An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.
A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
A family of neuronal calcium-sensor proteins that interact with and regulate potassium channels, type A.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A synthetic pregnadiene derivative with anti-aldosterone activity.
An actinomycete used for production of commercial ANTIBIOTICS and as a host for gene cloning.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (VASODILATOR AGENTS) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in BLOOD PRESSURE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
A pteridinetriamine compound that inhibits SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS.
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A rare neuromuscular disorder with onset usually in late childhood or early adulthood, characterized by intermittent or continuous widespread involuntary muscle contractions; FASCICULATION; hyporeflexia; MUSCLE CRAMP; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; HYPERHIDROSIS; TACHYCARDIA; and MYOKYMIA. Involvement of pharyngeal or laryngeal muscles may interfere with speech and breathing. The continuous motor activity persists during sleep and general anesthesia (distinguishing this condition from STIFF-PERSON SYNDROME). Familial and acquired (primarily autoimmune) forms have been reported. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1998 May 13;841:482-496; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A number of different cardioactive glycosides obtained from Strophanthus species. OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
The outermost cytoplasmic layer of the SCHWANN CELLS covering NERVE FIBERS.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.

Myocardial uptake of digoxin in chronically digitalized dogs. (1/15898)

1 The time course of myocardial uptake of digoxin, increase in contractility and changes in myocardial potassium concentration was studied for 90 min following an intravenous digoxin dose to long-term digitalized dogs. 2 Nineteen dogs were investigated by the use of a biopsy technique which allowed sampling before and after administration of digoxin. 3 Ten minutes after administration of digoxin the myocardial concentration increased from 60 to 306 nmol/kg tissue, the myocardial concentration of digoxin was significantly lower (250 nmol/kg tissue) after 30 min and then increased again. 4 The transmural myocardial distribution of digoxin was uniform before and 90 min after administration of digoxin in long-term digitalized dogs but at 10 min after administration, both the subepicardial and the subendocardial concentration of digoxin were significantly lower than that of the mesocardial layer. 5 During the first 10 min the dp/dtmax increased to 135% of the control level. The increase remained unchanged during the rest of the study. 6 Myocardial potassium decreased throughout the study. 7 The M-configuration of the myocardial uptake curve and the non-uniformity of myocardial distribution of digoxin observed at 10 min after administrating digoxin to long-term digitalized dogs indicate that the distribution of myocardial blood flow may be changed during chronic digitalization.  (+info)

Automatic activity in depolarized guinea pig ventricular myocardium. Characteristics and mechanisms. (2/15898)

Membrane potential was changed uniformly in segments, 0.7-1.0 mm long, of guinea pig papillary muscles excised from the right ventricle by using extracellular polarizing current pulses applied across two electrically insulated cf preparations superfused with Tyrode's solution at maximum diastolic membrane potentials ranging from-35.2+/-7.5 (threshold) to +4.0+/-9.2 mV. The average maximum dV/dt of RAD ranged from 17.1 to 18.0 V/sec within a membrane potential range of -40 to +20 mV. Raising extracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]0 from 1.8 to 6.8 mM, or application of isoproterenol (10(-6)g/ml) enhanced the rate of RAD, but lowering [Ca2+]0 to 0.4 mM or exposure to MnCl2 (6 mM) abolished RAD. RAD were enhanced by lowering extracellular K+ concentration [K+]0 from 5.4 to 1.5 mM. RAD were suppressed in 40% of fibers by raising [K+]0 to 15.4 mM, and in all fibers by raising [K+]0 to 40.4 mM. This suppression was due to increased [K+]0 and not to K-induced depolarization because it persisted when membrane potential was held by means of a conditioning hyperpolarizing puled gradually after maximum repolarization. These observations suggest that the development of RAD in depolarized myocardium is associated with a time-dependent decrease in outward current (probably K current) and with increase in the background inward current, presumably flowing through the slow cha-nel carrying Ca or Na ions, or both.  (+info)

Acute and chronic dose-response relationships for angiotensin, aldosterone, and arterial pressure at varying levels of sodium intake. (3/15898)

We examined the acute and chronic dose-response relationships between intravenously infused angiotensin II (A II) and the resulting changes in arterial pressure and plasma aldosterone concentration at varying levels of sodium intake. Sequential analysis of plasma aldosterone at each A II infusion rate resulted in an acute dose-related increase in plasma aldosterone which was markedly attenuated after the first 24 hours of infusion, the final level being directly related to the dose of A II and inversely related to sodium intake. A II infused at 5,15, and 23 ng/kg per min was associated with an initial increase (2nd to 8th hour) in plasma aldosterone to 2,6, and 9 times control values, respectively, in dogs receiving 40 mEq Na+/day. But, after the 1st day, aldosterone averaged only 1, 1.7, and 3 times control values for the next 2 weeks at the same rates of A II infusion. Dogs receiving 120 mEq Na+/day during A II infusion exhibited only a transient increase in plasma aldosterone during the 1st day. Sustained hypertension developed over a period of a week at all doses of A II at normal and high sodium intake, but did not occur at any dose of A II in sodium-depleted dogs. Increasing sodium intake from 40 to 120 mEq/day resulted in higher levels of hypertension, 125% compared to 140% of ocntrol values for dogs infused with A II, 5.0 ng/kg per min. We conclude that primary angiotensin-induced hypertension need not be associated with increased levels of plasma aldosterone, which appears to remain elevated only with amounts of A II greater than those required to sustain a significant degree of hypertension.  (+info)

The optically determined size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool correlates with the quantal content at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila larvae. (4/15898)

According to the current theory of synaptic transmission, the amplitude of evoked synaptic potentials correlates with the number of synaptic vesicles released at the presynaptic terminals. Synaptic vesicles in presynaptic boutons constitute two distinct pools, namely, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools (). We defined the vesicles that were endocytosed and exocytosed during high K+ stimulation as the exo/endo cycling vesicle pool. To determine the role of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool in synaptic transmission, we estimated the quantal content electrophysiologically, whereas the pool size was determined optically using fluorescent dye FM1-43. We then manipulated the size of the pool with following treatments. First, to change the state of boutons of nerve terminals, motoneuronal axons were severed. With this treatment, the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool decreased together with the quantal content. Second, we promoted the FM1-43 uptake using cyclosporin A, which inhibits calcineurin activities and enhances endocytosis. Cyclosporin A increased the total uptake of FM1-43, but neither the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool nor the quantal content changed. Third, we increased the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool by forskolin, which enhances synaptic transmission. The forskolin treatment increased both the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool and the quantal content. Thus, we found that the quantal content was closely correlated with the size of exo/endo cycling vesicle pool but not necessarily with the total uptake of FM1-43 fluorescence by boutons. The results suggest that vesicles in the exo/endo cycling pool primarily participate in evoked exocytosis of vesicles.  (+info)

Ionic currents underlying spontaneous action potentials in isolated cerebellar Purkinje neurons. (5/15898)

Acutely dissociated cell bodies of mouse Purkinje neurons spontaneously fired action potentials at approximately 50 Hz (25 degrees C). To directly measure the ionic currents underlying spontaneous activity, we voltage-clamped the cells using prerecorded spontaneous action potentials (spike trains) as voltage commands and used ionic substitution and selective blockers to isolate individual currents. The largest current flowing during the interspike interval was tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current (approximately -50 pA between -65 and -60 mV). Although the neurons had large voltage-dependent calcium currents, the net current blocked by cobalt substitution for calcium was outward at all times during spike trains. Thus, the electrical effect of calcium current is apparently dominated by rapidly activated calcium-dependent potassium currents. Under current clamp, all cells continued firing spontaneously (though approximately 30% more slowly) after block of T-type calcium current by mibefradil, and most cells continued to fire after block of all calcium current by cobalt substitution. Although the neurons possessed hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih), little current flowed during spike trains, and block by 1 mM cesium had no effect on firing frequency. The outward potassium currents underlying the repolarization of the spikes were completely blocked by 1 mM TEA. These currents deactivated quickly (<1 msec) after each spike. We conclude that the spontaneous firing of Purkinje neuron cell bodies depends mainly on tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current flowing between spikes. The high firing rate is promoted by large potassium currents that repolarize the cell rapidly and deactivate quickly, thus preventing strong hyperpolarization and restoring a high input resistance for subsequent depolarization.  (+info)

Inducible genetic suppression of neuronal excitability. (6/15898)

Graded, reversible suppression of neuronal excitability represents a logical goal of therapy for epilepsy and intractable pain. To achieve such suppression, we have developed the means to transfer "electrical silencing" genes into neurons with sensitive control of transgene expression. An ecdysone-inducible promoter drives the expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels in polycistronic adenoviral vectors. Infection of superior cervical ganglion neurons did not affect normal electrical activity but suppressed excitability after the induction of gene expression. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of controlled ion channel expression after somatic gene transfer into neurons and serve as the prototype for a novel generalizable approach to modulate excitability.  (+info)

Identification of the Kv2.1 K+ channel as a major component of the delayed rectifier K+ current in rat hippocampal neurons. (7/15898)

Molecular cloning studies have revealed the existence of a large family of voltage-gated K+ channel genes expressed in mammalian brain. This molecular diversity underlies the vast repertoire of neuronal K+ channels that regulate action potential conduction and neurotransmitter release and that are essential to the control of neuronal excitability. However, the specific contribution of individual K+ channel gene products to these neuronal K+ currents is poorly understood. We have shown previously, using an antibody, "KC, " specific for the Kv2.1 K+ channel alpha-subunit, the high-level expression of Kv2.1 protein in hippocampal neurons in situ and in culture. Here we show that KC is a potent blocker of K+ currents expressed in cells transfected with the Kv2.1 cDNA, but not of currents expressed in cells transfected with other highly related K+ channel alpha-subunit cDNAs. KC also blocks the majority of the slowly inactivating outward current in cultured hippocampal neurons, although antibodies to two other K+ channel alpha-subunits known to be expressed in these cells did not exhibit blocking effects. In all cases the blocking effects of KC were eliminated by previous incubation with a recombinant fusion protein containing the KC antigenic sequence. Together these studies show that Kv2.1, which is expressed at high levels in most mammalian central neurons, is a major contributor to the delayed rectifier K+ current in hippocampal neurons and that the KC antibody is a powerful tool for the elucidation of the role of the Kv2.1 K+ channel in regulating neuronal excitability.  (+info)

Treating the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion with isotonic saline. (8/15898)

It has been widely accepted that there is little use for saline treatment in the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH). However, having observed that most SIADH patients increased their plasma sodium (PNa) after 2 l isotonic saline over 24 h, we investigated whether urine osmolality or the sum of urinary sodium and potassium (UNa + K) predicted this response, in 17 consecutive patients with chronic SIADH. The initial measure of urinary sodium plus potassium (UNa + K t0) was weakly correlated to the change in PNa (DPNa) after infusion (r = -0.51; p < 0.05), while initial urine osmolality (UOSM t0) was a much better predictor (y = -0.024x + 12.90; r = -0.81; p < 0.001). The lack of predictive value for UNa + K t0 was probably because urine electrolyte concentrations were not maximal for the corresponding initial UOSM. This reflects differences in salt intake between the patients. The theoretical maximal value for UNa + K t0 (th max UNa + K t0) for a given USOM t0, was as good a predictor as UOSM t0 (th max UNa + K vs. DPNa: r = -0.81; p < 0.001). A theoretical model describing the effect of 2 l isotonic saline infusion on DPNa as a function of UNa + K, produced values comparable to those observed in our patients. Only 6/17 patients, those with UOSM > 530 mOsm/kg, had their hyponatraemia aggravated by 2 l isotonic saline. Many SIADH patients have lower UOSM; in most such patients, 2 l of isotonic saline will improve PNa.  (+info)

Causes of Potassium Deficiency:

There are several factors that can contribute to potassium deficiency, including:

1. Poor diet: A diet that is low in potassium-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, can lead to a deficiency.
2. Diarrhea and vomiting: These gastrointestinal issues can cause the body to lose excessive amounts of potassium, leading to a deficiency.
3. Certain medications: Diuretics, laxatives, and certain antibiotics can cause potassium loss in the urine or stool.
4. Kidney problems: Kidney disease or dysfunction can impair the body's ability to retain potassium, leading to a deficiency.
5. Hormonal imbalances: Certain hormonal imbalances, such as excessive production of aldosterone, can cause potassium loss and deficiency.

Symptoms of Potassium Deficiency:

The symptoms of potassium deficiency can vary in severity and may include:

1. Muscle weakness and cramping
2. Fatigue and lethargy
3. Heart palpitations and arrhythmias
4. Abnormal heart rhythms
5. Constipation
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Headaches
8. Muscle twitching and spasms
9. Inability to regulate blood pressure
10. Decreased reflexes and response to stimuli

Diagnosis of Potassium Deficiency:

Potassium deficiency is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

1. Blood tests: Measurement of potassium levels in the blood can confirm a deficiency.
2. Urine tests: Measurement of potassium excretion in the urine can help identify excessive potassium loss.
3. Electrocardiogram (ECG): An ECG can detect abnormal heart rhythms and signs of potassium deficiency.
4. Physical examination: Signs such as muscle weakness, cramping, and twitching can indicate potassium deficiency.

Treatment of Potassium Deficiency:

The treatment of potassium deficiency typically involves correcting the underlying cause and supplementing with potassium salts. The goal is to restore normal potassium levels and prevent complications such as cardiac arrhythmias and muscle weakness. Treatment may include:

1. Dietary changes: Increasing potassium-rich foods such as bananas, avocados, and leafy greens can help restore normal potassium levels.
2. Potassium supplements: Oral or intravenous supplements can be used to replenish potassium stores.
3. Addressing underlying causes: Identifying and treating conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or excessive vomiting can help resolve the potassium deficiency.
4. Monitoring: Regular blood tests and electrocardiograms are necessary to monitor potassium levels and ensure that the treatment is effective.

In conclusion, potassium deficiency can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for this condition. If you suspect you or someone you know may have a potassium deficiency, consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The normal range for potassium levels in the blood varies depending on age, gender, and other factors, but generally it is between 3.5 and 5.5 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter).

Hypokalemia can be caused by a variety of factors such as diarrhea, vomiting, certain medications (diuretics, laxatives), kidney disease or malfunctioning of the parathyroid glands.

Causes of Hyperkalemia:

1. Kidney dysfunction: When the kidneys are not able to excrete excess potassium, it can build up in the bloodstream and lead to hyperkalemia.
2. Medications: Certain drugs, such as ACE inhibitors, potassium-sparing diuretics, and NSAIDs, can increase potassium levels by blocking the excretion of potassium in the urine.
3. Diabetic ketoacidosis: High levels of potassium can occur in people with uncontrolled diabetes who have diabetic ketoacidosis.
4. Acute kidney injury: This condition can cause a rapid increase in potassium levels as the kidneys are unable to remove excess potassium from the blood.
5. Heart disease: Potassium levels can rise in people with heart failure or other cardiac conditions, leading to hyperkalemia.

Symptoms of Hyperkalemia:

1. Muscle weakness and fatigue
2. Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias)
3. Palpitations
4. Constipation
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Abdominal cramps
7. Fatigue
8. Confusion
9. Headaches
10. Weakness in the legs and feet

Treatment of Hyperkalemia:

The treatment of hyperkalemia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some of the common methods for lowering potassium levels include:

1. Diuretics: These medications help remove excess fluid and electrolytes, including potassium, from the body.
2. Calcium gluconate: This medication can help stabilize cardiac function and reduce the risk of arrhythmias.
3. Insulin and glucose: Giving insulin and glucose to someone with diabetic ketoacidosis can help lower potassium levels by increasing glucose uptake in the cells.
4. Hemodialysis: This is a process that uses a machine to filter waste products, including excess potassium, from the blood.
5. Potassium-binding resins: These medications can bind to potassium ions in the gut and prevent their absorption into the bloodstream.
6. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate): This medication can help lower potassium levels by binding to excess potassium in the gut and causing it to be eliminated in the stool.
7. Activated charcoal: This medication can help bind to potassium ions in the gut and prevent their absorption into the bloodstream.

In severe cases of hyperkalemia, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition. In some instances, dialysis may be required to remove excess potassium from the blood. It is important to note that the treatment for hyperkalemia should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as some medications or procedures can worsen the condition if not properly managed.

The QT interval is a measure of the time it takes for the ventricles to recover from each heartbeat and prepare for the next one. In people with LQTS, this recovery time is prolonged, which can disrupt the normal rhythm of the heart and increase the risk of arrhythmias.

LQTS is caused by mutations in genes that encode proteins involved in the cardiac ion channels, which regulate the flow of ions into and out of the heart muscle cells. These mutations can affect the normal functioning of the ion channels, leading to abnormalities in the electrical activity of the heart.

Symptoms of LQTS can include palpitations, fainting spells, and seizures. In some cases, LQTS can be diagnosed based on a family history of the condition or after a sudden death in an otherwise healthy individual. Other tests, such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and stress test, may also be used to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for LQTS typically involves medications that regulate the heart's rhythm and reduce the risk of arrhythmias. In some cases, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) may be recommended to monitor the heart's activity and deliver an electric shock if a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia is detected. Lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding stimuli that trigger symptoms and taking precautions during exercise and stress, may also be recommended.

In summary, Long QT syndrome is a rare inherited disorder that affects the electrical activity of the heart, leading to an abnormal prolongation of the QT interval and an increased risk of irregular and potentially life-threatening heart rhythms. It is important for individuals with LQTS to be closely monitored by a healthcare provider and to take precautions to manage their condition and reduce the risk of complications.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

The main symptoms of Bartter Syndrome are:

* Low potassium levels (hypokalemia)
* High aldosterone levels (hyperaldosteronism)
* Normal blood pressure
* Increased urine production (polyuria)
* Dehydration
* Fatigue

Bartter Syndrome can be diagnosed with a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment for the condition typically involves potassium supplements, dietary restrictions, and medications to control blood pressure and electrolyte levels. In severe cases, dialysis may be required.

The prognosis for Bartter Syndrome is generally good if the condition is properly managed. However, in some cases, the syndrome can progress to more severe forms of kidney disease, such as end-stage renal disease. With proper treatment and management, many individuals with Bartter Syndrome are able to lead normal lives and avoid complications.

The symptoms of hypokalemic periodic paralysis can vary in severity and may include:

* Muscle weakness or paralysis, typically affecting the legs but sometimes affecting the arms or face as well
* Muscle cramps and twitching
* Abnormal heart rhythms
* Weakness or paralysis of the respiratory muscles, which can lead to breathing difficulties
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or double vision
* Dizziness and fainting

The exact cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis is not known, but it is thought to be related to mutations in certain genes that affect the way potassium ions are regulated in the body. The disorder is usually diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis.

There is no cure for hypokalemic periodic paralysis, but treatment options may include:

* Potassium supplements to maintain normal potassium levels in the blood
* Medications to regulate heart rhythms and prevent abnormal heartbeats
* Physical therapy to improve muscle strength and function
* Avoiding triggers such as stress, certain medications, or changes in potassium levels
* In severe cases, a pacemaker may be implanted to regulate the heartbeat.

It is important to note that hypokalemic periodic paralysis can be a challenging disorder to manage and may have a significant impact on quality of life. However, with proper treatment and management, many individuals with this condition are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

Word origin: Named after Dr. Martin Isaacs, a British neurologist who first described the condition in 1980.

Isaac's syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that affects the development of the nervous system. It is caused by mutations in the ISCA1 gene and is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the condition. The symptoms of Isaac's syndrome can vary in severity but may include intellectual disability, seizures, vision loss, and physical abnormalities such as joint deformities or growth delays. Treatment for Isaac's syndrome is focused on managing the symptoms and may include medication, therapy, and supportive care. With appropriate treatment and support, many individuals with Isaac's syndrome are able to lead fulfilling lives.

Word origin: Named after Dr. Martin Isaacs, a British neurologist who first described the condition in 1980.

There are several types of alkalosis, including:

1. Respiratory alkalosis: This type is caused by an excessive breathing of carbon dioxide into the lungs, which increases the bicarbonate levels in the blood.
2. Metabolic alkalosis: This type is caused by a decrease in the production of acid in the body, such as in diabetic ketoacidosis or liver disease.
3. Inherited alkalosis: This type is caused by inherited genetic disorders that affect the regulation of acid-base homeostasis.
4. Drug-induced alkalosis: Certain medications, such as antacids and diuretics, can increase bicarbonate levels in the blood.
5. Post-operative alkalosis: This type can occur after surgery, particularly gastrointestinal surgery, due to the release of bicarbonate from damaged tissues.

The symptoms of alkalosis can vary depending on the severity and duration of the condition. They may include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Headache
* Fatigue
* Muscle weakness
* Tingling sensations in the extremities
* Confusion and disorientation

If left untreated, alkalosis can lead to more severe complications such as:

* Respiratory acidosis (a decrease in blood pH due to a lack of oxygen)
* Cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats)
* Seizures
* Coma

Diagnosis of alkalosis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Laboratory tests may include:

* Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis to measure the pH and PCO2 levels in the blood
* Serum electrolyte levels to assess the levels of sodium, potassium, and chloride
* Urine testing to assess the levels of bicarbonate and other electrolytes

Treatment of alkalosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. General measures may include:

* Correction of any underlying metabolic disorders, such as diabetes or kidney disease
* Discontinuation of medications that may be contributing to the alkalosis
* Fluid and electrolyte replacement to correct dehydration or imbalances
* Oxygen therapy to treat respiratory acidosis

In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition. In some cases, medications such as sodium bicarbonate may be prescribed to help restore acid-base balance. Surgery may be required in cases where the alkalosis is caused by a structural problem, such as a hiatal hernia.

Prognosis for alkalosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes. However, untreated severe alkalosis can lead to complications such as seizures, coma, and cardiac arrhythmias.

Prevention of alkalosis involves identifying and treating underlying conditions that may contribute to the development of the condition. This includes managing chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and avoiding medications that may cause alkalosis. Additionally, maintaining a balanced diet and staying hydrated can help prevent electrolyte imbalances that can lead to alkalosis.

In conclusion, alkalosis is a condition characterized by an excess of base in the body, which can lead to respiratory and metabolic disturbances. The diagnosis of alkalosis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include fluid and electrolyte replacement, medication, and addressing any underlying conditions. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes for patients with alkalosis.

There are several types of acidosis, including:

1. Respiratory acidosis: This occurs when the lung's ability to remove carbon dioxide from the blood is impaired, leading to an increase in blood acidity.
2. Metabolic acidosis: This type of acidosis occurs when there is an excessive production of acid in the body due to factors such as diabetes, starvation, or kidney disease.
3. Mixed acidosis: This type of acidosis is a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis.
4. Severe acute respiratory acidosis (SARA): This is a life-threatening condition that occurs suddenly, usually due to a severe lung injury or aspiration of a corrosive substance.

The symptoms of acidosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

1. Fatigue
2. Weakness
3. Confusion
4. Headaches
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Abdominal pain
7. Difficulty breathing
8. Rapid heart rate
9. Muscle twitching

If left untreated, acidosis can lead to complications such as:

1. Kidney damage
2. Seizures
3. Coma
4. Heart arrhythmias
5. Respiratory failure

Treatment of acidosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:

1. Oxygen therapy
2. Medications to help regulate breathing and heart rate
3. Fluid and electrolyte replacement
4. Dietary changes
5. Surgery, in severe cases.

In conclusion, acidosis is a serious medical condition that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have acidosis. With prompt and appropriate treatment, it is possible to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.

Symptoms of hyperaldosteronism may include high blood pressure, low potassium levels, muscle weakness, and heart arrhythmias. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause but may include medications to reduce aldosterone production, dietary modifications, and in some cases, surgery or radiation therapy.

It is important for individuals with hyperaldosteronism to receive regular monitoring and treatment from a healthcare provider to manage their condition effectively and prevent complications such as heart disease and stroke.

There are many different types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Tachycardias: These are fast heart rhythms that can be too fast for the body's needs. Examples include atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.
2. Bradycardias: These are slow heart rhythms that can cause symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, and fainting. Examples include sinus bradycardia and heart block.
3. Premature beats: These are extra beats that occur before the next regular beat should come in. They can be benign but can also indicate an underlying arrhythmia.
4. Supraventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate above the ventricles, such as atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal atrial tachycardia.
5. Ventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate in the ventricles, such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Cardiac arrhythmias can be diagnosed through a variety of tests including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and holter monitors. Treatment options for cardiac arrhythmias vary depending on the type and severity of the condition and may include medications, cardioversion, catheter ablation, or implantable devices like pacemakers or defibrillators.

There are several types of RTA, including:

1. Type 1 RTA: This is caused by a defect in the genes that code for the proteins involved in acid secretion in the renal tubules.
2. Type 2 RTA: This is caused by damage to the renal tubules, such as from exposure to certain drugs or toxins.
3. Type 4 RTA: This is caused by a deficiency of the hormone aldosterone, which helps regulate electrolyte levels in the body.

Symptoms of RTA can include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Dehydration
* Increased heart rate
* Decreased urine production

RTA can be diagnosed through blood tests that measure the pH levels in the body, as well as tests that assess kidney function and electrolyte levels. Treatment for RTA typically involves correcting any underlying causes, such as stopping certain medications or addressing electrolyte imbalances. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help regulate acid levels in the body.

Prevention of RTA includes maintaining proper hydration, avoiding exposure to harmful substances, and managing any underlying medical conditions that may increase the risk of developing RTA. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for individuals with RTA.

The symptoms of limbic encephalitis can vary depending on the severity of the inflammation and the specific areas of the brain affected. Common symptoms include:

* Memory loss and confusion
* Seizures
* Vision problems
* Speech difficulties
* Emotional changes, such as anxiety or depression
* Behavioral changes, such as aggression or apathy
* Personality changes

The exact cause of limbic encephalitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be an autoimmune response, where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the brain. In some cases, the condition may be triggered by a viral or bacterial infection, and in others, it may be associated with certain medical conditions, such as multiple sclerosis or lupus.

There is no cure for limbic encephalitis, but treatment options are available to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include:

* Medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system
* Anticonvulsants to prevent seizures
* Cognitive rehabilitation to improve memory and other cognitive functions
* Behavioral therapy to manage emotional and behavioral changes

The prognosis for limbic encephalitis varies depending on the severity of the inflammation and the specific areas of the brain affected. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own over time, while in others, it may result in long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments.

There is currently no way to prevent limbic encephalitis, but early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Researchers are continuing to study the condition to better understand its causes and develop more effective treatments.

The exact cause of benign neonatal epilepsy is not well understood, but it is thought to be related to abnormalities in the developing brain that occur before birth. Some cases may be associated with genetic mutations or other medical conditions, such as brain injuries or infections.

The symptoms of benign neonatal epilepsy can vary depending on the individual baby, but may include:

* Recurrent seizures, which can be described as stiffness, tremors, or jerky movements of the arms and legs
* Loss of consciousness or confusion during the seizure
* Changes in breathing or heart rate during the seizure
* Increased muscle tone or rigidity
* Increased sensitivity to light, sound, or touch
* Poor feeding or vomiting during the seizure

Benign neonatal epilepsy is usually diagnosed based on a combination of clinical features and diagnostic tests such as electroencephalography (EEG) or imaging studies. The condition typically resolves on its own within a few weeks to months after birth, but in some cases may persist longer.

Treatment for benign neonatal epilepsy is typically focused on managing the seizures and supporting the baby's overall health and development. This may include anticonvulsant medications, changes in feeding or sleep routines, and other supportive measures such as physical therapy or specialized care for any associated medical conditions. In rare cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain that is causing the seizures.

The prognosis for babies with benign neonatal epilepsy is generally good, and most will outgrow the condition without any long-term effects. However, some may experience ongoing seizures or developmental delays, and may require ongoing medical care and support. It is important for parents and caregivers to work closely with their baby's healthcare team to monitor their progress and adjust treatment as needed.

There are several possible causes of hypoaldosteronism, including:

1. Adrenal gland disorders: Damage to the adrenal glands, such as from injury or infection, can lead to a decrease in aldosterone production.
2. Genetic mutations: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that affect the production of aldosterone.
3. Autoimmune disorders: In some cases, the immune system may attack the adrenal glands and disrupt aldosterone production.
4. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and diuretics, can suppress the production of aldosterone.
5. Primary aldosteronism: This is a condition where the adrenal glands produce too much aldosterone, leading to an imbalance in electrolytes and fluids.

Treatment for hypoaldosteronism will depend on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, medications such as salt substitutes or diuretics may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. In other cases, hormone replacement therapy may be necessary to replace the missing aldosterone.

It is important to note that hypoaldosteronism can lead to more serious complications if left untreated, such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and heart arrhythmias. If you suspect you may have hypoaldosteronism, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

Major potassium chemicals are potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, potassium sulfate, and potassium chloride. Megatons of ... potassium oxide (K2O), potassium peroxide (K2O2), potassium superoxide (KO2) and potassium ozonide (KO3). The binary potassium- ... With oxygen it forms potassium peroxide. With water potassium forms potassium hydroxide. The reaction of potassium with water ... Potassium must be conserved, but because the amount of potassium in the blood plasma is very small and the pool of potassium in ...
... , also known as potassium bisoxalatoferrate(II), is a salt with the formula K 2[Fe(C 2O 4) 2], sometimes ... Potassium ferrooxalate is believed to be formed when the related compound potassium ferrioxalate K 3[Fe(C 2O 4) 3] is ... He obtained it by dissolving the appropriate amounts of potassium oxalate dihydrate K 2C 2O 4·2H 2O and iron(II) oxalate ... of potassium K+ . The anhydrous salt is orange-yellow and dissolves in water to give a red solution. Crystals of the dihydrate ...
... is the inorganic compound with formula K4[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O. It is the potassium salt of the coordination ... Potassium ferrocyanide is used in a mixture with potassium ferricyanide and phosphate buffered solution to provide a buffer for ... In the laboratory, potassium ferrocyanide is used to determine the concentration of potassium permanganate, a compound often ... This solution is then treated with potassium salts to precipitate the mixed calcium-potassium salt CaK2[Fe(CN)6], which in turn ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula KAlO2, which in aqueous solution exists as K[Al(OH)4]. Potassium ... Potassium compounds, Aluminates, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... aluminate can be used to produce potassium alum with sulfuric acid in this reaction. KAlO2 + 2 H2SO4 ⇌ KAl(SO4)2 + 2 H2O Lide, ...
... (also known as tripotassium citrate) is a potassium salt of citric acid with the molecular formula K3C6H5O7. ... Potassium citrate can be synthesized by the neutralization of citric acid which is achieved by the addition of potassium ... "Potassium citrate for cystitis". "Soft Drinks with Potassium Citrate". Fire, Impact. "What is a Class K Fire ... Medscape on hypocitraturia Potassium Citrate for Kidney Stones Potassium Citrate Phillips, Rebecca; Hanchanale, Vishwanath S; ...
... is thermally more unstable and has stronger electron affinity than potassium telluride (K2Te). Potassium ... Potassium polonide is a chemical compound with the formula K2Po. It is a polonide, a set of very chemically stable compounds of ... Like sodium polonide, potassium polonide has the antifluorite structure. Bagnall, K. W. (1962). "The Chemistry of Polonium". ... H2 It may also be produced by heating potassium and polonium together at 300-400 °C. At higher temperature, this reaction may ...
... , commonly abbreviated KTp, is the potassium salt of the trispyrazolylborate ligand. KTp is a ... The synthesis of KTp involves potassium borohydride and pyrazole without a solvent. KBH4 + 3 pzH → KTp + 3 H2 The tris( ...
... is mainly used in the production of soap and glass. Potassium carbonate is the primary component of potash ... Potassium carbonate is prepared commercially by the reaction potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide: 2 KOH + CO2 → K2CO3 + H2O ... potassium chloride is treated with carbon dioxide in the presence of an organic amine to give potassium bicarbonate, which is ... "Solubility of Potassium Carbonate and Potassium Hydrocarbonate in Methanol". Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data. 47 (5): ...
... is a chemical compound of formula C8H4KNO2. It is the potassium salt of phthalimide, and usually presents ... It can be prepared by adding a hot solution of phthalimide in ethanol to a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanol; the ... Potassium compounds, Phthalimides, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
... is a generic term for the salts of potassium and phosphate ions including: Monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4 ... v t e (E-number additives, Potassium compounds, Phosphates, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... potassium phosphates have the E number E340. Klaus Schrödter; Gerhard Bettermann; Thomas Staffel; Friedrich Wahl; Thomas Klein ...
... is chemical compound that used as a precursor to diimide. It can be synthesized by the reaction of ... Pasto, Daniel J. (2001). "Potassium Azodicarboxylate". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ... Potassium compounds, Azo compounds, Reagents for organic chemistry). ... potassium hydroxide with azodicarbonamide and it reacts with carboxylic acids to form diimide. ...
... or potassium propionate has formula K(C2H5COO). Its melting point is 410 °C. It is the potassium salt of ... Potassium compounds, E-number additives, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
... (developmental code name RU-28318) is a synthetic steroidal antimineralocorticoid which was never marketed ... The affinities of oxprenoate potassium for the steroid hormone receptors have been reported. Oxprenoate J. Elks (14 November ... Potassium compounds, Pregnanes, Spirolactones, Tertiary alcohols, All stub articles, Steroid stubs). ...
... a mineral form of potassium nitrate Nitrocellulose Potassium perchlorate Record of Potassium nitrate in the GESTIS Substance ... potassium nitrate reaches a temperature-dependent equilibrium with potassium nitrite: 2 KNO3 ⇌ 2 KNO2 + O2 Potassium nitrate ... Potassium nitrate is used in fertilizers as a source of nitrogen and potassium - two of the macronutrients for plants. When ... Eli S. Freeman (1957). "The Kinetics of the Thermal Decomposition of Potassium Nitrate and of the Reaction between Potassium ...
... , KH, is the inorganic compound of potassium and hydrogen. It is an alkali metal hydride. It is a white solid ... Potassium hydride is produced by direct combination of the metal and hydrogen: 2 K + H2 → 2 KH This reaction was discovered by ... KH reacts with water according to the reaction: KH + H2O → KOH + H2 As a superbase, potassium hydride is more basic than sodium ... Douglass F. Taber, Christopher G. Nelson (2006). "Potassium Hydride in Paraffin: A Useful Base for Organic Synthesis". J. Org. ...
... is the potassium salt of salicylic acid. ... Potassium compounds, 3-Hydroxypropenals, All stub articles, Chemistry stubs). ...
Attempts to crystallize potassium bisulfite yield potassium metabisulfite, K2S2O5. Potassium bisulfite is used as a sterilising ... Potassium bisulfite (or potassium hydrogen sulfite) is a chemical mixture with the approximate chemical formula KHSO3. ... Potassium bisulfite in fact is not a real compound, but a mixture of salts that dissolve in water to give solutions composed of ... It is made by the reaction of sulfur dioxide and potassium carbonate. The sulfur dioxide is passed through a solution of the ...
... (KAsO2) is an inorganic compound that exists in two forms, potassium meta-arsenite (KAsO2) and potassium ... and potassium oxides. Potassium arsenite also reacts with acids to yield toxic arsine gas. Aqueous potassium arsenite, more ... Potassium arsenite is still, however, used as a rodenticide. The two unique forms of potassium arsenite can be attributed to ... Solutions of potassium arsenite contain moderate concentrations of hydroxide, and are thus slightly basic. While potassium ...
... is also used in the whistle in many fireworks. One very common way to make potassium benzoate is by ... Potassium benzoate (E212), the potassium salt of benzoic acid, is a food preservative that inhibits the growth of mold, yeast ... "Potassium benzoate". Press Release from Defense Technical Information Center; article- Potassium ... Another way to synthesize potassium benzoate in the lab setting is by hydrolyzing methyl benzoate with potassium hydroxide. The ...
... is the chemical compound with the molecular formula KSCN. It is an important salt of the thiocyanate ... "ChemIDplus - 333-20-0 - ZNNZYHKDIALBAK-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Potassium thiocyanate [NF] - Similar structures search, synonyms, ...
"Potassium Phosphide". American Elements. Retrieved 2022-08-29. "POTASSIUM PHOSPHIDE , CAMEO Chemicals , NOAA". cameochemicals. ... Potassium phosphide can be synthesised by simply reacting the two elements together: 3 K + P ⟶ K 3 P {\displaystyle {\ce {3K + ... Potassium phosphide is an inorganic semiconductor compound with the formula K3P. It appears as a white crystalline solid or ... Sangster, James M. (2010-02-01). "K-P (Potassium-Phosphorus) System". Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion. 31 (1): 68-72 ...
... is the potassium salt of sorbic acid, chemical formula CH3CH=CH−CH=CH−CO2K. It is a white salt that is very ... Tube feeding of potassium sorbate reduces the gastric burden of pathogenic bacteria. Also known as "wine stabilizer", potassium ... Potassium sorbate is produced industrially by neutralizing sorbic acid with potassium hydroxide. The precursor sorbic acid is ... "Potassium sorbate - Agricultural Marketing Service - USDA" (PDF). U.S. government. Retrieved May 26, 2018. Potassium sorbate is ...
... is a potassium salt of polyacrylic acid with the chemical formula [−CH2−CH(CO2K)−]n. As a type of ... Potassium polyacrylate works similar to a sponge under the soil surface. It is composed of a set of polymeric chains, which are ... The potassium polyacrylate granules release just the right amount of water in response to a plant's root suction. There is no ... Potassium polyacrylate maximizes plant growth by reducing plant stress. It also absorbs and releases soil nutrients, water- ...
... is produced by the reaction of molten potassium cyanide with elemental selenium. Organic selenocyanates ... Potassium selenocyanate is the inorganic compound with the formula KSeCN. It is a hygroscopic white solid that is soluble in ... Potassium selenocyanate serves as a source of Se0, e.g., in its reaction with triphenylphosphine to give triphenylphosphine ... Swank, Duane D.; Willett, Roger D. (1965). "The Crystal Structure of Potassium Selenocyanate". Inorganic Chemistry. 4: 499-501 ...
It is manufactured by adding silver chloride to a solution of potassium cyanide. AgCl + 2KCN → AgK(CN)2 + KCl "Potassium Silver ... Potassium argentocyanide is a white solid used in silver plating, as a bactericide, and in the manufacture of antiseptics. ... Potassium compounds, Silver compounds, Cyano complexes, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
... , also called potassium trisoxalatoferrate or potassium tris(oxalato)ferrate(III) is a chemical compound ... doi:10.1007/BF02397520 "5936-11-8 - Potassium trioxalatoferrate(III) trihydrate - Potassium iron(III) oxalate - 31124 - Alfa ... complex potassium ferrioxalate, potassium oxalate, and carbon dioxide: 2 K 3[Fe(C 2O 4) 3] → 2 K 2[Fe(C 2O 4) 2] + K 2C 2O 4 + ... The potassium salt was found to be over 1000 times more sensitive than uranyl oxalate, the compound previously used for these ...
Like potassium bromate, potassium iodate is occasionally used as a maturing agent in baking. Potassium iodate may be used to ... concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide. 3 I2 + 6 KOH → KIO3 + 5 KI + 3 H2O Or by fusing potassium iodide with potassium ... Potassium iodate (KIO3) is an ionic chemical compound consisting of K+ ions and IO3− ions in a 1:1 ratio. Potassium iodate is ... It can be prepared by reacting a potassium-containing base such as potassium hydroxide with iodic acid, for example: HIO3 + KOH ...
... is manufactured by passing chlorine through a solution of potassium ferrocyanide. Potassium ferricyanide ... Potassium ferricyanide is combined with potassium hydroxide (or sodium hydroxide as a substitute) and water to formulate ... In histology, potassium ferricyanide is used to detect ferrous iron in biological tissue. Potassium ferricyanide reacts with ... Fe3+ Ferricyanide Ferrocyanide Potassium ferrocyanide Kwong, H.-L. (2004). "Potassium Ferricyanide". In Paquette, L. (ed.). ...
... is a chemical compound with the chemical formula K2[SiF6]. When doped with Potassium ... When doped with potassium hexafluoromanganate(IV) (K2[MnF6]), a narrow band red phosphor is produced, emitting at around 630 nm ... Potassium fluorosilicate has applications in porcelain manufacture, the preservation of timber, aluminium and magnesium ... For example, K2[MnF6] in (40%) hydrofluoric acid with potassium fluoride can be mixed with SiO2 dissolved in (40%) hydrofluoric ...
... or potassium hydrosulfite is a potassium salt of dithionous acid. The compound has UN number UN 1929. As a ... Potassium compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
... potassium iodide) can help block radioactive iodine from being absorbed by the thyroid gland. ... Potassium Iodine (KI): Recommended Single Dosage by Age. Predicted Thyroid Exposure. KI dose (mg). Number or fraction of 130 mg ... Potassium iodide (KI) is a type of iodine that is not radioactive and can be used to help block one type of radioactive ... The U.S.FDA provides instructions on how to make oral potassium iodide solution at home using KI tablets. ...
... but too little potassium and too much sodium can raise your blood pressure. ... Potassium in the Food Supply and Potassium Intake. Most Americans eat too little potassium and too much sodium. Some good ... Potassium, Sodium, High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, and Stroke. Increasing potassium intake can help decrease your blood ... Most potassium we eat naturally occurs in vegetables, fruit, seafood, and dairy products. On the other hand, most sodium we eat ...
Diclofenac potassium tablets USP are a benzeneacetic acid derivative. Diclofenac potassium tablets USP, 50 mg are available as ... DICLOFENAC POTASSIUM tablet, film coated. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ... Diclofenac potassium tablets, like other NSAIDs, may cause serious CV side effects, such as MI or stroke, which may result in ... DICLOFENAC POTASSIUM tablet, film coated. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, ...
Find out about the types of potassium tests and when and how they are used. ... Potassium is an electrolyte, a type of mineral that is essential to your health. ... Potassium Test. Also Known As: Serum Potassium Test, Urine Potassium Test, Urine Potassium-to-Creatinine Ratio Test, 24-Hour ... Finding a Potassium Test. How can I get a potassium test?. The standard potassium test uses a blood sample obtained with a ...
Read more about potassium and learn about potassium rich foods to add to your diet. ... Potassium is a mineral that the body needs to work normally. ... Potassium (Harvard School of Public Health) * Potassium in Your ... How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure (American Heart Association) * Hyperkalemia (High Potassium) (Mayo ... Many people get all the potassium they need from what they eat and drink. Sources of potassium in the diet include:. *Leafy ...
Caltech chemists discover that an abundant potassium compound could replace rare precious metals used in the creation of new ... Home / About / News / Potassium Salt Outperforms Precious Metals As a Catalyst Potassium Salt Outperforms Precious Metals As a ... To be able to do this type of reaction, which is one of the most-studied problems in the world of chemistry, with potassium ... Here, potassium tert-butoxide-the catalyst in the new reaction-is represented within the prism. Simple, bulk organic molecules ...
CMP PHARMA Potassium phosphates injection (phosphorus 45 mmol/15 mL (3 mmol/mL) and potassium 71 mEq/15 mL (4.7 mEq/mL)) ... POTASSIUM PHOSPHATES INJECTION provides phosphorus 3 mmol/mL (potassium 4.7 mEq/mL). ... CMP Pharmas Potassium Phosphates Injection is appropriate for pediatric patients 12 years of age and older who weigh at least ... POTASSIUM PHOSPHATES INJECTION is a phosphorus replacement product indicated as a source of phosphorus:. *in intravenous fluids ...
Treatments that combine thiazide diuretics (which cause potassium loss) and potassium-sparing diuretics can affect potassium ... Potassium-sparing diuretics cause the kidneys to hold potassium in the body. When you are taking these medications you ... The potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride was found to significantly reduce zinc excretion from the body.3 This means that if ... Based on experience with intravenous arginine, it is possible that the use of high-dose oral arginine might alter potassium ...
Shop for Vitacost Potassium Citrate Dietary Supplement 99mg (180 ct) at Ralphs. Find quality health products to add to your ... Potassium citrate is a form of potassium in which potassium ions are bonded to citric acid. Citrates are highly bioavailable, ... What is Potassium Citrate?. Potassium is a mineral found in foods such as bananas, orange juice and potatoes. Like sodium and ... What are the key benefits of Vitacost® Potassium Citrate?. *By sparing calcium from excessive loss, potassium may play a vital ...
Postal Service Decision to Issue Potassium Iodide Highlights Nuclear Risks. Statement of Wenonah Hauter, Director, Public ... Public Citizen applauds the recent decision of the United States Postal Service to provide all of its employees with potassium ...
Salt from potassium carbonate and water from the dihydrate are mixed into a deliquescent (wet salt). It is a strong alkaline ... Potassium carbonate dihydrate is generally used as a nutritional supplement in ... Potassium carbonate dihydrate (K2CO3.2H2O) is a white chemical. ... Potassium Carbonate Uses. Since potassium carbonate is so ... Potassium carbonate can be used in food production. A common Asian cuisine that uses potassium carbonate is grass jelly. A ...
Potassium Test at Thomas Scientific, your trusted partner in Science. Ready to Ship. ... Potassium test includes test strips and all necessary additional reagents and is used used for the determination of potassium ... Reflectoquant® Potassium Test. * PRODUCT AVAILABILITY: Did you know you can view a products availability right on the product ... Potassium ions react with dipicrylamine to form an orange-colored complex that is determined reflectometrically on the RQflex ...
Antidumping duties will remain in place on imports of potassium permanganate from China following the U.S. International Trade ... The U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) today determined that revoking the existing antidumping duty order on potassium ... The Commissions public report Potassium Permanganate from China (Inv. No. 731-TA-125 (Third Review), USITC Publication 4183, ... The five-year (sunset) reviews concerning Potassium Permanganate from China was instituted on May 3, 2010. ...
Potassium in drinking-water : background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality  ... Directives : sur lapport en potassium chez ladulte et chez lenfant: résumé dorientation  ...
Its scrap potassium from my anonymous sodium supplier, carefully cut up under oil to reveal shiny surfaces. When absolutely ... and it is quite characteristic of the early stages of potassium oxidation. This helps to differentiate it visually from sodium ...
IMPORTANT SHIPPING INFORMATION: Our long time shipping manager, Mark, is out of the office due to an injury. Dana and Meadow are filling in for him. We want to let you know this may cause a small delay in order processing. If your order is time sensitive, please let us know so we can accommodate you. Thank You all for your patience while mark is healing!. ...
Solgar Potassium Tablets is one of Solgars premium-quality mineral health supplement products. ... Solgar Potassium Tablets - 100 tabs. Potassium Tablets is one of Solgars premium-quality mineral products.. Ingredients. * ... Solgar Potassium Tablets - 100. Our Price: £7.99. (Inc. 20% VAT) UK ONLY(£6.66 Exc. VAT) OUTSIDE UKEarn 7 Loyalty Points. ...
A study of the preparation and reactivity of potassium ferrate. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... TY - JOUR T1 - A study of the preparation and reactivity of potassium ferrate. AU - Li,C, AU - Li,X Z, AU - Graham,N, Y1 - 2005 ... Li C, Li XZ, Graham N. A Study of the Preparation and Reactivity of Potassium Ferrate. Chemosphere. 2005;61(4):537-43. PubMed ... Benzhydryl CompoundsEndocrine DisruptorsHydrogen-Ion ConcentrationIron CompoundsPhenolsPotassium CompoundsWater Pollutants, ...
This page contains information on the chemical Sodium nitrite and Potassium nitrate mixture including: 1 synonyms/identifiers; ... Sodium nitrite and Potassium nitrate mixture. Identifications. *Synonyms/Related:*Sodium nitrite and Potassium nitrate mixture ... Sodium nitrite and Potassium nitrate mixture. No. No. Related Resources. *USDOT Hazardous Materials Table 49 CFR 172.101. An ... Chemical Database - Sodium nitrite and Potassium nitrate mixture. 1995 - 2023. Accessed on-line: 5/ ...
This is a complete list of foods highest in potassium per unit. This nutritional resource can be used to determine what other ... What is Potassium?. Potassium is extremely important for the normal fluid balance on cell walls and extremely important for all ... Top Foods High in Potassium. .Nutrition-, Foods Highest in Potassium. Updated: March 4nd, 2014 ... Foods Highest in Potassium (per 200 Calories). Name of Food. Amount of MG. ...
"Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters" by people in Harvard Catalyst ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters" by people in Profiles. ...
Bananas are high in potassium and low in sodium, making them a heart-healthy fruit. They are also linked to improved eyesight, ... Home » Food » Topics » Fruit » Bananas - High in Potassium and Low in Sodium ... ...
Willner Chemists offering of Potassium products.
Potassium Iodide radiation protection tablets now available at the Natural News Store ... IOSAT Potassium Iodide. Weve selected the IOSAT brand of potassium iodide because it is approved by the FDA and manufactured ... Each package of the IOSAT brand potassium iodide delivers 14 tablets, each with 130mg of potassium iodide.. BEWARE of people ... More news on potassium iodide. Natural News Store acquires new supply of potassium iodide radiation pills, manufactured in USA ...
Nokia sites use cookies to improve and personalize your experience and to display advertisements. The sites may also include cookies from third parties. By using this site, you consent to the use of cookies. Learn more ...
Learn 6 ways to control potassium levels to manage your renal disease. ... One nutrient that you need to regulate when you have a renal disease is potassium. ... You need potassium to keep your heart beating properly. And your muscles need potassium to help you move and lift things. But ... Control Potassium Levels to Manage Renal Disease When you have renal disease, your kidneys cant keep up with the demand to ...
1998) A potassium channel mutation in neonatal human epilepsy. Science 279:403-406, doi:10.1126/science.279.5349.403, pmid: ... 1998) A pore mutation in a novel KQT-like potassium channel gene in an idiopathic epilepsy family. Nat Genet 18:53-55, doi: ... 2000) Neuronal KCNQ potassium channels: physiology and role in disease. Nat Rev Neurosci 1:21-30, doi:10.1038/35036198, pmid: ... 1998) A novel potassium channel gene, KCNQ2, is mutated in an inherited epilepsy of newborns. Nat Genet 18:25-29, doi:10.1038/ ...
Using the serum potassium value at 3 weeks after ACE inhibitor initiation, investigators classified patients into hyperkalemia ... Short-term changes in serum potassium and the risk of subsequent vascular events and mortality: Results from a randomized ... Effect magnitude did not differ significantly by serum potassium subgroup.. "These findings suggest that discontinuation of [ ... Close more info about Continuing ACE Inhibitors Despite Potassium Change Can Have Benefits ...
... students analyze aluminum potassium sulfate using different techniques to determine its exact composition and gain experience ... With the Analysis of Aluminum Potassium Sulfate Classic Lab Kit for AP® Chemistry, ... Analysis of Aluminum Potassium Sulfate-Classic Lab Kit for AP® Chemistry Analysis of Aluminum Potassium Sulfate-Classic Lab Kit ... With the Analysis of Aluminum Potassium Sulfate Classic Lab Kit for AP® Chemistry, students analyze aluminum potassium sulfate ...
  • Potassium and sodium are electrolytes that help your body function normally by maintaining fluid and blood volume. (
  • However, consuming too little potassium and too much sodium can raise your blood pressure. (
  • Most Americans eat too little potassium and too much sodium. (
  • You can find potassium and sodium content, and percent Daily Values (%DV) on Nutrition Facts Labels for packaged foods. (
  • Blood levels of potassium are frequently measured in a panel test along with other electrolytes, including sodium , chloride , and bicarbonate . (
  • Like sodium and chloride, potassium is an electrolyte, meaning it takes on a positive or negative charge when dissolved in fluids. (
  • It's scrap potassium from my anonymous sodium supplier, carefully cut up under oil to reveal shiny surfaces. (
  • Bananas are high in potassium and low in sodium, making them a heart-healthy fruit. (
  • potassium iodide will decrease the level or effect of sodium iodide I-131 by Other (see comment). (
  • BP was measured in triplicate and 24 h urine was collected for the determination of urinary sodium (Na), potassium (K), creatinine (Cr) and iodine levels. (
  • Dietary sodium to potassium (Na K) ratios above 2 mmol/mmol were positively associated with increasing BP with age. (
  • Most of patients with falciparum malaria also have significantly high serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium showing alteration in kidney function. (
  • Potassium iodide (KI) is a type of iodine that is not radioactive and can be used to help block one type of radioactive material, radioactive iodine (I-131), from being absorbed by the thyroid. (
  • Public Citizen applauds the recent decision of the United States Postal Service to provide all of its employees with potassium iodide (KI) pills as a protective measure in the event of a radiological release, be it a terrorist attack or a disastrous accident. (
  • NaturalNews) No emergency preparedness kit is complete without potassium iodide (KI) to protect every family member from radiation. (
  • In a world where a Fukushima-style disaster could happen any day, potassium iodide is an FDA-approved supplement that's scientifically proven to help protect your body from radiation . (
  • Specifically, if potassium iodide is taken before exposure to a large-scale radiation event (or radioactive fallout), it will prevent radioactive isotopes from concentrating in the thyroid gland and "burning out" the thyroid (which usually leads to thyroid cancer). (
  • We've selected the IOSAT brand of potassium iodide because it is approved by the FDA and manufactured under rigorous quality controls. (
  • Each package of the IOSAT brand potassium iodide delivers 14 tablets, each with 130mg of potassium iodide. (
  • The Natural News Store sells only freshly-acquired potassium iodide that we purchased directly from the manufacturer. (
  • The "blister strip" format of these IOSAT potassium iodide tablets makes them super easy to carry . (
  • This means one package of IOSAT potassium iodide covers two adults for one week, or four adults for roughly half a week. (
  • potassium iodide and amiloride both increase serum potassium. (
  • potassium iodide and aspirin both increase serum potassium. (
  • potassium iodide and azilsartan both increase serum potassium. (
  • potassium iodide and celecoxib both increase serum potassium. (
  • Most potassium tests measure the amount of potassium in the liquid portion of your blood (serum or plasma), but a urine potassium test is also used in some situations. (
  • Do not exceed the maximum daily amount of potassium or the recommended infusion rate. (
  • Your kidneys help to keep the right amount of potassium in your body. (
  • You may need a special diet to lower the amount of potassium that you eat. (
  • Some good sources of potassium include bananas, oranges and melons, cooked spinach and broccoli, and potatoes and sweet potatoes. (
  • Potassium is a mineral found in foods such as bananas, orange juice and potatoes. (
  • In some urine potassium tests, creatinine is measured along with potassium. (
  • Simultaneous measuring urine creatinine normalizes the potassium excretion, independent of how many fluids you consume before the test and how diluted your urine is, without having to do a full 24-hour urine collection. (
  • Blood samples were collected for all subjects enrolled in the study and subjected to analysis including complete blood count (CBC) using five parts cell counter and renal function test (RFT), including urea, creatinine using dry chemistry, and potassium using direct ion-selective electrode method. (
  • Increasing potassium intake can help decrease your blood pressure if you have high blood pressure. (
  • By lowering blood pressure, increasing potassium intake can also reduce your risk for heart disease and stroke. (
  • Evidence suggests potassium intake plays an important role in helping to maintain blood pressure levels already within normal range. (
  • Certain people need to watch their potassium intake, such as those with kidney issues or taking certain medicines. (
  • Salt and potassium intake among adult Ghanaians: WHO-SAGE Ghana Wave 3. (
  • Potassium citrate is a form of potassium in which potassium ions are bonded to citric acid. (
  • The Reflectoquant® Potassium test includes test strips and all necessary additional reagents and is used used for the determination of potassium ions in drinking water and mineral water, industrial water, wastewater, beverages and soils after sample pretreatment. (
  • Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. (
  • A potassium test measures the amount of the mineral in a blood (serum or plasma) or urine sample. (
  • Continuation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy is associated with better clinical outcomes, despite early fluctuation in serum potassium, according to investigators. (
  • Using the serum potassium value at 3 weeks after ACE inhibitor initiation, investigators classified patients into hyperkalemia (5.0 mEq/L or higher in 5.6%), normokalemia (93.2%), and hypokalemia (less than 3.5 mEq/L in 1.0%) groups. (
  • Effect magnitude did not differ significantly by serum potassium subgroup. (
  • The relationship between the serum potassium level and symptoms is not consistent. (
  • Widened QRS complexes in a patient whose serum potassium level was 7.8 mEq/L. (
  • Incidence, characteristics and outcomes among inpatient, outpatient and emergency department with reported high critical serum potassium values. (
  • Short-term mortality risk of serum potassium levels in acute heart failure following myocardial infarction. (
  • Electrolysis produces potassium carbonate in commercial quantities by running an electrical current through potassium chloride. (
  • Potassium carbonate is a suitable replacement for calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate when used as a drying agent in the lab. (
  • ECG of a patient with pretreatment potassium level of 7.8 mEq/L and widened QRS complexes after receiving 1 ampule of calcium chloride. (
  • Potassium is predominantly present inside cells throughout the body, and its level in the liquid portion of blood is regulated by the kidneys. (
  • Because the kidneys are centrally involved in regulating potassium levels, a potassium test is often used to help evaluate the status of your kidneys. (
  • Repeat testing of potassium alone or in a panel can also be part of the ongoing evaluation of the kidneys or cardiovascular system. (
  • Under normal circumstances, your body absorbs and stores the potassium it needs, and the kidneys primarily remove any excess through urine. (
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics cause the kidneys to hold potassium in the body. (
  • If you have chronic kidney disease , your kidneys may not remove extra potassium from the blood. (
  • What is Potassium Citrate? (
  • What are the key benefits of Vitacost® Potassium Citrate? (
  • Potassium citrate supports a healthy acid/alkaline balance in the body, which is important to kidney health. (
  • When you are taking these medications you generally should not take potassium supplements because your potassium levels might rise too high. (
  • If you are taking such a combination medication, do not take potassium except on the advice of your physician. (
  • 1 This is a potential concern for individuals who take potassium-sparing diuretics. (
  • Potassium can be measured individually, but it is often included in broader tests such as an electrolyte, renal, or basic or comprehensive metabolic panel. (
  • Increased risk in patients with renal impairment, severe adrenal insufficiency, or treated with drugs that increase potassium. (
  • One nutrient that you need to regulate when you have renal disease is potassium. (
  • This family of diuretics was invented to avoid the potassium loss common with loop and thiazide diuretics. (
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics include drugs such as amiloride hydrochloride (Midamor), spironolactone (Aldactone), and triamterene (Dyrenium), among others. (
  • Treatments that combine thiazide diuretics (which cause potassium loss) and potassium-sparing diuretics can affect potassium levels unpredictably. (
  • On this basis, it might not be advisable to combine white willow with potassium-sparing diuretics. (
  • Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level? (
  • Potassium salts may increase the hyperkalemic effects of potassium-sparing diuretics. (
  • Preliminary evidence from animal studies suggests that the potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride might cause the body to retain magnesium also, along with potassium. (
  • The potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride was found to significantly reduce zinc excretion from the body. (
  • With the Analysis of Aluminum Potassium Sulfate Classic Lab Kit for AP ® Chemistry, students analyze aluminum potassium sulfate using different techniques to determine its exact composition and gain experience in gravimetric determination. (
  • Students analyze aluminum potassium sulfate (alum) using three techniques to determine its exact composition. (
  • Analysis of Aluminum Potassium Sulfate Inquiry Guidance & AP ® Chemistry Curriculum Alignment Transition Guide available! (
  • contradiction in the mechanism of action of alum, we evaluated the in vivo effect of Alum (aluminium potassium sulfate) is a alum in terms of collagen-induced platelet food additive and traditional remedy used to aggregation and bleeding time. (
  • Diclofenac potassium tablets USP are a benzeneacetic acid derivative. (
  • Diclofenac potassium tablets USP, 50 mg are available as orange, film-coated tablets for oral administration. (
  • Diclofenac potassium tablets are a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities in animal models. (
  • The mechanism of action of diclofenac potassium tablets, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition. (
  • In some fasting volunteers, measurable plasma levels are observed within 10 minutes of dosing with diclofenac potassium tablets. (
  • Potassium Tablets is one of Solgar's premium-quality mineral products. (
  • ECG findings generally correlate with the potassium level, but potentially life-threatening arrhythmias can occur without distinct ECG changes at almost any level of hyperkalemia. (
  • Viera AJ, Wouk N. Potassium Disorders: Hypokalemia and Hyperkalemia. (
  • By sparing calcium from excessive loss, potassium may play a vital part in maintaining healthy bone density. (
  • chlorine and potassium (from the flux added before soldering), and sulfur and silicon, indicating that these elements were integral to the soldering process. (
  • Potassium carbonate is used to maintain the anhydrous (without water) conditions possible when used in a way that will not react with other reactants or any products that are formed from the processing of said reactants. (
  • The process creates a byproduct of potassium hydroxide, which is then mixed with carbon dioxide to produce potassium carbonate and water. (
  • A proper electrolyte balance is vital for maintaining fluid levels, acid-base balance, and overall health, so regular monitoring of potassium and other electrolytes is frequently done in these settings. (
  • Potassium carbonate dihydrate is a suitable electrolyte replacement when used in generators and other devices that run on the electrolyte solution processes. (
  • In the nuclear fusion field, potassium carbonate can be formed into an electrolyte that aids in cold fusion experiments. (
  • And it turns out that the potassium salt is more effective than state-of-the-art precious metal complexes at running very challenging chemical reactions. (
  • Salt from potassium carbonate and water from the dihydrate are mixed into a deliquescent (wet salt). (
  • Potassium is a mineral found throughout your body that is essential to your health. (
  • CMP Pharma's Potassium Phosphates Injection is appropriate for pediatric patients 12 years of age and older who weigh at least 40 kg and adults weighing at least 45 kg. (
  • Without potassium, the heart and other muscles cannot function. (
  • And your muscles need potassium to help you move and lift things. (
  • But when potassium levels get too high, you could have a heart attack, or you might feel weakness, numbness, or tingling in your muscles. (
  • Potassium is a mineral in your body that helps your nerves and muscles work. (
  • If potassium levels are too high or too low, it can cause numerous symptoms and health risks, and can be life-threatening. (
  • High or low potassium levels can cause multiple types of symptoms, which can prompt potassium testing. (
  • With potassium testing, screening is most common in people who have a higher risk for kidney or cardiovascular disease, such as those with diabetes or high blood pressure. (
  • Based on experience with intravenous arginine, it is possible that the use of high-dose oral arginine might alter potassium levels in the body, especially in people with severe liver disease. (
  • Potassium carbonate can be used in extinguishers to out high heat flame fires (such as oil fires and other types of class B fires). (
  • It was found that potassium ferrate solution had a maximum stability at pH 9-10 and that ferrate solution at low concentration (0.25 mM) was more stable than at high concentration (0.51 mM). (
  • Whether potassium is tested alone or as part of a panel, it can be part of diagnosis, monitoring, or screening evaluation. (
  • For diagnosis, a potassium blood test is usually performed if you have symptoms that could be related to an abnormal potassium level. (
  • Some people also obtain potassium from dietary supplements. (
  • For example, patients with a chronically elevated potassium level may be asymptomatic at much higher levels than other patients. (
  • undertaken from July 15th, 2017 to March 15th, 2018.The multicentrique de cohorte prospective a inclus des Glasgow Coma Scale helped to determine the severety of the patients consécutifs admis en phase aiguë d AVC, disease at admission. (
  • More than half of critically des patients avec AVC en phase aiguë présentent ill patients exhibit admission hyperglycemia with age, severity of stroke and known diabetes as its main associated principaux facteurs de risque a risk factors. (
  • Ces résultats semblent indiquer que l'utilisation de l'alun en tant qu'antiplaquettaire oral pourrait faire l'objet d'études complémentaires, en tenant compte des effets secondaires éventuels notamment chez les patients dont la fonction rénale est altérée. (
  • Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters" by people in Profiles. (
  • The organic drying phase can be done with the potassium carbonate to carefully remove small traces of acidic impurities for better preservation of dried specimens. (
  • The specimens were digested with potassium-hydroxide. (
  • Potassium helps regulate the body''s fluid levels. (
  • Potassium, an essential nutrient found throughout the body, is necessary for healthy cell activity. (
  • Instead, the new technique uses as a catalyst a cheap, abundant chemical that is commonly found in chemistry labs around the world-potassium tert-butoxide-to help create a host of products ranging from new medicines to advanced materials. (
  • In 1742, Antonio Campanella discovered potassium carbonate and found it to be the primary component of potash. (
  • The characteristics of solid potassium ferrate were investigated and from XRD spectra it was found that samples of the solid have a tetrahedral structure with a space group of D(2h) (Pnma) and a=7.705A, b=5.863A, and c=10.36A. The aqueous stability of potassium ferrate at various pH values and different concentrations was investigated. (
  • These tests can determine whether you have normal levels of potassium. (
  • It is involved in the electric signal functioning of the heart muscle, so potassium levels are frequently checked if you have heart-related symptoms. (
  • When treatment is given for abnormal potassium levels, repeat testing can indicate how well that treatment is working. (
  • The rapidity of change in the potassium level influences the symptoms observed at various potassium levels. (
  • We have shown for the first time that you can efficiently make carbon-silicon bonds with a safe and inexpensive catalyst based on potassium rather than ultrarare precious metals like platinum, palladium, and iridium,' says Anton Toutov, a graduate student working in the laboratory of Bob Grubbs , Caltech's Victor and Elizabeth Atkins Professor of Chemistry. (
  • Coauthor Brian Stoltz , professor of chemistry at Caltech, says the reason for this strong response is that while the chemistry the catalyst drives is challenging, potassium tert-butoxide is so seemingly simple. (
  • To be able to do this type of reaction, which is one of the most-studied problems in the world of chemistry, with potassium tert-butoxide-a material that's not precious-metal based but still catalytically active-was a total shocker,' Stoltz says. (
  • In this way, a potassium measurement can detect disruptions to how the body stores, uses, and excretes potassium. (
  • Potassium is a mineral that your body needs to work properly. (
  • I could have worked harder to prevent this, but actually the blue cast is somewhat attractive in the photographs, and it is quite characteristic of the early stages of potassium oxidation. (
  • A recent study provides early evidence that increased potassium may help prevent hardening of the arteries, which contributes to serious heart-related conditions. (
  • Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 50 mg of diclofenac potassium. (
  • The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis. (
  • Many people get all the potassium they need from what they eat and drink. (
  • For most people, natural foods rich in potassium are safe and part of a healthy diet. (
  • Potassium also plays an important role in healthy heart function. (
  • Potassium is extremely important for the normal fluid balance on cell walls and extremely important for all sports and heart function. (
  • You need potassium to keep your heart beating properly. (
  • Tests that measure potassium have multiple applications in clinical medicine. (
  • Some medicines also can raise your potassium level. (
  • ECG changes have a sequential progression of effects, which roughly correlate with the potassium level. (
  • Potassium carbonate is still commonly used as a baking ingredient in thick breads such as gingerbread. (
  • A diet rich in potassium helps to offset some of sodium's harmful effects on blood pressure. (