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (VASODILATOR AGENTS) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in BLOOD PRESSURE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
A pteridinetriamine compound that inhibits SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS.
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A number of different cardioactive glycosides obtained from Strophanthus species. OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
The outermost cytoplasmic layer of the SCHWANN CELLS covering NERVE FIBERS.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.

Myocardial uptake of digoxin in chronically digitalized dogs. (1/15898)

1 The time course of myocardial uptake of digoxin, increase in contractility and changes in myocardial potassium concentration was studied for 90 min following an intravenous digoxin dose to long-term digitalized dogs. 2 Nineteen dogs were investigated by the use of a biopsy technique which allowed sampling before and after administration of digoxin. 3 Ten minutes after administration of digoxin the myocardial concentration increased from 60 to 306 nmol/kg tissue, the myocardial concentration of digoxin was significantly lower (250 nmol/kg tissue) after 30 min and then increased again. 4 The transmural myocardial distribution of digoxin was uniform before and 90 min after administration of digoxin in long-term digitalized dogs but at 10 min after administration, both the subepicardial and the subendocardial concentration of digoxin were significantly lower than that of the mesocardial layer. 5 During the first 10 min the dp/dtmax increased to 135% of the control level. The increase remained unchanged during the rest of the study. 6 Myocardial potassium decreased throughout the study. 7 The M-configuration of the myocardial uptake curve and the non-uniformity of myocardial distribution of digoxin observed at 10 min after administrating digoxin to long-term digitalized dogs indicate that the distribution of myocardial blood flow may be changed during chronic digitalization.  (+info)

Automatic activity in depolarized guinea pig ventricular myocardium. Characteristics and mechanisms. (2/15898)

Membrane potential was changed uniformly in segments, 0.7-1.0 mm long, of guinea pig papillary muscles excised from the right ventricle by using extracellular polarizing current pulses applied across two electrically insulated cf preparations superfused with Tyrode's solution at maximum diastolic membrane potentials ranging from-35.2+/-7.5 (threshold) to +4.0+/-9.2 mV. The average maximum dV/dt of RAD ranged from 17.1 to 18.0 V/sec within a membrane potential range of -40 to +20 mV. Raising extracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]0 from 1.8 to 6.8 mM, or application of isoproterenol (10(-6)g/ml) enhanced the rate of RAD, but lowering [Ca2+]0 to 0.4 mM or exposure to MnCl2 (6 mM) abolished RAD. RAD were enhanced by lowering extracellular K+ concentration [K+]0 from 5.4 to 1.5 mM. RAD were suppressed in 40% of fibers by raising [K+]0 to 15.4 mM, and in all fibers by raising [K+]0 to 40.4 mM. This suppression was due to increased [K+]0 and not to K-induced depolarization because it persisted when membrane potential was held by means of a conditioning hyperpolarizing puled gradually after maximum repolarization. These observations suggest that the development of RAD in depolarized myocardium is associated with a time-dependent decrease in outward current (probably K current) and with increase in the background inward current, presumably flowing through the slow cha-nel carrying Ca or Na ions, or both.  (+info)

Acute and chronic dose-response relationships for angiotensin, aldosterone, and arterial pressure at varying levels of sodium intake. (3/15898)

We examined the acute and chronic dose-response relationships between intravenously infused angiotensin II (A II) and the resulting changes in arterial pressure and plasma aldosterone concentration at varying levels of sodium intake. Sequential analysis of plasma aldosterone at each A II infusion rate resulted in an acute dose-related increase in plasma aldosterone which was markedly attenuated after the first 24 hours of infusion, the final level being directly related to the dose of A II and inversely related to sodium intake. A II infused at 5,15, and 23 ng/kg per min was associated with an initial increase (2nd to 8th hour) in plasma aldosterone to 2,6, and 9 times control values, respectively, in dogs receiving 40 mEq Na+/day. But, after the 1st day, aldosterone averaged only 1, 1.7, and 3 times control values for the next 2 weeks at the same rates of A II infusion. Dogs receiving 120 mEq Na+/day during A II infusion exhibited only a transient increase in plasma aldosterone during the 1st day. Sustained hypertension developed over a period of a week at all doses of A II at normal and high sodium intake, but did not occur at any dose of A II in sodium-depleted dogs. Increasing sodium intake from 40 to 120 mEq/day resulted in higher levels of hypertension, 125% compared to 140% of ocntrol values for dogs infused with A II, 5.0 ng/kg per min. We conclude that primary angiotensin-induced hypertension need not be associated with increased levels of plasma aldosterone, which appears to remain elevated only with amounts of A II greater than those required to sustain a significant degree of hypertension.  (+info)

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (4/15898)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

Ionic currents underlying spontaneous action potentials in isolated cerebellar Purkinje neurons. (5/15898)

Acutely dissociated cell bodies of mouse Purkinje neurons spontaneously fired action potentials at approximately 50 Hz (25 degrees C). To directly measure the ionic currents underlying spontaneous activity, we voltage-clamped the cells using prerecorded spontaneous action potentials (spike trains) as voltage commands and used ionic substitution and selective blockers to isolate individual currents. The largest current flowing during the interspike interval was tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current (approximately -50 pA between -65 and -60 mV). Although the neurons had large voltage-dependent calcium currents, the net current blocked by cobalt substitution for calcium was outward at all times during spike trains. Thus, the electrical effect of calcium current is apparently dominated by rapidly activated calcium-dependent potassium currents. Under current clamp, all cells continued firing spontaneously (though approximately 30% more slowly) after block of T-type calcium current by mibefradil, and most cells continued to fire after block of all calcium current by cobalt substitution. Although the neurons possessed hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih), little current flowed during spike trains, and block by 1 mM cesium had no effect on firing frequency. The outward potassium currents underlying the repolarization of the spikes were completely blocked by 1 mM TEA. These currents deactivated quickly (<1 msec) after each spike. We conclude that the spontaneous firing of Purkinje neuron cell bodies depends mainly on tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current flowing between spikes. The high firing rate is promoted by large potassium currents that repolarize the cell rapidly and deactivate quickly, thus preventing strong hyperpolarization and restoring a high input resistance for subsequent depolarization.  (+info)

Inducible genetic suppression of neuronal excitability. (6/15898)

Graded, reversible suppression of neuronal excitability represents a logical goal of therapy for epilepsy and intractable pain. To achieve such suppression, we have developed the means to transfer "electrical silencing" genes into neurons with sensitive control of transgene expression. An ecdysone-inducible promoter drives the expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels in polycistronic adenoviral vectors. Infection of superior cervical ganglion neurons did not affect normal electrical activity but suppressed excitability after the induction of gene expression. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of controlled ion channel expression after somatic gene transfer into neurons and serve as the prototype for a novel generalizable approach to modulate excitability.  (+info)

Identification of the Kv2.1 K+ channel as a major component of the delayed rectifier K+ current in rat hippocampal neurons. (7/15898)

Molecular cloning studies have revealed the existence of a large family of voltage-gated K+ channel genes expressed in mammalian brain. This molecular diversity underlies the vast repertoire of neuronal K+ channels that regulate action potential conduction and neurotransmitter release and that are essential to the control of neuronal excitability. However, the specific contribution of individual K+ channel gene products to these neuronal K+ currents is poorly understood. We have shown previously, using an antibody, "KC, " specific for the Kv2.1 K+ channel alpha-subunit, the high-level expression of Kv2.1 protein in hippocampal neurons in situ and in culture. Here we show that KC is a potent blocker of K+ currents expressed in cells transfected with the Kv2.1 cDNA, but not of currents expressed in cells transfected with other highly related K+ channel alpha-subunit cDNAs. KC also blocks the majority of the slowly inactivating outward current in cultured hippocampal neurons, although antibodies to two other K+ channel alpha-subunits known to be expressed in these cells did not exhibit blocking effects. In all cases the blocking effects of KC were eliminated by previous incubation with a recombinant fusion protein containing the KC antigenic sequence. Together these studies show that Kv2.1, which is expressed at high levels in most mammalian central neurons, is a major contributor to the delayed rectifier K+ current in hippocampal neurons and that the KC antibody is a powerful tool for the elucidation of the role of the Kv2.1 K+ channel in regulating neuronal excitability.  (+info)

Treating the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion with isotonic saline. (8/15898)

It has been widely accepted that there is little use for saline treatment in the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH). However, having observed that most SIADH patients increased their plasma sodium (PNa) after 2 l isotonic saline over 24 h, we investigated whether urine osmolality or the sum of urinary sodium and potassium (UNa + K) predicted this response, in 17 consecutive patients with chronic SIADH. The initial measure of urinary sodium plus potassium (UNa + K t0) was weakly correlated to the change in PNa (DPNa) after infusion (r = -0.51; p < 0.05), while initial urine osmolality (UOSM t0) was a much better predictor (y = -0.024x + 12.90; r = -0.81; p < 0.001). The lack of predictive value for UNa + K t0 was probably because urine electrolyte concentrations were not maximal for the corresponding initial UOSM. This reflects differences in salt intake between the patients. The theoretical maximal value for UNa + K t0 (th max UNa + K t0) for a given USOM t0, was as good a predictor as UOSM t0 (th max UNa + K vs. DPNa: r = -0.81; p < 0.001). A theoretical model describing the effect of 2 l isotonic saline infusion on DPNa as a function of UNa + K, produced values comparable to those observed in our patients. Only 6/17 patients, those with UOSM > 530 mOsm/kg, had their hyponatraemia aggravated by 2 l isotonic saline. Many SIADH patients have lower UOSM; in most such patients, 2 l of isotonic saline will improve PNa.  (+info)

The passive K influx in low K(LK) red blood cells of sheep saturates with increasing external K concentration, indicating that this mode of transport is mediated by membrane-associated sites. The passive K influx, iMLK, is inhibited by external Na. Isoimmune anti-L serum, known to stimulate active K transport in LK sheep red cells, inhibits iMLK about twofold. iMLK is affected by changes in intracellular K concentration, [K]i, in a complex fashion: increasing [K]i from near zero stimulates iMLK, while further increases in [K]i, above 3 mmol/liter cells, inhibit iMLK. The passive K influx is not mediated by K-K exchange diffusion. The effects of anti-L antibody and [K]i on passive cation transport are specific for K: neither factor affects passive Na transport. The common characteristics of passive and active K influx suggest that iMLK is mediated by inactive Na-K pump sites, and that the inability to translocate Na characterizes the inactive pumps. Anti-L antibody stimulates the K pump in ...
Shop Low affinity potassium transport system protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Low affinity potassium transport system protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
A manifestation of changing dietary loads over time is to regulate the distribution of ROMK channels between the apical membrane and intracellular storage, that is, high-potassium diets lead to insertion of apical channels and therefore higher potassium secretion. In contrast, during periods of prolonged low potassium ingestion, there are few ROMK channels in the apical membrane. Yet another adaptation to prolonged periods of low potassium ingestion is an increase in H-K-ATPase activity in intercalated cells, resulting in even more efficient reabsorption of filtered potassium. (3) Aldosterone. We discussed the role of aldosterone in regulating sodium excretion in Chapter 7. Here we describe its role in potassium excretion. A stimulator of aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex, in addition to AII, is an increase in plasma potassium concentration. This is a direct action of potassium and does not involve the renin-angiotensin system. If anything, high levels of potassium decrease the ...
In this article, you will get some detailed information about low potassium diet for.Apples are low in potassium. Some medical conditions, such as kidney disease, may require a low potassium diet,.A low potassium diet is a diet that is usually recommended for people who have journeyed down the road towards end stage renal disease.High potassium in the blood is called hyperkalemia, which may occur in people with advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD).Low Phosphorus, Low Potassium, Low. public health education and research into the causes and treatments of chronic kidney disease ...
A potassium test checks how much potassium is in the blood. Potassium is both an electrolyte and a mineral. It helps keep the water (the amount of fluid inside and outside the bodys cells) and electrolyte balance of the body. Potassium is also important in how nerves and muscles work.. Potassium levels often change with sodium levels. When sodium levels go up, potassium levels go down, and when sodium levels go down, potassium levels go up. Potassium levels are also affected by a hormone called aldosterone, which is made by the adrenal glands.. Potassium levels can be affected by how the kidneys are working, the blood pH, the amount of potassium you eat, the hormone levels in your body, severe vomiting, and taking certain medicines, such as diuretics and potassium supplements. Certain cancer treatments that destroy cancer cells can also make potassium levels high.. Many foods are rich in potassium, including bananas, orange juice, spinach, and potatoes. A balanced diet has enough potassium for ...
Abnormalities in potassium levels can lead to several clinical difficulties in trauma patients admitted to the ICU. However, the significance of potassium abnormalities soon after admission in trauma patients has not yet been clearly delineated. The objective of this study was to describe the plasma potassium abnormalities in trauma patients on admission and to examine the clinical outcomes associated with these abnormalities. We performed a retrospective observational study of plasma potassium levels in trauma patients admitted to the Fukuyama City Hospital between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. Five hundred twenty consecutive trauma patients were included and categorized into six groups according to their plasma potassium level on admission (|3.0, 3.0-|3.5, 3.5-|4.0, 4.0-|4.5, 4.5-|5.0, and ≥5.0 mEq/L). After adjusting for covariates, including age, gender, the Revised Trauma Score, and the Injury Severity Score, logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between plasma
Research indicates that an inversion can be understood in a number of ways. The different ways of understanding an inversion overlap and relate to one another. Let us discuss them one by one.. Adrenal Burnout. The sodium/potassium ratio is called the vitality ratio. A low ratio is indicative of an exhaustion stage of stress. A high sod-ium/potassium ratio is an alarm or early stage of stress. As the ratio declines, the body moves into an exhaustion stage of stress.. The sodium level is controlled by aldosterone. As adrenal activity declines, sodium falls in relation to potassium. Potassium is more closely tied to the level of the glucocorticoid hormones (cortisone and cortisol). Hans Selye, M.D. noted that cortisol levels rise in the exhaustion stage of stress.. Glucose Intolerance. An inversion is a clear indica-tor of glucose intolerance. The body is unable to adequately burn glucose in the Krebs and glycol-ysis cycles adequately. This contributes to fatigue, cravings for sweets and many ...
Flourish Potassium™ contains 50,000 mg/L of potassium suitable for the natural planted aquarium. Potassium is one of several elements that are vitally important to maintaining a vigorous level of growth in a planted aquarium. Potassium can become depleted in a rapidly growing system or when the source water has a low mineral content. In these cases potassium could become the limiting factor to growth. Use Flourish Potassium™ to prevent potassium depletion (signs of which include yellowing in older leaves) and maintain the highest level of growth.. The most easily obtained sources of potassium are potassium nitrate and potassium phosphate. Both of these sources add to either nitrogen or phosphorus as well as potassium, making it virtually impossible to target a specific NPK ratio. Flourish Potassium™ is derived from potassium sulfate, allowing the user to adjust potassium levels without affecting nitrogen or phosphorus.. ...
PubMed journal article: Effect of different cycling frequencies during incremental exercise on the venous plasma potassium concentration in humans. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
WNK1--a serine/threonine kinase involved in electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure (BP) control--is an excellent candidate gene for essential hypertension (EH). We and others have previously reported association between WNK1 and BP variation. Using tag SNPs (tSNPs) that capture 100% of common WNK1 variation in HapMap, we aimed to replicate our findings with BP and to test for association with phenotypes relating to WNK1 function in the British Genetics of Hypertension (BRIGHT) study case-control resource (1700 hypertensive cases and 1700 normotensive controls). We found multiple variants to be associated with systolic blood pressure, SBP (7/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.0005), diastolic blood pressure, DBP (7/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.002) and 24 hour urinary potassium excretion (10/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.0004). Associations with SBP and urine potassium remained significant after correction for multiple testing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01 respectively). The major allele (A) of rs765250, located in intron 1, demonstrated the
Low potassium in the circulating blood is referred to as Hypokalemia and presents in a multidude of ways. However, approximately 98% of the human bodys potassium is enclosed inside the cells.If you have heart problems, An impairment of health or a condition of abnormal cardiac function, potassium supplements can aggravatea heart disorder. if you suspect your potassium levels are low, and are experiencing any of the following symptoms, see your doctor, health care worker, or nutritionist immediately.Plasma potassium concentration determines neuromuscular irritability. Both, elevated ( Hyperkalemia) or depressed potassium concentrations (hypo~) serum levels ,interfere with cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle contraction, electrolyte balance, ie. sending nerve impulses as well as releasing energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates during metabolism.Low concentrations will present with prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, renal tubular acidosis types I and II, hyperaldosteronism, Cushings syndrome, osmotic
There are multiple other breakfasts high in potassium, some of which we will discuss in future posts. Nutrient Search If you search by a single criterion, the food with the most (or least) of that nutrient will be at the top of the list. Sample Low Potassium Breakfast. Here are some tips to help keep a kidney-friendly breakfast. Submitted by: SUZIE4756. Well also discuss recipes for other high potassium meals. The source of the potassium and sodium data given above is: USDA National Nutrient Database Standard Reference - Release 22. Top low potassium and low phosphorus meals recipes and other great tasting recipes with a healthy slant from SparkRecipes.com. See more ideas about Low potassium recipes, Low potassium diet, Renal diet recipes. How can I reduce the level of potassium in my blood? Posted in Renal Diet. Eat a serving of fresh berries, melon, apples, oranges or grapefruit as a low-sodium breakfast idea. Better Choices for Healthy Weight Loss The Better Choices approach predicts that ...
Furosemide (Lasix) Uses, Dosage, Side Effects - Drugs.comHigh doses of furosemide may cause irreversible hearing loss. (such as low levels of potassium or magnesium.HEART DISEASES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN CHILDREN TREATMENT OF HEART. Lasix 1mg/kg injected with a rate of. • Check serum potassium levels at.lasix 12,5 mg achat en ligne ordonnance bizone: PHARMACIE DES COTEAUX, pharmacie sur ARGENTEUIL. acheter Motrin livraison 48h chrono peugeot pas cher avion low.. Insulin, chemical structure and metabolism. This increase in ATP induces the closing of ATP-dependant potassium. The renal insulin elimination is low.An open trial was carried out on ten middle-aged and elderly patients in cardiac failure to assess the effect on plasma potassium levels of one or more tablets.will lasix remove water from lungs accutane birth defects men Site développé par Alexandre Langlais (PawnsMaster) levitra 20 mg yorumlar Pawnsmaster.com ...
Anyone experiencing these symptoms that already have been diagnosed with a kidney problem should go to a hospital immediately. The heart may soon stop beating. Treatment Treatment of high potassium levels depends on the cause. Unless the cause is addressed, the person will continue having too much potassium in their blood until he or she dies. Long-term treatment includes diet changes such as eliminating foods with salt substitutes and taking a type of diuretic medication to reduce potassium and water in the body. These medications will usually cause a person to urinate more often than usual. Patients with extremely high potassium levels or experiencing symptoms need hospitalization. The focus will be on stabilizing the heart and then treating the cause of the high potassium levels. The patient will be given an EEG test to check on the heart functions and determine a course of action. Patients may be given intravenous calcium, glucose or insulin in order to regulate blood sugar and kidney ...
Johns Hopkins researchers find mineral deficiency increases disease risk. Lower potassium levels in the blood may help explain why African-Americans are twice as likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes as whites, according to a new study by Johns Hopkins researchers.. The findings, if confirmed, suggest that part of diabetes prevention may someday prove as easy as taking a cheap potassium supplement.. This research doesnt mean people should run out and start taking potassium supplements, says Hsin-Chieh Jessica Yeh, Ph.D., an assistant professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and an author of the study, which appears in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. But we now know lower serum potassium is an independent risk factor for diabetes and that African-Americans have, on average, lower potassium levels than whites. What remains to be seen is if increasing potassium levels through diet or supplementation can prevent the most common form of ...
Does High Potassium Cause High Blood Pressure is a serious condition. Do you have Does High Potassium Cause High Blood Pressure or are you at risk for Does High Potassium Cause High Blood Pressure. But if you treat it carefully you can provent Does High Potassium Cause High Blood Pressure. But bont worry about Does High Potassium Cause High Blood Pressure? Youve come to the right place. This quick article for Does High Potassium Cause High Blood Pressure. These suggestion will get you started.
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integral component of plasma membrane, potassium ion leak channel activity, voltage-gated potassium channel activity, cellular potassium ion transport, stabilization of membrane potential
As the sodium/potassium ratio rises on a hair mineral analysis above about 5 or perhaps 6, more symptoms involving this ratio are likely to arise. These may include a tendency for acute stress, inflammation or pain somewhere in the body. Other symptoms may include water retention, edema, and perhaps a higher blood pressure or a labile or fluctuating blood pressure due to water retention and/or kidney stress. These are among the prominent physical symptoms that come with higher aldosterone levels in relation to cortisol, for example ...
Freshly prepared lung slices were incubated in an oxygenated Krebs Ringer bicarbonate medium for 90 min at 0.5°C (chilling) followed by 60 min at 37°C (rewarming). Fresh tissue cation contents (mean ± SE) in mmol/kg dry wt were: sodium, 431 ± 7: potassium, 416 ± 10. After chilling, tissue sodium increased to 757 ± 11 and potassium decreased to 113 ± 6. Upon rewarming there was a net increase in tissue potassium of about 150 (mmol/kg dry wt) and a net decrease in tissue sodium of about 130. Tissue extrusion of sodium and reaccumulation of potassium observed at 37°C were abolished when 1 mM ouabain, dinitrophenol, or iodoacetamide was added to the incubation medium. Similar results were obtained when the medium contained no potassium or when medium Na was replaced by choline. The data indicate the presence of active Na+ K+ transport in lung cells somewhat similar to that found in other mammalian tissue ...
There is a significant difference between the concentrations of sodium and potassium ions inside and outside the cell. The concentration of sodium ions is considerably higher in the extracellular fluid than in the intracellular fluid.[11] The converse is true of the potassium ion concentrations inside and outside the cell. These differences cause all cell membranes to be electrically charged, with the positive charge on the outside of the cells and the negative charge on the inside. In a resting neuron (not conducting an impulse) the membrane potential is known as the resting potential, and between the two sides of the membrane is about -70 mV.[12]. This potential is created by sodium-potassium pumps in the cell membrane, which pump sodium ions out of the cell, into the ECF, in return for potassium ions which enter the cell from the ECF. The maintenance of this difference in the concentration of ions between the inside of the cell and the outside, is critical to keep normal cell volumes stable, ...
There is a significant difference between the concentrations of sodium and potassium ions inside and outside the cell. The concentration of sodium ions is considerably higher in the extracellular fluid than in the intracellular fluid.[15] The converse is true of the potassium ion concentrations inside and outside the cell. These differences cause all cell membranes to be electrically charged, with the positive charge on the outside of the cells and the negative charge on the inside. In a resting neuron (not conducting an impulse) the membrane potential is known as the resting potential, and between the two sides of the membrane is about -70 mV.[16]. This potential is created by sodium-potassium pumps in the cell membrane, which pump sodium ions out of the cell, into the ECF, in return for potassium ions which enter the cell from the ECF. The maintenance of this difference in the concentration of ions between the inside of the cell and the outside, is critical to keep normal cell volumes stable, ...
Potassium is needed for cells to function properly. You get potassium through food. The kidneys remove excess potassium in the urine to keep a proper balance of the mineral in the body.. Common causes of low potassium level include:. ...
WHAT DOES POTASSIUM DO FOR US?. Sodium and potassium have similar chemical properties but their functions are very different. Blood plasma is mostly made up of sodium cations and cell fluid is made up mostly of potassium cations. Potassium influences the pressure (osmotic balance) of the fluids surrounding the cells of our bodies (the interstitial fluids). This is done with the action of something called the Na+/K+ ATPase pump (the sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphatase pump). This is an ion pump and it maintains 3 sodium ions outside of a cell for every 2 potassium ions inside a cell keeping the balance of potassium and sodium ions at its correct levels creating what is called the membrane potential. tube.com/watch?v=awz6lIss3hQ&feature=related. The cell membrane potential is critical for muscle contractions, proper functioning of our hearts and for nerve impulse transmissions.. The term electrolyte applies to a substance that separates into ions or charged particles of which potassium is ...
Potassium is a mineral found in varying amounts in almost all foods. Vegetables, especially green leafy varieties, are generally our richest sources of potassium.. We list three excellent sources of potassium, 16 as very good sources, and 39 as good sources by our Nutrient Rating System. In other words, over half of our WHFoods provide you with significant amounts of potassium! In fact, all of our WHFoods contain at least some small but measurable amount of this mineral.. Along with sodium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium, potassium is an electrolyte, meaning that it helps to conduct electrical charges in the body. Like all the other electrolytes, our bodies have evolved elaborate systems to control blood levels in a narrow range. This is good news since normal levels of potassium are absolutely critical to life-if potassium levels get too high or too low, the heart and nervous system completely shut down. Luckily, most of us are able to obtain enough potassium from foods to meet our most basic ...
Eniva Minerals for Life Potassium Liquid Minerals Concentrate is a dietary supplement of the Cell-Ready mineral POTASSIUM in a proprietary nutrient delivery system.Potassium (symbol K) comprises 5% of the total mineral content of the body. It is a primary electrolyte and is known as a great alkalizer, important in pH and water balance. Potassium is vital in promoting cardiovascular health and muscle contraction.* In addition, Potassium plays a vital role in nerve and cellular integrity by playing a role in the transfer of nutrients into and out of the cell.Potassium constitutes 5% percent of the total mineral content of the body, even though only about 34 ounces are found in the body at one time. Because it is a primary electrolyte, potassium is known as a great alkalizer, important in pH and water balance. Potassium is easily absorbed, but at least 90% of it is excreted through the kidneys and bowels. Potassium is vital to the elimination of wastes in the body.Potassium is a natural diuretic, ...
The fixed position experiment research of Potassium circulating in plant-soil system showed that two controls of applying Potassium and wheat straw return to soil can obviously increase yield. They can keep Potassium balance in growth circle. Applying Potassium can increase yield 7.9%~8.9% on winter wheat and 12.4%~14.4% on summer corn. The Potassium balance coefficient reached 0.95 with the application of Potassium, and 1.15 with Potassium application and straw return to soil together.
EN] Potassium homeostasis is crucial for living cells. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the uptake of potassium is driven by the electrochemical gradient generated by the Pma1 H +-ATPase, and this process represents a major consumer of the gradient. We considered that any mutation resulting in an alteration of the electrochemical gradient could give rise to anomalous sensitivity to any cationic drug independently of its toxicity mechanism. Here, we describe a genomewide screen for mutants that present altered tolerance to hygromycin B, spermine, and tetramethylammonium. Two hundred twenty-six mutant strains displayed altered tolerance to all three drugs (202 hypersensitive and 24 hypertolerant), and more than 50% presented a strong or moderate growth defect at a limiting potassium concentration (1 mM). Functional groups such as protein kinases and phosphatases, intracellular trafficking, transcription, or cell cycle and DNA processing were enriched. Essentially, our screen has identified a ...
In this recent study the researchers discovered a change in a potassium channel that is a major cause of secondary hypertension. Remember that normally an increase in aldosterone leads to an increase in sodium reabsorption in the kidney and a rise in blood pressure. Normally when there is an increase in potassium outside the cell, potassium will move into the cell.. In certain adrenal gland cells the resulting increase in membrane polarization (the difference in electrical charges across the membrane) leads to less aldosterone secretion. The lowering of aldosterone leads to less sodium reabsorption in the kidney, and thus lower blood pressure. In some people blood pressure is high and does not come down, because they have a gene that prevents this normal sequence.. In this particular study, a gene variant was found that affected part of a potassium channel. The change meant that the channel no longer allowed only potassium to pass. The channel allowed sodium to pass through the potassium channel ...
I am a nursing instructor. In order for me to teach I like to understand it myself down to the cellular level. It bugs me that in the text book it will say do not give potassium IV push.....why? I want to know why? What happens? What does it do? So I appreciate this new forum I have found. Thanks!. ReplyDelete ...
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Another way to view this is that the high Na/K ratio, provided it is within a normal range between about 2 and 10, is indicative of a person who is responding well to their environment. A lower or higher ratio indicates abnormal responses that are less healthful. The exception is if the circumstances demand a different response. This could either be one of extreme fight-or-flight (a very high Na/K ratio) or one of paralysis or fright that demands that one just stop and rest, which could cause a low Na/K ratio ...
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Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain, but also in the pancreas and cardiovascular system. Contributes to the regulation of the action potential (AP) repolarization, duration and frequency of repetitive AP firing in neurons, muscle cells and endocrine cells and plays a role in homeostatic attenuation of electrical excitability throughout the brain. Plays also a role in the regulation of exocytosis independently of its electrical function. Forms tetrameric potassium-selective channels through which potassium ions pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. The channel alternates between opened and closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane. Homotetrameric channels mediate a delayed-rectifier voltage-dependent outward potassium current that display rapid activation and slow inactivation in response to membrane depolarization. Can form functional homotetrameric and
Potassium, the most abundant intracellular cation, is an essential nutrient that is naturally present in many foods and available as a dietary supplement. Potassium is present in all body tissues and is required for normal cell function because of its role in maintaining intracellular fluid volume and transmembrane electrochemical gradients [1,2]. Potassium has a strong relationship with sodium, the main regulator of extracellular fluid volume, including plasma volume.. The total amount of potassium in the adult body is about 45 millimole (mmol)/kg body weight (about 140 g for a 175 pound adult; 1 mmol = 1 milliequivalent [mEq] or 39.1 mg potassium) [3]. Most potassium resides intracellularly, and a small amount is in extracellular fluid [2-4]. The intracellular concentration of potassium is about 30 times higher than the extracellular concentration, and this difference forms a transmembrane electrochemical gradient that is maintained via the sodium-potassium (Na+/K+) ATPase transporter [4]. In ...
The only pocket meter that directly measures potassium ion concentration in 0.3ml sample (or 0.05ml sample with sampling sheet B). The unique sensor allows measurement of viscous liquids, solids, and even powder samples. No need for a beaker to calibrate your meter or measure a sample! Just place few drops of the stand
Sodium and potassium are two major electrolytes. Potassium is the major intracellular cation. Total body potassium content is approximately 50 mEq per kilogram body weight. Potassium assists in muscle contraction … Read More ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Overview of Disorders of Potassium Metabolism. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
The purpose of this study was to investigate Na and K balances in healthy adult women. Anthropometric assessments, biochemical analysis of blood, 3-day dietary flood records and collections of 3-day food, 24-hr urine and faces were performed to evaluate intakes and excretions of Na and K in 20 college women living in Seoul. The mean BMI and blood pressure of the subjects were 21.08 and 110.25/67.50mmHg, respectively. Mean daily intake of energy was 1578.84 kcal, 79% of Korean RDA. Also, daily intakes of Na and K ware 120.86mEq and 44.20mEq. The urinary and fecal excretions of Na were 99.88 and 4.45mEq/day, and those of K were 30.41 and 8.66mEq/day, respectively. The body retention, retention rate, and apparent absorption of Na were 17.11mEq, 13.23%, and 96.31%, and those of K were 5.82mEq, 8.69%, and 80.12%, respectively. The urinary and fecal Na/K ratio were 3.48 and 0.52. There were significantly positive correlations between 1) urinary Na, K excretions and intakes of Na or K, 2) urinary K and ...
We introduced a model of extracellular potassium accumulation in the periaxonal space of the myelinated nerve fibre during prolonged repetitive stimulation. The accumulation of potassium was linked to the myelin resistance, which was variable in the model. Thus, excitability of the fibre was affected by potassium not only via the depolarization block, but also through increased electrical leakage through the myelin. The model has an electrical scheme for a space-lumped fibre, which is superimposed on several concentrational compartments.. Nerve excitability is a function of myelin resistance. Therefore, making it dependent on sub-myelin potassium concentration has lead to new patterns of nerve behaviour. At high frequencies of stimulation (greater than 150 Hz for near-threshold stimulation and model parameters considered normal), the model fibre was periodically or completely blocked, depending on the frequency and amplitude of stimulation. This was not observed if the myelin resistance was ...
The human body is bombarded by a wide range of minerals and vitamins in the daily diet that the average individual may not be getting enough of. However, potassium rich foods are one of the most essential nutrients that the average person needs. Potassium is often referred to as the salt of life. Without it, the entire body will suffer and become ineffective, and even lose its ability to operate properly.. Potassium is found in many foods and drinks, and is also found in the bodies of some animals and plants, including: tomatoes, oranges, beans, spinach, tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, and many other vegetables. In fact, a recent study indicated that a person may have as much as half their bodys potassium by eating just one banana. For this reason, it is very important to consume a good amount of potassium on a regular basis. Although not nearly as abundant as sodium or chloride, potassium is still very important and can be found in a number of foods and beverages.. One of the best potassium rich ...
Most of the time, potassium supplements are not needed as there are plenty of food items which are rich in potassium. Even if you think a large amount of potassium is being lost through vomiting, it is important to seek guidance from your doctor to determine adequate dosage, as uncontrolled intake of potassium can cause dangerous issues. If your doctor diagnoses low-level potassium he will decide how to restore potassium levels in your blood depending on the severity. The restoration of potassium can vary from a renewed diet to intravenous administration of electrolyte ...
Perhaps the most important way to ensure strong kidney health is to keep your blood pressure under good control. As discussed above, diets high in potassium are well known to help with this.. In addition, diets rich in potassium have been associated with a reduction in kidney stone risk. This is thought to be because the naturally occurring potassium salts in plant foods help to neutralize acidity in the blood stream. This prevents leeching of calcium from the bones to buffer the acid, which in turn reduces urine calcium, preventing its deposition in the form of a stone. Please note that while diets rich in potassium can be helpful in preventing certain kidney-related problems in a healthy people with good kidney function, persons already known to have kidney problems and who are diagnosed with certain diseases of the kidney may need to carefully regulate their intake of potassium, since their kidneys might not otherwise be able to regulate the levels of potassium in their bloodstream.. ...
Molecular dynamics simulations of a bacterial potassium channel (KcsA) embedded in a phospholipid bilayer reveal significant differences in interactions of the selectivity filter with K(+) compared with Na(+) ions. K(+) ions and water molecules within the filter undergo concerted single-file motion in which they translocate between adjacent sites within the filter on a nanosecond timescale. In contrast, Na(+) ions remain bound to sites within the filter and do not exhibit translocation on a nanosecond timescale. Furthermore, entry of a K(+) ion into the filter from the extracellular mouth is observed, whereas this does not occur for a Na(+) ion. Whereas K(+) ions prefer to sit within a cage of eight oxygen atoms of the filter, Na(+) ions prefer to interact with a ring of four oxygen atoms plus two water molecules. These differences in interactions in the selectivity filter may contribute to the selectivity of KcsA for K(+) ions (in addition to the differences in dehydration energy between K(+) and Na(+)
Are physicians questioning your labs potassium results? This troubleshooting guide covers more than 40 patient and preanalytical variables that can elevate K+ in the samples your laboratory tests.
Potassium is a mineral electrolyte thats very important for the bodys growth and maintenance. Its crucial for water and pH balance within the body and plays a role in muscle contractions and heart and brain function.. Fortunately, most folks get enough potassium from a well-balanced diet with lots of fruits and veggies and fortified foods. Those on certain medications (like water pills) or who are following special diets (like the DASH diet for high blood pressure) may need an extra boost of potassium. If youre looking to add potassium, its suggested to do so by increasing potassium-rich foods as opposed to popping a supplement (unless directed by a registered dietitian of doctor).. Potassium-Rich ...
Potassium levels below 3.5 millimoles per liter can lead to weakness, tiredness, abdominal cramping, tingling and palpitations, according to WebMD. A very low potassium level below 2.5 millimoles per...
A. McCleverty and T. J. Meyer (eds. Potassium-39 atom is the stable isotope of potassium with relative atomic mass 38.963707, 93.3 atom percent natural abundance and nuclear spin 3/2. Boiling point Some Class D dry powder extinguishers designed for metal fires are also effective. [103], Potassium, in the form of potassium chloride is used as a medication to treat and prevent low blood potassium. The bulk metal ignites in air if heated. C) have the same number of neutrons. Next time beautiful but deadly is the name of the game. Hence it is due a small salty herb that we now end up with the symbol K for the element pot-ash-ium, potassium. Images © Murray Robertson 1999-2011 Eighth most abundant element in the earths crust (20,900 ppm). Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. It is important for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance. 3 Chemical and Physical Properties Expand this section. [114], There are thousands of uses of various potassium compounds. ...
To more clearly define the role of the transepithelial electrical potential difference (V m→s), potassium permeability, and sodium-potassium pump rate in transcellular potassium transport by isolated turtle colon, we measured transmural potassium fluxes under open-circuit conditions in the presence and absence of putative blockers of potassium transport: amiloride and barium. The results were consistent with the notion that V m→s is a major determinant of cellular potassium secretion, whereas active potassium absorption is insensitive to changes in V m→s. These observations suggest that coupling between colonic sodium absorption and potassium secretion in vivo could be due primarily to the effect of the lumen negative V m→s on transcellular secretory potassium flow. Amiloride-induced inhibition of potassium secretion appeared to be due to the reductions in V m→s and sodium-potassium pump rate that accompanied the inhibition of active sodium absorption.
High-affinity K+ uptake in plants plays a crucial role in K+ nutrition and different systems have been postulated to contribute to the high-affinity K+ uptake. The results presented here with pepper (Capsicum annum) demonstrate that a HAK1-type transporter greatly contributes to the high-affinity K+ uptake observed in roots. Pepper plants starved of K+ for 3 d showed high-affinity K+ uptake (K m of 6 mgrM K+) that was very sensitive to NH and their roots expressed a high-affinity K+ transporter, CaHAK1, which clusters in group I of the KT/HAK/KUP family of transporters. When expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), CaHAK1 mediated high-affinity K+ and Rb+ uptake with K m values of 3.3 and 1.9 mgr M, respectively. Rb+ uptake was competitively inhibited by micromolar concentrations of NH and Cs+, and by millimolar concentrations of Na+ ...
The purpose of this research was to develop an effective method to measure potassium ion concentration in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) simultaneously. Potassium concentration is vital for health due to its role in the nervous system, cardiovascular system, and in maintaining osmotic balance between cells and interstitial fluid. A concentration outside of the normal range can lead to muscle weakness, decreased reflex response, and even respiratory paralysis and cardiac arrhythmia. Recent research has suggested that simultaneous measurement of extracellular and intracellular potassium concentrations is important for diagnosis of hypertension. The most common methods for potassium measurement used today are Classical Potentiometry and Flame Photometry. These techniques are effective to measure potassium in plasma and/or RBCs after separation and subsequent sample preparations, but inadequate for simultaneous measurement. Classical Potentiometry is time-consuming as it requires calibration prior to
Potassium binders are medications that bind potassium ions in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby preventing its intestinal absorption. They consist of polystyrene sulfonate resins attached to a cation and are administered either orally or by retention enema to patients who are at risk of developing hyperkalaemia (abnormal high serum potassium levels). Increased serum potassium levels are a condition likely to occur in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease in advanced stages. Potassium, the most abundant intracellular cation, is essential for life. An adequate gradient of potassium across the cell membrane is necessary in order to enable excitability of cell membranes. This is particularly important for nerve and muscle function. In humans, mainly the kidneys are responsible for the regulation of serum potassium levels by excreting excess potassium via the urine. As kidney failure progresses, with a consequent decline of excretory function, potassium is likely to accumulate with ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Potassium-induced vascular relaxation in two kidney-one clip, renal hypertensive rats. AU - Clinton Webb, R.. AU - Cohen, David M.. AU - Bohr, David F.. PY - 1983/1/1. Y1 - 1983/1/1. N2 - This study was designed to characterize potassium-induced relaxation in vascular smooth muscle in two kidneyone clip (2K-1C), renal hypertensive rats. Potassium-induced relaxation was evaluated in the isolated tail artery and in the isolated pump perfused renal vasculature. Both preparations relaxed in response to potassium after contraction induced by norepinephrine in potassium-free solution. Arterial preparations from hypertensive rats showed greater relaxation than did those from normotensive rats. Potassium-induced relaxation in tail arteries from hypertensive rats was more sensitive to ouabain inhibition than those from normotensive rats; the renal vasculature of hypertensive rats did not differ from controls with respect to ouabain sensitivity. Relaxation in response to potassium in ...
In this article, the results of research on WRI of LUA Juodkiskiai experiment field (1999 - 2003) are discussed. Fertilize other factors influence over potassium fluctuation, its balance and leaching into drainage water during crop rotation are a In order to evaluate the potassium balance and its quantity passed together with rainfall, seeds, fertilizers and take with j (secondary and primary production) was established in plant residues and drainage water. When fertilizing with liquid manure, potassium balance was negative while growing perennial grasses as much potass: needed to mature their yield. The investigations established that potassium concentration in drainage water and its leachi increased by precipitation during the research period, and it was reduced by the amount of this element taking out with y.s geochemical environment had influence on the increase of potassium supply in soil. It was established that long-term fertilization with liquid manure had raised the potassium supply in ...
Randomised trials have shown that increasing potassium intake lowers blood pressure. However, most previous trials used potassium chloride. Whereas, potassium in fruits and vegetables is not a chloride salt, but a mixture of potassium phosphate, sulphate, citrate, and many organic anions, most of which are precursors of potassium bicarbonate. It is unclear whether non-chloride salt of potassium has greater or lesser effect on blood pressure compared to potassium chloride.. Experimental studies in animals and epidemiological studies in humans suggest that a high potassium intake may have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and the kidney, independent of its effect on blood pressure, and also reduce the risk of osteoporosis.. We propose to carry out a randomised double-blind trial to compare potassium bicarbonate with potassium chloride looking at their effect on blood pressure, and also to determine whether these potassium salts have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, ...
The myocardial potassium uptake during intracoronary isoproterenol stimulation was characterized in 12 anesthetized pigs. The beta-receptor subtype specificity and the effect of adenylate cyclase activation were determined. Potassium concentrations were continuously recorded by PVC-valinomycin minielectrodes in the left atrial cavity and in coronary sinus blood diverted through a shunt to the right atrium. The difference in potassium concentration between the left atrial cavity and coronary sinus, and the accumulated myocardial potassium uptake were calculated after computerized data sampling. By intracoronary drug infusion, changes in heart rate and systemic effects were minimized. Isoproterenol (0.6-0.8 microgram/min), a nonspecific beta-agonist, reduced coronary sinus potassium concentration transiently to a nadir of 0.28 (0.15-0.43) mM (median and 95% confidence interval) below control values (n = 12). The potassium uptake, which amounted to 140 (79-202) mumol/100 g tissue, corresponding to ...
Potassium is an essential electrolyte, which is a mineral your body needs to function correctly. Potassium is especially important for your nerves and muscles, including your heart. While potassium is important to your health, getting too much of the nutrient can be just as bad as, or worse than, not getting enough. Normally, your kidneys keep a healthy balance of potassium by flushing excess potassium out of your body. But for many reasons, the level of potassium in your blood can get too high. This is called hyperkalemia, or high potassium. According to the Mayo Clinic, a normal range of potassium is between 3.6 and 5.2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) of blood. A potassium level higher than 5.5 mmol/L is critically high, and a potassium level over 6 mmol/L can be life-threatening. Small variations in ranges may be possible depending on the laboratory. Whether you have mild or severe hyperkalemia, you should get prompt medical attention to prevent possible complications.. ...
The Na+ K+-ATPase pump maintains the gradient of a higher concentration of sodium extracellularly and a higher level of potassium intracellularly. The sodiumâ potassium pump is found in many cell (plasma) membranes. The sodium/potassium ATPase pump is essential to many physiological processes, and so targeting it with medication can be useful clinically. Explore the sodium potassium pump (Na+/K+ pump), with the Amoeba Sisters! Examples of â ¦ It also involves being conscious of every hint of flavoring in your food and how you cook your meals. In the kidneys, sodium and potassium have a reciprocal relationship. Na+-K+ pump in chronic renal failure. In a single cycle of the pump, three sodium ions are extruded from and two potassium â ¦ Powered by ATP, the pump moves sodium and potassium ions in opposite directions, each against its concentration gradient. Acting on the distal tubules, the hormone aldosterone triggers potassium excretion and resorption of sodium. Conversely, drugs which act ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pathophysiology of potassium absorption and secretion by the human intestine. AU - Agarwal, Rajiv. AU - Afzalpurkar, Rekha. AU - Fordtran, John S.. PY - 1994/8. Y1 - 1994/8. N2 - When normal people ingest 90 mEq/day of K+ in their diet, they absorb about 90% of intake (81 mEq) and excrete an equivalent amount of K+ in the urine. Normal fecal K+ excretion averages about 9 mEq/day. The vast majority of intestinal K+ absorption occurs in the small intestine; the contribution of the normal colon to net K+ absorption and secretion is trivial. K+ is absorbed or secreted mainly by passive mechanisms; the rectum and perhaps the sigmoid colon have the capacity to actively secrete K+, but the quantitative and physiological significance of this active secretion is uncertain. Hyperaldosteronism increases fecal K+ excretion by about 3 mEq/day in people with otherwise normal intestinal tracts. Cation exchange resin by mouth can increase fecal K+ excretion to 40 mEq/day. The absorptive ...
transtubular potassium gradient answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
By now you have probably seen the ads for MiO Liquid Water Enhancer, Kraft Foods new gimmick aimed at young consumers seeking cool new ways to stand out.. Lycopene from the neo-Latin Lycopersicum, the tomato species, is a bright red carotene and carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits.. No, 500 mg of potassium means 500 mg of elemental potassium. Usually both dietary recommendations and nutritional information are written with elemental potassium in mind. Incidentally, the adult RDA for potassium is 4700 milligrams per day (exc.. High/low potassium foods, kidney disease, sodium/potassium ratio, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, potassium supplements for kidney stones and blood pressure.. Apr 22, 2014. There are a wide variety of oral potassium supplements Potassium Gluconate Supplement Brands Available at VetRxDirect. Increased water intake; Increased urination; Having accidents indoors, even though housebroken; Sudden weight loss; Vomiting; Lethargy; Frequent ...
The veins remain green for a certain time. Reddening of petiole; Berries may be small; Management. Generally older leaves are affected first. Symptoms Potassium, unlike other nutrients, does not form compounds in plants but remains free to regulate many essential processes. Leaves become uniformly light-green or yellow. Consult with your agronomist for local recommendations. Stalks are weak and lodging is common. Most crops contain about the same amounts of Nitrogen and Potassium, but Potassium content of many high-yielding crops is even higher than that of Nitrogen. Table Grapes: Apply up to 200-1000 lbs Krista® K brand Potassium Nitrate/acre at vineyard establishment according to variety and soil analysis. Apply 130-425 lbsKrista® K brand Potassium Nitrate /acre in split applications to established vineyards in split applications via fertigation. Potassium deficiency develops when vines receive less K than what is required for normal growth and development, or with low soil pH levels ...
In the new study, Yu, Kim and their colleagues looked for VNO potassium channels, which admit positively charged potassium ions. They began by setting up whole-cell patch clamp tests, in which tiny electrodes measure the net flow of charged ions through the membranes of neurons in a slice of mouse VNO tissue. To determine the contribution of potassium ions to these currents, they replaced the potassium ions in the neurons with chemically similar cesium ions, which cannot get through potassium channels. When these potassium-depleted VNO neurons were exposed to pheromone-containing mouse urine, the usual net inward flow of positive charge was significantly greater than it had been when the neurons contained potassium.. That and other experiments with the VNO tissue slices suggested that potassium ions normally flow out of VNO neurons through potassium channels when a VNO receptor is activated. This was not completely unexpected; neurons typically have a greater concentration of potassium ions ...
Should someone supplement Potassium? Potassium is a key ingredient to maintaining a healthy heart, muscle function, kidneys, nerves, and your digestive system. While certain foods naturally will provide the potassium levels most women and men need, there are select individuals who must have much more than what can be processed through eating like those without potassium issues. A potassium supplement is necessary for those who have either temporary or permanent deficiency that deplete their body of potassium, such as: being dehydrated, having vomited while sick, diarrhea, inflicted with kidney disease or gastrointestinal disease and from having fluids sweated out from your pores (heat stroke, sweat, dehydration, diarrhea, etc.), from vomiting (the 24 hour flu, bulimia, as a result of another condition), or because of having a disease, like Gastrointestinal disease, etc. Potassium supplements are specifically made to to restore or thwart potassium deficiencies.. Is there an ideal time to take ...
Should someone supplement Potassium? Potassium is a key ingredient to maintaining a healthy heart, muscle function, kidneys, nerves, and your digestive system. While certain foods naturally will provide the potassium levels most women and men need, there are select individuals who must have much more than what can be processed through eating like those without potassium issues. A potassium supplement is necessary for those who have either temporary or permanent deficiency that deplete their body of potassium, such as: being dehydrated, having vomited while sick, diarrhea, inflicted with kidney disease or gastrointestinal disease and from having fluids sweated out from your pores (heat stroke, sweat, dehydration, diarrhea, etc.), from vomiting (the 24 hour flu, bulimia, as a result of another condition), or because of having a disease, like Gastrointestinal disease, etc. Potassium supplements are specifically made to to restore or thwart potassium deficiencies.. Is there an ideal time to take ...
Celery (w/ potassium content) nutrition facts and nutritional information. Find calories, carbs, and nutritional contents for Celery (w/ potassium content) and over 2,000,000 other foods at MyFitnessPal.com.
Below is a list of fruits high in potassium, for more, see the extended lists of potassium rich need to lower their potassium, this list can serve as a guide on what fruits to eat or avoid Potassium in g, Per cup, sliced (g), Per fruit (86g). High potassium foods include dried apricots, white beans, avocados, For a list of fresh fruit high in potassium see the article on high potassium fruits. . I need to limit my potassium intake, what foods are low in potassium? There are many more high potassium fruits other than bananas to get your daily intake of Raisins are another dried fruit that knocks out its fresh form, with a fifth of Medjool dates are a fine source of potassium, providing a fifth of what you ...
K are foond in aw potassium, an it is the maist common radioisotope in the human bouk. Potassium is chemically very seemilar tae sodium, the previous element in group 1 o the periodic table. Thay hae a seemilar first ionisation energy, which allows for each atom tae gie up its sole outer electron. That thay are different elements that combine wi the same anions tae mak seemilar salts wis suspected in 1702,[6] an wis proven in 1807 uisin electrolysis. Maist industrial applications o potassium exploit the heich solubility in watter o potassium compoonds, sic as potassium saips. Hivy crop production rapidly depletes the sile o potassium, an this can be remedied wi agricultural fertilizers containin potassium, accoontin for 95% o global potassium chemical production.[7]. Potassium ions are necessar for the function o aw livin cells. The transfer o potassium ions throu nerve cell membranes is necessar for normal nerve transmission; potassium depletion can result in numerous abnormalities, includin an ...
Potassium is an important mineral (ion) in the human body. It plays various roles in muscle and nerve activity, and influences the blood volume and blood pressure. The potassium in our body comes from certain foods like meat, potatoes, beans and fruits among others. It is the most abundant ion in our cells. However, potassium levels outside the cells (in the tissue fluids and blood) is maintained at a lower level than potassium levels inside the cells. The excess potassium in the blood is excreted out in the urine by the kidneys.. ...
Potassium, also called potash, is mined from the soil like phosphate fertilizers. Being soluble in water, it is sometimes dissolved from the soil and handled as brine. Processing potassium ore, unlike phosphorus, is a matter of purification, not increasing solubility.. Muriate of potash (potassium chloride) (0-0-60) is by far the most common and, hence, least expensive form. Two other sources of potassium worth noting are potassium sulfate (0-0-50) and potassium nitrate (13-0-44). Potassium chloride is the most salty of the above. Also some plants, citrus for instance, are sensitive to excess chloride. Potassium sulfate is used primarily in crops that dont tolerate the chloride.. Potassium nitrate is relatively expensive to make so is not used much. It is a good non-chloride potassium fertilizer and supplies nitrate nitrogen as well.. All potassium fertilizers easily dissolve in water and are immediately available to the plant. In use, they may be applied directly mixed into the soil, dissolved ...
Potassium ion (K+) channels are ubiquitous components and are widely distributed on the surface of the cell membrane in various tissues. There are many types of potassium ion channels (voltage-gated K+ channels, ATP-sensitive K+ channels, Ca2+-activated K+ channels, etc.), and each type of potassium ion channel has its own characteristic features concerning electrophysiology and molecular biology in each potassium ion channel. The potassium ion current across the plasma membrane is considered to have two main physiological functions, one for determining the membrane potential and the other regulating the electrical activity. Membrane hyperpolarization would reduce the excitability of the membrane by shifting the membrane potential away from the threshold for excitation and would inhibit, where it existed, calcium ion (Ca2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels by closing the Ca2+ channel. Outward potassium ion currents activated upon depolarization would counteract the depolarizing action ...
Potassium beside is important in maintaining the regular contraction and relaxation of the muscle, that helps to reducing the risk of hypokalemia, it also helps the lymphatic system in regulating the levels of fluid in the body, thus lessening the risk of lymphedema, swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid. In a study of Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia by Greenlee M, Wingo CS, McDonough AA, Youn JH, Kone BC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414841), researchers found that recent experimental insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. New data make clear that feedforward homeostatic responses activate when decreased potassium intake is sensed, even when plasma potassium concentration is still within the normal range and before frank hypokalemia ensues, in addition to the classic feedback activation of renal potassium conservation when plasma potassium ...
The transport properties of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) were studied in single distal tubules of Amphiuma using free-flow micropuncture techniques and stationary microperfusion methods. The transepithelial movement of labeled potassium was measured utilizing a three-compartment system in series in which the time course of tracer disappearance from the lumen was followed. Under control conditions, in blood- and doubly-perfused kidneys, extensive active net reabsorption of sodium and potassium obtains along single distal tubules. Tubular potassium reabsorption is abolished by ouabain at a concentration of 5 x 10-6 M. Significant net secretion of K can be induced by exposing Amphiuma to a high K environment (100 mM KCl) or by adding acetazoleamide (1 x 10-4 M) to the perfusion fluid. Transepithelial movement of potassium involves mixing with only a small fraction of total distal tubular cell potassium. This transport pool of potassium increases significantly with the transition from tubular net ...
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the hydrogen emitted in the reaction.. Because potassium and sodium are chemically very similar, their salts were not at first differentiated. The existence of multiple elements in their salts was suspected from 1702, and this was proven in 1807 when potassium and sodium were individually isolated from different salts by electrolysis. Potassium in nature occurs only in ionic salts. As such, it is found dissolved in seawater (which is 0.04% potassium by weight), and is part of many minerals.. Most industrial chemical applications of potassium employ the relatively high solubility in water of potassium compounds, such as potassium soaps. Potassium metal has only a few special applications, being replaced in most chemical reactions with sodium ...
1. From two lines of evidence, we conclude that the potassium transport gives rise directly to the midgut potential, i.e. that the active potassium transport mechanism is electrogenic.. 2. First, diffusion potentials of neither potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, nor chloride could give rise to the large midgut potential if values for tissue concentrations are accepted for their respective activities in the epithelium.. 3. Secondly, no externally added cation other than potassium is required to sustain either the potential or short circuit current, no specific anion is required, and no metabolic ion is known to be produced in sufficient amount to act as a counter ion for potassium in a non-electrogenic process.. 4. Changes in the concentration of potassium on the blood-side of the midgut always lead to changes in potential in the direction predicted by the Nernst equation. Moreover, a tenfold change in potassium concentration leads to the expected 59 mV. potential change provided that the ...
Intravenous patient controlled analgesia(IV-PCA) has been widely used to control postoperative pain. The increase in stress hormone level and hyperventilation caused by the postoperative pain may contribute to the development of hypokalemia during postoperative period. Hypokalemia is a risk factor for postoperative arrhythmia. Therefore, if the postoperative pain is well controlled by the IV-PCA, the plasma potassium level during the postoperative period may be not affected by stress response, and the incidence of hypokalemia may be reduced. The researchers tried to investigate the effect of IV-PCA on potassium regulation during the postoperative period.. The researchers divided the patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy into two groups of IV-PCA group and control group. The researchers compared the plasma potassium concentration from the preoperative to postoperative period. ...
But most of us are not getting the recommended amount of potassium. Adults have about 120 g of potassium in their composition, about .2% of our mass, and we need to ingest 4.7g a day to keep in tip-top shape. In metabolic functioning potassium helps to maintain balance between individual cells and the fluid surrounding them, it acts in brain and nerve functioning and is necessary in preventing erratic muscle contraction, or cramping. High levels of potassium are also associated with lower blood pressure, a reduced risk of stroke, helping to maintain muscle mass and bone density and assist in preventing kidney stones. Not overly surprisingly, given North Americas predilection for highly processed foods, only about 2% of the population on this continent get enough potassium.. Potassium Deficiency, known as hypokalaemia is often vague, and the symptoms somewhat difficult to attribute, can be characterized by general weakness, fatigue, cramping, tingling, nausea, excessive urination, bloating, ...
4. PotassiumPotassium beside is important in maintaining the regular contraction and relaxation of the muscle, that helps to reducing the risk of hypokalemia, it also helps the lymphatic system in regulating the levels of fluid in the body, thus lessening the risk of lymphedema, swelling caused by the accumulation of lymph fluid. In a study of Narrative review: evolving concepts in potassium homeostasis and hypokalemia by Greenlee M, Wingo CS, McDonough AA, Youn JH, Kone BC., posted in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19414841), researchers found that recent experimental insights into the participation of feedback and feedforward control mechanisms in potassium homeostasis. New data make clear that feedforward homeostatic responses activate when decreased potassium intake is sensed, even when plasma potassium concentration is still within the normal range and before frank hypokalemia ensues, in addition to the classic feedback activation of renal potassium conservation when plasma ...
Fig. 2. Abscissa and ordinate as in fieure 1 hut not» j:«? „ • , .,. . , . , „ Kuie i, oui note the difference in scale. All muscles. were stimulated a a rate of 30 per minute. Only the muscles in DNP showed a significantly higher potass,urn loss than the untreated ones. Strophanthin plus DNP make the muscles lose less potassium than DNP alone, which is in contrast to the findings in resting muscle. K-STROPHANTHIN ON POTASSIUM LEAKAGE. 505. either to there being no difference at all or to an insufficient number of experiments; regarding these values no statements can be made.. Discussion. All experiments were performed in potassium free Ringer solution so as to be able to measure even minor changes in potassium concentration in the bath with sufficient accuracy. It is well known that muscle in potassium free Ringer solution loses potassium (Steinbach, 1940, 1951, 1952). Accordingly we found a mean loss of 0.0913 nM- in 10 minutes from a freshly dissected muscle if no drug was added. ...
Potassium is one of seven inorganic, macro mineral nutrients needed in relatively high daily amounts. It is the third most prevalent element in the body after Calcium. Along with Chloride, Sodium, Magnesium and Calcium, Potassium is an essential electrolyte. These elements are called electrolytes because they carry an electrical charge when dissolved in body fluids. These elements are distributed throughout the bodys fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluids, as well as intracellular fluids.. Electrolytes help regulate nerve transmission and many cell membrane functions. Magnesium helps maintain the Potassium in the cells; but even more crucial is the proper Sodium to Potassium balance. Without Potassium, cell function will be impacted. Potassium works with Sodium to regulate blood pressure, transmit nerve impulses, and maintain cellular wall permeability. Along with Magnesium, it is essential for the proper functioning of the heart muscle. In this role, Potassium acts as the ...
How to Lower Potassium Levels. Let us see in detail how to lower potassium levels in blood and restore normal potassium levels. Potassium (chemical element K) is a mineral, in the same...
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POTASSIUM PHOSPHATES INJECTION may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, including life-threatening cardiac events, especially when administered in excessive doses, undiluted or by rapid intravenous infusion [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Patients with severe renal impairment and end stage renal disease are at increased risk of developing life-threatening hyperkalemia, when administered intravenous potassium [see Contraindications (4)]. Other patients at increased risk of hyperkalemia include those with severe adrenal insufficiency or treated concurrently with other drugs that cause or increase the risk of hyperkalemia [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Patients with cardiac disease may be more susceptible to the effects of hyperkalemia.. Consider the amount of potassium from all sources when determining the dose of POTASSIUM PHOSPHATES INJECTION and do not exceed the maximum age-appropriate recommended daily amount of potassium. In patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR ≥30 mL/min/1.73 ...
Potassium chloride can be easily obtained in relatively pure form at the grocery store as a salt substitute for people with low-sodium diets. This source is mixed in with potassium bitartrate to improve taste. Some salt substitutes tend to have merely a KCl addition, as still have lots of sodium chloride. Recrystallization is required to further purify the compound. However, salt substitute is deliberately overpriced by the companies that make it; it is many times cheaper to obtain potassium chloride through other means, often through larger industrial quantities, which are usually purer anyway. This includes buying potassium chloride as fertilizer, sometimes referred to as muriate of potash. In some hardware stores, sodium-free water purification tablets made of 99% or higher potassium chloride can be purchased, usually in bags weighing about 40 lbs. These are by far the most economic method of purchasing potassium chloride. ...
Consensus guidelines for the use of potassium replacement in clinical practice Low serum potassium concentration is perhaps the most common electrolyte abnormality encountered in clinical practice. According to the National Council on Potassium in Clinical Practice, in order to maintain normal levels of potassium several factors must be take into account such as: Baseline potassium…
The effects of potassium on plants is well known in that it improves how well a plant grows and produces but exactly why and how is not known. As a gardener, you do not need to know the why and how in order to be hurt by a potassium deficiency in plants. Keep reading to learn more about how potassium affects the plants in your garden and how to correct a potassium deficiency. ...
Potassium is a chemical element with the symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. Potassium is a silvery-white metal that is soft enough to be cut with a knife with little force. Potassium metal reacts rapidly with atmospheric oxygen to form flaky white potassium peroxide in only seconds of exposure. It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals, all of which have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, that is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge - a cation, that combines with anions to form salts. Potassium in nature occurs only in ionic salts. Elemental potassium reacts vigorously with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen emitted in the reaction, and burning with a lilac-colored flame. It is found dissolved in sea water (which is 0.04% potassium by weight), and occurs in many minerals such as orthoclase, a common constituent of ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Potassium and potassium oxide monolayers on the platinum (111) and stepped (755) crystal surfaces. T2 - A LEED, AES, and TDS study. AU - Garfunkel, Eric. AU - Somorjai, G. A.. PY - 1982/3/1. Y1 - 1982/3/1. N2 - The adsorption of potassium and the coadsorption of potassium and oxygen on the Pt(111) and stepped Pt(755) crystal surfaces were studied by AES, LEED, and TDS. Pure potassium adlayers were found by LEED to be hexagonally ordered on Pt(111) at coverages of θ = K0.9-;1. The monolayer coverage was 5.4 × 1014K atoms/cm2 (0.36 times the atomic density of the Pt(111) surface). Orientational reordering of the adlayers, similar to the behavior of noble gas phase transitions on metals, was observed. The heat of desorption of K decreased, due to depolarization effects, from 60 kcal/mole at θK K = 1 on both Pt(111) and Pt(755). Exposure to oxygen thermally stabilizes a potassium monolayer, increasing the heat of desorption from 25 to 50 kcal/mole. Both potassium and oxygen were ...
Elements are essential for plant growth. Chemical elements are obtained from the air and water, unlike nutrient elements found in the soil. Nutrient element Potassium (K) is an essential major nutrient for crop production. Classified as a macronutrient, Potassium is absorbed in large amounts by most plants through root uptake. Of all the essential elements, potassium is the third most likely, after nitrogen and phosphorous, to limit plant productivity. In soil, potassium is present as K+, enabling potassium to be held tightly within the soil matrix, limiting offsite movement. Potassium is found naturally in many soils. However, highly weathered soils usually contain lower levels.. Potassium absorbed by plants is used to control or regulate cellular enzymes responsible for energy metabolism, starch synthesis, nitrate reduction, photosynthesis and sugar degradation. Potassium plays a major role in a plants ability to withstand drought conditions, provide better resistance to certain fungal ...
Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of
A recent study (1) gives insight into how the lipids in the cell membranes affect how well one particular potassium channel functions. The particular channel the researchers investigated is one of the most studied potassium channels. This channel demonstrates how the function of other channels and pumps also may be affected by the composition of the cell membranes.. The researchers showed that the pore that lets potassium flow through the channel is fine-tuned by the physical characteristics of the lipid in the cell membrane. When the membrane allows protein in the pore of the channel to change more easily, potassium can get through faster.. This study changed two characteristics of the membrane that potassium channels sit in. The two characteristics of the membrane that the researchers changed were the temperature of the membrane, and the type of fats the membrane was made of. Both of these characteristics changed the fluidity of the membrane.. The researchers then determined whether the ...
NPK Industries RAW Potassium, 2 lbs RAW Potassium is a soluble plant supplement that is used for horticultural purposes. RAW Potassium contains 50% Soluble Potash which is the highest concentration of fully water Soluble Potassium available to the home gardener. This product is used to treat deficiencies or boost Potassium levels. A 2 oz package of RAW Potassium makes up to 200 gallons, an 8 oz package makes up to 800 gallons and a 2 lb package makes up to 3,200 gallons. RAW = soluble / Solubility = Availability NPK Industries: RAW Potassium, 2 lbs [hf-OG3620] - Nutrients & Supplements - Gardening & Hydroponics Store -
Potassium permanganate staining[edit]. When scanning electron microscopy is not available, a faster, lower cost technique is ... The eggs are soaked in a 1% potassium permanganate solution for one minute and then dehydrated and mounted onto a slide for ... "Identification of forensically important fly eggs using a potassium permanganate staining technique". Micron. 35 (5): 391-395. ... potassium permanganate staining. The collected eggs are rinsed with a normal saline solution and placed in a glass petri dish. ...
Potassium pump[edit]. Malfunction of the sodium-potassium pump may be a factor in some ataxias. The Na+. -K+. pump has been ... "The sodium-potassium pump controls the intrinsic firing of the cerebellar Purkinje neuron". PLOS One. 7 (12): e51169. Bibcode ... "The sodium-potassium pump is an information processing element in brain computation". Frontiers in Physiology. 5 (472): 472. ...
Potassium deficiency[edit]. Due to the role of intracellular potassium in regulation of cellular pressures related to sodium, ... and Potassium Bromide in Cases of Arterial Hypertension which are Amenable to Potassium Chloride". Can Med Assoc J. 18 (3): 281 ... establishing potassium balance has been shown to reverse hypertension. [60] Diagnosis[edit]. The ABCDE mnemonic can be used to ... a low blood level of potassium will also be present.[19] Cortisol induced hypertension cannot be completely explained by the ...
... (or potassium hydrogen sulfite) is a chemical mixture with the approximate chemical formula KHSO3. ... Attempts to crystallize potassium bisulfite yield potassium metabisulfite, K2S2O5.[2] ... Potassium bisulfite in fact is not a real compound,[1] but a mixture of salts that dissolve in water to give solutions composed ... Potassium bisulfite is used as a sterilising agent in the production of alcoholic beverages.[3] This additive is classified as ...
Potassium perchlorate. References[edit]. *^ Record of Potassium nitrate in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ... Potassium nitrate is used in fertilizers as a source of nitrogen and potassium - two of the macronutrients for plants. When ... Potassium nitrate can also be produced by neutralizing nitric acid with potassium hydroxide. This reaction is highly exothermic ...
Potassium-sparing diuretics[edit]. These are diuretics which do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine; thus, ... Potassium-sparing diuretics amiloride, spironolactone, eplerenone, triamterene, potassium canrenoate. Inhibition of Na+/K+ ... potassium is retained and not lost as much as with other diuretics. The term "potassium-sparing" refers to an effect rather ... The potassium-sparing diuretics cause a net increase in calcium lost in urine, but the increase is much smaller than the ...
Potassium dichromate[edit]. Sun printing may also refer to a photographic process using potassium dichromate which produces a ... During this time the sunlight and potassium dichromate tan the gelatine exposed to light. The plate is developed by washing in ... This is coated with a dilute solution of potassium dichromate and dried in low light conditions. A translucent positive is ... It involves exposing materials which have been treated with a solution of potassium ferricyanide and ferric ammonium citrate to ...
Potassium[edit]. A sodium load augments the intense potassium excretion by cortisol. Corticosterone is comparable to cortisol ... Potassium loading also increases ACTH and cortisol in humans.[63] This is probably the reason why potassium deficiency causes ... unlike the normal potassium-deficiency situation, in which two sodium ions move in for each three potassium ions that move out- ... High-potassium media (which stimulates aldosterone secretion in vitro) also stimulate cortisol secretion from the fasciculata ...
The reaction of potassium dichromate with organic compounds is given by: C. n. H. a. O. b. N. c. +. d. Cr. 2. O. 7. 2. −. +. ( ... Its reaction with potassium dichromate follows the equation: 6. C. l. −. +. C. r. 2. O. 7. 2. −. +. 14. H. +. →. 3. C. l. 2. + ... Using potassium dichromate[edit]. Potassium dichromate is a strong oxidizing agent under acidic conditions. Acidity is usually ... Since then, other oxidizing agents such as ceric sulphate, potassium iodate, and potassium dichromate have been used to ...
... is an inhibitor of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme.[3] Wine[edit]. Potassium metabisulfite is a common ... Potassium metabisulfite, K2S2O5, also known as potassium pyrosulfite, is a white crystalline powder with a pungent sulfur odour ... Potassium metabisulfite is sometimes added to lemon juice as a preservative.. *Potassium metabisulfite is used in the textile ... Potassium metabisulfite has a monoclinic crystal structure which decomposes at 190 °C, yielding potassium sulfite and sulfur ...
Acid potassium tartrate; Aluminum tartrate; Ammonium tartrate; Calcium tartrate; Metatartaric acid; Potassium antimonyl ... Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate, also known as Rochelle salt, is a double salt of tartaric acid first prepared (in about ... Potassium sodium tartrate and monopotassium phosphate were the first materials discovered to exhibit piezoelectricity.[3] This ... Sodium Potassium tartrate is also important in the food industry. [5] ...
... (also known as Sylvite, KCl, or potassium salt) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Main article: Potassium chloride (medical use). Potassium is vital in the human body, and potassium chloride by mouth is the ... For the use of potassium chloride as a medication, see Potassium chloride (medical use). For the use of potassium in biology, ... Potassium chlorate. Potassium perchlorate Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state ( ...
ACK (Ammonium-Chloride-Potassium) lysing buffer[edit]. ACK is used for lysis of red blood cells in biological samples where ...
Not to be confused with potassium peroxymonosulfate.. Potassium persulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula K2S2O8. ... Potassium persulfate can be prepared by electrolysis of a cold solution potassium bisulfate in sulfuric acid at a high current ... Also known as potassium peroxydisulfate or KPS, it is a white solid that is sparingly soluble in cold water, but dissolves ... "Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Persulfate". International Journal of Toxicology. 20 ( ...
Potassium[edit]. Potassium maintains fruit size, acidity, juice and disease tolerance, and it is taken up largely by the citrus ... Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus are the main macronutrients needed in citrus production, as well as Calcium, Magnesium and ...
Potassium[edit]. High concentrations of potassium (K+) also causes the muscle cells to decrease in efficiency, causing cramping ... Potassium builds up in the t-tubule system and around the muscle fiber as a result of action potentials. The shift in K+ ... They include chloride, potassium, lactic acid, ADP, magnesium (Mg2+), reactive oxygen species, and inorganic phosphate. ... This counters inhibiting effects of potassium on muscular action potentials. Lactic acid also has a negating effect on the ...
of natural potassium, not potassium-40 - the specific activity of potassium-40 is 2.54·105 Bq/g[1]. And TBH, the spread is such ... "For instance, one gram-mole of potassium contains 0.0118 gram of 40K (all other isotopes are stable) that has a t1/2 of 1.248× ... 4400 becquerels from decaying potassium-40[edit]. I was looking for a source for this statement, but all I can find are ... The Wiki article on Potassiunm gives a reference quoting 120g of potassium in a 60kg adult. In these days of galloping obsesity ...
Two-pore potassium channels (K2Ps) activation[edit]. *Two-pore potassium channels (K2Ps) modulate the potassium conductance ...
... potassium, and sulfur may be used for nutrient-poor soils.[2] ...
Typical of leaf vegetables, Malabar spinach is high in vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and calcium. It is low in calories by volume, but high in protein per calorie. The succulent mucilage is a particularly rich source of soluble fiber. Among many other possibilities, Malabar spinach may be used to thicken soups or stir-fries with garlic and chili peppers.. In the Philippines, the leaves of this vegetable is one of the main ingredients in an all vegetable dish called utan that is served over rice. It is usually cooked with sardines, onions, garlic, and parsley.. In Karnataka Cuisine (Karavali and Malnad regions), the leaves and stems are used to make Basale Soppu Saaru/Curry (Especially in combination with Jackfruit seed) and soupy raita with curd. Beary Muslims of coastal Karnataka prepare Basalede kunhi Pindi (small rice dumplings smeared in gravy prepared from Malabar spinach and dried tuna ). In Bengali cuisine it is widely used both in a vegetable dish, cooked with red pumpkin, and in ...
Potassium 04700.0004700 NE; NE Quantity A systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with sodium Sweet potato, ... A systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with potassium Table salt (sodium chloride, the main source), sea ... "Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005: Appendix B-1. Food Sources of Potassium". United States Department of Agriculture. 2005. ... potassium, sodium, chlorine, sulfur and magnesium) make up only about 0.85% of the weight of the body.[citation needed] ...
Broad beans (Amharic: baqella) are one of the most popular legumes in Ethiopia. They are tightly coupled with every aspect of Ethiopian life. They are mainly used as an alternative to peas to prepare a flour called shiro, which is used to make shiro wot (a stew almost ubiquitous in Ethiopian dishes). During the fasting period in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church tradition called Tsome Filliseta, Tsome arbeå, Tsome Tahsas, and Tsome Hawaria (which are in August, end of February-April, mid-November-beginning of January and June-July), two uncooked spicy vegetable dishes are made using broad beans. The first is Hilibet, a thin, white paste of broad bean flour mixed with pieces of onion, green pepper, garlic, and other spices based on personal taste. The second is siljo, a fermented, sour, spicy thin yellow paste of broad bean flour. Both are served with other stews and injera (a pancake-like bread) during lunch and dinner. Baqella nifro (boiled broad beans) are eaten as a snack during some holidays ...
In Indian cuisine, ginger is a key ingredient, especially in thicker gravies, as well as in many other dishes, both vegetarian and meat-based. Ginger has a role in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. It is an ingredient in traditional Indian drinks, both cold and hot, including spiced masala chai. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh ginger together with peeled garlic cloves is crushed or ground to form ginger garlic masala. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee, especially in winter. In south India, "sambharam" is a summer yogurt drink made with ginger as a key ingredient, along with green chillies, salt and curry leaves. Ginger powder is used in food preparations intended primarily for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular one being katlu, which is a mixture of gum resin, ghee, nuts, and sugar. Ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form. In Japan, ginger is pickled to make ...
Persillade is a mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in French cuisine. Parsley is the main ingredient in Italian salsa verde, which is a mixed condiment of parsley, capers, anchovies, garlic, and sometimes bread, soaked in vinegar. It is an Italian custom to serve it with bollito misto or fish. Gremolata, a mixture of parsley, garlic, and lemon zest, is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew, ossobuco alla milanese. In England, parsley sauce is a roux-based sauce, commonly served over fish or gammon. Root parsley is very common in Central, Eastern, and Southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups, stews, and casseroles, and as ingredient for broth. In Brazil, freshly chopped parsley (salsa) and freshly chopped scallion (cebolinha) are the main ingredients in the herb seasoning called cheiro-verde (literally "green aroma"), which is used as key seasoning for major Brazilian dishes, including meat, chicken, fish, rice, beans, stews, ...
Bitter melon is generally consumed cooked in the green or early yellowing stage. The young shoots and leaves of the bitter melon may also be eaten as greens. In Chinese cuisine, bitter melon (苦瓜, pinyin: kǔguā, POJ: khó͘-koe) is valued for its bitter flavor, typically in stir-fries (often with pork and douchi), soups, dim sum, and herbal teas (gohyah tea). It has also been used in place of hops as the bittering ingredient in some beers in China and Okinawa.[3] Bitter melon is commonly eaten throughout India. In North Indian cuisine, it is often served with yogurt on the side to offset the bitterness, used in curry such as sabzi or stuffed with spices and then cooked in oil. In South Indian cuisine, it is used in the dishes thoran/thuvaran (mixed with grated coconut), mezhukkupuratti (stir-fried with spices), theeyal (cooked with roasted coconut) and pachadi (which is considered a medicinal food for diabetics). Other popular recipes include preparations with curry, deep-frying with ...
Usually the deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten boiled, roasted or raw, and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilized beets or into pickles. In Eastern Europe, beet soup, such as borscht, is a popular dish. In Indian cuisine, chopped, cooked, spiced beet is a common side dish. Yellow-coloured beetroots are grown on a very small scale for home consumption.[9]. The green, leafy portion of the beet is also edible. The young leaves can be added raw to salads, whilst the adult leaves are most commonly served boiled or steamed, in which case they have a taste and texture similar to spinach. Those greens selected should be from bulbs that are unmarked, instead of those with overly limp leaves or wrinkled skins, both of which are signs of dehydration. The domestication of beets can be traced to the emergence of an allele which enables biennial harvesting of leaves and taproot.[10]. Beetroot can be boiled ...
Forerunners to modern Brussels sprouts were probably cultivated in Ancient Rome.[citation needed] Brussels sprouts as they are now known were grown possibly as early as the 13th century in what is now Belgium. The first written reference dates to 1587. During the 16th century, they enjoyed a popularity in the southern Netherlands that eventually spread throughout the cooler parts of Northern Europe. Brussels sprouts grow in temperature ranges of 7-24 °C (45-75 °F), with highest yields at 15-18 °C (59-64 °F).[2] Fields are ready for harvest 90 to 180 days after planting. The edible sprouts grow like buds in helical patterns along the side of long, thick stalks of about 60 to 120 cm (24 to 47 in) in height, maturing over several weeks from the lower to the upper part of the stalk. Sprouts may be picked by hand into baskets, in which case several harvests are made of five to 15 sprouts at a time, or by cutting the entire stalk at once for processing, or by mechanical harvester, depending on ...
At high concentrations, it had no effect on spontaneous or potassium evoked amino acid release.[45] ...
The poor taste and lack of sugar in modern garden and commercial tomato varieties resulted from breeding tomatoes to ripen uniformly red. This change occurred after discovery of a mutant "u" phenotype in the mid 20th century that ripened "u"niformly. This was widely cross-bred to produce red fruit without the typical green ring around the stem on uncross-bred varieties. Prior to general introduction of this trait, most tomatoes produced more sugar during ripening, and were sweeter and more flavorful.[40][41] Evidence has been found that 10-20% of the total carbon fixed in the fruit can be produced by photosynthesis in the developing fruit of the normal U phenotype. The u genetic mutation encodes a factor that produces defective chloroplasts with lower density in developing fruit, resulting in a lighter green colour of unripe fruit, and repression of sugars accumulation in the resulting ripe fruit by 10-15%. Perhaps more important than their role in photosynthesis, the fruit chloroplasts are ...
Gourds were cultivated in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas for thousands of years before Columbus' discovery of America. Historically, in Europe,[9] Walahfrid Strabo (808-849), abbot and poet from Reichenau and advisor to the Carolingian kings, discussed the gourd in his Hortulus as one of the 23 plants of an ideal garden.[10][11]. Recent research indicates some gourds have an African origin and that there were at least two unrelated domestications: one is thought to have occurred 8,000-9,000 years ago, based on the analysis of archeological samples found in Asia, and the second domestication is believed to have occurred 4,000 years ago, and has been traced from archeological discoveries in Egypt.. The mystery of the bottle gourd - namely that this African or Eurasian species was being grown in America over 8,000 years ago[12] - comes from the difficulty in understanding how it arrived in the Americas. The bottle gourd was originally thought to have drifted across the Atlantic Ocean from ...
QUANTOFIX Potassium test strips easily and quickly detect potassium in solutions. All necessary reagents included, results in ... For the growth of plants and animals potassium is an essential factor. Especially in agriculture the determination of potassium ... The natural potassium content in ground water is generally about 1- 2 mg/l K. Higher values may indicate fecal contaminations, ... This test allows the quick and easy determination of potassium in solutions. It includes all necessary reagents so that the ...
Potassium bisulfite (or potassium hydrogen sulfite) is a chemical mixture with the approximate chemical formula KHSO3. ... Attempts to crystallize potassium bisulfite yield potassium metabisulfite, K2S2O5.[2] ... Potassium bisulfite in fact is not a real compound,[1] but a mixture of salts that dissolve in water to give solutions composed ... Potassium bisulfite is used as a sterilising agent in the production of alcoholic beverages.[3] This additive is classified as ...
Potassium perchlorate. References[edit]. *^ Record of Potassium nitrate in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for ... Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ... Potassium nitrate is used in fertilizers as a source of nitrogen and potassium - two of the macronutrients for plants. When ... Potassium nitrate can also be produced by neutralizing nitric acid with potassium hydroxide. This reaction is highly exothermic ...
See ICSC 0357 (potassium hydroxide). Inhalation risk Effects of long-term or repeated exposure ... Potassium is always kept under mineral oil.. Reacts violently with fire extinguishing agents such as water and carbon dioxide. ...
Potassium chloride occurs pure in nature as the mineral sylvite and is found ... potassium chloride. potassium chloride, chemical compound, KCl, a colorless or white, cubic, crystalline compound that closely ... the concentration of potassium oxide that there would be if the potassium were present as its oxide instead of as its chloride ... Potassium chloride occurs pure in nature as the mineral sylvite and is found combined in many minerals and in brines and ocean ...
Potassium bromate also has the potential to disrupt the genetic material within cells.9 Upon entering the body, potassium ... 13 The industry claims potassium bromate is theoretically fully converted into potassium bromide, a similar yet non- ... Products with potassium bromate (as of 9/16/2015)*. Amellos Italian Style Raspberry Drop Cookies Amons Kosher Deep Dish Pizza ... Carcinogenicity of potassium bromate administered in the drinking water to male B6C3F1 mice and F344/N rats. Toxicol Pathol. 26 ...
... potassium bisulfite added as a preservative; potassium chloride as a salt replacer; potassium bitartrate as a flavor modifier; ... Like other minerals, potassium is stable to storage. There are not significant changes to the bioavailability of potassium over ... Sodium and potassium exist in a partnership, and each important use of potassium requires sodium to maintain balance. ... This is good news since normal levels of potassium are absolutely critical to life-if potassium levels get too high or too low ...
potassium perchlorate. Speakeasy Science. Tag archives for potassium perchlorate. Gummy bear chemistry. Posted by Deborah Blum ... resist this wonderfully explosive video on YouTube showing the unfortunate end of a red gummy bear when mixed with potassium ...
... has part thiocyanate (CHEBI:18022) potassium thiocyanate (CHEBI:30951) is a potassium salt ... CHEBI:30951 - potassium thiocyanate. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
... how to get potassium, everyday paleo, quick easy meals for two, simple meals to make with mince, quick dinner recipes indian ... potassium rich foods, fruits high in potassium, and vegetables high in potassium. Although potassium can also be found in meats ... While a banana is a quick source of potassium, very low potassium might require medical treatment.. Once potassium is absorbed ... can interact with potassium supplements or contribute to potassium depletion. Very low levels of potassium might require ...
potassium chloride, chemical compound, KCl, a colorless or white, cubic, crystalline compound that closely resembles common ... potassium chloride n. a salt of potassium administered by mouth to prevent and treat potassium deficiency, especially during ... Potassium Chloride. OVERVIEW. Potassium chloride (poe-TAS-ee-yum KLOR-ide) occurs as a white or colorless crystalline solid or ... Smaller amounts of potassium chloride are used in the production of other potassium compounds, in photography, and in chemical ...
In the new study, Yu, Kim and their colleagues looked for VNO potassium channels, which admit positively charged potassium ions ... To determine the contribution of potassium ions to these currents, they replaced the potassium ions in the neurons with ... On balance the potassium channels now sent potassium ions in the inward direction. In fact, these two newly discovered channels ... The finding that potassium channels contribute to the primary activation of the VNO could be a clue to the origins of the organ ...
All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryInorganic ChemicalsPotassium CompoundsPotassium Chloride ... Potassium Chloride. A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryInorganic ChemicalsChlorine CompoundsHydrochloric AcidChloridesPotassium ...
... has role food acidity regulator (CHEBI:64049) potassium acetate (CHEBI:32029) is a potassium ... CHEBI:32029 - potassium acetate. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... potassium acetate (CHEBI:32029) has part acetate (CHEBI:30089) ... A potassium salt comprising equal numbers of potassium and ...
Potassium iodide (also called KI) is a salt of stable (not radioactive) iodine. Stable iodine is an important chemical needed ... At this time, CDC does not recommend that people in the United States take Potassium Iodide (KI) or iodine supplements in ... Saturated Solution of Potassium Iodide (SSKI or Lugols Solution) is not an FDA-approved drug. ... General information about the use of Potassium Iodide, including information about use by pregnant women and children. ...
... potassium iodide) can help block radioactive iodine from being absorbed by the thyroid gland. ... What is Potassium Iodide (KI)?. KI (potassium iodide) is a salt of stable (not radioactive) iodine that can help block ... How is KI (potassium iodide) given?. The FDA has approved two different forms of KI (potassium iodide), tablets and liquid, ... How often should KI (potassium iodide) be taken?. Taking a stronger dose of KI (potassium iodide), or taking KI more often than ...
Potassium-losing Nephritis. Br Med J 1954; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4901.1415-c (Published 11 December 1954) Cite ...
... such as potassium chlorate, which supply oxygen to the igniting agent and the other combustible materials; (2) binders, such as ... Other articles where Potassium chlorate is discussed: match: …(1) oxidizing agents, ... 1) oxidizing agents, such as potassium chlorate, which supply oxygen to the igniting agent and the other combustible materials ...
File nella categoria "Potassium bitartrate". Questa categoria contiene 32 file, indicati di seguito, su un totale di 32. ... Cristaux jus de raisin Potassium bitartrate Lamiot 03.jpg 2 592 × 1 944; 3,22 MB. ... Cristaux jus de raisin Potassium bitartrate Lamiot 04.jpg 2 592 × 1 944; 1,09 MB. ... Cristaux jus de raisin Potassium bitartrate Lamiot 08.jpg 2 592 × 1 944; 1,08 MB. ...
Potassium-aggravated myotonia is a disorder that affects muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). Beginning in childhood ... When excess potassium is present in the body, which occurs after eating potassium-rich foods, even more sodium ions flow into ... Potassium-aggravated myotonia is caused by variants (also known as mutations) in the SCN4A gene. The SCN4A gene provides ... Potassium-aggravated myotonia is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each ...
... potassium trans,trans-sorbate, potassium trans,trans-2,4-hexadienoate, Potassium (E,E)-sorbate, Potassium (E,E)-2,4- ... Potassium sorbate (en-ca); Kalij sorbat (bs); Sorbato di potassio (it); Sorbate de potassium (fr); sorbato de potássio (pt); 山梨 ... Media in category "Potassium sorbate". The following 3 files are in this category, out of 3 total. ... Sorbato de potasio (es); Kálium-szorbát (hu); сорбат калия (ru); Kaliumsorbat (de); Potassium sorbate (en-gb); پتاسیم سوربات ( ...
potassium-argon dating* A dating technique [1] for certain rocks that depends on the decay of the radioisotope potassium-40 to ... potassium-argon dating(K-Ar method) A dating technique based on the radioactive decay of potassium (40K) to argon (40Ar). This ... potassium-argon dating (K-Ar method) Geologic dating technique based on the radioactive decay of potassium (40K) to argon (40Ar ... potassium-argon dating A dating technique for certain rocks that depends on the decay of the radioisotope potassium-40 to argon ...
... the recommended intake of potassium is 3,500 mg, which would require eating almost nine medium bananas) ... Centrum contains: 80 mg (2% DV) Food equivalent: 1/5 banana (Note: the recommended intake of potassium is 3,500 mg, which would ... Centrum contains: 80 mg (2% DV) Food equivalent: 1/5 banana (Note: the recommended intake of potassium is 3,500 mg, which would ... Centrum contains: 80 mg (2% DV) Food equivalent: 1/5 banana (Note: the recommended intake of potassium is 3,500 mg, which would ...
How Much Potassium is in a Banana. Bananas are very rich in potassium, but people seldom know the amount of potassium present ... Health Benefits of Potassium. Potassium is one of the essential elements required for good health. There are several potassium ... How Much Potassium Do You Need Per Day. You must be aware that potassium is an electrolyte that carries electrical charge when ... Potassium Levels in Humans. Potassium performs a lot of key functions in the human body. But what are the normal levels of ...
This list shows you the 10 best natural food sources of potassium, a mineral that helps lower blood pressure and counteract a ... Packed with potassium-481 mg per serving-and vitamins like lutein and zeaxanthin that help protect your vision, this leafy ... Containing 373 mg per one-half cup, these beans are a tasty tex-mex way to consume your daily amount of potassium.. Serving ... With one cup cubed dishing out 15 percent of your daily intake of potassium, and a ton of heart-healthy omega-3s, this ultra- ...
Why Potassium Sorbate is Bad with Experiment - Duration: 4:49. Manav Khakh 1,357 views ... Is Potassium Sorbate bad for your health? - Duration: 1:53. Guy Presse 14,740 views ... Health Effects of Potassium Sorbate - Duration: 2:48. Manav Khakh 2,529 views ...
Potassium iodate and its comparison to potassium iodide as a blocker of 131I uptake by the thyroid in rats - Health Phys 1993 ... How to Treat Low Potassium - Low Potassium Treatment - Duration: 4:31. WaysAndHow 81,841 views ... Potassium Iodide (KI) - What You Havent Been Told, But Need To Know - Duration: 2:31. vivavitamins 12,587 views ... Potassium Iodide Tablets for Your Nuclear Disaster Prep (1080p HD) - Duration: 6:20. SHTF Gear 9,954 views ...
... chloride, potassium gluconate BRAND NAME: Apo-K, K-10, Kal... ... POTASSIUM 1. Name & class of drug - generic and trade name.GENERIC NAME: ... POTASSIUM 1. Name & class of drug - generic and trade name.. GENERIC NAME: Potassium chloride, potassium gluconate BRAND NAME: ... prevent and treat potassium deficit secondary to diuretic or corticosteroid therapy. When K+ is depleted by severe Vomiting, ...
... is a mineral key to many of the bodys important functions such as regulating heart rate and smooth muscle ... Potassium supplements are available in multivitamin preparations and as potassium acetate, potassium bicarbonate, potassium ... People who are potassium deficient may develop hypokalemia, a condition where there is not enough potassium in the blood. Some ... Tobacco and caffeine reduce the bodys ability to absorb potassium. Laxatives, and diuretics disrupt potassium levels. ...
... serum potassium levels do not always accurately reflect total body potassium stores. Serum potassium levels are determined by ... serum potassium levels do not always accurately reflect total body potassium stores. Serum potassium levels are determined by ... Insulin enhances potassium entry into cells, whereas glucagon impairs it. Beta-adrenergic agonists enhance potassium entry into ... How are serum potassium levels determined?. Updated: Jun 20, 2018 * Author: Eleanor Lederer, MD, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi ...
  • Potassium chloride occurs pure in nature as the mineral sylvite and is found combined in many minerals and in brines and ocean water. (infoplease.com)
  • It is produced from sylvinite, a sodium chloride-potassium chloride mineral that is mined extensively near Carlsbad, N.Mex. (infoplease.com)
  • The chief use of potassium chloride is in the production of fertilizers it is also used in chemical manufacture. (infoplease.com)
  • For agricultural use it is often called muriate of potash the concentration of potassium chloride in muriate of potash is expressed as a corresponding concentration of potassium oxide (K 2 O), i.e., the concentration of potassium oxide that there would be if the potassium were present as its oxide instead of as its chloride. (infoplease.com)
  • Manure salts contain some potassium chloride. (infoplease.com)
  • Along with sodium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium, potassium is an electrolyte, meaning that it helps to conduct electrical charges in the body. (whfoods.com)
  • Potassium chloride (poe-TAS-ee-yum KLOR-ide) occurs as a white or colorless crystalline solid or powder. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Potassium chloride is the most abundant compound of the element potassium and has the greatest number of applications of any salt of potassium. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By far the most important application of potassium chloride is in the manufacture of fertilizers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • All of the major sources of potassium chloride have their origin in sea water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The most important of those salts are sodium chloride (about 2.3 percent), magnesium chloride (about 0.5 percent), sodium sulfate (about 0.4 percent), calcium chloride (about 0.1 percent) and potassium chloride (about 0.07 percent). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Any one of the salts present in a sea salt deposit-including potassium chloride-can be extracted by a common procedure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since potassium chloride is much more soluble in hot water than in cold water, it crystallizes out after other salts have been removed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The majority of potassium chloride in the United States is now extracted by a lengthy process that also begins with the crushing of natural ores, such as sylvite and carnalite. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A flotation agent is a material that coats the desired compound, such as potassium chloride, and allows it to float to the surface of the reaction chamber, like the soap suds that float on top of a washing machine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The amine-coated potassium chloride is skimmed off the top of the reaction mixture, purified, and prepared in some crystalline or powder form. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Potassium chloride is present in some foods in small amounts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many infant formulas also contain potassium chloride. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Potassium chloride is also used as a nutrient for yeast cultures and in making beer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One use of potassium chloride is as a lethal injection for prisoners who have been given the death penalty. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The largest application of potassium chloride is in the production of fertilizers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • More than ninety percent of the potassium chloride produced in the United States is used for that purpose. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Smaller amounts of potassium chloride are used in the production of other potassium compounds, in photography, and in chemical research applications. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Routine but Deadly Drug: Potassium Chloride Has a Jekyll and Hyde Personality. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Made by combining solid potassium chloride with a solution of sodium perchlorate, potassium perchlorate has numerous uses. (buzzle.com)
  • When using bleach for making potassium chlorate, make sure it is boiled properly before adding it to a salt substitute like potassium chloride. (buzzle.com)
  • There are many uses of potassium chloride, including its use to treat hypokalemia. (buzzle.com)
  • Although rare, potassium chloride does have certain side effects that cannot be ignored. (buzzle.com)
  • Potassium supplements are available in multivitamin preparations and as potassium acetate, potassium bicarbonate, potassium citrate effervescent, potassium chloride, and potassium gluconate. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Lethal dose of potassium chloride? (answers.com)
  • What Conditions does Potassium Chloride Tablet, Extended Release Particles/Crystals Treat? (webmd.com)
  • Slow-K modified-release tablets contain the active ingredient potassium chloride. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Slow-K tablets are a 'modified-release' form of potassium chloride that are designed to release the potassium slowly as they pass through the gut. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • What is potassium chloride, and how does it work (mechanism of action)? (medicinenet.com)
  • What brand names are available for potassium chloride? (medicinenet.com)
  • Is potassium chloride available as a generic drug? (medicinenet.com)
  • Do I need a prescription for potassium chloride? (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the side effects of potassium chloride? (medicinenet.com)
  • What is the dosage for potassium chloride? (medicinenet.com)
  • Is potassium chloride safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (medicinenet.com)
  • What else should I know about potassium chloride? (medicinenet.com)
  • What preparations of potassium chloride are available? (medicinenet.com)
  • How should I keep potassium chloride stored? (medicinenet.com)
  • Potassium chloride (K-Dur, KLor Con, K-Tab) is a preparation used to treat low potassium (hypokylemia) in the blood. (medicinenet.com)
  • The melting points of these fluxes are reduced by the addition of, for instance, sodium chloride or potassium chloride to such an extent that they liquefy at the prevailing working temperatures. (solvay.com)
  • This Potassium Chloride Injection is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, highly concentrated, ready-to-use solution of Potassium Chloride, USP in Water for Injection, USP for electrolyte replenishment in a single dose container for intravenous administration. (nih.gov)
  • A deficiency of either potassium or chloride will lead to a deficit of the other. (nih.gov)
  • Potassium Chloride Injection is indicated in the treatment of potassium deficiency states when oral replacement is not feasible. (nih.gov)
  • Potassium Chloride Injection is contraindicated in diseases where high potassium levels may be encountered, and in patients with hyperkalemia, renal failure and in conditions in which potassium retention is present. (nih.gov)
  • In patients with renal insufficiency, administration of potassium chloride may cause potassium intoxication and life-threatening hyperkalemia. (nih.gov)
  • Because pain associated with peripheral infusion of Potassium Chloride solution has been reported, whenever possible administration via a central route is recommended for thorough dilution by the blood stream and avoidance of extravasation. (nih.gov)
  • The hydroxide of potassium is an important industrial chemical, and the chloride, sulfate, and carbonate are used in fertilizers . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Thermal methods are also employed to obtain potassium from potassium chloride. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Klor-Con (Potassium Chloride) is a supplement that raises potassium levels in your blood. (propublica.org)
  • The reverse of this condition is hyperkalemia (too much potassium in the blood). (spineuniverse.com)
  • Diabetes and Drug-Associated Hyperkalemia: Effect of Potassium Monitoring. (medscape.com)
  • Hyperkalemia means that there is too much potassium in the blood, and this can also impact health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hyperkalemia is a medical term for when a person has higher than normal levels of potassium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A doctor will typically diagnose hyperkalemia when levels of potassium are between 5.0-5.5 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/l). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In acute hyperkalemia, which often results from a particular event, such as trauma, doctors may use dialysis and intravenous medications to flush potassium from the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Acute hyperkalemia, or significant changes to potassium levels over a short time, is more serious than having chronic hyperkalemia, or regularly high potassium levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Consuming too much potassium through medications or diet can cause hyperkalemia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • More important side effects include high blood potassium levels ( hyperkalemia ), abnormal heart beats, bleeding or perforation of the stomach or small intestine from ulcers, and narrowing (stricture) of the small intestine from healed ulcers. (medicinenet.com)
  • What causes hyperkalemia (high serum potassium levels)? (medscape.com)
  • For example, a person with a GFR of less than 45 mL/min who consistently eats large amounts of high-potassium foods and is taking a medication that blocks the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is at very high risk for hyperkalemia due to limitations in renal excretion of potassium in the face of high intake. (medscape.com)
  • the doc said this was mabey hyperkalemia is higer potassium. (medhelp.org)
  • Hyperkalemia is when there is too much potassium in the blood. (healthcastle.com)
  • People with decreased kidney function are at greater risk for hyperkalemia because their kidneys are less efficient at eliminating potassium. (healthcastle.com)
  • Hyperkalemia, which is too much potassium in the blood, is typically caused by kidney disease. (reference.com)
  • Often a report of high blood potassium isn't true hyperkalemia. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Too much potassium can cause a condition called hyperkalemia. (babycenter.com)
  • Agents Increasing Serum Potassium: Risk of hyperkalemia. (nih.gov)
  • Models of the relationship between DNA damage and potassium bromate show a consistent low-dose linear response, which means that the amount of DNA damage observed is proportional to the amount of potassium bromate consumed. (ewg.org)
  • Bananas are very rich in potassium, but people seldom know the amount of potassium present in them. (buzzle.com)
  • This article will specify the aggregate amount of potassium present in bananas. (buzzle.com)
  • Containing 373 mg per one-half cup, these beans are a tasty tex-mex way to consume your daily amount of potassium. (menshealth.com)
  • Lots of soils naturally have an acceptable amount of potassium, but some soils have low potassium levels. (ehow.com)
  • The number you see on the Nutrition Facts label is a percentage calculated by dividing the amount of potassium in one serving of the food by the daily value. (healthcastle.com)
  • The potassium urine test measures the amount of potassium in a certain amount of urine. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Lower or higher urinary level may occur depending on the amount of potassium in your diet and the amount of potassium in your body. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • A potassium test is used to measure the amount of potassium in your blood. (healthline.com)
  • Even minor increases or decreases in the amount of potassium in your blood can result in serious health problems. (healthline.com)
  • The amount of potassium in your blood is so small that tiny increases or decreases can cause serious problems. (healthline.com)
  • This falsely raises the amount of potassium in the blood sample, even though the potassium level in your body is actually normal. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Your child doesn't have to get the recommended daily amount of potassium every day, however. (babycenter.com)
  • The amount of potassium in a food will vary somewhat, depending on the size of the fruit or the brand of product. (babycenter.com)
  • Vegetables, especially green leafy varieties, are generally our richest sources of potassium. (whfoods.com)
  • We list three excellent sources of potassium, 16 as very good sources, and 39 as good sources by our Nutrient Rating System. (whfoods.com)
  • This MNT Knowledge Center article provides an in-depth look at recommended intake of potassium, its possible health benefits, reliable sources of potassium, the effects of consuming too much or too little potassium, and any potential health risks of consuming potassium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables are good dietary sources of potassium. (dbpedia.org)
  • Vegetables and fruit are some of the best sources of potassium. (healthcastle.com)
  • The second statement is: "Vegetables and fruits are also good sources of potassium. (fda.gov)
  • The claim states "Diets containing foods that are good sources of potassium and low in sodium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure and stroke. (fda.gov)
  • Potassium bisulfite in fact is not a real compound, [1] but a mixture of salts that dissolve in water to give solutions composed of potassium ions and bisulfite ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K + and nitrate ions NO 3 − , and is therefore an alkali metal nitrate . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the new study, Yu, Kim and their colleagues looked for VNO potassium channels, which admit positively charged potassium ions. (redorbit.com)
  • To determine the contribution of potassium ions to these currents, they replaced the potassium ions in the neurons with chemically similar cesium ions, which cannot get through potassium channels. (redorbit.com)
  • That and other experiments with the VNO tissue slices suggested that potassium ions normally flow out of VNO neurons through potassium channels when a VNO receptor is activated. (redorbit.com)
  • neurons typically have a greater concentration of potassium ions inside than outside, leading to an outward flow when potassium channels are opened. (redorbit.com)
  • However, in the VNO neurons a strong outward flow of potassium also occurred within the dendrites, directly countering the inward flow of positive ions that would activate the neurons. (redorbit.com)
  • But when they set up experiments to evaluate these channels not in VNO tissue slices but "in vivo"-in the working VNOs of live mice-they found a very different result: On balance the potassium channels now sent potassium ions in the inward direction. (redorbit.com)
  • The resulting low concentration had misleadingly caused potassium ions to be sucked out of VNO neuron dendrites when the SK3 and GIRK potassium channels were opened. (redorbit.com)
  • When excess potassium is present in the body, which occurs after eating potassium-rich foods, even more sodium ions flow into skeletal muscle cells in order to maintain a proper balance of calcium and potassium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The process of moving sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrance is an active transport process involving the hydrolysis of ATP to provide the necessary energy. (gsu.edu)
  • Because potassium ions carry a positive charge, they're integral to the conduction of electrical signals throughout the body. (wtop.com)
  • Potassium ions are vital for the functioning of all living cells. (dbpedia.org)
  • Protein involved in the active transport system which simultaneously moves two potassium ions into the cell and three sodium ions out of the cell. (uniprot.org)
  • Your cells have an ion pump that pumps 2 potassium ions into a cell while pumping 3 sodium ions out. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Protein which interferes with the function of potassium channels which are membrane proteins forming a channel in a biological membrane selectively permeable to potassium ions. (uniprot.org)
  • The ions, alloys, and compounds of potassium have a wide range of applications. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Potassium ions are essential nutrients for living organisms and are found in seawater and most soil types. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • and of K content vs. PV were 0.905 and 0.714, respectively, indicating that potassium ions are important for expressing the pasting properties of lotus starch. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Because of its low first ionization energy of 418.8 kJ/mol, the potassium atom is much more likely to lose the last electron and acquire a positive charge, although negatively charged alkalide K− ions are not impossible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, potassium iodide is a common commercial additive to table salt, to produce 'iodized' salt. (faqs.org)
  • Potassium iodide is noteworthy in security because of its ability to block the uptake of radioactive iodine by the body's thyroid gland. (faqs.org)
  • If taken in time following an accidental or deliberate release of radioactive iodine, such as would occur with a leak from a nuclear power plant or the detonation of a bomb containing a radioactive payload, potassium iodide saturates the thyroid with a form of iodine that persists in the gland. (faqs.org)
  • Much of what is known of the protective effects of potassium iodide has come from the measurements of radiation accumulation in the thyroid glands of hundreds of thousands of people in the weeks following the Chernobyl reactor disaster of April 1986, and the therapeutic effects KI achieved in Poland during that time. (faqs.org)
  • The protective effects of potassium iodide last about 24 hours from the time it is ingested. (faqs.org)
  • Guidance: Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in radiation Emergencies. (faqs.org)
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Potassium Iodide. (faqs.org)
  • This fact sheet from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) gives you some basic information about Radiation and Potassium Iodide (KI). (cdc.gov)
  • Potassium iodide (also called KI) is a salt of stable (not radioactive) iodine. (cdc.gov)
  • At this time, CDC does not recommend that people in the United States take Potassium Iodide (KI) or iodine supplements in response to the nuclear power plant explosions in Japan. (cdc.gov)
  • Saturated Solution of Potassium Iodide (SSKI or Lugol's Solution) is not an FDA-approved drug. (cdc.gov)
  • KI (potassium iodide) is a salt of stable (not radioactive) iodine that can help block radioactive iodine from being absorbed by the thyroid gland, thus protecting this gland from radiation injury. (cdc.gov)
  • People should take KI (potassium iodide) only on the advice of public health or emergency management officials. (cdc.gov)
  • KI (potassium iodide) does not keep radioactive iodine from entering the body and cannot reverse the health effects caused by radioactive iodine once the thyroid is damaged. (cdc.gov)
  • KI (potassium iodide) only protects the thyroid, not other parts of the body, from radioactive iodine. (cdc.gov)
  • KI (potassium iodide) cannot protect the body from radioactive elements other than radioactive iodine-if radioactive iodine is not present, taking KI is not protective and could cause harm. (cdc.gov)
  • Do not use dietary supplements that contain iodine in the place of KI (potassium iodide). (cdc.gov)
  • How does KI (potassium iodide) work? (cdc.gov)
  • KI (potassium iodide) blocks radioactive iodine from entering the thyroid. (cdc.gov)
  • KI (potassium iodide) may not give a person 100% protection against radioactive iodine. (cdc.gov)
  • Who can take KI (potassium iodide)? (cdc.gov)
  • All infants, including breast-fed infants need to be given the dosage of KI (potassium iodide) recommended for infants. (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that all children internally contaminated with (or likely to be internally contaminated with) radioactive iodine take KI (potassium iodide), unless they have known allergies to iodine (contraindications). (cdc.gov)
  • The FDA recommends that young adults (between the ages of 18 and 40 years) internally contaminated with (or likely to be internally contaminated with) radioactive iodine take the recommended dose of KI (potassium iodide). (cdc.gov)
  • Because all forms of iodine cross the placenta, pregnant women should take KI (potassium iodide) to protect the growing fetus. (cdc.gov)
  • Women who are breastfeeding should take only one dose of KI (potassium iodide) if they have been internally contaminated with (or are likely to be internally contaminated with) radioactive iodine. (cdc.gov)
  • Adults older than 40 years should not take KI (potassium iodide) unless public health or emergency management officials say that contamination with a very large dose of radioactive iodine is expected. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the potassium iodide uses are attributed to health science, including treatment of iodine deficiency disease, thyroid gland problem and thyroid cancer. (buzzle.com)
  • There have been no studies concerning animals and the administration of Potassium Iodide for radiation emergencies. (youtube.com)
  • Like humans, animals do not normally have any allergic reaction to limited doses of Potassium Iodide. (youtube.com)
  • If you wish to administer potassium iodide to your pet, follow the Iosat dosing chart amounts listed above in the "What is the dosage? (youtube.com)
  • Please consult with a vet in advance to make sure your pet can safely take Potassium Iodide. (youtube.com)
  • A deficiency in potassium causes fatigue, irritability, and hypertension (high blood pressure). (amazonaws.com)
  • Potassium supplements are taken to replace potassium losses and prevent potassium deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A deficiency of potassium can trigger leg cramps or the sudden contractions of the leg muscles. (buzzle.com)
  • A deficiency of potassium signifies an electrolyte imbalance, which can manifest in forceful muscle contractions, especially in the. (buzzle.com)
  • Potassium deficiency can lead to fatigue , weakness, and constipation . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • potassium deficiency and excess can each result in numerous signs and symptoms, including an abnormal heart rhythm and various electrocardiographic abnormalities. (dbpedia.org)
  • I was told to become close friends with potassium rich foods because I apparantly had a deficiency, but never speculated on the cause of it. (dailystrength.org)
  • Potassium deficiency occurs when potassium loss exceeds intake. (medicinenet.com)
  • This is especially important in the summer when higher heat can aggravate a potassium deficiency. (selfgrowth.com)
  • A problem for many Americans is the excessive intake of salt in comparison to the intake of potassium, thereby creating a relative potassium deficiency. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Swelling and fluid retention from milder cases of ring tightness, to more advanced cases that are involved with high blood pressure, is another common sign of potassium deficiency. (selfgrowth.com)
  • And in many cases, especially if you struggle with symptoms of potassium deficiency, supplemental potassium can be a real help. (selfgrowth.com)
  • If you do not regularly meet these goals, it will be difficult to ensure your potassium intake will be optimal. (whfoods.com)
  • Please note that while diets rich in potassium can be helpful in preventing certain kidney-related problems in a healthy people with good kidney function, persons already known to have kidney problems and who are diagnosed with certain diseases of the kidney may need to carefully regulate their intake of potassium, since their kidneys might not otherwise be able to regulate the levels of potassium in their bloodstream. (whfoods.com)
  • Dietary potassium intake and risk of stroke in US men and women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I epidemiologic follow-up study. (amazonaws.com)
  • In fact, Dutch researchers determined that a low potassium intake as the same impact on your blood pressure as high salt consumption does. (menshealth.com)
  • With one cup cubed dishing out 15 percent of your daily intake of potassium, and a ton of heart-healthy omega-3's, this ultra-nutritious food will keep your stomach full and your tastebuds happy. (menshealth.com)
  • A high potassium intake reduces the risk of overall mortality by 20 percent . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The Adequate Intake recommendation for potassium is 4,700 milligrams (mg) per day for adults. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Low potassium intake has repeatedly been linked with high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Maintaining a low sodium intake is essential to lowering blood pressure, but ensuring a good intake of potassium may be just as important. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • An increase in potassium intake along with a decrease in sodium is crucial to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, a sufficient potassium intake can help prevent this. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • One study found that participants that took in 5,266 milligrams of potassium per day maintained an average of 3.6 more pounds of lean tissue mass than those with a potassium intake 50 percent lower. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some studies also show an increase in bone density with high potassium intake. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Can increased potassium intake help with weight loss? (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Normal daily dietary intake of potassium is 40-150 mEq. (medicinenet.com)
  • Studies have shown that people who get plenty of potassium in their diets have lower blood pressure than those who get very little, even when their sodium intake remains high. (rd.com)
  • Normally about 80 to 90% of the potassium intake is excreted in the urine, the remainder in the stools and to a small extent, in the perspiration. (nih.gov)
  • Potassium seems to work best for people with high blood pressure, low potassium levels, high sodium intake, and for African Americans. (webmd.com)
  • This intake of potassium is expected to lower blood pressure by about 4-5 mmHg in people with high blood pressure. (webmd.com)
  • Higher intake of potassium from food has been linked with up to a 20% reduced risk of stroke. (webmd.com)
  • If you are receiving dialysis, you may need to supplement or limit your potassium intake under the guidance of a healthcare professional. (webmd.com)
  • Epidemiological and animal studies indicate that the risk of stroke-related deaths is inversely related to potassium intake over the entire range of blood pressures, and the relationship appears to be dose dependent. (fda.gov)
  • The combination of a low-sodium, high potassium intake is associated with the lowest blood pressure levels and the lowest frequency of stroke in individuals and populations. (fda.gov)
  • Although the effects of reducing sodium intake and increasing potassium intake would vary and may be small in some individuals, the estimated reduction in stroke-related mortality for the population is large. (fda.gov)
  • Increasing potassium intake may lower blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular disease and stroke risks. (reference.com)
  • The Institute of Medicine has not determined an upper intake level for potassium, which would be the maximum amount considered safe. (babycenter.com)
  • You can start by pumping up your potassium intake. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Researchers reviewed and analyzed 33 trials and studies on how increased potassium intake affects blood pressure, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and coronary heart disease. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • What they found: A higher potassium intake slashed stroke risk by 24 percent. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • It's also a good idea to stay away from processed foods, which contain less potassium than their unprocessed counterparts and account for around 75 percent of sodium intake in industrialized countries, says Aburto. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Since high levels of potassium can be dangerous, your doctor will likely do a blood test before prescribing potassium supplements. (amazonaws.com)
  • Certain medications -- such as ACE inhibitors, diuretics, corticosteroids, certain antibiotics, laxatives and bronchodilators вЂ" can interact with potassium supplements or contribute to potassium depletion. (amazonaws.com)
  • Brown passes along that when it comes to potassium, it is best to consume in food form and any high dose supplements, including potassium carbonate, should be used under proper supervision. (amazonaws.com)
  • Potassium is available in supplements, but dietary sources are most healthful. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Potassium supplements are available. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Potassium supplements are used to prevent and correct low levels of potassium in the blood. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • You should avoid using dietary salt substitutes such as Lo-Salt or Ruthmol while you are taking potassium supplements, particularly if you have kidney failure. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Irritation and damage to the stomach can be reduced by taking potassium supplements with meals or reducing the dose. (medicinenet.com)
  • If the mother's blood potassium level is normal, use of potassium supplements should not adversely affect the infant. (medicinenet.com)
  • However, approximately 98% of the human body's potassium is enclosed inside the cells.If you have heart problems, An impairment of health or a condition of abnormal cardiac function, potassium supplements can aggravatea heart disorder. (answers.com)
  • Taking potassium supplements has also been linked to a reduced risk of stroke. (webmd.com)
  • Avoid potassium supplements that contain tartrazine. (webmd.com)
  • If you have one of these disorders, do not take potassium supplements. (webmd.com)
  • Potassium supplements are neither necessary nor recommended for the general population. (fda.gov)
  • THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS: given special importance as therapeutic agents, but may be dangerous if improperly Rx and admin Utilized for Tx of hypokalemia USES: prevent and treat potassium deficit secondary to diuretic or corticosteroid therapy. (scribd.com)
  • People who are potassium deficient may develop hypokalemia, a condition where there is not enough potassium in the blood. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Potassium preparations are used for supplementing potassium in order to treat or prevent low potassium levels in the blood ( hypokalemia ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Treatment is dependent upon the cause of the low potassium (hypokalemia). (medicinenet.com)
  • Hypokalemia is when there is too little potassium in the blood. (healthcastle.com)
  • Low potassium in the circulating blood is referred to as Hypokalemia and presents in a multidude of ways. (answers.com)
  • Low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia). (webmd.com)
  • Hypokalemia, a condition in which potassium is too low, is commonly caused by the use of diuretics, which can cause potassium loss through urination. (reference.com)
  • Too little dietary potassium or loss of potassium through severe vomiting or diarrhea can cause hypokalemia. (babycenter.com)
  • In this book, al-Rammah describes first the purification of barud (crude saltpeter mineral) by boiling it with minimal water and using only the hot solution, then the use of potassium carbonate (in the form of wood ashes ) to remove calcium and magnesium by precipitation of their carbonates from this solution, leaving a solution of purified potassium nitrate, which could then be dried. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium is always kept under mineral oil. (ilo.org)
  • Potassium is a mineral found in varying amounts in almost all foods. (whfoods.com)
  • Once potassium is absorbed into the body, it functions as both an electrolyte and a mineral. (amazonaws.com)
  • Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. (amazonaws.com)
  • In its mineral function, potassium assists the development and function of body cells, tissues and organs. (amazonaws.com)
  • In this disorder, episodes of myotonia may also be triggered (aggravated) by eating foods that are high in the mineral potassium, such as bananas and potatoes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Potassium is a mineral concerned with the transmission of nerve signals, regulation of blood pressure and heartbeat, digestion, and muscle contraction. (buzzle.com)
  • The name chameleon mineral is applied to this salt and also to potassium manganate. (everything2.com)
  • Potassium is a mineral key to many of the body's important functions such as regulating heart rate, smooth muscle contraction, transfer of nutrients through cell membranes, and water balance (works with sodium). (spineuniverse.com)
  • No matter what it's called, potassium is a soft, silvery-white mineral that's critically important to the function of certain processes in the human body. (wtop.com)
  • Potassium is a mineral naturally found in the earth. (wtop.com)
  • Potassium is a major mineral ( electrolyte ) that is important for the function of every cell in the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • While it may seem like just another compound among thousands, potassium is a mineral with innumerable advantages to keep your body functioning. (mercola.com)
  • Found in almost every natural food, especially green leafy ones, potassium is considered a major mineral that is required in somewhat large amounts. (mercola.com)
  • The third most abundant mineral in the body after calcium and phosphorus, potassium is an electrolyte-a substance that takes on a positive or negative charge when dissolved in the watery medium of the bloodstream. (rd.com)
  • Potassium is an essential mineral needed by the body. (wegmans.com)
  • Potassium is a mineral that plays many important roles in the body. (webmd.com)
  • Potassium is a mineral and electrolyte that is vital for cells, organs and tissues to properly function in the human body. (reference.com)
  • Potassium gluconate is a mineral supplement that is used to prevent or treat low levels of potassium in the blood. (reference.com)
  • Potassium, a major electrolyte and an essential mineral, can be found in all cells of the human body. (reference.com)
  • It is made by the reaction of sulfur dioxide and potassium carbonate . (wikipedia.org)
  • The sulfur dioxide is passed through a solution of the potassium carbonate until no more carbon dioxide is evolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important are carbonate of soda, potash, and cyanide of potassium . (dictionary.com)
  • Potassium bicarbonate (also known as potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium acid carbonate) is a crystalline salt found in baking powder and antacids. (ehow.com)
  • In addition to potassium carbonate, the following chemicals are effective at killing fungus: sulfur, neem oil and triforine. (ehow.com)
  • a white, crystalline, slightly alkaline, salty-tasting, water-soluble powder, KHCO 3 , produced by the passage of carbon dioxide through an aqueous potassium carbonate solution: used in cookery as a leavening agent and in medicine as an antacid. (dictionary.com)
  • Also called potassium acid carbonate. (dictionary.com)
  • Potassium carbonate, which was gathered from wood ash, was concentrated through boiling and then used for industrial purposes, such as soap making. (reference.com)
  • The wood ash origin of the potassium carbonate lent the name potash to the compound (and eventually to the element). (reference.com)
  • Potassium nitrate is used in gunpowder , the carbonate is valuable for the manufacture of glass , and the superoxide is a source of oxygen in portable respiratory systems. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The principal source of potassium, potash (impure form of potassium carbonate), is mined in California, New Mexico, Utah, Germany , and in other places around the world. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter or saltpetre . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most industrial applications of potassium exploit the high solubility in water of potassium compounds, such as potassium soaps. (dbpedia.org)
  • In a flame test, potassium and its compounds emit a lilac color with a peak emission wavelength of 766.5 nanometers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is thought to be because the naturally occurring potassium salts in plant foods help to neutralize acidity in the blood stream. (whfoods.com)
  • You will need to have regular blood tests to check your potassium level and levels of other salts while you are taking this medicine. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals, all of which have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, that is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge - a cation, that combines with anions to form salts. (dbpedia.org)
  • Potassium in nature occurs only in ionic salts. (dbpedia.org)
  • The sodium and potassium salts are apparently benign. (hazard.com)
  • Before potassium was isolated as an atomic element, it was known as a component of potassium salts. (reference.com)
  • The English name for the element potassium comes from the word "potash", which refers to an early method of extracting various potassium salts: placing in a pot the ash of burnt wood or tree leaves, adding water, heating, and evaporating the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Luckily, most of us are able to obtain enough potassium from foods to meet our most basic needs. (whfoods.com)
  • Plants without enough potassium grow slowly and can have yellow leaves. (ehow.com)
  • However, fewer than two percent of people in the U.S. consume enough potassium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What happens if I don't get enough potassium? (wtop.com)
  • However, certain diseases (e.g., kidney disease and gastrointestinal disease with vomiting and diarrhea) and drugs, especially diuretics ('water pills'), remove potassium from the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Laxatives, and diuretics disrupt potassium levels. (spineuniverse.com)
  • However, some medicines cause the body to lose excessive amounts of potassium (for example loop or thiazide diuretics, long-term corticosteroids, theophylline or carbenoxolone). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Potassium depletion may be caused by excessive vomiting or diarrhea , diabetic ketoacidosis , diuretics (for example, furosemide [ Lasix ]), starvation, and rare disorders of the adrenal glands. (medicinenet.com)
  • Patients taking diuretics are often deficient in potassium, and are frequently prescribed potassium pills with the diuretic medication. (newsmax.com)
  • Ironically, the diuretics often given by doctors to lower blood pressure by removing excess water and salt also have the undesired side effect of stripping away potassium - which actually increases cardiovascular distress. (selfgrowth.com)
  • See ICSC 0357 (potassium hydroxide). (ilo.org)
  • Certain properties of potassium hydroxide make it an extremely versatile cleaning agent. (buzzle.com)
  • Although potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide have almost similar properties, one cannot replace the other in certain applications. (buzzle.com)
  • Davy obtained potassium by subjecting a piece of moistened potassium hydroxide to the action of a powerful galvanic battery (200 Wollaston's pairs 6 in. (chestofbooks.com)
  • It reacts violently with water to produce the alkali potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Potassium was discovered in 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy , who derived it from caustic potash (potassium hydroxide, KOH). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Potassium can be isolated through the electrolysis of its hydroxide, by a process that has changed little since the time of Davy. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • With water potassium forms potassium hydroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a banana is a quick source of potassium, very low potassium might require medical treatment. (amazonaws.com)
  • Wood ash makes an excellent homemade source of potassium for the garden. (ehow.com)
  • The summertime staple is also a good source of potassium , vitamin A and vitamin C. 2. (dictionary.com)
  • The notification, as amended, states that foods qualifying for the proposed claim must be a "good source of potassium" (contain 10 percent or more of the Daily Value for potassium) and be "low in sodium. (fda.gov)
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables are a great source of potassium. (babycenter.com)
  • The oceans are another source of potassium, but the quantity present in a given volume of seawater is relatively low, compared to the concentration of sodium . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • EWG's Food Scores , an online tool to help consumers eat healthier, lists potassium bromate as an ingredient in at least 86 baked goods and other food products * found on supermarket shelves, including well-known brands and products such as Hormel Foods breakfast sandwiches, Weis Kaiser rolls and French toast, and Goya turnover pastry dough. (ewg.org)
  • Check the list and use EWG's Food Scores database and companion app to find foods without potassium bromate. (ewg.org)
  • In fact, we believe one of the central benefits of the World's Healthiest Foods approach is the way it rebalances sodium and potassium in a manner that is more consistent with good heart and kidney health. (whfoods.com)
  • Because of these important benefits, therapeutic diets aimed at improving blood pressure control often place primary focus on increasing potassium from foods. (whfoods.com)
  • A good example of how foods rich in potassium can decrease elevated blood pressure is seen in the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet trials, where participants with high blood pressure who consumed an average of 8 to 10 total servings of fresh fruits and vegetables per day experienced significant drops in their blood pressure level. (whfoods.com)
  • Below is a list of high potassium foods ranked by common serving sizes, for more please see the lists of high potassium foods by nutrient density, potassium rich foods, fruits high in potassium, and vegetables high in potassium. (amazonaws.com)
  • Your doctor may advise you to use a potassium-containing salt substitute and to eat potassium-rich foods (e.g., bananas, prunes, raisins, and milk). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Beet greens, white beans, soy beans, and lima beans are the foods highest in potassium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Potassium-rich foods maintain an alkaline environment in the body, unlike in acidosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Potassium is found in many whole, unprocessed foods. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A diet high in processed foods is probably low in potassium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Potassium is part of many of the foods we eat such a bananas, leafy greens and beans that's "absorbed through the small intestine. (wtop.com)
  • Your doctor or registered dietitian nutritionist will let you know if you need to avoid foods high in potassium, and your RDN can explain how to stay within your limit. (eatright.org)
  • Potassium is found in many fruits and vegetables, beans, nuts and dairy foods. (eatright.org)
  • These foods contain more than 200 milligrams potassium per half-cup serving. (eatright.org)
  • People with high blood pressure should aim to eat foods that provide 3500-5000 mg of potassium daily. (webmd.com)
  • On July 3, 2000, Tropicana Products, Inc. (Tropicana) submitted to the agency a notification containing a proposed claim about the relationship of potassium-containing foods to blood pressure and stroke. (fda.gov)
  • Therefore, qualifying foods must have at least 350 mg of potassium per reference amount customarily consumed (RACC), and 140 mg or less of sodium per RACC. (fda.gov)
  • Potassium is found in most foods but is plentiful in bananas, avocados and citrus juices. (reference.com)
  • If I can't eat foods that have potassium, what's left? (druginfonet.com)
  • Potassium tablets and capsules should be swallowed whole -- do not crush, chew or suck on the pills. (amazonaws.com)
  • Slow-K tablets are not suitable for correcting potassium levels in people with a total or partial blockage in the gut. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Slow-K tablets are not recommended for correcting potassium levels in children. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The dermatologist dissolves 400 mg tablets in four litres of water for a 0.01% solution of potassium permanganate, which he uses on the surface of the skin. (ehow.co.uk)
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use LOSARTAN POTASSIUM TABLETS safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
  • See full prescribing information for LOSARTAN POTASSIUM TABLETS. (nih.gov)
  • Potassium permanganate is safe to use as a reagent, antiseptic, and a disinfectant as directed in proper concentration. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate is reactive, explosive with some solvents and flammable with others. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Used correctly potassium permanganate is safe to use on green leafy vegetables and on live fish. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate is a reagent used to promptly identify medical conditions facilitating immediate treatment to critically ill patients. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate is an antiseptic used to treat dermatological conditions and a disinfectant used to remove metals and bacteria from drinking water removing metals and bacteria. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate kills algae, removes parasites from fish, and heals wounds on fish. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate may be used to disinfect vegetables, but other disinfectants are more effective. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate is an astringent antiseptic used to treat dermatological conditions. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate may be used to disinfect raw green vegetables and is especially effective against Fasciola gigantica. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate as an abortificient to abort foetuses can produce lesions or be fatal. (ehow.co.uk)
  • From 1935 to 1954, 37 vaginal burns and three fatalities resulted from using potassium permanganate in a douche. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The permanganate ion is a strong oxidant, and a biocide at 4 mg of potassium permanganate per litre of water in fisheries. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate is nontoxic to fish when used correctly. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate is used in drinking water to remove iron and magnesium. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The reactive quality of potassium permanganate makes it a rapid indicator for the E. coli bacteria, the polio virus, and magnesium. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Culturing E. coli bacteria requires 24 to 48 hours, but the almost immediate reaction to potassium permanganate allows the doctor to diagnose and treat an E. coli infection in less than an hour. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate can identify the polio virus or at a higher temperature, deactivate the polio virus through oxidation. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate can be used to reduce blood, tissue, and urine samples to DNA and chromosomes. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate can be used as an indicator in the blood, urine, and tissue samples to identify barbiturates and other toxins. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The same reactive quality of potassium permanganate that allows rapid identification of pathogens makes it explosive or flammable in contact with other substances. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate reacts violently with hydrogen peroxide. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate is fatal if swallowed. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate can cause respiratory problems, sore throat, and shortness of breath when inhaled. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate can cause blurred vision and burn the eyes, leaving them swollen and red. (ehow.co.uk)
  • http://www.ehow.co.uk/about_5619202_potassium-permanganate-treatment.html. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Potassium permanganate treatment" last modified May 13, 2017. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Take potassium exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not take potassium if you are taking amiloride (Midamor), spironolactone (Aldactone), or triamterene (Dyrenium). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Does anyone out there take potassium citrate to help keep their urine more alkaline? (dailystrength.org)
  • They had me take potassium pills for 2 years after that. (healingwell.com)
  • Some medical conditions also cause potassium loss (for example chronic diarrhoea, kidney disease, liver cirrhosis or heart failure). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Damage to tissues can cause potassium levels to shift and change. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • [6] In processed meats , potassium nitrate reacts with hemoglobin and generates a pink color. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this reaction, the alcohol (ethanol) reacts with the reddish-orange potassium dichromate to produce the greenish-colored chromium sulfate, potassium sulfate, and acetic acid . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Potassium metal reacts rapidly with atmospheric oxygen to form flaky white potassium peroxide in only seconds of exposure. (dbpedia.org)
  • Elemental potassium reacts vigorously with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen emitted in the reaction, and burning with a lilac-colored flame. (dbpedia.org)
  • Potassium reacts with oxygen, water, and carbon dioxide components in air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The natural potassium content in ground water is generally about 1- 2 mg/l K. Higher values may indicate fecal contaminations, but can also originate from potassium fertilizers. (mn-net.com)
  • Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers , tree stump removal, rocket propellants and fireworks . (wikipedia.org)
  • Heavy crop production rapidly depletes the soil of potassium, and this can be remedied with agricultural fertilizers containing potassium, accounting for 95% of global potassium chemical production. (dbpedia.org)
  • Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula K N O 3 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The compound provides the potassium plants need to stay healthy and grow normally. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Potassium compound s are also used in making explosive s, in making soap s and detergent s, and in tanning leather and dyeing textile s. (everything2.com)
  • Potash is a potassium-heavy compound that's been used in bleaching textiles for eons. (wtop.com)
  • The flattened form of the receiver causes a rapid cooling of the potassium and its withdrawal from the action of the carbonic oxide which is evolved during the whole process, and has a tendency to form a dangerously explosive compound. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The heat is then increased to a reddish white, and when vapors of potassium appear and burn with a bright flame the receiver is adjusted to the tube b, which must not be exposed more than a quarter of an inch outside of the furnace, to avoid its being partially cooled, and the consequent formation of the explosive compound or the obstruction of the tube by solid potassium. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Potassium ferrooxalate is believed to be formed when the related compound potassium ferrioxalate K 3[Fe(C 2O 4) 3] is decomposed by light in solution (a common method of actinometry) or heated above 296 °C. While the ferrooxalate anion had been previously identified in solution, the solid salt was described only in 1992, by J. Ladriere. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, diets rich in potassium have been associated with a reduction in kidney stone risk. (whfoods.com)
  • Other Beans High in Potassium (%DV per cup): Adzuki (35%), Soy (28%), Lima (28%), Kidney (20%), Great Northern (20%), Pinto (18%) and others at an average of 15% DV per cup cooked. (amazonaws.com)
  • If you are older and taking medication (eg, ibuprofen, beta-blocker, heparin) on a regular basis, and/or if kidney problems exist, consult a medical professional prior to taking a potassium supplement. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Mechanisms of impaired potassium handling with dual renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade in chronic kidney disease. (medscape.com)
  • In fact the most common cause for an elevated potassium level in someone without kidney problems is that the blood was 'hemolyzed' during collection. (thebody.com)
  • But because the kidneys are involved with regulating the body's levels of potassium, impaired kidney function - the kind triggered by kidney disease - can negatively impact potassium levels. (wtop.com)
  • Lower kidney capacity means that the kidneys may not be able to filter potassium out of the body adequately. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • High potassium levels affect your heart rhythm, so your diet for managing kidney disease may include a potassium limit. (eatright.org)
  • Too much potassium can occur in patients with kidney failure and result in arrhythmias that can lead to death. (newsmax.com)
  • Potassium may also reduce the risk of recurrent kidney stones and possibly bone loss as we age. (healthcastle.com)
  • The kidney does not conserve potassium well so that during fasting, or in patients on a potassium-free diet, potassium loss from the body continues resulting in potassium depletion. (nih.gov)
  • Use potassium only with the advice and ongoing care of a healthcare professional if you have kidney problems. (webmd.com)
  • Potassium also helps with muscle function and heart rhythm and, in later years, may reduce the risk of kidney stones and osteoporosis. (babycenter.com)
  • Recurrent infections can change the function of the kidney causing potassium wasting, but that is conjecture until you really establish that you have an ongoing problem. (druginfonet.com)
  • Potassium is a chemical element with the symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. (dbpedia.org)
  • The Latin name kalium (from which potassium gets its symbol, K) was taken from the word " alkali ," which came from Arabic al qalīy, meaning "the calcined ashes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In 1814, the Swedish chemist Berzelius advocated the name kalium for potassium, with the chemical symbol "K". The English and French speaking countries adopted Davy and Gay-Lussac/Thénard's name Potassium, while the Germanic countries adopted Gilbert/Klaproth's name Kalium. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, nobody was familiar with the element potassium till 1807, when it was discovered. (buzzle.com)
  • Potassium , one of the alkali metals, discovered by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Potassium was first isolated by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1807. (reference.com)
  • When Humphry Davy first isolated the pure element using electrolysis in 1807, he named it potassium, which he derived from the word potash. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor will consider this source in determining your dose of potassium supplement. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If pregnant or nursing, consult a medical professional prior to taking a potassium supplement. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Do not include a potassium supplement if taking a multivitamin-unless directed by a medical professional. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Should I take a potassium supplement? (wtop.com)
  • Slow-K is a type of medicine called a potassium supplement. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • I remember they had to give me the potassium supplement before they started my antibiotic because they said my potassium was "a little low. (druginfonet.com)
  • Potassium bisulfite (or potassium hydrogen sulfite ) is a chemical mixture with the approximate chemical formula KHSO 3 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxygen of the potash combined with the iron filings, setting free the hydrogen and potassium, the latter being condensed in a well cooled copper receiver. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The reaction of potassium with water can be violently exothermic, especially since the coproduced hydrogen gas can ignite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium and potassium exist in a partnership, and each important use of potassium requires sodium to maintain balance. (whfoods.com)
  • Sodium and potassium are two important elements that play a vital role in the metabolic processes in the human body. (buzzle.com)
  • The activation of sodium, potassium-ATPase requires the presence of sodium and potassium. (healthcastle.com)
  • In other words, over half of our WHFoods provide you with significant amounts of potassium! (whfoods.com)
  • He obtained it by dissolving the appropriate amounts of potassium oxalate dihydrate K 2C 2O 4·2H 2O and iron(II) oxalate dihydrate FeC 2O 4·2H 2O in boiling water, partially evaporating the red solution, and cooling it to room temperature, when gold-yellow crystals of K2Fe(ox)2·2H 2O precipitated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium nitrate, because of its early and global use and production, has many names. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium nitrate has an orthorhombic crystal structure at room temperature, which transforms to a trigonal system at 129 °C (264 °F). (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium nitrate is moderately soluble in water, but its solubility increases with temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest known complete purification process for potassium nitrate was outlined in 1270 by the chemist and engineer Hasan al-Rammah of Syria in his book al-Furusiyya wa al-Manasib al-Harbiyya ( The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices ). (wikipedia.org)
  • When air is blown into a Breathalyzer ® , it bubbles through a mixture of potassium dichromate, sulfuric acid , silver nitrate , and water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Long distance athletes - People who exercise over long distances lose electrolytes via sweat and need to replenish their sodium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus levels. (amazonaws.com)
  • Potassium creates acid as it oxidises iron and magnesium. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Normal potassium levels, which depend on how much sodium and magnesium are in the blood, are 3.6 to 5.2 millimoles per liter. (reference.com)
  • Potassium, like magnesium and calcium, are minerals that help buffer your body against stress and help maintain proper pH in your body. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Principal component analysis suggested that the potassium , magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus contents are important for displaying both the pasting and gelatinization properties of the lotus starches. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Under the optimal cationic IC conditions, potassium , magnesium, and calcium were detected within 17 minutes using a Shodex IC YS-50 as a separation column and 4.0 mM methanesulfonic acid as an eluent. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 7 Later research confirmed and expanded these findings, concluding that ingesting potassium bromate resulted in significant increases in cancer of the animals' kidneys, thyroid and other organs. (ewg.org)
  • The body responds to the influx of dietary potassium, which raises serum potassium levels, with a shift of potassium from outside to inside cells and an increase in potassium excretion by the kidneys. (dbpedia.org)
  • If your kidneys are not working well, potassium levels in your blood can rise. (eatright.org)
  • How are serum potassium levels determined? (medscape.com)
  • thus, serum potassium levels do not always accurately reflect total body potassium stores. (medscape.com)
  • Serum potassium levels are determined by the shift of potassium between intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments, as well as by total-body potassium homeostasis. (medscape.com)
  • This reference range is drawn from the serum, meaning that it is a measure of extracellular potassium. (newsmax.com)
  • When using these products, these patients should be on continuous cardiac monitoring and frequent testing for serum potassium concentration and acid-base balance. (nih.gov)
  • A potassium test is often performed as part of a basic metabolic panel, which is a group of chemical tests run on your blood serum. (healthline.com)
  • Potassium, serum. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A potassium salt which is the monopotassium salt of thiocyanic acid. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Many salt substitutes contain potassium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Potash is a mined or manufactured salt which contains soluble potassium. (buzzle.com)
  • Product Introduction Potassium perchlorate is the inorganic salt with the chemical formula KClO4. (alibaba.com)
  • The best material from which to obtain it is some potassium salt of a vegetable acid, the crude tartar of commerce (hydric-potassic tartrate ) being usually employed. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Potassium is highly concentrated in your cells, whereas sodium (salt) is concentrated between your cells. (selfgrowth.com)
  • New science is showing that a lack of potassium is a primary reason why salt can cause high blood pressure and cardiovascular damage. (selfgrowth.com)
  • New science shows that potassium can help offset many of the adverse changes of salt by lowering blood pressure and stabilizing nerve transmission which can help to reduce cardiac arrhythmia. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (alibaba.com)
  • Potassium ferrooxalate, also known as potassium bisoxalatoferrate(II), is a salt with the formula K 2[Fe(C 2O 4) 2], sometimes abbreviated K 2FeOx 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dihydrate loses two water molecules at 200 °C. The anhydrous salt is stable in the absence of oxygen up to about 470 °C, when it decomposes into potassium oxalate and ferrous oxide FeO (which disproportionates partly into magnetite Fe 3O 4, metallic iron, and cementite Fe 3C). (wikipedia.org)
  • A potassium bicarbonate solution can be used to treat powdery mildew on lilacs and other plants. (ehow.com)
  • According to Dr. Horst from Cornell University, potassium bicarbonate is effective at eliminating powdery mildew. (ehow.com)
  • Use either baking soda or potassium bicarbonate. (ehow.com)
  • One key factor in these blood pressure benefits was the healthy balance of potassium to other minerals in these fresh fruits and vegetables. (whfoods.com)
  • To meet the potassium challenge, you'll need to eat 10-13 one-half cup servings of vegetables, beans, fruit, nuts, and seeds along with your regular more concentrated protein sources. (amazonaws.com)
  • Thus we often find potassium rich vegetables in our diet like potatoes. (buzzle.com)
  • That's why the World Health Organization now suggests that adults and children consume at least 3,510 mg of potassium each day (that's about the amount you'd find in five to six servings of fruits and vegetables). (womenshealthmag.com)
  • 13 The industry claims potassium bromate is theoretically fully converted into potassium bromide, a similar yet non-carcinogenic chemical, during baking. (ewg.org)
  • He did so, and gave me daily a teaspoonful of bromide of potassium . (dictionary.com)
  • Potassium bromide is presently used as a veterinary drug, as an antiepileptic medication for dogs and cats. (alibaba.com)
  • Tobacco and caffeine reduce the body's ability to absorb potassium. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Potassium is stored in your body's cells and together with sodium and chlorine is essential for the pH balance of the whole body. (news24.com)
  • Potassium works with sodium to control the body's water balance, which helps maintain healthy blood pressure. (babycenter.com)
  • This is good news since normal levels of potassium are absolutely critical to life-if potassium levels get too high or too low, the heart and nervous system completely shut down. (whfoods.com)
  • Diets high in potassium are associated with improved blood pressure control. (whfoods.com)
  • As discussed above, diets high in potassium are well known to help with this. (whfoods.com)
  • Other Greens High in Potassium (%DV per cup cooked): Swiss Chard (27% DV), Kale (8% DV), and Collards (6% DV). (amazonaws.com)
  • Other Squash High in Potassium (%DV per cup baked): Hubbard (21%), Butternut (17% DV), Zucchini (14% DV), Average Winter Squash (10% DV). (amazonaws.com)
  • Other Yogurt High in Potassium (%DV per cup): Whole-Fat (11% DV), Chocolate Yogurt (24% DV). (amazonaws.com)
  • Other Fish High in Potassium (%DV per 3oz fillet (85g)): Pompano (15% DV), Lingcod (14% DV), Halibut (13% DV), Yellowfin Tuna (13% DV), Anchovies (12% DV), Mackerel (10% DV), Herring (10% DV) and most other fish at an average of 10% DV. (amazonaws.com)
  • Other mushrooms high in potassium (%DV per cup sliced): Portabella (9% DV), Brown or Crimini (9% DV), Enoki (7% DV), Shiitake (5% DV), Maitake (4% DV). (amazonaws.com)
  • Blood potassium levels that are too low or too high can result in serious -- and potentially life-threatening -- complications. (amazonaws.com)
  • This inflowing-potassium phenomenon is known to occur in another type of sensory neuron, the sound-sensitive cochlear hair cell, whose external environment contains relatively high levels of potassium. (redorbit.com)
  • This made us wonder whether the VNO also has a high level of potassium in the fluid surrounding its dendrites," says Kim. (redorbit.com)
  • Having ample potassium in your system helps to prevent hypertension and other high blood pressure issues. (bellaonline.com)
  • So what food items are high in potassium, to help you reach these goals? (bellaonline.com)
  • Bukowinski [1] summarized the relevant literature and argued that low pressure data is probably not useful for making predictions about the high pressure behavior of potassium. (springer.com)
  • It was also shown that, due to electronic collapses, it is impossible to predict the correct high pressure properties of potassium through extrapolations of low pressure data. (springer.com)
  • If soil tests reveal low potassium levels, it might be a good idea to make homemade fertilizer high in potassium to use when planting a garden. (ehow.com)
  • To make a more balanced high-potassium fertilizer add some ingredients that contain nitrogen and phosphorous in the amounts that the garden needs. (ehow.com)
  • Applying wood ash in combination with compost serves as a complete fertilizer high in potassium. (ehow.com)
  • A diet high in potassium can help preserve muscle mass in older people, as well as during conditions that tend to lead to muscle wasting, such as diabetic ketosis . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If you were paying attention back in high school chemistry class, you might recall that potassium is the 19th element on the periodic table, represented by the letter K. Why not a P? (wtop.com)
  • These products contain potassium instead of sodium and could cause the level of potassium in your blood to rise too high. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • People with high levels of potassium in their blood (hyperkalaemia). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • This medicine is not known to be harmful if used to correct low blood potassium levels during pregnancy, provided the mother's potassium level does not rise too high. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • But, I had a blood test about a week after an IV treatment, and my potassium was high, so check with your dr also. (dailystrength.org)
  • However, both acute and chronically high potassium levels can be dangerous, potentially causing heart attacks or paralysis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This occurs when a person receives a falsely high potassium reading. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • High Purity Potassium Perchlorate kclo4 for Sale Fireworks Raw Materials Potassium Perchlorate 25kg Product name : potassium perchlorate kclo4 CAS No. Code : 2829900090 EINECS NO :231-912-9 UN NO :1489 Chemical property : Potassium perchlorate kclo4 fireworks raw material is a strong oxidant Hazard Class : 5.1, 4.1 Application : Potassium perchlorate can be used for fireworks raw material ,explosive, signal, rocket pripelling agent, etc. (alibaba.com)
  • Potassium is most commonly used for treating and preventing low potassium levels, treating high blood pressure, and preventing stroke. (webmd.com)
  • Blood levels of potassium may be high or low in people undergoing dialysis. (webmd.com)
  • Studies show that a high-potassium diet is good for bone health and may prevent osteoporosis. (reference.com)
  • Low potassium levels are linked to high blood pressure. (reference.com)
  • In fact, a diet that's low in potassium and high in sodium appears to be a factor in high blood pressure. (babycenter.com)
  • Some of the veggies I love are high in potassium. (druginfonet.com)
  • Robert Heaney explains that eating one potassium-filled medium baked potato can conserve about 60 mg of calcium within the body. (amazonaws.com)
  • Feel good about using cottage cheese as a dip because it delivers calcium, quality protein and potassium . (dictionary.com)
  • Potassium also may help against osteoporosis by preventing the body from stealing calcium from bones. (rd.com)
  • As an alkali metal, potassium is part of group 1 of the periodic table , between sodium and rubidium , and it lies in period 4, just before calcium . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • While the NIH recommends 4,700 milligrams (mg) of potassium per day, the average guy only consumes about half of that, according to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). (menshealth.com)
  • The human body requires at least 100 milligrams of potassium daily to support key processes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Adults should be consuming 4,700 milligrams (mg) of potassium a day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Potassium was named after the word "potash," which means pot ashes. (reference.com)
  • The name potassium was made from the English word "potash," which originally meant an alkali extracted in water in a pot of ash of burnt wood or tree leaves. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • What Is Aluminum Potassium Sulfate Used for? (ehow.com)
  • Stay inspired by remembering that consuming the 4,700 mg of potassium daily not only alkalizes and protects bone, but it also goes a long ways towards normalizing blood pressure and preventing cardiovascular diseases. (amazonaws.com)
  • The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) also reported that less than two percent of people in the U.S. meet the daily 4,700-mg potassium requirement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Potassium is a major intracellular cation - a positively charged ion. (newsmax.com)
  • Potassium is the major cation of body cells (160 mEq/liter of intracellular water) and is concerned with the maintenance of body fluid composition and electrolyte balance. (nih.gov)
  • Potassium is the most important positive ion (cation) within your cells. (selfgrowth.com)
  • if you suspect your potassium levels are low, and are experiencing any of the following symptoms, see your doctor, health care worker, or nutritionist immediately.Plasma potassium concentration determines neuromuscular irritability. (answers.com)
  • associated with adrenal tumours or starvation or taking diureticsPlasma potassium concentration determines neuromuscular irritability. (answers.com)
  • The normal concentration of potassium within cells is especially important to your nervous system and is needed for normal nerve transmission. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Potaba capsules and sachets contain the active ingredient potassium para-aminobenzoate, which belongs to the B group of vitamins. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Sweet potatoes are actually better for regulation blood sugar, an average baked sweet potato with skin (114g) provides 542mg (15% DV) of potassium. (amazonaws.com)
  • The effects of potassium depletion and supplementation on blood pressure: a clinical review. (amazonaws.com)
  • The WNK kinase network regulating sodium, potassium, and blood pressure. (medscape.com)
  • As sodium consumption rises, increased potassium is needed to cancel out the effect of sodium on blood pressure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Today i received a call from my health care worker asking me to return on monday to have more blood taken as one of the tests revealed elevated potassium levels (5.9). (thebody.com)
  • This means that the blood was drawn out into the vacuum collection tube so rapidly that many red blood cells burst and this causes the potassium level to go up. (thebody.com)
  • The U.S. National Library of Medicine reports that "a diet rich in potassium helps to offset some of sodium's harmful effects on blood pressure. (wtop.com)
  • Preventing and correcting a low level of potassium in the blood (hypokalaemia). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • yes blood p is the sign of low potassium and low heart rate. (medhelp.org)
  • The body uses potassium and other electrolytes to conduct nerve impulses, initiate muscle contractions, and regulate heartbeat and blood pressure. (rd.com)
  • Through its effects on blood pressure, potassium may also decrease the risk of heart disease and stroke. (rd.com)
  • To better assess potassium levels, I suggest getting a measure of red blood cell potassium. (newsmax.com)
  • The range for red blood cell potassium is 90 to 111 mmol/L with an optimal level greater than 100 mmol/L. (newsmax.com)
  • Taking potassium by mouth or intravenously (by IV) prevents and treats low levels of potassium in the blood. (webmd.com)
  • Most research shows that taking potassium can lower blood pressure. (webmd.com)
  • Too much potassium is UNSAFE and can cause feelings of burning or tingling, generalized weakness, paralysis, mental confusion, low blood pressure, irregular heart rhythm, or death. (webmd.com)
  • Without proper blood levels of potassium. (reference.com)
  • A potassium test is performed as a simple blood test and carries few risks or side effects. (healthline.com)
  • The potassium test is performed like other routine blood tests. (healthline.com)
  • Risks and side effects of a potassium test are the same as for any routine blood test. (healthline.com)
  • A blood potassium level of 7.0 millimoles per liter or higher can be life threatening. (healthline.com)
  • Having higher-than-normal levels of potassium in your blood can be the result of a variety of conditions and circumstances. (healthline.com)
  • Potassium can lower your blood pressure and your stroke risk. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Consuming more potassium helps lower your blood pressure if you have hypertension, and it's also associated with a lower risk of stroke , according to a new study published in the British Medical Journal . (womenshealthmag.com)
  • Potassium helps relax the walls of the blood vessels that lead to your heart. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • If you potassium is ok(blood level) wouldn't expect a problem. (druginfonet.com)
  • I have never had a blood sugar problem in the past nor a potassium problem. (druginfonet.com)
  • Blood potassium has to stay in a narrow range, so very small potassium level changes can have significant effects. (propublica.org)
  • Potassium (chemical symbol K , atomic number 19) is a member of a group of chemical elements known as alkali metals . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Like other alkali metals, potassium has a single electron in its outermost shell, and it can readily lose this electron to become a positive ion. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Potassium dichromate is nasty stuff - a dose of 4 to 10 g will kill an adult if ingested. (everything2.com)
  • I couldn't resist this wonderfully explosive video on YouTube showing the unfortunate end of a red gummy bear when mixed with potassium perchlorate. (scienceblogs.com)
  • 9 Upon entering the body, potassium bromate can be transformed into molecules called oxides and radicals. (ewg.org)
  • Potassium is an essential nutrient used to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. (amazonaws.com)
  • What does Potassium do for the Body? (buzzle.com)
  • Potassium is one of those minerals which are essential for the proper functioning of the body. (buzzle.com)
  • Science is learning more every year about how critical potassium is for your body. (bellaonline.com)
  • The primary functions of potassium in the body include regulating fluid balance and controlling the electrical activity of the heart and other muscles. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Potassium is also important for maintaining the balance of acids and bases in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Potassium helps your body convert glucose (sugar) into glycogen, which is then stored in the liver so that you have fuel to walk, run or do whatever else you need to do. (wtop.com)
  • Potassium is literally embedded in that entire process in the body. (wtop.com)
  • As a basic element, meaning it's alkaline in nature, potassium can help maintain the appropriate pH level in the body. (wtop.com)
  • In essence, potassium helps the body maintain a delicate balance that makes life possible. (wtop.com)
  • Potassium is an essential element required by the body for normal functioning. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Traces of 40K are found in all potassium, and it is the most common radioisotope in the human body. (dbpedia.org)
  • Researchers in Israel reported that participants in a dieting study who showed greater Body Mass Index (BMI) decreases had higher potassium intakes than those with modest BMI decreases. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Just like sodium, potassium must stay balanced in your body. (eatright.org)
  • The average human body contains 245 grams of potassium, about 95 percent of which is found inside cells. (newsmax.com)
  • Potassium plays a role in many body functions including transmission of nerve signals, muscle contractions, fluid balance, and various chemical reactions. (webmd.com)
  • Potassium could build up to dangerous levels in your body. (webmd.com)
  • Where is potassium found in the human body? (reference.com)
  • Your body needs potassium to function normally. (healthline.com)
  • It's important for the body to maintain a good potassium balance. (babycenter.com)
  • Potassium is essential for heart, nerve, and muscle function, and other important processes in your body. (propublica.org)
  • Although potassium can also be found in meats, milk and grains, the potassium is much more easily absorbed from fruits, veggies and legumes. (amazonaws.com)
  • A person who does not have nausea & can swallow should be able to get potassium easily enough from fruit juice &/or bananas. (healingwell.com)
  • Acesulfame Potassium: Is It Safe? (healthline.com)
  • Is Acesulfame Potassium Bad for Me? (healthline.com)
  • It's up to 200 times sweeter than table sugar, but acesulfame potassium has a sour reputation. (healthline.com)
  • It will be listed as acesulfame potassium, acesulfame K, or Ace-K, according to the FDA . (healthline.com)