The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.
An antibacterial agent that has been used in veterinary practice for treating swine dysentery and enteritis and for promoting growth. However, its use has been prohibited in the UK following reports of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p125)
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
The consumption of edible substances.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
Glucose in blood.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Abstaining from all food.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Gallstones: an intestinal disease? (1/1828)

Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist systems, near the iron curtain. Similarly, the gall bladder and biliary tract can be viewed as the border between liver and intestinal tract, where many interesting things occur with profound impact on both systems. Combined efforts by researchers in the field of hepatology and gastrointestinal motility should brake down the Berlin wall of ignorance of one of the most common diseases in the Western world.  (+info)

Response of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase to the cephalic phase of insulin secretion. (2/1828)

Modulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) allows a tissue-specific partitioning of triglyceride-derived fatty acids, and insulin is a major modulator of its activity. The present studies were aimed to assess in rats the contribution of insulin to the response of adipose tissue and muscle LPL to food intake. Epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose LPL rose 65% above fasting values as early as 1 h after the onset of a 30-min high-carbohydrate meal, with a second activity peak 1 h later that was maintained for an additional 2 h. Soleus muscle LPL was decreased by 25% between 0.5 and 4 h after meal intake. The essential contribution of insulin to the LPL response to food intake was determined by preventing the full insulin response to meal intake by administration of diazoxide (150 mg/kg body wt, in the meal). The usual postprandial changes in adipose and muscle LPL did not occur in the absence of an increase in insulinemia. However, the early (60 min) increase in adipose tissue LPL was not prevented by the drug, likely because of the maintenance of the early centrally mediated phase of insulin secretion. In a subsequent study, rats chronically implanted with a gastric cannula were used to demonstrate that the postprandial rise in adipose LPL is independent of nutrient absorption and can be elicited by the cephalic (preabsorptive) phase of insulin secretion. Obese Zucker rats were used because of their strong cephalic insulin response. After an 8-h fast, rats were fed a liquid diet ad libitum (orally, cannula closed), sham fed (orally, cannula opened), or fed directly into the stomach via the cannula during 4 h. Insulinemia increased 10-fold over fasting levels in ad libitum- and intragastric-fed rats and threefold in sham-fed rats. Changes in adipose tissue LPL were proportional to the elevation in plasma insulin levels, demonstrating that the cephalic-mediated rise in insulinemia, in the absence of nutrient absorption, stimulates adipose LPL. These results demonstrate the central role of insulin in the postprandial response of tissue LPL, and they show that cephalically mediated insulin secretion is able to stimulate adipose LPL.  (+info)

Inhibition of carbohydrate-mediated glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide secretion by circulating non-esterified fatty acids. (3/1828)

Two studies were performed to assess the entero-insular axis in simple obesity and the possible effect of variations in the level of circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) on one of the components of the entero-insular axis, glucagon-like peptide-1 [(7-36) amide]. In the first study, we compared the entero-pancreatic hormone response to oral carbohydrate in obese and lean women. Obese subjects demonstrated hyperinsulinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance but this was not associated with an increased secretion of either glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). These findings therefore provide no support for the hypothesis that overactivity of the entero-insular axis contributes to the hyperinsulinaemia seen in obesity. Indeed, the plasma GLP-1 response to carbohydrate was markedly attenuated in obese subjects, confirming previous observations. In the second study, in which carbohydrate-stimulated GLP-1 responses were again evaluated in obese and lean women, circulating NEFA levels were modulated using either heparin (to increase serum NEFA) or acipimox (to reduce serum NEFA). Treatment with acipimox resulted in complete suppression of NEFA levels and in a markedly higher GLP-1 response than the response to carbohydrate alone or to carbohydrate plus heparin. We suggest that higher fasting and postprandial NEFA levels in obesity may tonically inhibit nutrient-mediated GLP-1 secretion, and that this results in attenuation of the GLP-1 response to carbohydrate. However, although serum NEFA levels post-acipimox were similarly suppressed in both lean and obese subjects, the GLP-1 response was again significantly lower in obese subjects, suggesting the possibility of an intrinsic defect of GLP-1 secretion in obesity. The reduction of GLP-1 levels in obesity may be important both in relation to its insulinotropic effect and to its postulated role as a satiety factor.  (+info)

Impaired endothelial function following a meal rich in used cooking fat. (4/1828)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that intake of used cooking fat is associated with impaired endothelial function. BACKGROUND: Diets containing high levels of lipid oxidation products may accelerate atherogenesis, but the effect on endothelial function is unknown. METHODS: Flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation and glyceryl trinitrate-induced endothelium-independent dilation of the brachial artery were investigated in 10 men. Subjects had arterial studies before and 4 h after three test meals: 1) a meal (fat 64.4 g) rich in cooking fat that had been used for deep frying in a fast food restaurant; 2) the same meal (fat 64.4 g) rich in unused cooking fat, and 3) a corresponding low fat meal (fat 18.4 g) without added fat. RESULTS: Endothelium-dependent dilation decreased between fasting and postprandial studies after the used fat meal (5.9 +/- 2.3% vs. 0.8 +/- 2.2%, p = 0.0003), but there was no significant change after the unused fat meal (5.3 +/- 2.1% vs. 6.0 +/- 2.5%) or low fat meal (5.3 +/- 2.3% vs. 5.4 +/- 3.3%). There was no significant difference in endothelium-independent dilation after any of the meals. Plasma free fatty acid concentration did not change significantly during any of the meals. The level of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia was not associated with change in endothelial function. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of a meal rich in fat previously used for deep frying in a commercial fast food restaurant resulted in impaired arterial endothelial function. These findings suggest that intake of degradation products of heated fat contribute to endothelial dysfunction.  (+info)

The influence of the colon on postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36) amide concentration in man. (5/1828)

Glucagon-like peptide (7-36) amide (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone of the enteroinsular axis released rapidly after meals despite the fact that GLP-1 secreting cells (L-cells) occur predominantly in the distal gut. The importance of these colonic L-cells for postprandial GLP-1 was determined in healthy control subjects and in ileostomy patients with minimal small bowel resection (<5 cm). Subjects were fed a high complex carbohydrate test meal (15.3 g starch) followed by two carbohydrate-free, high fat test meals (25 g and 48.7 g fat respectively). Circulating levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose insulinotrophic peptide (GIP) and GLP-1 were measured over a 9-h postprandial period. For both subject groups the complex carbohydrate test meal failed to elicit a rise in either GIP or GLP-1. However, both hormones were elevated after the fat load although the GLP-1 concentration was significantly reduced in the ileostomist group when compared with controls (P=0.02). Associated with this reduction in circulating GLP-1 was an elevation in glucagon concentration (P=0.012) and a secondary rise in the plasma glucose concentration (P=0.006). These results suggest that the loss of colonic endocrine tissue is an important determinant in the postprandial GLP-1 concentration. Ileostomists should not be assumed to have normal enteroinsular function as the colon appears to have an important role in postprandial metabolism.  (+info)

Effect of the glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based breakfast meals on glucose tolerance at lunch in healthy subjects. (6/1828)

BACKGROUND: Diets with a low glycemic index (GI) have been shown to improve glucose tolerance in both healthy and diabetic subjects. Two potential mechanisms are discussed in relation to long-term metabolic effects: a decreased demand for insulin in the postprandial phase and formation of short-chain fatty acids from fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates in the colon. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of the GI and the indigestible carbohydrate--resistant starch (RS) and dietary fiber (DF)--content of cereal-based breakfasts on glucose tolerance at a second meal (lunch) in healthy subjects. DESIGN: The effects of 7 test breakfasts with known GIs (GI: 52-99) and RS + DF contents (2-36 g) were evaluated. White-wheat bread was used as a reference breakfast (high GI, low RS + DF content). Glucose and insulin responses after the second meal were measured in healthy subjects. In addition, the satiating capacity of 4 of the 7 test breakfasts was estimated before and during the second meal. RESULTS: Two of the 4 low-GI breakfasts improved glucose tolerance at the second meal. Only these 2 breakfasts were capable of postponing the in-between-meal fasting state. There was no measurable effect of fermentable carbohydrates on glucose tolerance at the second meal. The highest satiety score was associated with the barley breakfast that had a low GI and a high RS + DF content. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose tolerance can improve in a single day. Slow absorption and digestion of starch from the breakfast meal, but not the content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast meal, improved glucose tolerance at the second meal (lunch).  (+info)

Net postprandial utilization of [15N]-labeled milk protein nitrogen is influenced by diet composition in humans. (7/1828)

The aim of this study was to follow the fate of dietary nitrogen to assess the postprandial utilization of purified milk protein and to determine the acute influence of energy nutrients. For this purpose, a [15N]-labeling dietary protein approach was used. Twenty-five subjects swallowed an ileal tube and ingested [15 N]-milk protein alone or supplemented with either milk fat or sucrose. The absorption and postprandial deamination of dietary protein was monitored for 8 h. Sucrose delayed the absorption of protein longer than fat, but the ileal digestibility did not differ among groups (94.5-94.8%). Sucrose, but not fat, significantly reduced the postprandial transfer of [15N]-milk nitrogen to urea. Consequently, the net postprandial protein utilization (NPPU) of milk protein calculated 8 h after meal ingestion was 80% when ingested either alone or supplemented with fat and was significantly greater with sucrose (NPPU = 85%). This study shows that energy nutrients do not affect the nitrogen absorption but modify the metabolic utilization of dietary protein in the phase of nitrogen gain. Our method provides information concerning the deamination kinetics of dietary amino acids and further allows the detection of differences of dietary protein utilization in acute conditions. The diet composition should be carefully considered, and protein quality must be determined under optimal conditions of utilization.  (+info)

Enhanced postprandial energy expenditure with medium-chain fatty acid feeding is attenuated after 14 d in premenopausal women. (8/1828)

BACKGROUND: Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) are reported to enhance human energy expenditure (EE), although few studies have involved women and the duration of such effects is only known for periods of approximately 7 d. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine whether women consuming mixed, MCT-enriched or long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT)-enriched diets showed changes in EE or substrate oxidation after 7 and 14 d. DESIGN: Twelve nonobese, premenopausal women were fed isoenergetic mixed diets enriched in either MCTs or LCTs during separate, 14-d feeding periods. Each meal contained 40% of energy as fat (80% of which was the treatment fat), 45% as carbohydrate, and 15% as protein. On days 7 and 14 of each trial, basal metabolic rate (BMR, kJ/min), total energy expenditure (TEE, kJ/min), and thermic effect of feeding (deltakJ/min) after a standardized breakfast were measured by respiratory gas exchange. RESULTS: On day 7, the mean (+/-SEM) BMR (3.58+/-0.11 kJ/min) with the MCT diet was greater (P = 0.0003) than that with the LCT diet (3.43+/-0.11 kJ/min). The mean postprandial TEE on day 7 was significantly greater (P = 0.04) with the MCT diet (4.36+/-0.04 kJ/min) than with the LCT diet (4.23+/-0.04 kJ/min); by day 14, postprandial TEE was still greater with the MCT diet, but not significantly so. No significant differences in the thermic effect of feeding were evident between diets. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this longest controlled MCT feeding study to date suggest that short-term feeding of MCT-enriched diets increases TEE, but this effect could be transient with continued feeding.  (+info)

The postprandial period is the time frame following a meal, during which the body is engaged in the process of digestion, absorption, and assimilation of nutrients. In a medical context, this term generally refers to the few hours after eating when the body is responding to the ingested food, particularly in terms of changes in metabolism and insulin levels.

The postprandial period can be of specific interest in the study and management of conditions such as diabetes, where understanding how the body handles glucose during this time can inform treatment decisions and strategies for maintaining healthy blood sugar levels.

Carbadox is a veterinary drug that belongs to the class of medications called antimicrobials. It is specifically an antimicrobial agent with both antibacterial and coccidiostat properties. Carbadox is used in the treatment and prevention of certain bacterial infections in swine (pigs). It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and killing coccidia, a type of parasite that can cause infection in pigs.

Carbadox is available as a feed additive and is typically administered to pigs through their food. It is important to note that carbadox is not approved for use in animals destined for human consumption in many countries, including the European Union, due to concerns about potential carcinogenicity and other safety issues.

It's worth mentioning that the use of carbadox in food-producing animals has been a topic of controversy and debate in recent years, with some experts calling for stricter regulations or a complete ban on its use due to concerns about antibiotic resistance and human health.

A medical definition of 'food' would be:

"Substances consumed by living organisms, usually in the form of meals, which contain necessary nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. These substances are broken down during digestion to provide energy, build and repair tissues, and regulate bodily functions."

It's important to note that while this is a medical definition, it also aligns with common understanding of what food is.

Gastric emptying is the process by which the stomach empties its contents into the small intestine. In medical terms, it refers to the rate and amount of food that leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. This process is regulated by several factors, including the volume and composition of the meal, hormonal signals, and neural mechanisms. Abnormalities in gastric emptying can lead to various gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders, such as gastroparesis, where the stomach's ability to empty food is delayed.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

Gastrointestinal motility refers to the coordinated muscular contractions and relaxations that propel food, digestive enzymes, and waste products through the gastrointestinal tract. This process involves the movement of food from the mouth through the esophagus into the stomach, where it is mixed with digestive enzymes and acids to break down food particles.

The contents are then emptied into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed, and the remaining waste products are moved into the large intestine for further absorption of water and electrolytes and eventual elimination through the rectum and anus.

Gastrointestinal motility is controlled by a complex interplay between the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and local reflexes. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal motility can lead to various symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation.

Fasting is defined in medical terms as the abstinence from food or drink for a period of time. This practice is often recommended before certain medical tests or procedures, as it helps to ensure that the results are not affected by recent eating or drinking.

In some cases, fasting may also be used as a therapeutic intervention, such as in the management of seizures or other neurological conditions. Fasting can help to lower blood sugar and insulin levels, which can have a variety of health benefits. However, it is important to note that prolonged fasting can also have negative effects on the body, including malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.

Fasting is also a spiritual practice in many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism. In these contexts, fasting is often seen as a way to purify the mind and body, to focus on spiritual practices, or to express devotion or mourning.

Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), also known as free fatty acids (FFA), refer to fatty acid molecules that are not bound to glycerol in the form of triglycerides or other esters. In the bloodstream, NEFAs are transported while bound to albumin and can serve as a source of energy for peripheral tissues. Under normal physiological conditions, NEFA levels are tightly regulated by the body; however, elevated NEFA levels have been associated with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Blood glucose self-monitoring is the regular measurement of blood glucose levels performed by individuals with diabetes to manage their condition. This process involves using a portable device, such as a glucometer or continuous glucose monitor (CGM), to measure the amount of glucose present in a small sample of blood, usually obtained through a fingerstick.

The primary purpose of self-monitoring is to help individuals with diabetes understand how various factors, such as food intake, physical activity, medication, and stress, affect their blood glucose levels. By tracking these patterns, they can make informed decisions about adjusting their diet, exercise, or medication regimens to maintain optimal glycemic control and reduce the risk of long-term complications associated with diabetes.

Self-monitoring is an essential component of diabetes self-management and education, enabling individuals to take an active role in their healthcare. Regular monitoring also allows healthcare professionals to assess a patient's adherence to their treatment plan and make necessary adjustments based on the data collected.

A Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) is a medical test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. It measures how well your body is able to process glucose, which is a type of sugar.

During the test, you will be asked to fast (not eat or drink anything except water) for at least eight hours before the test. Then, a healthcare professional will take a blood sample to measure your fasting blood sugar level. After that, you will be given a sugary drink containing a specific amount of glucose. Your blood sugar levels will be measured again after two hours and sometimes also after one hour.

The results of the test will indicate how well your body is able to process the glucose and whether you have normal, impaired, or diabetic glucose tolerance. If your blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes, you may have prediabetes, which means that you are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

It is important to note that a Glucose Tolerance Test should be performed under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as high blood sugar levels can be dangerous if not properly managed.

Reagent strips, also known as diagnostic or test strips, are narrow pieces of plastic material that have been impregnated with chemical reagents. They are used in the qualitative or semi-quantitative detection of various substances, such as glucose, proteins, ketones, blood, and white blood cells, in body fluids like urine or blood.

Reagent strips typically contain multiple pad areas, each with a different reagent that reacts to a specific substance. To perform the test, a small amount of the fluid is applied to the strip, and the reaction between the reagents and the target substance produces a visible color change. The resulting color can then be compared to a standardized color chart to determine the concentration or presence of the substance.

Reagent strips are widely used in point-of-care testing, providing quick and convenient results for healthcare professionals and patients alike. They are commonly used for monitoring conditions such as diabetes (urine or blood glucose levels), urinary tract infections (leukocytes and nitrites), and kidney function (protein and blood).

... that PPG might be simply a marker or a surrogate of a complex series of metabolic events occurring in the postprandial period, ... OGTT Postprandial dip Oxyhyperglycemia Association, American Diabetes (2001-04-01). "Postprandial Blood Glucose". Diabetes Care ... A postprandial glucose (PPG) test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of glucose, in the plasma after a meal. ... Reference works have recommended a peak postprandial glucose level of 140 mg/dl for any adult below 50 years of age; whilst ...
... exposure to blue-enriched light during the post-lunch dip period significantly reduced the EEG alpha activity, and increased ... Postprandial somnolence (colloquially known as food coma, after-dinner dip, or the itis) is a normal state of drowsiness or ... Postprandial somnolence has two components: a general state of low energy related to activation of the parasympathetic nervous ... Alkaline tide Food drunk Sugar high Glycemic index, a measure of how fast blood sugar levels rise Postprandial dip Keyes, Jazz ...
In its skeleton-preserving actions, calcitonin protects against calcium loss from the skeleton during periods of calcium ... Other effects are in preventing postprandial hypercalcemia resulting from absorption of Ca2+. Also, calcitonin inhibits food ...
Indeed, short-term personalized dietary interventions based on a personalized GI microbiome, can improve postprandial glucose ... to widen that person's GI microbiome richness as a prelude to obesity treatments to maintain a weight loss over a long period, ...
Postprandial blood glucose Blood taken 1-2 hours after eating to see the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Prediabetes A ... Peak action The time period when the effect of something is as strong as it can be such as when insulin in having the most ... Acute Happens for a limited period of time; abrupt onset; sharp, severe. Adrenal gland An endocrine gland located on top of the ... Polydipsia A great thirst that lasts for long periods of time; a sign of diabetes. Polyphagia Great hunger; a sign of diabetes ...
During the 48-hour neonatal period, the neonate adjusts glucagon and epinephrine levels following birth, which may cause ... called late postprandial hypoglycemia. Another mechanism causing hypoglycemia is due to antibodies formed against insulin ... During the 48-hour neonatal period, the neonate adjusts glucagon and epinephrine levels following birth, which may trigger ... Children with primary adrenal failure, also called Addison's disease, may experience hypoglycemia after long periods of fasting ...
... pancreatic glucagon is augmented in the early postprandial period, probably through stimulation the catecholamines involved in ... Digestive Diseases and Sciences Volume 46, Number 9 (2001), 1915-1923, doi:10.1023/A:1010635131228 Postprandial GLP-1, ...
... postprandial period MeSH G10.261.862 - salivation MeSH G10.549.140 - dental caries susceptibility MeSH G10.549.164 - dental ...
Postprandial platelet-poor plasma 5-hyroxytryptamine concentrations during diarrhea and constipation periods of alternating ...
This explains post prandial inflammation, which involves innate immune system activation after ingesting a meal. Additionally, ... it does not appear that such adaptations have evolved in periods of over-nutrition. In current times, natural selection does ...
These insulin analogues are used to replace the basal level of insulin, and may be effective over a period of up to 24 hours. ... This allowed larger amounts of active monomeric insulin to be available for postprandial (after meal) injections. Novo Nordisk ... and those that are released slowly over a period of between 8 and 24 hours, intended to supply the basal level of insulin ...
Hypoglycemia due to endogenous insulin can be congenital or acquired, apparent in the newborn period, or many years later. The ... also see idiopathic postprandial syndrome) Gastric dumping syndrome Drug induced hyperinsulinism Sulfonylurea Aspirin ...
Development here began in the 1870s and virtually ended in the 1920s, leaving York Harbor a microcosm of period resort ... Post-prandial entertainments included chamber music by a Boston Symphony ensemble in the lobby, or Saturday dancing and costume ...
During the period before his return to Weimar, Bach had composed a set of 31 chorale preludes: these were discovered ... The same melody was used in the postprandial grace Herr Gott, nun sei gepreiset, the first verse of which is given below with ... Only a few other organ works based on chorales can be dated with any certainty to this period. These include the chorale ... The hymn was performed throughout the Christmas period, particularly during nativity plays. Many composers set it to music for ...
In this breath test, the exhaled breath is collected in sealed test tubes at 30-minute intervals over a 90-minute period after ... CSID symptoms are frequent, daily events; they are lifelong, and they are postprandial (occurring after eating food). These ... The exhaled breath is collected in sealed test tubes at 30-minute intervals over a three-hour period after drinking the sugary ...
Many types of glucose tests exist and they can be used to estimate blood sugar levels at a given time or, over a longer period ... continuous testing postprandial glucose test (PC): 2 hours after eating random glucose test Some laboratory tests don't measure ... Fasting blood sugar test, for example, requires 10-16 hour-long period of not eating before the test. Blood sugar levels can be ...
Horton, T.J., & Geissler, C.A. (1996). Post-prandial thermogenesis with ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin in lean, pre-disposed ... particularly if the supplement is used for a longer period of time. There are many conditions in which DHEA use has special ... particularly if used at high-recommended or higher-than-recommended doses and/or for prolonged periods. The Dexatrim product ...
... which leads to lower postprandial (after meal) blood glucose readings. A high glycemic food causes a more rapid rise in blood ... is normal for blood glucose and insulin levels to rise after eating and then return again to fasting levels over a short period ...
This period also saw the launch of Castellum, an annual journal of the Castle Society, created to keep former students in touch ... Although the origin of the grace is officially unknown, an almost identical version was in use at the time as a post-prandial ... During this period there was rapid change in the size and structure of the college, which expanded to over 300 undergraduates ... Although it had been in use before this period, the college arms were officially granted by the College of Arms on 29 May 1912 ...
This is what causes muscles to work which can require a breakdown, and also to build in the rest period, which occurs during ... postprandial thermogenesis). All of these processes require an intake of oxygen along with coenzymes to provide energy for ...
Basal insulin requirements will vary between individuals and periods of the day. The basal rate for a particular time period is ... The super bolus is useful for certain foods (like sugary breakfast cereals) which cause a large post-prandial peak of blood ... Neither food nor bolus insulin must be taken for 4 hours before or during the evaluation period. If the blood sugar level ... The process is repeated over several days, varying the fasting period, until a 24-hour basal profile has been built up which ...
If blood glucose values rise over 180 mg/dL for any period of time, the kidney cannot re-absorb all glucose back into the blood ... Dungan KM, Buse JB, Largay J, Kelly MM, Button EA, Wittlin S (2006). "1,5-anhydroglucitol and postprandial hyperglycemia as ... for postprandial hyperglycemia was able to differentiate two patients who had similar, near goal, hemoglobin A1c values, yet ... 5-Anhydroglucitol reflects postprandial hyperglycemia and a decreased insulinogenic index, even in subjects with prediabetes ...
The period after orgasm (known as a refractory period) is often a time of increased relaxation, attributed to the release of ... Caffeine-induced sleep disorder Hypnotic induction Postprandial dip Postprandial somnolence Seymour Diamond; Donald J. Dalessio ... is practiced to lengthen periods of sleep, increase the effectiveness of sleep, and to reduce or prevent insomnia. Dim or dark ...
Often, there are raised glucose levels in the early measurements, reflecting the loss of a postprandial peak (after the meal) ... Prior to beginning the hyperinsulinemic period, a 3h tracer infusion enables one to determine the basal rate of glucose ... If compensatory insulin secretion fails, then either fasting (impaired fasting glucose) or postprandial (impaired glucose ... that is a result of an overshoot in insulin production after the failure of the physiologic postprandial insulin response.[ ...
The transferrin value is pre- and postprandial static low. Thus, the body does not respond to nutritive iron supplementation by ... including periods of decreased defense of the adaptive immune system. Fibrosis in various organ systems, including the skin. ... The typical constellation of findings is indicative: The patients show a postprandial non-responsive and too low and static ...
Jeanne F. Duffy, Charles A. Czeisler, and Frank A. J. L. Scheer, "Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the ... "Four nights of sleep restriction suppress the postprandial lipemic response and decrease satiety". Journal of Lipid Research. ... They have found that the intrinsic circadian period in women is longer than in men. This finding is related to Chang's ... Further experiments revealed that mutating the Clock gene in mice reduced period gene expression and improved entrainment ...
Because CGM would overcome the episodic nature of SMBG, overnight glucose values, postprandial values and glucose levels during ... Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Subcutaneous Tissue over a 14-Day Sensor Wear Period Diabetes. Sci Technol. Sep 2013; 7(5 ... variability and stability while simultaneously identifying periods of significant hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. In February ...
The thermic effect of food should be measured for a period of time greater than or equal to five hours. The American Journal of ... "Independent effects of obesity and insulin resistance on postprandial thermogenesis in men". Journal of Clinical Investigation ...
This will be acted on slowly by pancreatic amylase and glucose will be absorbed over a 6-hour period. The overall frequency of ... Feeding characteristically results in postprandial hyperglycemia and glucosuria, in addition to increased blood lactate levels ... In children, this event may occur during acute GI illness or periods of poor enteral intake.[citation needed] Mild hypoglycemic ... postprandial, short fast, long fast, or precipitating factors; (3) the presence or absence of lactic acidosis; (4) any ...
If there is no hypoglycemia at the time of the symptoms, this condition is called idiopathic postprandial syndrome. It might be ... sugar intake as the biology of a crash is similar in itself to the body's response to low blood sugar levels following periods ... "Postprandial Hypoglycemia". Retrieved November 29, 2011. Açbay O, Celik AF, Kadioğlu P, Göksel S, Gündoğdu S (1999). " ... Reactive hypoglycemia, postprandial hypoglycemia, or sugar crash is a term describing recurrent episodes of symptomatic ...
Postprandial blood glucose levels, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), nitrate, nitrite, ascorbic acid, retinol, beta- ... Treatment with different doses of MCE significantly reduced postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress, and augmented the ...
Read on for a deep dive into the reasons for postprandial somnolence and what to do about it. ... 3) It occurs when glucose drops to 70 mg/dL or lower in the postprandial period, accompanied by symptoms that resolve upon ... How to Resolve Postprandial Fatigue To resolve postprandial fatigue and other uncomfortable, abnormal postprandial symptoms, ... Oxidative stress, in turn, may contribute to postprandial fatigue and other postprandial symptoms by generating an inflammatory ...
... that PPG might be simply a marker or a surrogate of a complex series of metabolic events occurring in the postprandial period, ... OGTT Postprandial dip Oxyhyperglycemia Association, American Diabetes (2001-04-01). "Postprandial Blood Glucose". Diabetes Care ... A postprandial glucose (PPG) test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of glucose, in the plasma after a meal. ... Reference works have recommended a peak postprandial glucose level of 140 mg/dl for any adult below 50 years of age; whilst ...
... those that kick in quickly and for a short time are a better choice than ones that work slowly over a long period. Your doctor ... But how do you handle a spike that comes after you eat? Its called "postprandial" blood glucose, and if you take some simple ...
In the immediate postprandial period, glycogenolysis represents the major homeostatic process to maintain euglycemia. In ... Patients with FDPase deficiency typically present in the newborn period with symptoms or signs related to hypoglycemia and ...
This did not change over time after the postprandial period. More 12 hour acid exposure was related to more frequent night time ... Patients with oesophagitis suffered reflux nearly as much at night and in the morning as during the postprandial period. They ...
Title: CHANGES IN POSTPRANDIAL PLASMA AND EXTRACELLULAR AND RUMINAL FLUID VOLUMES IN WETHERS FED OR UNFED FOR 72 HOURS Author. ... During each period, half the wethers were limit-fed (540 g DM/d: FED) and half were deprived of feed and water for 72 h ( ... Technical Abstract: Post-prandial shifts in body water compartments might limit feed intake by calves and sheep stressed as a ... This research was conducted to determine the effects of partial dehydration, induced by a 72 hour period without feed and water ...
Post-prandial hypoglycaemia of unknown origin. Koutroukas Vaios , Dhatariya Ketan , Brooke Antonia Introduction: α 19-year-old ... The two most severe episodes (requiring paramedic treatment) were in the recovery period from anaerobic exercise. Her body mass ...
In delayed OH, the significant blood pressure drop occurs first after 3-min period of orthostasis, whereas in postprandial OH, ... In delayed OH, the significant blood pressure drop occurs first after 3-min period of orthostasis, whereas in postprandial OH, ... In delayed OH, the significant blood pressure drop occurs first after 3-min period of orthostasis, whereas in postprandial OH, ... Autonomic dysfunction, Carotid sinus, Delayed orthostatic hypotension, Postprandial hypotension, Postural orthostatic ...
Onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy may be rapid or may occur after longer periods of treatment. If a ... Saxagliptin improves glycaemic control by reducing fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 ... Patients who completed the initial 24-week study period were eligible to enter a controlled 28-week long-term study extension ( ... The safety profile of saxagliptin added to dapagliflozin plus metformin in the long-term treatment period was consistent with ...
Glucose PP (Post Prandial) Test. in Delhi. ₹. 99₹. 180. Includes 1. Parameter. 44. % off for a limited period ... Who needs a postprandial glucose test?. A diabetologist recommends a postprandial glucose test when a patient has diabetes or ... Postprandial blood sugar: How you can control after-meal spikes.. Get the right medicine at the right time: To manage or ... Glucose Post Prandial Test in Delhi. Diabetes is a chronic disease when the pancreas stops producing enough insulin or the body ...
The targets for glycaemic levels aimed at were FBG £95 mg/dl and 2-hour post-prandial blood glucose £125 mg/dl. The values for ... A dose of 75 g glucose was dissolved in 300 ml water and administered orally over a 5minute period. A single venous blood ... Insulin was prescribed if the fasting blood glucose was more than 95 mg%, and the 2-hour post-prandial over 125 mg%, after a ... Review of the outcome of pregnancies in women with normal glucose tolerance, in the same period, gave a figure of 2.0% loss. ...
If the fasting plasma glucose level exceeds 105 mg/dL and/or the 2-hour postprandial value exceeds 120 mg/dL, treatment with ... Spontaneous resolution generally occurs within a period of months but may persist over years. Autonomic neuropathy. Various ... Gestational diabetes most often appears during this period of maximum insulin resistance, and ketoacidosis may be seen -- ... In the immediate postpartum period, reassess the patients meal plan and adjust her treatment program. Maternal insulin ...
Naslund E, Gutniak M, Skogar S, Rossner S, Hellstrom PM: Glucagon-like peptide 1 increases the period of postprandial satiety ... with an attenuated early GLP-1 response and a diminished GIP secretion somewhat later in the postprandial period. The reduction ...
During the insulin withdrawal period, the patient should test urine samples for sugar and ketone bodies at least three times ... In general, GLUCOTROL should be given approximately 30 minutes before a meal to achieve the greatest reduction in postprandial ... Short-term administration of GLUCOTROL may be sufficient during periods of transient loss of control in patients usually ... Fasting insulin levels are not elevated even on long-term GLUCOTROL administration, but the postprandial insulin response ...
... we can break up our bodys state into three metabolic periods: ... A 2-hour postprandial blood sugar level chart:. Post Prandial ... Postabsorptive: This period occurs for about four to six hours following the postprandial period. The liver breaks down ... Postprandial blood sugar is a measurement of the glucose concentration in your bloodstream in the period up to four hours after ... When we talk about glucose in relation to food, we can break up our bodys state into three metabolic periods:. *Postprandial: ...
Post-prandial reactive hyperinsulinemia - The reaction of insulin dumping is actually called post-prandial reactive ... Try your best to cease all carbohydrate mimickers for the two to four week period until you have kicked your craving. So what ... So lets just say that during the two to four week period that youve decided to take yourself off these carbohydrate rich ...
Effects of exercise before or after meal ingestion on fat balance and postprandial metabolism in overweight men - Volume 109 ... 5 h observation period and the postprandial TAG response in the breakfast to lunch period. However, fat balance was ... 20Hardman, AE & Aldred, HE (1995) Walking during the postprandial period decreases alimentary lipaemia. J Cardiovasc Risk 2, 71 ... 3 illustrates the postprandial responses for TAG, insulin and glucose over the 8·5 h observation period, and summary responses ...
... April 16, 2022. by Make More Offers Challenge You might consider glucotrust if you have trouble ... Supplements that contain insulin or diabetes medication for a prolonged period of time are not recommended. Although the ...
... through the initial 24 hour period (p=0.03). Ex girlfriend or boyfriend caused a decrease in PPG-AUC (p=0.02) for every one of ... PURPOSE Elevated postprandial glycemic excursions (PPG) are significant risk elements for. Published by bio2009 on July 29, ... PURPOSE Elevated postprandial glycemic excursions (PPG) are significant risk elements for coronary disease in type 2 diabetes ... Keywords: post-prandial blood sugar glycemic control workout type 2 p53 and MDM2 proteins-interaction-inhibitor racemic ...
This typically manifests as recurrent postprandial hyperglycemic episodes. These postprandial episodes are the most significant ... The diabetes-in-pregnancy team is also able to help the patient during the puerperal period with the challenges of lactation, ... and third-trimester postprandial blood sugar levels and not with fasting or mean glucose levels. [36] When postprandial glucose ... Maternal postprandial glucose levels and infant birth weight: the Diabetes in Early Pregnancy Study. The National Institute of ...
... with a low GI was associated with lower glycemia and insulinemia and relatively higher fat oxidation in the postprandial period ... Discussion: Our data suggest that even over a short period of time, a meal-replacement diet is more effective in reducing ... During the follow-up period, all of the participants were asked to continue replacing one meal per day until the 52-weeks ... In addition, in these obese insulin-resistant subjects, the postprandial decease in fat oxidation was significantly less ...
Postprandial hypotension: This drop in blood pressure happens a few hours after eating. Seniors are especially prone to this ... To diagnose low blood pressure, your doctor may take several blood pressure readings over a period of time. Or, they may ask ... Neurally mediated hypotension: This type of hypotension is a result of standing in place for long periods of time. It happens ... can provide a steady hand to help keep seniors stable when they stand up after sitting or lying down for long periods of time. ...
6 mo and a 24 h postprandial period (at baseline). In this secondary analysis of the main study, data from those completing ... Results: Postprandial self-rated calmness significantly improved after 1 cup of blueberries (P = 0.01; q = 0.04; with an 11.6% ... Chronic and postprandial effect of blueberries on cognitive function, alertness, and mood in participants with metabolic ... Chronic and postprandial effect of blueberries on cognitive function, alertness, and mood in participants with metabolic ...
PPBS (Postprandial Blood Sugar). Postprandial plasma glucose concentration, Sugar PP, 2-hour postprandial, Glucose Postprandial ... b). A fasting blood glucose test that measures the blood sugar levels after a fasting period of 8-12 hours. c). A random blood ... d). Postprandial blood glucose test that measures the blood sugar levels 1-2 hours after eating a meal. e). An Insulin Fasting ... while glycosylated hemoglobin measures the average blood sugar levels over a period of 2 to 3 months. ...
... and of paradoxical postprandial ketogenesis, lactate suppression, and protein-cured glucose intolerance. ... during this period I had a mild degree of paradoxical postprandial ketogenesis that is abnormal, greater than found in the ... Even worse than with adding washout periods, randomizing across periods of improved and worsened biotin status would take years ... If it is true that postprandial ketogenesis is typically seen in the most severe type, then I should not expect to see it in ...
Postprandial Hypotension: this is a drop in blood pressure that occurs right after you eat and is most likely to occur in ... It can occur after standing for a period of time, exercising, an emotionally stressful event, or being exposed to a warm ... You may experience dizziness every day- and it may last for extended periods of time. If you are experiencing chronic dizziness ...
Postprandial low blood pressure symptoms happen right after eating a meal. Your blood pressure drops on a full stomach. ... It occurs when you stand for long periods of time. It can also happen during an emotionally upsetting time. ...
Effect of a cereal and milk meal with or without fruits and nuts on the postprandial glycemic response in Indian men. ▪ Author ... Japan during the period 2010- 2011. We obtained anthropometric data and information on life style characteristics including ... and then gradually decreased during the subsequent 2-h period. No signifi- cant uric acid changes from ingesting bean curd cake ...
Postprandial glucose and insulin responses at MTT were reduced after NBS in comparison with DCS in all groups. However, no ... After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food ... Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young ... Reports surrounding the role of resistant starch (RS) on postprandial lipemia in humans are scarce. The aim of the present ...
  • Here, we aimed to examine the effects of RS from two sources on glycemic response (GR), postprandial lipemia, and appetite in subjects with T2D. (bvsalud.org)
  • Apart from classical orthostatic hypotension, the gravitational force may strongly contribute to other forms of orthostatic intolerance, delayed and postprandial OH, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), and reflex syncope. (lu.se)
  • This type of hypotension is a result of standing in place for long periods of time. (caringseniorservice.com)
  • A postprandial glucose (PPG) test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of glucose, in the plasma after a meal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Who needs a postprandial glucose test? (redcliffelabs.com)
  • A diabetologist recommends a postprandial glucose test when a patient has diabetes or another insulin-related medical condition. (redcliffelabs.com)
  • Treatment with different doses of MCE significantly reduced postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress, and augmented the antioxidant system. (nih.gov)
  • The diagnosis is typically restricted to postprandial hyperglycemia due to lack of strong evidence of co-relation with a diagnosis of diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • it though notes that postprandial hyperglycemia does contribute to elevated glycated hemoglobin levels (a primary factor behind diabetes) and recommends testing and management of PPG levels for those patients who maintain optimum pre-prandial blood glucose levels but have high A1C values. (wikipedia.org)
  • this had been since challenged on previous grounds and that PPG might be simply a marker or a surrogate of a complex series of metabolic events occurring in the postprandial period, that is already better reflected through other parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with FDPase deficiency typically present in the newborn period with symptoms or signs related to hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis following ingestion of fructose. (medscape.com)
  • We therefore conducted a pilot trial to determine whether a short-term intensive metabolic approach that targeted fasting and postprandial normoglycemia and weight loss using a combination of pharmacological and lifestyle approaches was feasible and safe, and whether it showed the potential to induce sustained diabetes remission. (medscape.com)
  • 3 ) It occurs when glucose drops to 70 mg/dL or lower in the postprandial period, accompanied by symptoms that resolve upon normalization of glucose levels. (chriskresser.com)
  • Reactive hypoglycemia symptoms include shaking, rapid heart rate, weakness, and hunger, thus overlapping with several classic signs of postprandial fatigue. (chriskresser.com)
  • In delayed OH, the significant blood pressure drop occurs first after 3-min period of orthostasis, whereas in postprandial OH, the symptoms appear first approximately 15-30 min after the meal. (lu.se)
  • Postprandial low blood pressure symptoms happen right after eating a meal. (yourcareeverywhere.com)
  • The present study aimed to compare the effects of exercise performed before or after breakfast on fat balance and postprandial metabolism. (cambridge.org)
  • Compared with the CON trial, the 8·5 h postprandial TAG response was only significantly lowered in the Ex-Meal trial ( − 17 %, P = 0·025) and not in the Meal-Ex trial ( − 11 %, P = 0·20). (cambridge.org)
  • RESULTS Ex girlfriend or boyfriend significantly reduced typical [blood sugar] through the initial 24 hour period (p=0.03). (bio2009.org)
  • Fasting insulin levels are not elevated even on long-term GLUCOTROL administration, but the postprandial insulin response continues to be enhanced after at least 6 months of treatment. (guidelinecentral.com)
  • During the postprandial window, glucose concentrations rise and your body releases insulin to help regulate glucose in the body and store it in a way that can be easily accessed during the postabsorptive and fasting states. (diabetesprohelp.com)
  • A fasting blood sugar test helps measure the blood sugar levels after an overnight fasting state, while glycosylated hemoglobin measures the average blood sugar levels over a period of 2 to 3 months. (1mg.com)
  • In search of biochemical correlates of fasting intolerance, and of paradoxical postprandial ketogenesis, lactate suppression, and protein-cured glucose intolerance. (substack.com)
  • Postprandial fatigue is a state of drowsiness that occurs after a meal. (chriskresser.com)
  • In general, to cover after-meal spikes, those that kick in quickly and for a short time are a better choice than ones that work slowly over a long period. (webmd.com)
  • This research was conducted to determine the effects of partial dehydration, induced by a 72 hour period without feed and water, on shifts in body water during a meal using lambs as a model for feeder calves. (usda.gov)
  • Postprandial blood sugar: How you can control after-meal spikes. (redcliffelabs.com)
  • After the postabsorptive period , your body is in a fasted state until your next meal. (diabetesprohelp.com)
  • If we frequently eat high-carbohydrate meals and snacks, our body can stay in a state of elevated postprandial glucose, requiring the body to regularly release insulin, which can lead to insulin resistance . (diabetesprohelp.com)
  • During the intensive intervention period, weight loss and normoglycemia were targeted using lifestyle approaches and treatment with metformin, acarbose, and insulin glargine. (medscape.com)
  • Postprandial fatigue, colloquially referred to as a "food coma," is defined as a substantial decrease in energy levels after meals. (chriskresser.com)
  • Pre and postprandial testing are sometimes also known as testing in 'pairs,' which helps a patient check and understand how much sugar levels have risen or decreased between meals. (redcliffelabs.com)
  • Across the ½ and 1 cup groups, microbial metabolites of anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid (i.e., hydroxycinnamic acids, benzoic acids, phenylalanine derivatives, and hippuric acids) and catechin were associated with favorable chronic and postprandial memory, attention, executive function, and calmness. (uea.ac.uk)
  • The two most severe episodes (requiring paramedic treatment) were in the recovery period from anaerobic exercise. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • with an 11.6% improvement compared with baseline between 0 and 24 h for the 1 cup group), but all other mood, sleep, and cognitive function parameters were unaffected after postprandial and 6-mo blueberries. (uea.ac.uk)
  • In this study we compared blood glucose levels determined by two commonly used glucometers (One Touch® and Accu-check® ) with those of a standard laboratory method and determined the effect of haematocrit on glucose readings Methods: Blood glucose levels were measured with One Touch® and Accu-Check® glucometers and the glucose oxidase method at the same time in 295 children aged 0 to 15 years over a 6-month period. (bvsalud.org)
  • This did not change over time after the postprandial period. (bmj.com)
  • To diagnose low blood pressure, your doctor may take several blood pressure readings over a period of time. (caringseniorservice.com)
  • You may experience dizziness every day- and it may last for extended periods of time. (fibromyalgiacause.com)
  • It can occur after standing for a period of time, exercising, an emotionally stressful event, or being exposed to a warm environment. (fibromyalgiacause.com)
  • Over the same period of time, a range of evidence based psychological interventions have been developed. (who.int)
  • Feeder calves that are shipped to feedyards often encounter a number of stressors that may include periods without feed and water, adverse weather conditions, etc. (usda.gov)
  • It's called "postprandial" blood glucose, and if you take some simple steps, you can get it under control and help avoid health problems. (webmd.com)
  • With Redcliffe Labs, you can easily book a postprandial blood sugar test in Delhi from the comfort of your home and get test results. (redcliffelabs.com)
  • Try your best to cease all carbohydrate mimickers for the two to four week period until you have kicked your craving. (drstandley.com)
  • So let's just say that during the two to four week period that you've decided to take yourself off these carbohydrate rich foods and you want to have just a tiny little taste of your favorite carbo-snack. (drstandley.com)
  • According to the American Diabetes Association, normal postprandial blood sugar level should be under 140 mg/dL after two hours of eating. (diabetesprohelp.com)
  • During hospitalization, the patient had digestive disorders with postprandial regurgitations, leading to undernutrition. (cdc.gov)
  • Objetivo Determinar la eficacia y la seguridad de la administración de PC obtenido de sangre total en pacientes con COVID-19. (bvsalud.org)
  • however, few studies have investigated the effects of this substance on postprandial responses and appetite in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). (bvsalud.org)
  • PURPOSE Elevated postprandial glycemic excursions (PPG) are significant risk elements for coronary disease in type 2 diabetes sufferers. (bio2009.org)
  • While each cause is distinct, postprandial fatigue can be triggered by any combination of these factors. (chriskresser.com)