Ambulatory Surgical Procedures
Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists
Anesthesia Department, Hospital
Anesthesia Recovery Period
Obstetric Surgical Procedures
Oxygen Inhalation Therapy
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Drug Administration Schedule
Drug Therapy, Combination
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Effects of anticholinergics on postoperative vomiting, recovery, and hospital stay in children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. (1/321)BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting are the most frequent problems after minor ambulatory surgical procedures. The agents used to induce and maintain anesthesia may modify the incidence of emesis. When neuromuscular blockade is antagonized with anticholinesterases, atropine or glycopyrrolate is used commonly to prevent bradycardia and excessive oral secretions. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of atropine and glycopyrrolate on postoperative vomiting in children. METHODS: Ninety-three patients undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy were studied. After inhalation induction of anesthesia with nitrous oxide, oxygen, and halothane, anesthesia was maintained with a nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture, halothane, morphine, and atracurium. Patients were randomized to receive, in a double-blinded manner, either 15 microg/kg atropine or 10 microg/kg glycopyrrolate with 60 microg/kg neostigmine to reverse neuromuscular blockade. Patient recovery, the incidence of postoperative emesis, antiemetic therapy, and the duration of postoperative hospital stay were assessed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, gender, weight, or discharge time from the postanesthesia care unit or the hospital between the groups. Twenty-four hours after operation, the incidence of vomiting in the atropine group (56%) was significantly less than in the glycopyrrolate group (81%; P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the atropine and glycopyrrolate groups in the number of patients who required antiemetics or additional analgesics. CONCLUSIONS: In children undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy, reversal of neuromuscular blockade with atropine and neostigmine is associated with a lesser incidence of postoperative emesis compared with glycopyrrolate and neostigmine. (+info)
Comparison of three solutions of ropivacaine/fentanyl for postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia. (2/321)BACKGROUND: Ropivacaine, 0.2%, is a new local anesthetic approved for epidural analgesia. The addition of 4 microg/ml fentanyl improves analgesia from epidural ropivacaine. Use of a lower concentration of ropivacaine-fentanyl may further improve analgesia or decrease side effects. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were randomized in a double-blinded manner to receive one of three solutions: 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl, or 0.05% ropivacaine-1 microg fentanyl for patient-controlled epidural analgesia after standardized combined epidural and general anesthesia. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia settings and adjustments for the three solutions were standardized to deliver equivalent drug doses. Pain scores (rest, cough, and ambulation), side effects (nausea, pruritus, sedation, motor block, hypotension, and orthostasis), and patient-controlled epidural analgesia consumption were measured for 48 h. RESULTS: All three solutions produced equivalent analgesia. Motor block was significantly more common (30 vs. 0%) and more intense with the 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution. Other side effects were equivalent between solutions and mild in severity. A significantly smaller volume of 0.2% ropivacaine-4 microg fentanyl solution was used, whereas the 0.1% ropivacaine-2 microg fentanyl group used a significantly greater amount of ropivacaine and fentanyl. CONCLUSIONS: Lesser concentrations of ropivacaine and fentanyl provide comparable analgesia with less motor block despite the use of similar amounts of ropivacaine and fentanyl. This finding suggests that concentration of local anesthetic solution at low doses is a primary determinant of motor block with patient-controlled epidural analgesia after lower abdominal surgery. (+info)
Postoperative analgesia and vomiting, with special reference to day-case surgery: a systematic review. (3/321)BACKGROUND: Day-case surgery is of great value to patients and the health service. It enables many more patients to be treated properly, and faster than before. Newer, less invasive, operative techniques will allow many more procedures to be carried out. There are many elements to successful day-case surgery. Two key components are the effectiveness of the control of pain after the operation, and the effectiveness of measures to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting. OBJECTIVES: To enable those caring for patients undergoing day-case surgery to make the best choices for their patients and the health service, this review sought the highest quality evidence on: (1) the effectiveness of the control of pain after an operation; (2) the effectiveness of measures to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting. METHODS: Full details of the search strategy are presented in the report. RESULTS - ANALGESIA: The systematic reviews of the literature explored whether different interventions work and, if they do work, how well they work. A number of conclusions can be drawn. RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INEFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS: There is good evidence that some interventions are ineffective. They include: (1) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in acute postoperative pain; (2) the use of local injections of opioids at sites other than the knee joint; (3) the use of dihydrocodeine, 30 mg, in acute postoperative pain (it is no better than placebo). RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INTERVENTIONS OF DOUBTFUL VALUE: Some interventions may be effective but the size of the effect or the complication of undertaking them confers no measurable benefit over conventional methods. Such interventions include: (1) injecting morphine into the knee joint after surgery: there is a small analgesic benefit which may last for up to 24 hours but there is no clear evidence that the size of the benefit is of any clinical value; (2) manoeuvres to try and anticipate pain by using pre-emptive analgesia; these are no more effective than standard methods; (3) administering non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by injection or per rectum in patients who can swallow; this appears to be no more effective than giving NSAIDs by mouth and, indeed, may do more harm than good; (4) administering codeine in single doses; this has poor analgesic efficacy. RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INTERVENTIONS OF PROVEN VALUE: These include a number of oral analgesics including (at standard doses): (1) dextropropoxyphene; (2) tramadol; (3) paracetamol; (4) ibuprofen; (5) diclofenac. Diclofenac and ibuprofen at standard doses give analgesia equivalent to that obtained with 10 mg of intramuscular morphine. Each will provide at least 50% pain relief from a single oral dose in patients with moderate or severe postoperative pain. Paracetamol and codeine combinations also appear to be highly effective, although there is little information on the standard doses used in the UK. The relative effectiveness of these analgesics is compared in an effectiveness 'ladder' which can inform prescribers making choices for individual patients, or planning day-case surgery. Dose-response relationships show that higher doses of ibuprofen may be particularly effective. Topical NSAIDs (applied to the skin) are effective in minor injuries and chronic pain but there is no obvious role for them in day-case surgery. RESULTS-POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING: The proportion of patients who may feel nauseated or vomit after surgery is very variable, despite similar operations and anaesthetic techniques. Systematic review can still lead to clear estimations of effectiveness of interventions. Whichever anti-emetic is used, the choice is often between prophylactic use (trying to prevent anyone vomiting) and treating those people who do feel nauseated or who may vomit. Systematic reviews of a number of different anti-emetics show clearly that none of the anti-emetics is sufficiently effective to be used for prophylaxis. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATE (+info)
Prophylactic antiemetic therapy with a combination of granisetron and dexamethasone in patients undergoing middle ear surgery. (4/321)We have compared the efficacy of granisetron in combination with dexamethasone with each drug alone in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after middle ear surgery. In a randomized, double-blind study, 120 patients (85 females) received granisetron 3 mg, dexamethasone 8 mg or granisetron 3 mg with dexamethasone 8 mg i.v. (n = 40 in each group), immediately before induction of anaesthesia. A standardized general anaesthetic technique was used. A complete response, defined as no PONV and no need for another rescue antiemetic during the first 3 h after anaesthesia, was recorded in 83%, 50% and 98% of patients who had received granisetron, dexamethasone and granisetron-dexamethasone, respectively. The corresponding incidences during the next 21 h after anaesthesia were 80%, 55% and 98% (P < 0.05; overall Fisher's exact probability test). In summary, prophylactic use of combined granisetron and dexamethasone was more effective than each antiemetic alone for the prevention of PONV after middle ear surgery. (+info)
Neostigmine with glycopyrrolate does not increase the incidence or severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting in outpatients undergoing gynaecological laparoscopy. (5/321)We studied 100 healthy women undergoing outpatient gynaecological laparoscopy in a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of neostigmine on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). After induction of anaesthesia with propofol, anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen. Mivacurium was used for neuromuscular block. At the end of anaesthesia, neostigmine 2.0 mg and glycopyrrolate 0.4 mg, or saline, was given i.v. The incidence of PONV was evaluated in the postanaesthesia care unit, on the ward and at home. The severity of nausea and vomiting, worst pain, antiemetic and analgesic use, times to urinary voiding and home readiness were recorded. During the first 24 h after operation, 44% of patients in the neostigmine group and 43% in the saline group did not have PONV. We conclude that neostigmine with glycopyrrolate did not increase the occurrence of PONV in this patient group. (+info)
Comparison of intrathecal and epidural diamorphine for elective caesarean section using a combined spinal-epidural technique. (6/321)To assess calculated equivalent doses of intrathecal and epidural opioids for elective Caesarean section in terms of quality and duration of analgesia, and incidence of side effects, we have compared 50 patients, allocated randomly to one of two groups to receive either diamorphine 0.25 mg intrathecally (group 1) or 5 mg epidurally (group 2), in addition to intrathecal bupivacaine 10 mg, using a combined spinal-epidural technique. There was no significant difference in duration of analgesia between groups (group 1 mean 14.6 (SD 5.9) h, group 2 14.2 (6.5) h; mean difference 0.8 h; 95% Cl -2.8-4.5; P = 0.65) or quality of analgesia (VAPS and VRS scores). The degree of pruritus was similar in both groups (80-88%) but the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in the epidural group (24% vs 4%; P < 0.05). Intrathecal diamorphine 0.25 mg produced the same duration and quality of postoperative analgesia as epidural diamorphine 5 mg for elective Caesarean section but with significantly less nausea and vomiting. (+info)
Antiemetic activity of the NK1 receptor antagonist GR205171 in the treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynaecological surgery. (7/321)In this double-blind, randomized, parallel group study, we have investigated the antiemetic activity of the potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonist GR205171 25 mg i.v. compared with placebo in the treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients after major gynaecological surgery performed under general anaesthesia. The incidence of PONV in the study population was 65%. Thirty-six patients were treated with placebo or GR205171 (18 patients per group). GR205171 produced greater control of PONV than placebo over the 24-h assessment period. The stimuli for emesis after PONV are multifactorial and the efficacy of GR205171 in this study supports the broad spectrum potential for NK1 receptor antagonists in the management of postoperative emesis. GR205171 was well tolerated and no adverse events were reported that would preclude the further development of this agent. (+info)
Glycopyrrolate reduces nausea during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section without affecting neonatal outcome. (8/321)We have tested the hypotheses that glycopyrrolate, administered immediately before induction of subarachnoid anaesthesia for elective Caesarean section, reduces the incidence and severity of nausea, with no adverse effects on neonatal Apgar scores, in a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Fifty women received either glycopyrrolate 200 micrograms or saline (placebo) i.v. during fluid preload, before induction of spinal anaesthesia with 2.5 ml of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine. Patients were questioned directly regarding nausea at 3-min intervals throughout operation and asked to report symptoms as they arose. The severity of nausea was assessed using a verbal scoring system and was treated with increments of i.v. ephedrine and fluids. Patients in the group pretreated with glycopyrrolate reported a reduction in the frequency (P = 0.02) and severity (P = 0.03) of nausea. Glycopyrrolate also reduced the severity of hypotension, as evidenced by reduced ephedrine requirements (P = 0.02). There were no differences in neonatal Apgar scores between groups. (+info)
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common complication that occurs after surgery. It is characterized by feelings of nausea (an unpleasant sensation in the stomach) and vomiting (throwing up) that can occur within hours of surgery. PONV can be caused by a variety of factors, including anesthesia, pain medication, and the stress of surgery. It can be a distressing and uncomfortable experience for patients, and in severe cases, it can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications. Treatment for PONV typically involves medications to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting, as well as supportive care to help patients manage their symptoms.
Nausea is a common sensation of uneasiness or discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit. It can be a symptom of various medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, infections, pregnancy, and certain medications. In the medical field, nausea is often evaluated and treated by a healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and provide appropriate treatment.
Droperidol is a medication that is used to treat nausea and vomiting, particularly in patients who are undergoing chemotherapy or surgery. It is also used to treat anxiety and agitation, and to control hallucinations and delirium in patients with certain mental health conditions. Droperidol is a type of medication called a dopamine antagonist, which means that it blocks the effects of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in regulating movement, mood, and other bodily functions. It is available in both oral and injectable forms, and is typically administered by a healthcare professional.
Ondansetron is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, or other medical procedures. It is also used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by motion sickness or morning sickness during pregnancy. Ondansetron works by blocking the action of chemicals in the brain that trigger the feeling of nausea and vomiting. It is available in tablet, oral solution, and injectable forms.
Vomiting is a medical condition characterized by the involuntary and forceful expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. It is also known as emesis or retching. Vomiting can be a symptom of a variety of medical conditions, including infections, digestive disorders, pregnancy, and certain medications. It can also be a response to toxins, such as those found in certain foods or chemicals. In severe cases, vomiting can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications. Treatment for vomiting depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, changes in diet and fluid intake, or other interventions.
Metoclopramide is a medication that is used to treat a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. It is a type of medication called a prokinetic, which means that it helps to speed up the movement of food through the digestive system. Metoclopramide is often used to treat conditions such as nausea and vomiting, gastroparesis (a condition in which the stomach empties too slowly), and acid reflux disease (GERD). It is available in both oral and injectable forms, and is typically prescribed by a doctor or other healthcare professional.
Pain, Postoperative refers to the discomfort or pain experienced by a patient after undergoing surgery. It is a common and expected complication of surgery, and can range from mild to severe. Postoperative pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including tissue damage, inflammation, and nerve stimulation. It is typically managed with a combination of pain medications, such as opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and local anesthetics, as well as other treatments such as physical therapy, ice packs, and relaxation techniques. Proper management of postoperative pain is important for promoting healing, reducing the risk of complications, and improving the patient's overall comfort and quality of life.
Nitrous oxide, also known as laughing gas, is a colorless, odorless gas that is commonly used in the medical field as an anesthetic and analgesic. It is a potent analgesic, meaning it can help to reduce pain and discomfort during medical procedures, and it is also a sedative, meaning it can help to calm and relax patients. In medical settings, nitrous oxide is typically administered through a mask that covers the patient's nose and mouth. The gas is mixed with oxygen and inhaled by the patient, which helps to produce a feeling of relaxation and euphoria. Nitrous oxide is often used in combination with other anesthetics, such as local anesthetics or general anesthesia, to provide a more complete and effective anesthetic. Nitrous oxide is considered to be a relatively safe anesthetic, with few side effects. However, it can cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and nausea in some patients, and it can also cause a temporary decrease in blood pressure. As with any anesthetic, it is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and to report any side effects or concerns to their healthcare provider.
Granisetron is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. It is a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, which means it blocks the action of a chemical in the brain that can trigger vomiting. Granisetron is available in both oral and injectable forms and is typically administered before or after exposure to the nausea-inducing agent. It is also sometimes used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by motion sickness or surgery.
Propofol is a medication that is commonly used in the medical field for anesthesia. It is a short-acting sedative-hypnotic drug that is administered intravenously to induce and maintain general anesthesia. Propofol works by binding to specific receptors in the brain, which leads to a loss of consciousness and muscle relaxation. It is often used in combination with other anesthetic drugs and is also used to manage pain and anxiety in intensive care units and during medical procedures. Propofol is a powerful drug and can cause serious side effects if not administered properly, so it is typically only used by trained medical professionals in a controlled setting.
Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.
Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid pain medication that is approximately 100 times more potent than morphine. It is used to treat severe pain, such as that caused by cancer or after surgery. Fentanyl is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, lozenges, patches, and injections. It is also sometimes used in combination with other medications, such as hydromorphone or oxycodone, to increase their effectiveness. Fentanyl can be highly addictive and can cause respiratory depression, which can be life-threatening. It is important to use fentanyl only under the guidance of a healthcare professional and to follow their instructions carefully.
Morphine is a powerful opioid medication that is used to relieve severe pain. It is derived from the opium poppy and is one of the most potent naturally occurring opioids. Morphine works by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which can reduce the perception of pain and produce feelings of euphoria. It is often prescribed for patients who are experiencing severe pain, such as those with cancer or after surgery. Morphine can be administered in a variety of ways, including orally, intravenously, or through injection. It can also be used in combination with other medications to enhance its pain-relieving effects. However, morphine can also be highly addictive and can lead to dependence and withdrawal symptoms if used for an extended period of time. It is important for patients to use morphine only as directed by their healthcare provider and to avoid taking more than the recommended dose.
Alfentanil is a synthetic opioid medication that is used for anesthesia during surgery or other medical procedures. It is a strong analgesic, meaning it is highly effective at reducing pain, and is often used in combination with other anesthetic drugs to provide a deeper level of sedation and pain relief. Alfentanil is a short-acting opioid, meaning its effects wear off quickly, which allows for easier recovery and reduced risk of respiratory depression. It is typically administered intravenously, although it can also be given by inhalation or injection. Alfentanil is a controlled substance and is only available by prescription from a qualified healthcare provider.
Strabismus is a medical condition in which the eyes are not aligned properly, causing them to point in different directions. This can result in double vision, difficulty seeing in depth, and other visual problems. Strabismus can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle weakness or paralysis, nerve damage, or problems with the brain's visual processing centers. Treatment for strabismus may include glasses, patches, eye exercises, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.
Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field as an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antipyretic agent. It is a potent corticosteroid that has a wide range of therapeutic applications, including the treatment of allergic reactions, inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Dexamethasone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and inhalers, and is used to treat a variety of conditions, such as asthma, COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. It is also used to treat severe cases of COVID-19, as it has been shown to reduce inflammation and improve outcomes in patients with severe illness. However, dexamethasone is a potent drug that can have significant side effects, including weight gain, fluid retention, high blood pressure, increased risk of infection, and mood changes. Therefore, it is typically prescribed only when other treatments have failed or when the potential benefits outweigh the risks.
Pruritus is a medical term used to describe an intense, persistent, and often uncontrollable urge to scratch or rub a particular area of the skin. It is commonly referred to as "itching" and can be caused by a variety of factors, including skin conditions, infections, allergies, hormonal changes, and certain medications. Pruritus can be a symptom of many different medical conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, liver disease, kidney disease, and cancer. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as antibiotics, antihistamines, and chemotherapy drugs. Treatment for pruritus depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, over-the-counter creams or ointments may be sufficient to relieve symptoms. In more severe cases, prescription medications or other treatments may be necessary. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if you are experiencing persistent or severe itching, as it could be a sign of an underlying medical condition that requires treatment.
Quinolizines are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms. They are structurally related to quinolines, which have a similar ring structure but with only one nitrogen atom. Quinolizines have a wide range of biological activities and are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including: 1. Antimalarial drugs: Quinolizines are used as antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, which are used to treat and prevent malaria. 2. Antipsychotic drugs: Quinolizines are also used as antipsychotic drugs, such as chlorpromazine and thioridazine, which are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. 3. Antihistamines: Quinolizines are used as antihistamines, such as astemizole and terfenadine, which are used to treat allergies and other conditions caused by histamine release. 4. Antifungal drugs: Quinolizines are used as antifungal drugs, such as ketoconazole and itraconazole, which are used to treat fungal infections. 5. Anticancer drugs: Quinolizines are also used as anticancer drugs, such as quinoline-8-carboxylic acid, which is being studied for its potential to treat various types of cancer. Overall, quinolizines have a diverse range of biological activities and are used in the treatment of various medical conditions.
Neostigmine is a medication that is used to treat certain muscle disorders, such as myasthenia gravis, and to reverse the effects of certain medications that cause muscle weakness, such as neuromuscular blockers used during surgery. It works by increasing the activity of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, which helps to improve muscle strength and coordination. Neostigmine is available in both injectable and oral forms, and is typically administered by a healthcare professional. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle cramps.
Sufentanil is a synthetic opioid analgesic that is used in medicine for the relief of severe pain. It is a potent and short-acting opioid, with a rapid onset and a relatively brief duration of action. Sufentanil is often used in anesthesia and intensive care medicine, as well as for the management of acute pain in the emergency department. It is available in a variety of forms, including intravenous injection, intramuscular injection, and transdermal patch. Sufentanil is a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States, meaning that it has a high potential for abuse and dependence.
Piperidines are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4. They are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry as a building block for the synthesis of a wide range of drugs, including analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, and antihistamines. Piperidines are also found in natural products, such as alkaloids, and have been used in traditional medicine for their various therapeutic effects. In the medical field, piperidines are often used as a starting point for the development of new drugs, as they can be easily modified to produce a wide range of pharmacological activities.
Methyl ethers are organic compounds that contain a methyl group (CH3) attached to an oxygen atom. They are a type of ether, which is a functional group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups. In the medical field, methyl ethers are used as anesthetic agents, particularly for induction of anesthesia. They are also used as solvents and as intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds. Some methyl ethers have been found to have potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. One example of a methyl ether used in medicine is methoxyflurane, which was once a common anesthetic but has been largely replaced by other agents due to its potential for toxicity and side effects. Other methyl ethers that have been studied for their potential medicinal properties include diisopropyl ether and tert-butyl methyl ether.
Isoflurane is a volatile anesthetic gas that is commonly used in medical procedures to induce and maintain general anesthesia. It is a colorless, odorless gas that is similar in structure to halothane, another anesthetic gas. When inhaled, isoflurane produces a state of unconsciousness and a lack of response to pain, allowing medical procedures to be performed without the patient feeling any discomfort. It also has a relatively low risk of causing side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, or respiratory depression. Isoflurane is often used in combination with other anesthetics, such as opioids or muscle relaxants, to provide a more complete anesthetic effect. It is also used in veterinary medicine and in research settings to induce anesthesia in animals.
Motion sickness, also known as seasickness, car sickness, or vertigo, is a common condition that affects people when they experience a mismatch between the sensory information received by the brain and the body's actual movement. The brain relies on information from the inner ear, which detects changes in head position and movement, and the eyes, which provide visual cues about the environment. When these two sources of information do not match, the brain becomes confused and can trigger symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and headache. Motion sickness can occur in a variety of situations, including traveling in a car, plane, or boat, riding a roller coaster, or watching a 3D movie. It is more common in children and young adults, and some people may be more susceptible to motion sickness than others. Treatment for motion sickness may include over-the-counter medications such as antihistamines or motion sickness bands, as well as lifestyle changes such as avoiding triggers, getting plenty of rest, and staying hydrated. In severe cases, medical treatment may be necessary.
Postoperative nausea and vomiting
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- The global postoperative nausea and vomiting (ponv) treatment market is expected to witness a significant CAGR of X.X% during the forecast period from 2023 to 2030. (researchcorridor.com)
- The global postoperative nausea and vomiting (ponv) treatment market report provides a comprehensive understanding of the industry being analyzed. (researchcorridor.com)
- The postoperative nausea and vomiting (ponv) treatment market report offers a primary overview of the postoperative nausea and vomiting (ponv) treatment industry covering different product definitions, classifications, and participants in the industry chain structure. (researchcorridor.com)
- The global postoperative nausea and vomiting (ponv) treatment market report examines the market dynamics, trends, and opportunities across major regions, including North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa (MEA). (researchcorridor.com)
- The purpose of this study was to look at the effectiveness of low dose granisetron, a common antiemetic used for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). (und.edu)
- Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) for up to 24 hours following surgery. (tevausa.com)
- NEW ORLEANS -- There was no benefit to giving patients supplemental oxygen during surgery to reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), according to a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial. (medpagetoday.com)
- There are no shortage of reasons to make preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) a top priority, as this problematic complication often prolongs. (aorn.org)
- Demonstrated antiemetic efficacy in pregnancy, postoperative nausea and vomiting and vertigo . (rxlist.com)
- nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy. (nih.gov)
- Palonosetron hydrochloride injection-in a class of medications called 5-HT 3 receptor antagonists-is used in adults to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur as a result of receiving cancer chemotherapy with a moderate or high risk of causing nausea and vomiting. (tevausa.com)
- This double-blind clinical trial assessed the incidence of nausea and vomiting after cataract surgery with intravenous anaesthesia in 100 patients randomly assigned to preinduction placebo (saline), metoclopramide (10 mg), dexamethasone (8 mg) or the 2 drugs combined. (who.int)
- The incidence of nausea in the recovery room was 44% with placebo, 20% with metoclopramide, 16% with dexamethasone and 8% with the combination. (who.int)
- The incidence of vomiting was 20%, 4%, 4% and 0% respectively in the 4 groups. (who.int)
- In patients where nausea and vomiting must be avoided during the postoperative period, palonosetron hydrochloride injection is recommended even where the incidence of postoperative nausea and/or vomiting is low. (tevausa.com)
- In clinical trials, the most common adverse reactions in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults (incidence ≥ 5%) were headache and constipation. (tevausa.com)
- The most common adverse reactions in postoperative nausea and vomiting (incidence ≥ 2%) were QT prolongation, bradycardia, headache, and constipation. (tevausa.com)
- It can be effective in treatment of dyspepsia , migraine headache , morning sickness, nausea ( chemo induced), post-operative nausea and/or vomiting, osteoarthritis , respiratory infections, rheumatoid arthritis and for SSRI taper/discontinuation. (rxlist.com)
- The information from this study is beneficial to anesthesia providers in helping prevent and treat postoperative nausea and vomiting and to nursing professionals in helping improve patient outcome and satisfaction following open cholecystectomy and abdominal hysterectomy surgery. (und.edu)
- In the ambulatory surgery environment, regional anesthesia is a go-to technique for reducing postoperative pain. (aorn.org)
- [ 6 ] They reported a better outcome in the ERAS group with implementation of only the postoperative components of ERAS. (medscape.com)
- There are some high quality trials that support the use of acupuncture for some types of pain and nausea, but there are also high quality trials that contradict this conclusion. (dcscience.net)
- Results were unconvincing for most conditions, although there is some evidence to suggest that acupuncture may be effective for postoperative nausea and vomiting, and that hypnotherapy may be effective in reducing procedure-related pain. (positivehealth.com)
- prevention of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (greater than or equal to 2%) are: headache, constipation, and diarrhea. (nih.gov)
- Nausea and Vomiting During Early Pregnancy Pregnancy frequently causes nausea and vomiting. (msdmanuals.com)
- Scientific studies suggest ginger is effective for pregnancy-related nausea and postoperative nausea and vomiting, but not for nausea caused by chemotherapy. (msdmanuals.com)
- Ginger is relatively safe and may be effective for pregnancy-related nausea and postoperative nausea and vomiting. (msdmanuals.com)
- Cette étude clinique en double aveugle évaluait l'incidence des nausées et des vomissements après une chirurgie de la cataracte avec anesthésie par voie intraveineuse chez 100 patients auxquels un placebo (eau saline), du métoclopramide (10 mg), de la dexaméthasone (8 mg) ou les deux médicaments associés avaient été administrés de manière randomisée avant l'opération. (who.int)
- L'association du métoclopramide et de la dexaméthasone a considérablement réduit les nausées et vomissements, non seulement en salle de réveil mais également dans les 24 heures qui suivent, et est recommandée pour les groupes à haut risque, notamment pour les patients opérés en ambulatoire. (who.int)
- nausea and vomiting associated with radiotherapy in patients receiving either total body irradiation, single high-dose fraction to the abdomen, or daily fractions to the abdomen. (nih.gov)
- A number of subspecialties have started implementing ERAS in their patients and have shown improved postoperative outcomes. (medscape.com)
- Several studies have documented the inability of nurses, physicians, and parents/guardians to correctly identify and treat pain, even in postoperative pediatric patients. (nysora.com)
- As with other antiemetics, routine prophylaxis is not recommended in patients in whom there is little expectation that nausea and/or vomiting will occur postoperatively. (tevausa.com)
- Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative components of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS). (medscape.com)
- It is also given to prevent nausea and vomiting up to 24 hours after surgery. (tevausa.com)
- The effect of neostigmine and atropine combination on postoperative nausea and vomiting after arthroscopic surgery]. (bvsalud.org)
- Although there was no significant difference in the 1-year morbidity among the groups, heart failure was observed in one patient in the high liberal group in the early postoperative period. (dovepress.com)
- This patient tolerated oral analgesics, but acetaminophen can be administered intravenously for those experiencing problems with postoperative nausea and vomiting. (netce.com)
- prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (greater than or equal to 9%) are: headache and hypoxia. (nih.gov)
- At this time, basic postoperative issues can also be addressed, including the anticipated length of hospital stay, the activity and dietary restrictions in the postoperative period, and the time the child will likely be away from school. (medscape.com)
- Metoclopramide plus dexamethasone combination significantly decreased nausea and vomiting both in the recovery room and 24 hours afterwards and is recommended for high-risk groups, especially in outpatient surgeries. (who.int)
- Meta-analysis of acustimulation effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting in children. (bvsalud.org)
- Fourth Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting. (nih.gov)
- The components of ERAS may be broadly divided into preadmission, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases, each of which includes various distinct components (see the image below). (medscape.com)
- In contrast to other studies that used limited intra- and postoperative care elements, the authors maximized the use of ERAS care elements in the study population, including the preoperative components whenever feasible and most of the intraoperative and postoperative components. (medscape.com)
- National Institutes of Health (NIH) studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective treatment alone or in combination with conventional therapies to treat the following: Nausea caused by surgical anesthesia and cancer chemotherapy. (kembrel.com)
- Prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy with cytostatics. (lekarstwo.ru)
- It was approved by the FDA in July 2003 to treat Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. (mrmed.in)
- It is also used to treat Chemotherapy induced nausea & vomiting. (mrmed.in)
- In certain people, cannabinoids may be effective in reducing chemotherapy associated nausea and vomiting. (parasitetesting.com)
- 1). Anaesthesia, 1994, Volume 49 (Supplement), pages 34-37 Ondansetron, clinical development for postoperative nausea and vomiting: current studies and future directions A. F. JOSLYN Summary The clinical development of ondansetron for the prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting has been progressing for 5 years, and continues as new directions of research are being … transdermal scopolamine). (shakhidi.com)
- Ondansetron (Zofran) is effective for nausea and vomiting but is expensive. (parasitetesting.com)
- The mean postoperative total opioid requirement per patient was 32 mg of pethidine. (hkmj.org)
Urge to vomit2
- Vomiting, or emesis, is defined as the expulsion of gastric contents through the mouth after contraction of the abdominal muscle, the descent of the diaphragm and the opening of the gastric cardia. (hospitalpharmacyeurope.com)
- Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting market report covers a descriptive overview and comprehensive insight of the Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Epidemiology and Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting market in the 7MM (the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, France, Italy, UK) & Japan. (mountaintoday.in)
- number of conditions involving balance such as motion sickness and vertigo can lead to nausea and vomiting. (parasitetesting.com)
- Nausea, retching, or vomiting usually occurs during the first 24-48 h after surgery in inpatients. (mountaintoday.in)
- It suppresses vomiting that occurs when the parasympathetic nervous system is excited due to the release of serotonin by enterochromaffin cells. (lekarstwo.ru)
- The chemotherapeutic trigger zone( CTZ) contains the receptor serotonin, when this CTZ is stimulated, vomiting occurs. (mrmed.in)
- Dimenhydrinate (Gravol) is an inexpensive and effective medication for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. (parasitetesting.com)
- The released serotonin may stimulate the vagal afferents through the 5-HT receptors and initiate the vomiting reflex. (nih.gov)
- The vomiting centre in the brainstem is activated by the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ), which is rich in serotonin type-3 (5HT3), histamine type-1 (H1), muscarinic cholinergic type-1 (M1), dopamine type-2 (D2), neurokinin type-1 (NK1) and opioid receptors. (hospitalpharmacyeurope.com)
- In addition, stimulation of H1 and/or M1 receptors in the vestibular labyrinth via the CTZ can also activate the vomiting centre. (hospitalpharmacyeurope.com)
- Finally, peripheral input via gastrointestinal vagal nerve fibres can also stimulate the brainstem vomiting centre by activation of 5HT3, NK1 or D2 receptors. (hospitalpharmacyeurope.com)
- Then, efferent pathways involving the salivary, respiratory and vasomotor centres and cranial nerves mediate vomiting. (hospitalpharmacyeurope.com)
- and Dr. Pace for their interest in our meta-regression analysis of the relationship of duration of exposure to the risk of nitrous oxide (N 2 O)-induced postoperative nausea and vomiting. (asahq.org)
- The influence of type of surgery on postoperative nausea and vomiting risk is still debated, and a rationale for a differential effect of nitrous oxide in specific surgeries is unclear. (asahq.org)
- 11. A comparison between inhalational (Desflurane) and total intravenous anaesthesia (Propofol and dexmedetomidine) in improving postoperative recovery for morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: A double-blinded randomised controlled trial. (nih.gov)
- The Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting market report provides insights on the current and emerging therapies. (mountaintoday.in)
- The dynamics of the Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting market are anticipated to change in the coming years owing to the expected launch of emerging therapies by key companies such as Vivozon, Avenue Therapeutics, Taiwan Liposome Company , and others during the forecasted period 2019-2032. (mountaintoday.in)
- A person can suffer nausea without vomiting. (parasitetesting.com)
- The paucity of data on postoperative IPNs for esophageal cancer causes a clinical dilemma. (bvsalud.org)
- A meta-analysis of 13 studies (1174 subjects) reported ginger was significantly more effective than placebo in relieving pregnancy-related nausea but not vomiting. (msdmanuals.com)
- Meta-analysis of acustimulation effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting in children. (bvsalud.org)
- Featured Review: Drugs for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults after general anaesthesia: a network meta-analysis Why are people sick after an operation? (shakhidi.com)
- Stimulation of these chemoreceptor triggers activates the vomiting centre. (hospitalpharmacyeurope.com)
- Nausea or "morning sickness" is common during early pregnancy but may occasionally continue into the second and third trimesters. (parasitetesting.com)
- Pregnancy should therefore be considered as a possible cause of nausea in any women of child bearing age. (parasitetesting.com)
- Pyridoxine or metoclopramide are the first line treatments for pregnancy related nausea and vomiting. (parasitetesting.com)
- Netupitant, Palonosetron is an anti-emetic agent used to treat Postoperative nausea & vomiting. (mrmed.in)
- Metoclopramide plus dexamethasone combination significantly decreased nausea and vomiting both in the recovery room and 24 hours afterwards and is recommended for high-risk groups, especially in outpatient surgeries. (who.int)
- We analysed 30 consecutive cases between 1 January 2015 and 31 March 2015 to investigate the postoperative opioid requirements using this anaesthesia protocol. (hkmj.org)
- If dehydration is present due to loss of fluids from severe vomiting and/or accompanying diarrhea, rehydration with oral electrolyte solutions is preferred. (parasitetesting.com)
- Many medications can potentially cause nausea. (parasitetesting.com)
- L'incidence des nausées en salle de réveil était de 44 % avec le placebo, 20 % avec le métoclopramide, 16 % avec la dexaméthasone et 8 % avec l'association des deux médicaments. (who.int)
- Postoperative nausea and vomiting remains a common cause of morbidity. (shakhidi.com)