Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Ketorolac: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Tramadol: A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Pirinitramide: A diphenylpropylamine with intense narcotic analgesic activity of long duration. It is a derivative of MEPERIDINE with similar activity and usage.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the lower part of the RECTUM or ANUS. Hemorrhoids can be inside the anus (internal), under the skin around the anus (external), or protruding from inside to outside of the anus. People with hemorrhoids may or may not exhibit symptoms which include bleeding, itching, and pain.Musculoskeletal Pain: Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsTooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Tolmetin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS, NON-STEROIDAL) similar in mode of action to INDOMETHACIN.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Infusions, Intralesional: The administration of medication or fluid directly into localized lesions, by means of gravity flow or INFUSION PUMPS.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Hydrocodone: Narcotic analgesic related to CODEINE, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.Acupuncture Analgesia: Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Trismus: Spasmodic contraction of the masseter muscle resulting in forceful jaw closure. This may be seen with a variety of diseases, including TETANUS, as a complication of radiation therapy, trauma, or in association with neoplastic conditions.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Piroxicam: A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Dipyrone: A drug that has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is the sodium sulfonate of AMINOPYRINE.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Ketoprofen: An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Nociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Pain Clinics: Facilities providing diagnostic, therapeutic, and palliative services for patients with severe chronic pain. These may be free-standing clinics or hospital-based and serve ambulatory or inpatient populations. The approach is usually multidisciplinary. These clinics are often referred to as "acute pain services". (From Br Med Bull 1991 Jul;47(3):762-85)Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Recovery Room: Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Intercostal Nerves: The ventral rami of the thoracic nerves from segments T1 through T11. The intercostal nerves supply motor and sensory innervation to the thorax and abdomen. The skin and muscles supplied by a given pair are called, respectively, a dermatome and a myotome.Gingivectomy: Surgical excision of the gingiva at the level of its attachment, thus creating new marginal gingiva. This procedure is used to eliminate gingival or periodontal pockets or to provide an approach for extensive surgical interventions, and to gain access necessary to remove calculus within the pocket. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hydromorphone: An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Nalbuphine: A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors.Diclofenac: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Surgical Mesh: Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Ketorolac Tromethamine: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent used for analgesia for postoperative pain and inhibits cyclooxygenase activity.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Herniorrhaphy: Surgical procedures undertaken to repair abnormal openings through which tissue or parts of organs can protrude or are already protruding.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Surgical Stapling: A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Labial FrenumAnesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Diflunisal: A salicylate derivative and anti-inflammatory analgesic with actions and side effects similar to those of ASPIRIN.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Nefopam: Non-narcotic analgesic chemically similar to ORPHENADRINE. Its mechanism of action is unclear. It is used for the relief of acute and chronic pain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p26)Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Labor Pain: Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)Polypropylenes: Propylene or propene polymers. Thermoplastics that can be extruded into fibers, films or solid forms. They are used as a copolymer in plastics, especially polyethylene. The fibers are used for fabrics, filters and surgical sutures.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Isoxazoles: Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Laparoscopes: ENDOSCOPES for examining the abdominal and pelvic organs in the peritoneal cavity.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Thoracoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the pleural cavity.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Rectal Prolapse: Protrusion of the rectal mucous membrane through the anus. There are various degrees: incomplete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with displacement of the anal sphincter muscle; complete with no displacement of the anal sphincter muscle but with herniation of the bowel; and internal complete with rectosigmoid or upper rectum intussusception into the lower rectum.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Orthopedic Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of the orthopedic patient.Dextromethorphan: Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted: Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Catastrophization: Cognitive and emotional processes encompassing magnification of pain-related stimuli, feelings of helplessness, and a generally pessimistic orientation.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Flank Pain: Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.Appendectomy: Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Perioperative Nursing: Nursing care of the surgical patient before, during, and after surgery.Video-Assisted Surgery: Endoscopic surgical procedures performed with visualization via video transmission. When real-time video is combined interactively with prior CT scans or MRI images, this is called image-guided surgery (see SURGERY, COMPUTER-ASSISTED).Eye Pain: A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.
Subscription required (help)). Staff (1 October 2015). "Acute Postoperative Pain". Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News ( ... is an opioid drug that is under evaluation in human clinical trials for the intravenous treatment of severe acute pain. It is a ... for the Treatment of Acute Severe Pain". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 56 (20): 8019-31. doi:10.1021/jm4010829. PMID 24063433 ...
Wang, R. I.; Robinson, N. (1983). "Further efficacy evaluation of doxpicomine for postoperative pain". Journal of Clinical ... Wang, R. I.; Robinson, N. (1981). "Doxpicomine in postoperative pain". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 29 (6): 771-775 ... It is of fairly low potency, with a 400 mg dose of doxpicomine approximately equivalent in pain-killing effect to 8 mg morphine ...
Phillips G, Vickers MD (October 1979). "Nefopam in postoperative pain". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 51 (10): 961-5. doi: ... Kim, KH; Abdi, S (April 2014). "Rediscovery of nefopam for the treatment of neuropathic pain". The Korean Journal of Pain. 27 ( ... "Comparison of the analgesic dose-effect relationships of nefopam and oxycodone in postoperative pain". Acta Anaesthesiologica ... It is primarily used to treat moderate to severe, acute or chronic pain. It is believed to work in the brain and spinal cord to ...
... less postoperative pain and swelling; and faster recovery with minimal scarring. The reduction in pain allows patients to get ...
Pain; suture extrusion; infection; rare suture granuloma or atheroma; slight, harmless post-operative bleeding; relapse( ...
Wu CL, Raja SN (June 2011). "Treatment of acute postoperative pain". Lancet. 377 (9784): 2215-25. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11) ... "First evidence of neosaxitoxin as a long-acting pain blocker in bladder pain syndrome". Int Urogynecol J. 26: 853-8. doi: ... Then, in cases of severe or prolonged pain, some patients need repeated injections, catheters, pumps and opioids to feel ... Zink W, Graf B (July-August 2004). "Review Articles: Local Anesthetic Myotoxicity". Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 29 ( ...
... for management of postoperative pain. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1991 May;72(5):656-60. PMID 1708214 Kelly WB, ...
Nonopioid analgesics for postoperative pain management. Curr Opin Anesthesiol. 2014 Oct;27(5):513-9. PMID 25102238 Council of ... It is primarily used for perioperative pain, acute injury, colic, cancer pain, other acute/chronic forms of pain and high fever ... to prevent and treat pain related to surgery or for the treatment of acute pain. It was first introduced into clinical use in ... Brune, K (1997). "The early history of non-opioid analgesics". Acute Pain. 1: 33. doi:10.1016/S1366-0071(97)80033-2. Drugs.com ...
Postoperative pain[edit]. Several randomized clinical trials concluded that the use of rotary instruments is associated with a ... "the worst pain of their life" during the extraction, with the implantation itself being relatively painless. The worst pain of ... Further occurrences of pain could indicate the presence of continuing infection or retention of vital nerve tissue.[citation ... Pain control can be difficult to achieve at times because of anesthetic inactivation by the acidity of the abscess around the ...
... primary concerns revolve around post-operative pain. American veterinary schools do not generally teach cropping and docking, ... After 16 weeks, the procedure is more painful and the animal has greater pain memory. Up to 2/3 of the ear flap may be removed ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Aasvang E, Kehlet H; Kehlet (July 2005). "Chronic postoperative pain: the case ... a minimally invasive open repair may have a lower incidence of post-operative nausea and mesh associated pain. During surgery ... This may include pain or discomfort especially with coughing, exercise, or bowel movements. Often it gets worse throughout the ... Significant pain is suggestive of strangulated bowel (an incarcerated indirect inguinal hernia). As the hernia progresses, ...
They reported post-operative pain after LVAD implantation. During an average 400 days of survival, 30 percent of the devices ...
... both IV and IM administrations of oxycodone were commonly used for postoperative pain management of Central Powers soldiers. ... The approved indication is for relief of cancer pain, trauma pain, or pain due to major surgery, in children already treated ... Serious side effects of oxycodone include reduced sensitivity to pain (beyond the pain the drug is taken to reduce), euphoria, ... Kalso E (2007). "How different is oxycodone from morphine?". Pain. 132 (3): 227-228. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2007.09.027. PMID ...
... can increase-rather than decrease-post-operative pain. In the treatment of fibromyalgia, adverse effects limits the ... In other countries, such as Canada, it is widely used as an adjunct therapy for chronic pain management. Numerous trials and ... Nabilone is a synthetic cannabinoid with therapeutic use as an antiemetic and as an adjunct analgesic for neuropathic pain. It ... A 2011 systematic review of cannabinoids for chronic pain determined there was evidence of safety and modest efficacy for some ...
... morphine's successor for postoperative pain relief?". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 102 (6): 1789-1797. doi:10.1213/01.ane. ...
... is generally administered intravenously (as Dalgan) to relieve post-operative pain in patients. Because of its high ... Camu, F.; Gepts, E. (1979). "Analgesic Properties of Dezocine for Relief of Postoperative Pain". Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica ... It is a useful drug for the treatment of pain, but side effects such as dizziness limit its clinical application, and it can ... It is not commercially available in either of these countries, nor is it offered as a prescribed analgesic for postoperative ...
Analgesic potency of normorphine in patients with postoperative pain. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. ...
"Evaluation of aromatherapy in treating postoperative pain: pilot study". Pain Practice. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 2006 Dec;6(4):273 ... This study compared the analgesic efficacy of postoperative lavender oil aromatherapy in 50 patients undergoing breast biopsy ...
Post-operative pain relief is subject to change. Traditionally, pain relief has been provided by relatively mild narcotic ... Clinical papers show patients with minimal post-operative pain (no requirement for narcotic pain-killers), zero edema (swelling ... The review also found that these children return to a normal diet more quickly and have less post-operative pain. A recent ... It has been claimed that this technique results in less pain, faster healing, and less post operative care. However, review of ...
Postoperative pain is usually minimal and managed with NSAIDs. In cases of uterine atony and corresponding blood loss, ... The risks of intact D&X are similar to the risks of non-intact D&E and include postoperative infection, hemorrhage, or uterine ... Whether this was a result of the anesthesia or an undeveloped fetal system for pain sensitivity, one thing was clear: There was ... There is no difference in postoperative blood loss, future pregnancy outcomes, or major complications in intact D&E when ...
... morphine's successor for postoperative pain relief?". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 102 (6): 1789-1797. doi:10.1213/01.ane. ... It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain. It is frequently used for pain from myocardial infarction and during ... It is also used for pain due to myocardial infarction and for labor pains. Its duration of analgesia is about three to seven ... the drug is rarely available even for relieving severe pain while dying.[citation needed] Experts in pain management attribute ...
The catheter-less surgery minimizes postoperative pain after prostatectomy. A few of the medical conference and achievement ... Due to the minimally invasive nature of the procedure, they experience minimized pain, minimized blood loss, less scarring and ...
"Moxazocine and morphine in patients with severe postoperative pain". Current Therapeutic Research. 22 (4): 469-478. CS1 maint: ...
... it increases the intensity of post-operative pain. Reducing activity in the body's pain-signalling system by the use of ... Pain intensity immediately post-surgery is correlated with pain intensity on release from hospital, and correlated with the ... It is not known what causes some cases of acute post-surgery pain to become chronic long term problems but pain intensity in ... Preventive analgesia is a practice aimed at reducing short- and long-term post-surgery pain. Activity in the body's pain ...
... lower back pain, and relieving post-operative pain. It is manufactured by Merck KGaA under the tradename Emflex, and is ... as well as in post-operative and post-traumatic pain and attack of gout. Application of a single dose of acemetacin for post- ... ISBN 978-3-7741-9846-3. Moore, R. A.; Derry, S; McQuay, H. J. (2009). "Single dose oral acemetacin for acute postoperative pain ... pain relieving) effects. In the body, it is partly metabolized to indometacin, which also acts as a COX inhibitor. The same ...
Updated: Jan 7 2020 Adverse events associated with medium- and long-term use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain: an overview of Cochrane Reviews PMID 29084357 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012509.pub2 Adverse events associated with single dose oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain in adults - an overview of Cochrane reviews PMID 26461263 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011407.pub2 Antidepressants for neuropathic pain PMID 17943857 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005454.pub2 Antiepileptics other than gabapentin, pregabalin, topiramate, and valproate for the prophylaxis of episodic migraine in adults PMID 23797674 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010608 Antipsychotics for acute and chronic pain in adults PMID 23990266 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004844.pub3 As required versus fixed schedule analgesic ...
A femoral nerve block is a nerve block that uses local anesthetic to achieve analgesia in the leg. The block works by affecting the femoral nerve. A femoral nerve block results in anesthesia of the skin and muscles of the anterior thigh and most of the femur and knee joint, as well as the skin on the medial aspect of the leg below the knee joint . The block can be performed using anatomical landmarks, ultrasound or a nerve stimulator. Fascia iliaca block https://www.nysora.com/femoral-nerve- ...
A post-anesthesia care unit, often abbreviated PACU and sometimes referred to as post-anesthesia recovery or PAR, is a vital part of hospitals, ambulatory care centers, and other medical facilities. It is an area, normally attached to operating room suites, designed to provide care for patients recovering from general anesthesia, regional anesthesia, or local anesthesia. The basic responsibilities of PACU staff include: airway management and oxygen administration for patients who have undergone general anesthesia monitoring vital signs (heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, and respiratory rate) managing postoperative pain treating postoperative nausea and vomiting treating postanesthetic shivering monitoring surgical sites for excessive bleeding, mucopurulent discharge, swelling, hematomas, wound healing, and infection More intensive care may include: Preparation and education for the use of ...
In 1968, Robert Wexler of Abbott Laboratories developed the Analgizer, a disposable inhaler that allowed the self-administration of methoxyflurane vapor in air for analgesia.[9] The Analgizer consisted of a polyethylene cylinder 5 inches long and 1 inch in diameter with a 1 inch long mouthpiece. The device contained a rolled wick of polypropylene felt which held 15 milliliters of methoxyflurane. Because of the simplicity of the Analgizer and the pharmacological characteristics of methoxyflurane, it was easy for patients to self-administer the drug and rapidly achieve a level of conscious analgesia which could be maintained and adjusted as necessary over a period of time lasting from a few minutes to several hours. The 15 milliliter supply of methoxyflurane would typically last for two to three hours, during which time the user would often be partly amnesic to the sense of pain; the device could be refilled if necessary.[10] The Analgizer was found to be safe, effective, and ...
... (R-3365, trade names Dipidolor, Piridolan, Pirium and others) is a synthetic opioid analgesic (narcotic painkiller) that is marketed in certain European countries including: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany and the Netherlands. It comes in free form, is about 0.75x times as potent as morphine and is given parenterally (by injection) for the treatment of severe pain. Nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression and constipation are believed to be less frequent with piritramide than with morphine (the gold standard opioid against which other opioids are compared and contrasted), and it produces more rapid-onset analgesia (pain relief) when compared to morphine and pethidine. After intravenous administration the onset of analgesia is as little as 1-2 minutes, which may be related to its great lipophilicity. The analgesic and sedative effects of piritramide are believed to be potentiated with ...
Under persistent activation nociceptive transmission to the dorsal horn may induce a pain wind-up phenomenon. This induces pathological changes that lower the threshold for pain signals to be transmitted. In addition it may generate nonnociceptive nerve fibers to respond to pain signals. Nonnociceptive nerve fibers may also be able to generate and transmit pain signals. The type of nerve fibers that are believed to propagate the pain signals are the C-fibers, since they have a slow conductivity and give rise to a painful sensation that persists over a long time.[17] In chronic pain this process is difficult to reverse or eradicate once established.[18] In some cases, chronic pain can be caused by genetic factors which interfere with neuronal ...
The pain score (usually on a scale of 0 to 10). Zero is no pain and ten is the worst possible pain. This can be comparative (such as "... compared to the worst pain you have ever experienced") or imaginative ("... compared to having your arm ripped off by an alien"). If the pain is compared to a prior event, the nature of that event may be a follow-up question. The clinician must decide whether a score given is realistic within their experience - for instance, a pain score 10 for a stubbed toe is likely to be exaggerated. This may also be assessed for pain now, compared to pain at time of onset, or pain on movement. There are alternative assessment methods for pain, which ...
বিষ (ইংৰাজী: Pain) তীব্ৰ বা ক্ষতিকাৰক উদ্দীপকে কৰা এক যন্ত্ৰণাদায়ক অনুভূতি। "ইণ্টাৰেনচনেল এচ'চিয়েচন ফ'ৰ দা ষ্টাডী অৱ পেইন" সংস্থাই ডাঙি ধৰা সংজ্ঞাৰ মতে "বিষ এক অপ্ৰীতিকৰ শাৰীৰিক আৰু মানসিক অভিজ্ঞতা যি প্ৰকৃত বা সম্ভাব্য কলা ক্ষতি, বা তেনে ক্ষতিৰ লগত সম্পৰ্কিত।"[1] চিকিৎসা বিজ্ঞানত বিষক ৰোগৰ এক উপসৰ্গ হিচাপে ধৰা হয়। বিষে ব্যক্তিজনক ক্ষতিকাৰক পৰিবেশৰ পৰা আঁতৰি থাকিবলৈ, ক্ষতি হোৱা অংগ ...
... affects at least 5% of the population under the age of 18, according to conservative epidemiological studies. Rates of paediatric chronic pain have also increased in the past 20 years. While chronic pain conditions vary significantly in severity, they often affect children's mental health, academic performance, and general quality of life. The outcomes of childhood chronic pain are affected by a number of factors, including demographic factors, genetics, and school and family support. Chronic pain is defined as pain that lasts at least 3-6 months and, in the case of injury or surgery, remains present after standard recovery time has elapsed. The ICD-11 provides seven categories for diagnosing chronic pain: Chronic primary pain Chronic cancer ...
The tail flick test is a test of the pain response in animals, similar to the hot plate test. It is used in basic pain research and to measure the effectiveness of analgesics, by observing the reaction to heat. It was first described by D'Amour and Smith in 1941. Most commonly, an intense light beam is focused on the animal's tail and a timer starts. When the animal flicks its tail, the timer stops and the recorded time (latency) is a measure of the pain threshold. Alternate methods can be used to apply heat, such as immersion in hot water. Alternately, a dolorimeter with a resistance wire with a constant heat flow may be used. For the tail flick test, the wire is attached to the tail of the organism, and the wire applies heat to the tail. The researcher then records the latency to tail flick. Researchers testing the effectiveness of drugs on the pain threshold often use the ...
Cancer pain can be caused by pressure on, or chemical stimulation of, specialised pain-signalling nerve endings called nociceptors (nociceptive pain), or by damage or illness affecting nerve fibers themselves (neuropathic pain). Infection of a tumor or its surrounding tissue can cause rapidly escalating pain, but is sometimes overlooked as a possible cause. One study found that infection was the cause of pain in four percent of nearly 300 cancer patients referred for pain relief. Another report described seven patients, whose previously well-controlled pain escalated significantly over several days. Antibiotic treatment produced pain relief in all patients within three days. Tumors can cause ...
The pain score (usually on a scale of 0 to 10). Zero is no pain and ten is the worst possible pain. This can be comparative (such as "... compared to the worst pain you have ever experienced") or imaginative ("... compared to having your arm ripped off by an alien"). If the pain is compared to a prior event, the nature of that event may be a follow-up question. The clinician must decide whether a score given is realistic within their experience - for instance, a pain score 10 for a stubbed toe is likely to be exaggerated. This may also be assessed for pain now, compared to pain at time of onset, or pain on movement. There are alternative assessment methods for pain, which ...
বিষ (ইংৰাজী: Pain) তীব্ৰ বা ক্ষতিকাৰক উদ্দীপকে কৰা এক যন্ত্ৰণাদায়ক অনুভূতি। "ইণ্টাৰেনচনেল এচ'চিয়েচন ফ'ৰ দা ষ্টাডী অৱ পেইন" সংস্থাই ডাঙি ধৰা সংজ্ঞাৰ মতে "বিষ এক অপ্ৰীতিকৰ শাৰীৰিক আৰু মানসিক অভিজ্ঞতা যি প্ৰকৃত বা সম্ভাব্য কলা ক্ষতি, বা তেনে ক্ষতিৰ লগত সম্পৰ্কিত।"[1] চিকিৎসা বিজ্ঞানত বিষক ৰোগৰ এক উপসৰ্গ হিচাপে ধৰা হয়। বিষে ব্যক্তিজনক ক্ষতিকাৰক পৰিবেশৰ পৰা আঁতৰি থাকিবলৈ, ক্ষতি হোৱা অংগ ...
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, vol.. A Systematic Review of Postoperative Pain Outcome Measurements Utilised in ... Effectiveness of Bilateral Superficial Cervical Plexus Block as Part of Postoperative Analgesia for Patients Undergoing ... Torjman, "Deep cervical plexus block for the treatment of cervicogenic headache," Pain Physician, vol. ... Postoperative nausea and vomiting PR: Pulse rate PCA: Patient-controlled analgesia SBP: Systolic blood pressure SCM: ...
A Systematic Review of Postoperative Pain Outcome Measurements Utilised in Regional Anesthesia Randomized Controlled Trials ... Effectiveness of Bilateral Superficial Cervical Plexus Block as Part of Postoperative Analgesia for Patients Undergoing ...
Reduction of Post-operative Pain. Br Med J 1953; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4840.829-b (Published 10 October 1953) ...
Suxamethonium and Post-operative Muscle Pain Br Med J 1957; 1 :523 ... Suxamethonium and Post-operative Muscle Pain. Br Med J 1957; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5017.523-c (Published 02 ...
... surgeons from Australia discuss postoperative pain control pain control following one of the most extensiv ... surgeons from Australia discuss postoperative pain control pain control following one of the most extensive operations ... In an era where many studies have shown that patients do better after surgery with use of lesser amounts of opioid pain ... The investigators were able to show that it is more difficult to control pain during their hospital stay in these patients. ...
Postoperative PainStudy Of The Efficacy And Safety Of Pregabalin Compared To Placebo For Treatment Of Post-Surgical Pain From ... Postoperative PainCompare Celecoxib and Ibuprofen Sr In The Management Of Acute Pain Post Orthopedic Or Gynecological Surgery ... Postoperative PainMorphine-Sparing Efficacy Of Parecoxib In Pain Treatment After Radical Prostatectomy NCT00346268. * Essen, ... Postoperative PainEfficacy And Safety Of Parecoxib IV/IM 40 Mg Vs Placebo Following Sub Muscular Breast Augmentation ...
... for postoperative pain was studied in 128 boys and girls, 4 to 12 yr old, having elective surgery. In a double blind... ... Incidence of postoperative pain in children. Pain 1983; 15: 271-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Oxycodone and morphine in postoperative pain treatment. Pain 1990; Suppl 5: S143.Google Scholar ... Ibuprofen in the management of postoperative pain. Br J Anaesth 1986; 58: 1371-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
This FREE ACCME-accredited program consists of 4 modules that focus on integrating a multimodal approach to postoperative pain ... Parvizi J, Reines D, Steege J, Viscusi E. CSI: Investigating Acute Post-Operative Pain: Improved Outcomes and Clinical Horizons ... Back to Integrating a Multimodal Approach to Post-Operative Pain Management. Learning Objectives. After completing this ... Director, Back and Pain Center Chief, Pain Services Assistant Professor, Department of Anesthesiology University of Michigan, ...
Pain, Postoperative. Pain. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. Postoperative Complications. Pathologic ... Expectation about pain [ Time Frame: 24 to 48 hours before surgery ]. *postoperative pain [ Time Frame: within 1-2 hours after ... Predictors of Postoperative Pain. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor ... the ability of pain scores generated from painful stimuli postoperatively in predicting postoperative pain. ...
Pain, Postoperative. Pain. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. Postoperative Complications. Pathologic ... anticipated pain and the intensity rating of an audio tone to predict level of postoperative pain after surgery. [ Time Frame: ... anticipated pain and the intensity rating of an audio tone to predict level of postoperative pain after surgery. ... using a sliding pain scale from 0 to 100 mm, with 0 being no pain and 100 being the worst pain ever. Information on drug ...
Irk was in the emergency room having considerable wound pain following an above-knee amputation you performed 6 months ago. You ... His last source of pain meds on the street has dried up. You admit him with orders for analgesics. What should your treatment ... You received a call advising that Mr S. H. Irk was in the emergency room having considerable wound pain following an above-knee ... Your examination, clinical lab tests, and X-rays do not reveal any serious problems, but he is writhing in pain and begging for ...
... no pain, 2: mild pain, 3: moderate pain, 4: severe pain and 5: very severe/unbearable pain), which they had seen when they ... After treatment, women reported a higher mean pain intensity than men, 6 h (. (SD) versus (SD), resp., ) and 18 h (. (SD) ... Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study. M. Gotler,1 B. Bar-Gil,2 and M. Ashkenazi1 ... Table 3: Distribution of type of postoperative pain (PEP) after 6 and 18 hours in relation to the different treatment groups. ...
Transcript of Acute post operative pain management. Acute post operative pain management. Anaesthetic Teams Role. Providing ... Definitions regarding pain. Targeting pain. Recognition of pain. Pain Physiology. Mechanism of nociception. Role of the spinal ... Acute pain:. Pain that resolves within 1 month of the disease process or injury.. Within normal expected parameters of pain ... Acute post operative pain. Any other drugs with synergistic effects on board?. Patients hemodynamic status. Risk of nausea / ...
"In summary, adjunctive gentle Swedish massage therapy may have minor effects on postoperative sensory pain, affective pain, and ... The studys primary outcome measures were sensory pain, affective pain and distress. Both sensory and affective pain were rated ... Postoperative pain and distress may be eased by massage, according to recent research. ... while affective pain, or unpleasantness/suffering, reflects the aversive qualities of the pain experience." ...
... by Steve G. Jones, Ed.S. (NaturalNews) According to the Centers for ... Increased anxiety before surgery leads to more anxiety, pain, and slower recovery time post-operative.. Another study looked at ... Kain, Z.N., Mayes, L.C., Caldwell-Andrews, A.A., Karas, D.E., & McClain, B.C. (2006). Preoperative anxiety, postoperative pain ... The more anxious children consumed more pain medication and had more anxiety and sleep problems post-operative. This study ...
Our objective was to study the analgesic effect of acupoint pressure on postoperative pain in a controlled single-blind study. ... Pain Measurement. Pain, Postoperative / physiopathology, therapy*. Regional Blood Flow. Single-Blind Method. Skin / blood ... Our objective was to study the analgesic effect of acupoint pressure on postoperative pain in a controlled single-blind study. ... Title: The Clinical journal of pain Volume: 12 ISSN: 0749-8047 ISO Abbreviation: Clin J Pain Publication Date: 1996 Dec ...
Pain. 2004;110:49-55. 8. Morton NS. Management of postoperative pain in children. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2007;92:ep14- ... Ketamine and postoperative pain--a quantitative systematic review of randomised trials. Pain. 2005;113:61-70. ... The reliability and validity of the COMFORT scale as a postoperative pain instrument in 0- to 3-year-old infants. Pain. 2000;84 ... Development and preliminary validation of a postoperative pain measure for parents. Pain. 1996;68:307-313. ...
Effectiveness of various medications on postoperative pain following root canal obturation.. Torabinejad M1, Dorn SO, Eleazer ... Statistical analysis of the data showed that the incidence of postoperative pain after obturation is lower than that following ... This prospective study compared the effectiveness of nine medications and a placebo in controlling pain following obturation. A ... difference between the effectiveness of the various medications and placebo tablets in controlling postoperative pain following ...
We conducted a prospective double-blind randomized study assessing bupivacaine end-of-surgery wound infiltration for pain ... Bilateral superficial cervical plexus block reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting and early postoperative pain after ... Bagul A, Taha R, Metcalfe MS et al (2005) Pre-incision infiltration of local anesthetic reduces postoperative pain with no ... Dumlu EG, Tokaç M, Öcal H et al (2015) Local bupivacaine for postoperative pain management in thyroidectomized patients: a ...
A new study finds that patients with knee osteoarthritis who rely on prescription opioids for pain relief prior to undergoing ... Opioid Use Prior to Knee Surgery Tied to Worse Postoperative Pain. By Traci Pedersen Associate News Editor ... Pedersen, T. (2018). Opioid Use Prior to Knee Surgery Tied to Worse Postoperative Pain. Psych Central. Retrieved on September ... This data demonstrates that preoperative opioid use may also lead to lesser pain relief in the early postoperative period," ...
Pain Management and Postoperative Complications available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read synopsis and reviews. ...
Mean Pain Score [ Time Frame: Post-Operative Day 1 (Up to 24 hours) ]. The mean pain score assessed by the Visual Analog Pain ... On postoperative day 1, patients will be given a questionnaire to assess pain. Pain levels in the two groups will be compared. ... Pain, Postoperative. Retinal Detachment. Retinoschisis. Vitreoretinopathy, Proliferative. Postoperative Complications. ... Postoperative Pain Control Following Vitreoretinal Surgery. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
postoperative pain assessed by NRS [ Time Frame: up to 48 hrs postoperative pain ]. Primary outcome (post-operative pain) will ... Pain, Postoperative. Postoperative Complications. Pathologic Processes. Pain. Neurologic Manifestations. Signs and Symptoms. ... 1- 3: readings represent mild pain 4- 6: readings represent moderate pain 7- 10: readings represent severe pain ... Effect of Cryotherapy on Postoperative Pain. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ...
Surgeons have many options for controlling pain and inflammation following refractive surgery, William B. Trattler, MD, said in ... reducing postoperative pain while maintaining pupil size. "We have so many great options. Were all using something different, ... reducing postoperative pain while maintaining pupil size. "We have so many great options. Were all using something different, ... and we dont even need any postoperative meds," he said. "But as we know, we all need postoperative meds in some way to help ...
An update on analgesics for the management of acute postoperative dental pain.. Haas DA1. ... This article provides a brief review of their role in the management of acute postoperative pain. ...
  • Analgesic effects of-ultrasound-guided serratus-intercostal plane block and ultrasound-guided intermediate cervical plexus block after single-incision transaxillary robotic thyroidectomy: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial," Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Psychological factors and experimental pain models such as as electrical, pressure, heat, or cold stimuli have been identified as predictors of pain intensity and opioid consumption postoperatively. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Gürkan Y, Taş Z, Toker K, Solak M (2015) Ultrasound guided bilateral cervical plexus block reduces postoperative opioid consumption following thyroid surgery. (springer.com)
  • Recent findings Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors consistently reduce postoperative opioid consumption. (ovid.com)
  • Endpoints were postoperative opioid consumption, pain scores (rest and during mobilization), adverse events, and length of hospital stay. (ovid.com)
  • The aim of our study is to show the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine in prolonging the analgesic effect of ropivacaine when added to it in ESP block compared to using ropivacaine alone in patients undergoing mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection, and to study its impact on postoperative opioid consumption. (centerwatch.com)
  • Popular Abstract in Swedish Selektiv dorsal rhizotomi (SDR) är en effektiv operationsmetod som framgångsrikt minskar graden av spasticitet med bestående positiva effekter för barn med spastisk diplegia. (dissertations.se)
  • To measure the Suprathreshold Thermal Pain Intensity and unpleasantness, Stimulus responses for noxious heat stimuli will be performed by applying phasic heat stimuli at 8 different temperatures (35, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, and 49°C). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The patients will be asked about their current level of pain and to rate the intensity of a series of audio tones. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • According to the study's authors, sensory pain "imparts information on the location, time, and intensity of noxious stimuli, while affective pain, or unpleasantness/suffering, reflects the aversive qualities of the pain experience. (massagemag.com)
  • In addition, it was shown that it reacts to all procedures that alter the experience of pain, for example, the use of pharmacological interventions, as well as changes in intensity in different patients with acute or chronic pain (Belanger et al. (brightkite.com)
  • 1996). In addition, Cotanch (1988) argues that the VAS is a more sensitive measure of pain intensity than the VDS, given its straight-line continuum, rather than the category of responses.VAS is still cited in most of the current literature on pain as the main tool for assessing (Good 1999, Kelly 2000, Sjostrom et al. (brightkite.com)
  • It was recommended that more than a verbal description of non-verbal measures of intensity, with the capture of age differences in postoperative pain. (brightkite.com)
  • The patient is presented with a 10 cm line, labeled as above, and asked to mark an `X' on the line indicating the intensity of their pain. (experts.com)
  • This review demonstrated, that some analgesic interventions may have the capacity to reduce mean opioid requirements and/or mean pain intensity compared with controls, but the available randomized placebo-controlled trials does not allow a designation of a "best proven intervention" for THA. (ovid.com)
  • Patients also receive information during their hospital stay to increase mobility while reducing the duration and intensity of pain through tools such as physiotherapy, using structures, cooling compresses, standardised pain medication and so on. (efort.org)
  • It involves the evaluation of pain intensity, location of the pain and response to treatment. (ukessays.com)
  • They were then separated into uni-dimensional tools (which measure the pain intensity) and multi-dimensional tools (include more than one pain dimension). (ukessays.com)
  • The most common dimension included was pain intensity, present in 60% of tools. (ukessays.com)
  • Using a patient diary, patients recorded pain intensity, pain relief, and global evaluations throughout the 24-hour period after dosing. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Every 12 hours and a subsequent period of 48 hours after the first dose of oxycodone controlled-release, the pain will be evaluated again, and the occurrence and intensity of adverse events (visits 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively 12 , 24, 36 and 48 hours after the first dose of oxycodone). (knowcancer.com)
  • Between post-operative 7 and 13 days will be held the visit 7, which will be evaluated pain intensity (EVN), the occurrence and severity of adverse effects, and the investigator's opinion about treatment. (knowcancer.com)
  • The Friedman test is used to compare medians of pain intensity from visit 2 to visit 7. (knowcancer.com)
  • After arrival of patients in the PACU, they were questioned, after tracheal extubation and the return of full consciousness, about the presence of pain (at least every 15 min before the onset of morphine titration) and asked to rate pain intensity on a scale (VAS). (asahq.org)
  • In recent studies, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor rofecoxib demonstrated analgesic effects similar to those of NSAIDs in the treatment of acute pain and primary dysmenorrhea. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • While opioid prescriptions to control pain associated with dental visits are common place, studies have shown that non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in managing pain with significantly fewer adverse effects compared with opioid pain medication. (dentalcare.com)
  • 65 Preprocedural dosing with NSAIDs and utilization of optimal dosages of NSAIDs at regular time intervals has been proven effective for pain management without many of the adverse side effects seen with opioid medications. (dentalcare.com)
  • Dans une 'etude à double insu avec contrôle placebo, de l'ibuprofen par voie rectale (40 mg · kg −1 · jour −1 en doses divisées) ou du placebo était administré pour des périodes allant jusqu' à trois jours. (springer.com)
  • This prospective study compared the effectiveness of nine medications and a placebo in controlling pain following obturation. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, there was no significant difference between the effectiveness of the various medications and placebo tablets in controlling postoperative pain following obturation. (nih.gov)
  • or =2 third molars were randomized according to pain severity (moderate vs severe) to receive a single dose of placebo (n = 45), rofecoxib 50 mg (n = 90), celecoxib 200 mg (n = 91), or ibuprofen 400 mg (n = 46). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The subjects' pain levels (dependent variable), which decreased over time, were lower for all 10 post-operative days in the Microcurrent Group (n=25) compared to the Placebo Group (n=16). (stress.org)
  • The 10 days postoperative microcurrent protocol accompanied a standardized physical therapy rehabilitation program. (stress.org)