Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Femoral Neck Fractures: Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Posterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Uveitis, Posterior: Inflammation of the choroid as well as the retina and vitreous body. Some form of visual disturbance is usually present. The most important characteristics of posterior uveitis are vitreous opacities, choroiditis, and chorioretinitis.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hypothalamus, Posterior: The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Lens Capsule, Crystalline: The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and visual loss with edema in the posterior aspects of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, such as the BRAIN STEM. Generally, lesions involve the white matter (nerve fibers) but occasionally the grey matter (nerve cell bodies).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Infratentorial Neoplasms: Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).Posterior Capsule of the Lens: The posterior aspect of the casing that surrounds the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction: A condition characterized by a broad range of progressive disorders ranging from TENOSYNOVITIS to tendon rupture with or without hindfoot collapse to a fixed, rigid, FLATFOOT deformity. Pathologic changes can involve associated tendons, ligaments, joint structures of the ANKLE, hindfoot, and midfoot. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is the most common cause of acquired flatfoot deformity in adults.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Posterior Thalamic Nuclei: A transitional diencephalic zone of the thalamus consisting of complex and varied cells lying caudal to the VENTRAL POSTEROLATERAL NUCLEUS, medial to the rostral part of the PULVINAR, and dorsal to the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY. It contains the limitans, posterior, suprageniculate, and submedial nuclei.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.DislocationsFunctional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Vitreous Detachment: Detachment of the corpus vitreum (VITREOUS BODY) from its normal attachments, especially the retina, due to shrinkage from degenerative or inflammatory conditions, trauma, myopia, or senility.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.AxisCataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Capsulorhexis: The making of a continuous circular tear in the anterior capsule during cataract surgery in order to allow expression or phacoemulsification of the nucleus of the lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Spinal DiseasesWhiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Hip Dislocation: Displacement of the femur bone from its normal position at the HIP JOINT.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Phacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms: A general concept for tumors or cancer of any part of the EAR; the NOSE; the THROAT; and the PHARYNX. It is used when there is no specific heading.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Ciliary Arteries: Three groups of arteries found in the eye which supply the iris, pupil, sclera, conjunctiva, and the muscles of the iris.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Neoplasms, Squamous Cell: Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Capsule Opacification: Clouding or loss of transparency of the posterior lens capsule, usually following CATARACT extraction.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Spinal NeoplasmsAnterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.TailEmbolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Arnold-Chiari Malformation: A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Dandy-Walker Syndrome: A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)Lens Subluxation: Incomplete rupture of the zonule with the displaced lens remaining behind the pupil. In dislocation, or complete rupture, the lens is displaced forward into the anterior chamber or backward into the vitreous body. When congenital, this condition is known as ECTOPIA LENTIS.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Lordosis: The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
The best treatment is prevention in patients with a known predisposition. This includes preventing unnecessary trauma or surgery (including ear piercing, elective mole removal), whenever possible. Any skin problems in predisposed individuals (e.g., acne, infections) should be treated as early as possible to minimize areas of inflammation. Treatment of a keloid scar is age dependent. Radiotherapy, anti-metabolites and corticoids would not be recommended to be used in children, in order to avoid harmful side effects, like growth abnormalities.[9] In adults, corticosteriods combined with 5-FU and PDL in a triple therapy, enhance results and diminish side effects.[9] Further prophylactic and therapeutic strategies include pressure therapy, silicone gel sheeting, intra-lesional triamcinolone acetonide (TAC), cryosurgery, radiation, laser therapy, IFN, 5-FU and surgical excision as well as a multitude of extracts and topical agents.[10] Surgical excision is currently still the most common treatment ...
lower limb → 1° (muscle spindles → DRG) → 2° (Posterior thoracic nucleus → Dorsal/posterior spinocerebellar tract → ICP → ... Cuneocerebellar tract: unconsciousness proprioceptive information from the upper limb and neck. This tract originates at the ... flexion: Primary motor cortex → Posterior limb of internal capsule → Decussation of pyramids → Corticospinal tract (Lateral, ... The upper part of the posterior district of the medulla oblongata is occupied by the inferior cerebellar peduncle, a thick rope ...
Posterior View. Radial tuberosity. Radial tuberosity below neck. Radial tuberosity below neck. Left Radius - close-up - ... Beneath the neck of the radius, on the medial side, is an eminence, the radial tuberosity; its surface is divided into: an ... a posterior, smooth portion, on which a bursa is interposed between the tendon and the bone. This article incorporates text in ...
Posterior view. Muscles of the neck. Lateral view. Section of the neck at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. This ... Its name is based on the Greek word σπληνίον, splenion (meaning a bandage) and the Latin word cervix (meaning a neck). The word ... is a muscle in the back of the neck. It arises by a narrow tendinous band from the spinous processes of the third to the sixth ... collum also refers to the neck in Latin. The function of the splenius cervicis muscle is extension of the cervical spine, ...
Sloan GM (2000). "Posterior pharyngeal flap and sphincter pharyngoplasty: the state of the art". Cleft Palate Craniofac. J. 37 ... Head and Neck Surgery. 9 (6): 365-8. doi:10.1097/00020840-200112000-00005. Archived from the original on 2012-07-10. Kaplan EN ... Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 145 (4): 666-72. doi:10.1177/0194599811412038. PMID 21676943. Wyatt R, Sell D, Russell J, Harding A ... augmentation of the posterior pharyngeal wall, lengthening of the palate, and surgical procedures. Submucous cleft palate (SMCP ...
The muscle arises from the posterior border of the medial end of the clavicle, the posterior sternoclavicular ligament, and the ... Muscles of neck. Sternohyoideus labeled at middle, just to the right of thyroid cartilage. ... Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. ... upper and posterior part of the manubrium sterni. Passing upward and medially, it is inserted by short tendinous fibers into ...
The triangles of the neck. (Anterior triangles to the left; posterior triangles to the right. Suprahyoid labeled at left.) ... The inferior carotid triangle (or muscular triangle), is bounded, in front, by the median line of the neck from the hyoid bone ... Sternocleidomastoid muscle Muscles of the neck. Anterior view. ... on a plane posterior to both. In front of the sheath are a few ... the vein lies lateral to the artery on the right side of the neck, but overlaps it below on the left side; the nerve lies ...
Neck orange-coloured. Thorax and abdomen dusky grey. Anterior wings about half way from the tips black, but at the base are of ... Posterior wings differ a little, the white part running down to the middle of the external edges, with a white spot at the ... Posterior wings black and white; the white entirely surrounded by the black, which on the anterior and abdominal edges is very ... Neck, breast, and sides orange. Feet black. Thighs white. Abdomen white, annulated with dusky grey. Anterior wings as on the ...
Anterolateral view of head and neck. The triangles of the neck. (Anterior triangles to the left; posterior triangles to the ... The posterior part of this triangle contains the external carotid artery, ascending deeply in the substance of the parotid ... Beclard Triangle Lesser Triangle Pirogoff Triangle It is divided into an anterior and a posterior part by the stylomandibular ... The submandibular triangle (or submaxillary or digastric triangle) corresponds to the region of the neck immediately beneath ...
Muscles of the neck. Anterior view. The triangles of the neck. (Anterior triangles to the left; posterior triangles to the ... Superiorly by the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. It is (covered) by the integument, superficial fascia, Platysma and ... The carotid triangle (or superior carotid triangle) is a portion of the anterior triangle of the neck. It is bounded: ... Anterior triangle of the neck Sternocleidomastoid muscle ...
It is thick and thus serves as a primary landmark of the neck, as it divides the neck into anterior and posterior cervical ... It also flexes the neck. When both sides of the muscle act together, it flexes the neck and extends the head. When one side ... It can be felt on each side of the neck when a person moves their head to the opposite side. The triangle formed by the ... It travels obliquely across the side of the neck and inserts at the mastoid process of the temporal bone of the skull. The ...
Sternocleidomastoid muscle Muscles of the neck. Anterior view. Posterior triangle of the neck labeled. (Anterior triangles to ... Occipital triangle labeled at center left.) ) Posterior triangle of the neck This article incorporates text in the public ... The external jugular vein runs vertically downward behind the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus, to terminate in ... and also with the height at which the Omohyoideus crosses the neck. Its height also varies according to the position of the arm ...
... of the posterior lateral neck. Note the yellowish slightly raised bumps characteristic of this ... Small, yellowish papular lesions form and cutaneous laxity mainly affects the neck, axillae (armpits), groin, and flexural ...
... of the posterior lateral neck. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum of the left axillary fold. List of cutaneous ... Small, yellowish papular lesions form and cutaneous laxity mainly affects the neck, axillae (armpits), groin, and flexural ...
Merupakan saraf yang memberikan impuls motoris untuk otot-otot di daerah segitiga posterior dari leher yaitu: ... Saraf aksesorius merupakan saraf yang rentan karena lokasinya yang berada di atas segitiga posterior. Cedera pada saraf ... Upper part of medulla spinalis and hind- and mid-brains; posterior aspect, exposed in situ. ... bisa juga saat sedang dilakukan biopsi dari pembesaran limfe nodus di sekitar daerah segitiga posterior.[1] ...
The anterior and posterior surfaces are flattened and of equal depth; the former is placed on a lower level than the latter, ... Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. Vertebral column Cervical fracture This article ... The posterior part, the true transverse process, springs from the vertebral arch behind the foramen, and is directed forward ... Each process consists of an anterior and a posterior part. These two parts are joined, outside the foramen, by a bar of bone ...
The neck of a metacarpal is a common location for a boxer's fracture. In four-legged animals, the metacarpals form part of the ... It is broader, and extends farther upward, on the volar than on the dorsal aspect, and is longer in the antero-posterior than ... The neck, or subcapital segment, is the transition zone between the body and the head. Besides the metacarpophalangeal joints, ... Posterior (dorsal) view. Carpometacarpal bossing This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of ...
Its nerve ring is located below the neck constriction, while its excretory pore is near te junction of the oesophagus and ... Its oesophagus is expanded at its posterior half. The valvular apparatus of the oesophagus is well developed. ... Head end with slight neck constriction just in front of nerve ring. Buccal capsule is smaIl, sclerotised, with minute ... The shape of the posterior end of the female body is different in these two species. The state of being colonized by ...
The following description of L. stoliczkae is from Malcolm A. Smith (1943): Maxillary teeth 27 or 28; head distinct from neck, ... sometimes united with the posterior nasal; eight supralabials, 4th and 5th touching the eye; genials subequal. Scales in 15:15: ...
Posterior wall augmentation for treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999. 121(1):107-12. ... When a pharyngeal flap is used, a flap of the posterior wall is attached to the posterior border of the soft palate. The flap ... Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Mar;134(3):394-402. Henningsson G, Isberg A. Comparison between multiview videofluoroscopy and ... Posterior pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal insufficiency patients: A New Technique for Flap Inset. Laryngoscope. 2012 Feb;122 ...
Reptilia and Batrachia volume, (page 184-185). Maxillary teeth 24-26; head not depressed and fairly distinct from the neck; ... anterior genials a little longer than the posterior. Scales in 15:15:15 rows. Ventrals 126-142 in the male and 130-154 in the ...
Diagram showing normal curvature (posterior concavity) of the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) vertebral column (spine). ... Back hyper-extensions on a Roman chair or inflatable ball will strengthen all the posterior chain and will treat hyperlordosis ... So too will stiff legged deadlifts and supine hip lifts and any other similar movement strengthening the posterior chain ... likelihood to experience a strain or sprain in their back or neck. Factors such as having more lumbar vertebrae allowing for ...
The head is elongated and distinct from the neck, with an angular canthus rostralis. The eyes are rather large, with round ... the two posterior teeth are grooved. The anterior mandibular teeth are long, and the posteriorteeth are small. ...
The posterior divisions of the sacral nerves. The multifidus muscles (labeled left) as seen in a posterior view of the neck. ... from the medial surface of the posterior superior iliac spine, and from the posterior sacroiliac ligaments. in the lumbar ...
Finally, the M stage indicates if the cancer has spread beyond the head and neck or not. The basis of deciding the T stage ... The most common site for the incidence of the tumor is: the lateral wall of oropharynx 45%; base of the tongue 40%; posterior ... The most important signs include a lump in the neck when palpated and weight loss. People may also present with fatigue as a ... The affected tonsil grows into the oropharyngeal space making it noticeable by the patient in the form of a neck mass mostly in ...
... a venous plexus situated in the posterior part of inferior meatus.[8] Posterior bleeds are often prolonged and difficult to ... The utility of local cooling of the head and neck is controversial.[16] Some state that applying ice to the nose or forehead is ... Some use gauze and others use balloons.[12] Posterior packing can be achieved by using a Foley catheter, blowing up the balloon ... There are two types of nasal packing, anterior nasal packing and posterior nasal packing.[12] There are a number of different ...
Nerve Pain caused by Neck Problems (1) * Nerve Pain Diet (1) * Nerve Pain Forefoot (1) ... The injuries include (although not exclusive): posterior or medial shin splints, posterior tibial tendinitis, os tibial ... This video presents the use of 2 inch Kinesiotape to help support the arch relaxing the pull of the posterior tibial tendon. ... The various injuries associated with over pronation and the posterior tibial tendon are helped with this taping technique. ...
Due to lack of progression and weakness in her left shoulder, despite training, she was referred to an MRI-scan of the neck and ... Being aware of the delicate anatomy of the posterior fossa and of the close relation of cranial nerves and brain-stem to bony ... In most cases neurological deficits more often seem to be related to the severity of the head and neck injury than to the ... She is partly disabled due to pain in the neck and the left shoulder where she has a scapular winging (Figure 3). ...
Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, also known as acquired flatfoot, results when the tendon at the back of the ankle is ... There are various surgical procedures for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, and it is common to need more than one. ... Herniated Disc Cervical/ACDF - Slipped Disc in the Neck Hindfoot Fracture Hip Fracture - ORIF ...
Epidural Injections - Neck (Cervical Transforaminal Steroid Injection) Epidural Injections - Upper Back (Thoracic) ... Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, also known as acquired flatfoot, results when the tendon at the back of the ankle is ... There are various surgical procedures for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, and it is common to need more than one. ...
Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a very common ankle and foot problem that occurs when there is a tear or inflammation in ... Neck & Back Pain. *Sciatica. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction: Can Chiropractic Help?. April 5, 2017 ... Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a very common ankle and foot problem that occurs when there is a tear or inflammation in ... What causes posterior tibial tendon dysfunction?. The most common causes of flatfoot are overuse and injury. Falls are common ...
Examine the structures of the root of the neck. Note: The root of the neck (RON) is the nexus between the neck, thorax, and ... 1.) Remove the remainder of the skin from the posterior neck. You may remove any tissue superficial to the superior part of the ... Note: The (anterior, middle, posterior) scalene muscles may either act to weakly flex the neck, or serve as accessory muscles ... Locate the neck muscles of the posterior cervical triangle (lateral cervical region) ...
Anterior/Posterior Lumbar Fusion Surgery Questions. Hi, Im seventeen years old and have been dealing with severe pain from ...
Sternocleidomastoid muscle Muscles of the neck. Anterior view. Posterior triangle of the neck labeled. (Anterior triangles to ... The posterior triangle (or lateral cervical region) is a region of the neck. It has the following boundaries: Apex: Union of ... Posterior border of the sternocleidomastoideus Posterior: Anterior border of the trapezius Base: Middle one third of the ... The external jugular veins superficial location within the posterior triangle also makes it vulnerable to injury. It is also ...
... no posterior elements). There is mild to moderate spinal stenosis involved (C4-C5 mild central ca... ... Forums>Back, Spine & Neck Surgery>Hemangioma involving entire C-5 Vertebral Body Without Extension to Posterior Elements ... I do not want surgery on C-5 to remove a hemangioma that is involving nearly the entire vertebral body(no posterior elements). ... Hemangioma involving entire C-5 Vertebral Body Without Extension to Posterior Elements ...
... including head and neck surgery, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, maxillofacial surgery, and pediatric otolaryngology ... Epithelial Cyst in the Posterior Triangle of the Neck: Atypical Branchial Cyst or Cystic Lymph Node Metastasis?. Domenic Vital, ... "Epithelial Cyst in the Posterior Triangle of the Neck: Atypical Branchial Cyst or Cystic Lymph Node Metastasis?," Case Reports ... 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital of Zurich, Frauenklinikstrasse 24, 8091 Zurich, ...
80 percent of patients experience posterior neck pain as well as the incision site pain. The posterior neck pain is thought to ... The Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Posterior Neck Pain After Thyroidectomy. The safety and scientific ... Neck Pain. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Head and Neck Neoplasms. Endocrine System Diseases. Thyroid ... Numerical Rating Scale of Posterior Neck Pain 0.5 Hours After Thyroidectomy [ Time Frame: 0.5 hours after thyroidectomy ]. ...
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Posterior Auricular Artery. Ronald A. Bergman, PhD. Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS. Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD. Peer Review Status: Internally ... Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Head, Neck, and Thorax ... the occipital may replace an absent posterior auricular. An infrequent branch is the transverse facial. When the posterior ...
... with incorporation of the posterior communicating artery (PcomA) was initially treated by subtotal... ... Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm: Giant Aneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery, Acute SAH, Ruptured Wide Neck Aneurysm ... Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm: Giant Aneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery, Acute SAH, Ruptured Wide Neck Aneurysm ... Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm: Giant Aneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery, Acute SAH, Ruptured Wide Neck Aneurysm ...
Internal Fixation of Garden I and II Femoral Neck Fractures: Posterior Tilt Did Not Influence the Reoperation Rate in 382 ... The posterior tilt in preoperative radiographs was analyzed with a new validated method. A Cox regression analysis was used to ... A consecutive cohort of 382 hips in 379 patients who underwent internal fixation for a Garden I or II femoral neck fracture. ... Preoperative posterior tilt measurement on lateral radiographs cannot be used as a discriminator for fracture healing ...
MRI scan for neck shows mild diffuse posterior disc bulges, disc spaces indenting anterior thecal sac. Treatment? . Ask a ... MRI scan for neck shows mild diffuse posterior disc bulges, disc spaces indenting anterior thecal sac. Treatment? ... MRI scan report for the neck region says mild diffuse prosterior disc bulges also noted involving c4 c5, c5 c6, c6 c7 disc ...
Anatomy, Head and Neck, Posterior Humeral Circumflex Artery. Introduction. The posterior humeral circumflex artery (PHCA) ... The posterior branch provides the motor innervation the posterior deltoid muscle and the teres minor muscle and the sensory ... Take 5 Question Quiz on Anatomy, Head and Neck, Posterior Humeral Circumflex Artery ... and the surgical neck of the humerus laterally.[2] The PHCA itself divides into anterior and posterior branches within the ...
Posterior Belly of the Digastric Muscle: An Important Landmark for Various Head and Neck Surgeries ... Posterior_belly_of_digastric.pdf - Published Version Restricted to Registered users only Download (1MB) , Request a copy ... Ankolekar, Vrinda Hari and DSouza, Anne and Alva, Rohini and DSouza, Antony Sylvan and Mamatha, H (2015) Posterior Belly of ... The midpoint of IJV in the neck was identified as the point between the angle of the mandible and midclavicular point. The ...
It lies posterior to the vertebral artery and anterior to the C7 transverse process and the neck of the first rib. ... A shows the platysma, which roofs parts of both the anterior and posterior triangles. B shows the division of the neck by the ... Chapter 50: The neck. Superficial structures of the neck Sternomastoid and trapezius muscles The sternocleidomastoid, or more ... The sternomastoid divides the quadrilateral area of the side of the neck into anterior and posterior triangles (fig. 50-2). The ...
Pain in the posterior shoulder girdle (Im going to include upper back and posterior neck together) is a very common issue with ... I did research on pain in the posterior shoulder girdle and neck. I did this paper here along with a hands on case study. While ... They say that the middle and posterior scalenes are paravertebral and act as the "quadratus lumborum of the neck" by creating ... In "Muscles: Testing and Function with Posture and Pain," Kendall and others discuss painful posterior neck muscles in great ...
Treatment for neck pain is provided by Dr. Gul in Hertfordshire and Essex. ... Posterior cervical laminectomy is a surgical technique used to decompress the spinal cord and stabilize the neck. ... Home » Spine » Posterior Cervical Laminectomy/Laminoplasty Posterior Cervical Laminectomy/Laminoplasty. Posterior cervical ... Posterior: means back. The surgical approach is from the back of neck. ...
The Posterior triangle of the neck. By [email protected] 29, 2020No Comments ... Most of the action in Regional Anesthesia of the upper limb happens above the clavicle in the posterior triangle of the neck ...
This blog will describe the posterior triangle of the neck which includes: the apex, base, borders, roof, and floor. The apex ... is formed by the meeting of the anterior and posterior borders. This is the union of the... ... The posterior triangle is located in the lateral cervical region of the neck. ... The posterior triangle is located in the lateral cervical region of the neck. This blog will describe the posterior triangle of ...
Dissection Of The Posterior Triangle Of The Neck. Last Updated on Mon, 11 Dec 2017 , Seborrheic Dermatitis ... Figure 4-37 The spinal accessory nerve crossing the posterior triangle of the neck on the right side. Note the supraclavicular ... Figure 4-37 The spinal accessory nerve crossing the posterior triangle of the neck on the right side. Note the supraclavicular ... The posterior margin is clearly marked by the anterior edge of the trapezius muscle, and the upper boundary is defined by the ...
Posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion surgery is provided by orthopaedic surgeon Dr Martin Quirno MD in New York City and ... In posterior cervical laminectomy, a 3-4 inch long incision is made in the midline of the back of the neck. After the muscles ... Multilevel Posterior Cervical Laminectomy and Fusion Posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion is an operative procedure to ... To prevent this, usually a posterior fusion is also performed together with the multilevel posterior cervical laminectomy. ...
  • The RON is the proximal attachment site for many neck muscles and transmits important neurovasculature (common carotid aa. (google.com)
  • A ruptured wide necked giant aneurysm (28 mm diameter fundus) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) with incorporation of the posterior communicating artery (PcomA) was initially treated by subtotal endovascular coil occlusion with 3D Hydrocoils (HydroFrame 18, MicroVention) and bare platinum coils to prevent recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). (springer.com)
  • Video 8.1 Colour Doppler ultrasound image sequence of the internal and external carotid arteries (red) and internal jugular vein (blue) in the neck - short-axis view. (elsevier.com)
  • Spaces of total neck- Retropharyngeal, space of carotid sheath. (slideshare.net)
  • A giant mass of the left neck occupied the carotid region and the subclavian region. (hindawi.com)
  • The physical examination showed a giant mass of the left neck occupying the carotid region and the subclavian region, measuring 20 cm × 15 cm × 10 cm (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • The Doppler ultrasound confirmed an arteriovenous malformation in the neck between the carotid arteries and jugular veins with arterial and venous flux. (hindawi.com)
  • Bilateral coagulation of inferior hypophyseal artery and pituitary transposition during endoscopic endonasal interdural posterior clinoidectomy: do they affect pituitary function? (stanford.edu)
  • The upper part of the posterior district of the medulla oblongata is occupied by the inferior cerebellar peduncle , a thick rope-like strand situated between the lower part of the fourth ventricle and the roots of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves . (wikipedia.org)
  • This structure starts from the inferior part of the larynx (cricoid cartilage) in the neck, opposite C6, and extends to the intervertebral disk between T4 and T5 in the thorax, where it divides at the carina into the right and left bronchi. (medscape.com)
  • Vein angular v. Tributaries supraorbital v., supratrochlear v. Drains Into facial vein at the inferior margin of the orbit external jugular v. it unites with the posterior division of the retromandibular v. to form the external jugular internal vertebral venous plexus the left and right brachiocephalic vv. (scribd.com)
  • tributaries: vertebral v., thymic v., inferior thyroid v., internal thoracic v., 1st posterior intercostal v., left superior intercostal v. (to the left brachiocephalic v.) superior ophthalmic v., cerebral vv. (scribd.com)
  • A consecutive cohort of 382 hips in 379 patients who underwent internal fixation for a Garden I or II femoral neck fracture. (ovid.com)
  • It also describes the options for failure of femoral neck fracture treatmentalong with the advantages/disadvantages for the various fixation options available for femoral neck fracture fixation. (aaos.org)
  • The posterior humeral circumflex vein, which arises as a branch of the axillary vein, travels with the axillary nerve and the PHCA through the quadrangular space to supply the surrounding structures. (statpearls.com)
  • The sternomastoid muscle lies deep to the platysma and the external jugular vein, and it covers the great vessels of the neck, the cervical plexus, and the cupola of the parietal pleura. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The prominent landmarks of the neck are the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, trachea, and sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM). (redorbit.com)
  • The PCA muscle, the only abductor of the vocal cords, is readily identifiable on cross-sectional CT and MR studies as a triangular muscle bundle along the posterior surface of the cricoid cartilage ( Figs 1 and 2 ). (ajnr.org)
  • This muscle arises along the posterior surface of the cricoid cartilage and extends superolaterally to insert on the muscular processes of the arytenoid cartilage (4, 5) ( Fig 2 ). (ajnr.org)
  • Deyerle WM (1965) Multiple-pin peripheral fixation in fractures of the neck of the femur. (springer.com)
  • Preparation of the femoral shaft including the reaming and rasping thereof is performed through the posterior incision, and the femoral stem is inserted through the posterior incision for implantation in the femur. (google.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 , wherein said step of preparing a femur to receive a femoral stem comprises preparing said femur to receive said femoral stem through said posterior incision. (google.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein said step of seating said femoral stem in said femur comprises inserting said femoral stem through said posterior incision and thereafter seating said femoral stem in said femur. (google.com)
  • In the female, in consequence of the increased width of the pelvis, the neck of the femur forms more nearly a right angle with the body than it does in the male. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically contains the nerve point of the neck (and its branches) and the accessory n. (google.com)
  • The purpose of tihs study is to determine whether transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) during thyroidectomy is effective in the reduction of posterior neck pain after thyroidectomy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • B) The fibrofatty tissue lying posterior and superior to the nerve is passed beneath the nerve. (ormedmedical.us)
  • He is a remarkably skilled surgeon who helped relieve me of years of neck pain and the accompanying nerve pain in my left arm and hand. (spine-health.com)
  • Without hesitation, I would highly recommend Dr. K and his staff if you are saddled down with back, neck or nerve pain. (spine-health.com)
  • The posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle is one of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. (ajnr.org)