Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Plant Root Cap: A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Posterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.Uveitis, Posterior: Inflammation of the choroid as well as the retina and vitreous body. Some form of visual disturbance is usually present. The most important characteristics of posterior uveitis are vitreous opacities, choroiditis, and chorioretinitis.Root Caries: Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Hypothalamus, Posterior: The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.Root Planing: A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.Root Canal Obturation: Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Lens Capsule, Crystalline: The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and visual loss with edema in the posterior aspects of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, such as the BRAIN STEM. Generally, lesions involve the white matter (nerve fibers) but occasionally the grey matter (nerve cell bodies).Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Infratentorial Neoplasms: Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).Posterior Capsule of the Lens: The posterior aspect of the casing that surrounds the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Gravitropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Plant Root Nodulation: The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction: A condition characterized by a broad range of progressive disorders ranging from TENOSYNOVITIS to tendon rupture with or without hindfoot collapse to a fixed, rigid, FLATFOOT deformity. Pathologic changes can involve associated tendons, ligaments, joint structures of the ANKLE, hindfoot, and midfoot. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is the most common cause of acquired flatfoot deformity in adults.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Posterior Thalamic Nuclei: A transitional diencephalic zone of the thalamus consisting of complex and varied cells lying caudal to the VENTRAL POSTEROLATERAL NUCLEUS, medial to the rostral part of the PULVINAR, and dorsal to the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY. It contains the limitans, posterior, suprageniculate, and submedial nuclei.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Vitreous Detachment: Detachment of the corpus vitreum (VITREOUS BODY) from its normal attachments, especially the retina, due to shrinkage from degenerative or inflammatory conditions, trauma, myopia, or senility.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.DislocationsPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Capsulorhexis: The making of a continuous circular tear in the anterior capsule during cataract surgery in order to allow expression or phacoemulsification of the nucleus of the lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.AxisLumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Lotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Dental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Gutta-Percha: Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.Phacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Spinal DiseasesTranscription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Ciliary Arteries: Three groups of arteries found in the eye which supply the iris, pupil, sclera, conjunctiva, and the muscles of the iris.Lupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Capsule Opacification: Clouding or loss of transparency of the posterior lens capsule, usually following CATARACT extraction.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Spinal NeoplasmsTongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.TailLycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Hip Dislocation: Displacement of the femur bone from its normal position at the HIP JOINT.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Phthalimides: The imide of phthalic acids.Dandy-Walker Syndrome: A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)Lens Subluxation: Incomplete rupture of the zonule with the displaced lens remaining behind the pupil. In dislocation, or complete rupture, the lens is displaced forward into the anterior chamber or backward into the vitreous body. When congenital, this condition is known as ECTOPIA LENTIS.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
... the posterior nerve roots. Some ascend for only a short distance in the tract, and, entering the gray matter, come into close ... Upper part of medulla spinalis and hind- and mid-brains; posterior aspect, exposed in situ. Fourth ventricle. Posterior view. ... It is part of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway. The fasciculus cuneatus is triangular on transverse section, and ... Superior terminations of the posterior fasciculi of the medulla spinalis. ...
Like the more posterior premolars, it is buccolingually compressed and double-rooted. It has a dominant central protocone ... Like P4, their distal root is wider than the mesial and formed by the fusion of two roots. The profiles of the molars are more ... In P4, smaller than P2-3, the larger distal root is formed by the fusion of two roots.[13] ... The lower premolars are double-rooted, buccolingually compressed teeth, except the deciduous P1 which is single-rooted. P3 is ...
Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view. *. Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep ...
Dorsal root ganglia, posterior roots and peripheral nerves are not directly affected. HSP affects several pathways in motor ...
Type IV cells are normally rooted at the posterior end of the taste bud. Every cell in the taste bud forms microvilli at the ... In regional testing, 20 to 50 µL of liquid stimulus is presented to the anterior and posterior tongue using a pipette, soaked ... is responsible for taste sensations from the posterior one third of the tongue while a branch of the vagus nerve (X) carries ... are present on the anterior portion of the tongue while circumvallate papillae and foliate papillae are found on the posterior ...
They are characterized by stacked Golgi, orthogonal centrioles, and two opposite posterior ciliary roots. A proposed cladogram ... He, Ding; Fiz-Palacios, Omar; Fu, Cheng-Jie; Fehling, Johanna; Tsai, Chun-Chieh; Baldauf, Sandra L. "An Alternative Root for ... Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2010-06-23). "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree". Biology ... "Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (7): E693-E699. doi ...
The posterior division of the L4 root is the Femoral nerve. The femoral nerve innervates the quadriceps femoris, a fourth of ... The signal will travel through the anterior root of L4 and into the anterior rami of the L4 nerve, leaving the spinal cord ... It arises by two tendons: one, the anterior or straight, from the anterior inferior iliac spine; the other, the posterior or ... The muscle ends in a broad and thick aponeurosis which occupies the lower two-thirds of its posterior surface, and, gradually ...
The auriculotemporal nerve arises as two roots from the posterior division of the mandibular nerve. The mandibular nerve is a ... Then they form the somatosensory (superior) root of the auriculotemporal nerve. The two roots re-unite, and shortly after the ... posterior to its head and moving anteriorly, gives off anterior branches to the auricle. It then crosses over the root of the ... These roots encircle the middle meningeal artery (a branch of the mandibular part of the maxillary artery, which is in turn a ...
The spinal cord showing how the anterior and posterior roots join in the spinal nerves. A longer view of the spinal cord. ... The dorsal root is the afferent sensory root and carries sensory information to the brain. The ventral root is the efferent ... They are divided into posterior and anterior divisions. Posterior divisions: The medial branches of the posterior divisions of ... Posterior divisions: The medial branches (ramus medialis) of the posterior branches of the upper six thoracic nerves run ...
The posterior end is connected to the squama by two roots, the anterior and posterior roots. The posterior root, a prolongation ... The anterior root, continuous with the lower border, is short but broad and strong; it is directed medialward and ends in a ...
The posterior end is connected to the squamous part by two roots, the anterior and posterior roots. The posterior root, a ... Between the posterior wall of the external acoustic meatus and the posterior root of the zygomatic process is the area called ... The anterior root, continuous with the lower border, is short but broad and strong; it is directed medialward and ends in a ... The posterior part of the mandibular fossa, formed by the tympanic part of the bone, is non-articular, and sometimes lodges a ...
In 1898 C.S. Sherrington described relief of muscle spasticity by posterior root section in de-cerebrate cats. Between 1908 and ... This technique selectively analyzes each individual nerve root with electromyography to separate dorsal and ventral nerve roots ... since Sherrington's studies were used as a basis for performing posterior root rhizotomy for the relief of spasticity in the ... in Montpellier resurrected posterior rhizotomy for spasticity. Fasano of Italy in 1978 introduced 'selective' posterior rootlet ...
The brachial plexus is divided into five roots, three trunks, six divisions, three anterior and three posterior, three cords, ... The posterior cord is formed from the three posterior divisions of the trunks (C5-C8, T1) The lateral cord is formed from the ... Bold indicates primary spinal root component of nerve. Italics indicate spinal roots that frequently, but not always, ... The five roots are the five anterior rami of the spinal nerves, after they have given off their segmental supply to the muscles ...
The transverse processes are of considerable size; their posterior roots are large and prominent, while the anterior are small ... The anterior and posterior surfaces are flattened and of equal depth; the former is placed on a lower level than the latter, ... The posterior part, the true transverse process, springs from the vertebral arch behind the foramen and is directed forward and ... Each process consists of an anterior and a posterior part. These two parts are joined, outside the foramen, by a bar of bone ...
Posterior view. Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view. Spinal cord. Spinal membranes ... Posterior view. Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view. Spinal cord. Spinal membranes ... Posterior view. Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view. Spinal cord. Spinal membranes ... and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view. Spinal cord Conus medullaris Susan Standring (7 August 2015). Gray's Anatomy E ...
Posterior view. Spinal cord. Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view. Spinal cord. Spinal membranes ... and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view. Anatomical terms of location Bone terminology Rib fracture Rib removal Ribs ( ... Spinal membranes and nerve roots. Deep dissection. ...
Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view. Meninges and superficial cerebral veins.Deep dissection. ... "Lepto"- from the Greek root meaning "thin"). Similarly, the dura in this situation is called the pachymeninx. There are two ...
Spinal membranes and nerve roots.Deep dissection. Posterior view. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the ...
... the anterior and posterior roots: *The posterior root, a prolongation of the upper border, is strongly marked; it runs backward ... The anterior root, continuous with the lower border, is short but broad and strong; it is directed medialward and ends in a ... end is deeply serrated and articulates with the zygomatic bone.The posterior end is connected to the squama by two roots, ...
The first lower molar has four roots, including two small accessory roots located between larger anterior and posterior roots. ... The second molar has either two or three roots, with the anterior root split into two smaller roots in some specimens. The ... The palate itself is also long, extending beyond the posterior margin of the maxillary bones, and it is perforated near the ... Each of the three upper molars has three roots; unlike in both Holochilus and Pseudoryzomys, the first upper molar lacks an ...
Each segment is defined by a posterior root entering it and an anterior root exiting it. Each of these roots is the end of a ... The disease is characterized by the degeneration of both the lateral and posterior columns, which results in symptoms such as a ... and dorsal roots to synapse on cells of the intermediolateral cell column in the lateral horn. Lateral grey column nerve cells ... the others being the anterior and posterior grey columns. The lateral grey column is primarily involved with activity in the ...
The function of the ganglion on the posterior root of each spinal nerve is published in the 'Comptes Rendus' (xxxv. 524). 'The ...
... where the mitral valve leaflet is contiguous with the posterior aortic root.[8] ... Elongation of the chordae tendineae often causes rupture, commonly to the chordae attached to the posterior cusp. Advanced ... where the crescent represents the posterior cusp). Although the anterior leaflet takes up a larger part of the ring and rises ... lesions-also commonly involving the posterior leaflet-lead to leaflet folding, inversion, and displacement toward the left ...
... with four posterior roots which have spherical lobes. They also have a trunk which is 3.8 centimetres (1.5 in) in length and 2 ... Their paedomorphic males are 0.4-1.1 millimetres (0.016-0.043 in), and have an incompleted prototroch with a posterior hooked ...
It extends anteriorly, and continues to narrow until the cavity ends below the posterior elongation of the roots of the canine ... Timing of the development of the posterior sagittal crest occurs later in Galesaurus than it does in Thrinaxodon. The posterior ... During ontogeny, both Galesaurus and Thrinaxodon undergo changes in posterior projection of the postorbital, posterior sagittal ... The second tooth contains a long anterior cusp and a short posterior cusp. The base of the incisors is wide, though the crown ...
The signal then goes through the ventral rami and down the root ganglions of C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1 (which together form the ... posterior. superficial:. *mobile wad *brachioradialis. *extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis. *extensor digitorum ...
Overview Originally known as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction or insufficiency, adult-acquired flatfoot deformity ... where the conservative methods of treatment have failed there are various forms of surgery available depending upon the root ... The Cause For Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Overview. Originally known as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction or ... The most common cause of acquired Adult Flatfoot is due to overuse of a tendon on the inside of the ankle called the posterior ...
Cervical Selective Nerve Root Block - Neck Cervical Spondylitic Myelopathy - Spinal Cord Compression ... Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, also known as acquired flatfoot, results when the tendon at the back of the ankle is ... There are various surgical procedures for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, and it is common to need more than one. ...
... posterior root explanation free. What is posterior root? Meaning of posterior root medical term. What does posterior root mean? ... Looking for online definition of posterior root in the Medical Dictionary? ... ventral root anterior root.. posterior root. One of the two roots by which a spinal nerve is attached to the spinal cord; ... Certain cranial nerves, e.g., the trigeminal, also have nerve roots.. posterior root the posterior, or sensory, division of ...
What is posterior root? Meaning of posterior root as a legal term. What does posterior root mean in law? ... Definition of posterior root in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Posterior root legal definition of posterior root https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/posterior+root ... root. (redirected from posterior root). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. See: basis, bloodline, ...
Purpose This study investigated the outcomes of pullout fixation for medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRTs) in patients ... Chung KS, Ha JK, Ra HJ, Kim JG (2016) Prognostic Factors in the Midterm Results of Pullout Fixation for Posterior Root Tears of ... Lee DW, Ha JK, Kim JG (2014) Medial meniscus posterior root tear: a comprehensive review. Knee Surg Relat Res 26:125-134 ... Choi ES, Park SJ (2015) Clinical Evaluation of the Root Tear of the Posterior Horn of the Medial Meniscus in Total Knee ...
The National Center for Biomedical Ontology was founded as one of the National Centers for Biomedical Computing, supported by the NHGRI, the NHLBI, and the NIH Common Fund under grant U54-HG004028 ...
Meniscal root repair via a suture anchor technique is technically challenging, requiring a posterior portal and a curved suture ... Meniscal root tears that are not managed may lead to meniscal extrusion, rendering the meniscus nonfunctional and eventually ... This video demonstrates posteromedial meniscus root repair with the use of three sutures (one leader, two cinch), standard ... The meniscal roots are critical to maintaining the normal shock-absorbing function of the meniscus. ...
Efficacy of the C8 Nerve Root Block During Interscalene Block for Anesthesia of the Posterior Aspect of the Shoulder ... Efficacy of the C8 Nerve Root Block During Interscalene Block for Anesthesia of the Posterior Aspect of the Shoulder Brief ... The 5th to 7th cervical nerve roots will be blocked in half of participants, while the 5th to 8th cervical nerve roots will be ... nerve root block during interscalene brachial plexus block on the relief of pain intensity upon the introduction of a posterior ...
Efficacy of the C8 Nerve Root Block During Interscalene Block for Anesthesia of the Posterior Aspect of the Shoulder ... Efficacy of the C8 Nerve Root Block During Interscalene Block for Anesthesia of the Posterior Aspect of the Shoulder ...
This is type of meniscal tear is commonly missed and the posterior root attachments are hence a good check area on knee MRI ... Complete radial tear of the medial meniscus at the posterior root. ... This is type of meniscal tear is commonly missed and the posterior root attachments are hence a good check area on knee MRI ... Complete radial tear of the medial meniscus at the posterior root. Induration and oedema of the loose connective tissue lying ...
To explore spinal rhythm generating mechanisms recruited by phasic step-related sensory feedback and tonic posterior root ... Spinal Rhythm Generation by Step-Induced Feedback and Transcutaneous Posterior Root Stimulation in Complete Spinal Cord-Injured ... over the lumbar posterior roots. RESULTS:. Robotic-driven stepping alone generated rhythmic activity in a small number of ...
The lateral meniscus posterior root was a significant primary stabilizer of the knee for internal rotation and anterior tibial ... The sectioning order for group 1 was (1) ACL, (2) LM posterior root, (3) MFLs, and for group 2 was (1) LM posterior root, (2) ... The LM posterior root was a significant stabilizer of the knee for anterior tibial translation during a simulated pivot shift ... The lateral meniscus posterior root was a significant primary stabilizer of the knee for internal rotation and anterior tibial ...
To investigate the effectiveness of MRI findings in order to evaluate lateral meniscus posterior root tear (LMPRT) in anterior ... What Are the Most Effective MRI-Specific Findings for Lateral Meniscus Posterior Root Tear in ACL Injuries?. Kazuki Asai, ... A lateral meniscus posterior root tear (LMPRT) occurs in 6~10% of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. LMPRT causes loss ... LMPRT was defined as a radial tear within 10 mm from the lateral meniscus posterior root attachment. The clinical information ...
"Medial meniscus posterior root tear induces pathological posterior extrusion of the meniscus in the knee-flexed position: An ... Medial meniscus posterior root tear induces pathological posterior extrusion of the meniscus in... Masuda, S.; Furumatsu, T.; ... BackgroundA medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) is defined as an injury to the posterior meniscal insertion on the ... Medial meniscus posterior root tear induces pathological posterior extrusion of the meniscus in the knee-flexed position: An ...
The interest in medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRT) has been increasing, and they have been widely studied. Knee ... Hwang BY, Kim SJ, Lee SW, Lee HE, Lee CK, Hunter DJ et al (2012) Risk factors for medial meniscus posterior root tear. Am J ... Feucht MJ, Salzmann GM, Bode G, Pestka JM, Kuhle J, Sudkamp NP et al (2015) Posterior root tears of the lateral meniscus. Knee ... Chung KS, Ha JK, Ra HJ, Kim JG (2016) Prognostic factors in the midterm results of pullout fixation for posterior root tears of ...
The posterior meniscus root was sutured in a standardized fashion with a simple stitch using four different suture materials: ... may be the preferred suture material for transtibial pull-out repair of posterior meniscus root tears because of comparably low ... healing rates and avoid progressive extrusion of the meniscus after transtibial pull-out repair of posterior meniscus root ... properties of four different suture materials for arthroscopic transtibial pull-out repair of posterior meniscus root tears, ...
The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the effect of these standards on outcomes of initial posterior root ... A Retrospective, Radiographic Outcomes Assessment of 1960 Initial Posterior Root Canal Treatments Performed by Endodontists and ... Treatment and follow-up radiographs of AF members who had an initial posterior RCT completed in 2011 were evaluated. A survey ... cuspal coverage restoration of endodontically treated posterior teeth, and use of rubber dam. ...
Posterior Aortic Root Enlargement (Manouguian Technique) and 19 mm Edwards Intuity Elite Aortic Valve Implantation in a 58-Year ... Intraoperatively, a posterior root enlargement was combined. with the rapid deployment valve, reasons for which included the ... Posterior Aortic Root Enlargement (Manouguian Technique) and 19 mm Edwards Intuity Elite Aortic Valve Implantation in a 58-Year ... Posterior aortic root enlargement was described as early as 1979, and techniques of aortic valve replacement have evolved ...
This video covers the borders and contents of the root and posterior triangle of the neck. Clinical correlations include the ... This video covers the borders and contents of the root and posterior triangle of the neck. Clinical correlations include the ... This video covers the borders and contents of the root and posterior triangle of the neck. Clinical correlations include the ...
Posterior root ganglion. Posterior root ganglion. File:DRG Chicken e7.jpg. A posterior root ganglion (DRG) from a chicken ... A spinal nerve with its anterior and posterior roots. The posterior root ganglion is the "spinal ganglion", following the ... A posterior root ganglion (or spinal ganglion) (also known as a dorsal root ganglion), is a cluster of nerve cell bodies (a ... The posterior root ganglia develops in the embryo from neural crest cells, not neural tube. Hence, the spinal ganglia can be ...
Keywords: human meniscal root, meniscal root fixation, meniscal root repair, porcine menisci, suture menisci, ... The posterior root was sutured with three single stitches using a no. 2 non-absorbable suture. All specimens were subjected to ... Posterior meniscal root repair: a biomechanical comparison between human and porcine menisci. L. Camarda, E. Bologna, D. Pavan ... Posterior meniscal root repair: a biomechanical comparison between human and porcine menisci. L. Camarda, E. Bologna, D. Pavan ...
Endodontics Benefits of preoperative cone beam computed tomography for root canal therapy in posterior teeth * ... Endodontics Benefits of preoperative cone beam computed tomography for root canal therapy in posterior teeth * ... Restorative Dentistry Partial root retention and crestal bone preservation * Response of soft tissue to different abutment ...
Examine the structures of the root of the neck. Note: The root of the neck (RON) is the nexus between the neck, thorax, and ... Note: The posterior cervical triangle is bounded anteriorly by the posterior border of the SCM, posteriorly by the superior ... C.) At the level of the intervertebral foramen, the dorsal root ganglion will be visible as a bulge on the dorsal root. ... 3.) Identify the two sub-triangles within the posterior cervical triangle.. Note: The posterior cervical triangle may be ...
Future work• Anterior/Posterior pelvic tilt • "Root" of calculations• Position of foot marker• Orientation of markers ...
The endodontically treated posterior teeth were not entered into this study if they did not have suitable restorations, had ... study was performed to identify the prevalence of different types of crown restorations after root canal treatment of posterior ... To collect data, the existence of an endodontically treated posterior tooth was evaluated through panoramic radiography, and ... which illustrates the necessity of emphasizing the importance of crown restorations in long term survival of root treated teeth ...
  • The Air Force Dental Service has established evidence-based treatment standards for endodontics, including 3-dimensional filling of the canal system, cuspal coverage restoration of endodontically treated posterior teeth, and use of rubber dam. (blogspot.com)
  • The endodontically treated posterior teeth were not entered into this study if they did not have suitable restorations, had lost the tooth crown due to extensive caries, were not preservable, or were bridge abatements. (ac.ir)
  • The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the effect of these standards on outcomes of initial posterior root canal treatments (RCTs) completed by Air Force (AF) and civilian dentists with and without accredited postgraduate training. (blogspot.com)
  • Epidemiological evaluation of the outcomes of nonsurgical root canal treatment in a large cohort of insured dental patients. (ac.ir)
  • Meniscus root repair should be considered in all appropriate candidates for superior outcomes and cost-effectiveness. (mayo.edu)
  • Medial meniscus root repair midterm results suggest excellent outcomes in a well-aligned knee with minimal degenerative change. (mayo.edu)
  • Among them are the loss of Hoxd10 function, the sum of remaining Hoxd gene activity, and the ectopic gain of function of the neighboring gene Evx2, all contributing to the mispositioning, the absence, or misidentification of specific lumbo-sacral pools of motoneurons, nerve root homeosis, and hindlimb innervation defects. (nih.gov)
  • In a cadaveric model, the authors evaluated the feasibility of transpedicular anterior column reconstruction without nerve root sacrifice. (thejns.org)
  • Cage reconstruction of the anterior column could be safely performed via the transpedicular approach without nerve root sacrifice in this cadaveric study. (thejns.org)
  • Interpret-please.mild broad-based disc bulge L5-S1 may contact S1 nerve root emerging from dural sac. (healthtap.com)
  • Tarlov cysts are formed within the nerve root sheath at the posterior root of a spinal nerve. (news-medical.net)
  • These perineural/perineurial cysts appear as ballooned areas of the outer covering of the nerve root. (news-medical.net)
  • Although the root cause of Tarlov cyst disease is yet to be elucidated, there are a number of studies which suggest that the Tarlov cyst is owing to the dilation of the nerve root covering. (news-medical.net)
  • the surgical cutting of a spinal nerve root. (thefreedictionary.com)