Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Wallerian Degeneration: Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Sciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Piriformis Muscle Syndrome: A chronic PELVIC PAIN characterized by pain deep in the buttock that may radiate to posterior aspects of the leg. It is caused by the piriformis muscle compressing or irritating the SCIATIC NERVE due to trauma, hypertrophy, inflammation or anatomic variations.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Neuritis: A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Nerve Tissue ProteinsPosterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Ranvier's Nodes: Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.GAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Myelin P0 Protein: A protein that accounts for more than half of the peripheral nervous system myelin protein. The extracellular domain of this protein is believed to engage in adhesive interactions and thus hold the myelin membrane compact. It can behave as a homophilic adhesion molecule through interactions with its extracellular domains. (From J Cell Biol 1994;126(4):1089-97)Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Uveitis, Posterior: Inflammation of the choroid as well as the retina and vitreous body. Some form of visual disturbance is usually present. The most important characteristics of posterior uveitis are vitreous opacities, choroiditis, and chorioretinitis.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Neuroma: A tumor made up of nerve cells and nerve fibers. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hypothalamus, Posterior: The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Neuritis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for the demyelinating disease of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Nerve Sheath Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Vasa Nervorum: Blood vessels supplying the nerves.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Guided Tissue Regeneration: Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Retrograde Degeneration: Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Lens Capsule, Crystalline: The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and visual loss with edema in the posterior aspects of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, such as the BRAIN STEM. Generally, lesions involve the white matter (nerve fibers) but occasionally the grey matter (nerve cell bodies).Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Constriction: The act of constricting.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Mice, Inbred C57BLLaminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Infratentorial Neoplasms: Intracranial tumors originating in the region of the brain inferior to the tentorium cerebelli, which contains the cerebellum, fourth ventricle, cerebellopontine angle, brain stem, and related structures. Primary tumors of this region are more frequent in children, and may present with ATAXIA; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; vomiting; HEADACHE; HYDROCEPHALUS; or other signs of neurologic dysfunction. Relatively frequent histologic subtypes include TERATOMA; MEDULLOBLASTOMA; GLIOBLASTOMA; ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA; and choroid plexus papilloma (PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.NAV1.8 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.Peroneal Nerve: The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Tolonium Chloride: A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Posterior Capsule of the Lens: The posterior aspect of the casing that surrounds the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS.Neurilemma: The outermost cytoplasmic layer of the SCHWANN CELLS covering NERVE FIBERS.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A sciatic nerve palsy is present in 8%-20% of cases. In an anterior dislocation the limb is held by the patient in externally ... Posterior dislocation is the most prevalent, in which the femoral head lies posterior and superior to the acetabulum. This is ... Motor vehicle traffic collisions are responsible for almost all posterior hip dislocations. The posterior side of the hip ... Anterior-posterior (AP) X-rays of the pelvis, AP and lateral views of the femur (knee included) are ordered for diagnosis. The ...
They are supplied by the obturator nerve. The posterior compartment of thigh contains the hamstring portion of the adductor ... They are supplied by the sciatic nerve. Compartment syndrome Fascial compartments of arm MedicalMnemonics.com: 2382 knee/ ... The three groups of muscles contained in the compartments have their own nerve supply: The anterior compartment of thigh ... They are supplied by the femoral nerve. The medial compartment of thigh contains the external obturator and gracilis muscles, ...
All three muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve which comprises half of the sciatic nerve. The flexor hallucis longus is ... The other deep muscles are the flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior; the tibialis posterior is the most powerful of ... Muscles of the leg.Posterior view Muscles of the sole of the foot. Muscles of the sole of the foot. Dorsum and sole of Foot. ... It arises from the inferior two-thirds of the posterior surface of the body of the fibula, with the exception of 2.5 cm. at its ...
All three muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve which comprises half of the sciatic nerve. After passing through the ... The other deep muscles are the flexor hallucis longus and tibialis posterior; the tibialis posterior is the most powerful of ... medial to the tibial origin of the Tibialis posterior; it also arises from the fascia covering the Tibialis posterior. The ... The tendon of the tibialis posterior and the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus cross each other, in a spot above the medial ...
The plantaris muscle is innervated by the tibial nerve a branch of the sciatic nerve in the sacral plexus. Signaling for ... It passes posterior to the knee joint in an inferomedial direction and becomes tendinous distally to insert into the Achilles ... formed from the anterior rami of spinal nerves L4, L5, S1-4). The lower motor neuron fibers continue down the sciatic nerve and ... The tibial nerve runs medially at the knee joint. When the tibial nerve receives an action potential, the plantaris muscle ...
Sciatic nerve injury and stoppage of blood supply to femoral head at the time of accident or during surgery to treat may occur ... depending on the extent of injury to the nerve. The posterior wall fragment may be one large piece, or multiple pieces, and may ... The broken bone pieces or the dislocated head of the femur may injure the sciatic nerve, causing paralysis of the foot; the ... and MRI may be done to identify the extent of potential injury to the sciatic nerve. ...
... from the anterior and posterior surfaces of which several branches arise. The band itself is continued as the sciatic nerve, ... In human anatomy, the sacral plexus is a nerve plexus which provides motor and sensory nerves for the posterior thigh, most of ... which splits on the back of the thigh into the tibial nerve and common fibular nerve; these two nerves sometimes arise ... the second and third sacral nerves The nerves forming the sacral plexus converge toward the lower part of the greater sciatic ...
In 17% of people, the piriformis muscle is pierced by parts or all of the sciatic nerve. Several variations occur, but the most ... It is situated partly within the pelvis against its posterior wall, and partly at the back of the hip-joint. It arises from the ... Sciatica can be described by pain, tingling, or numbness deep in the buttocks and along the sciatic nerve. Sitting down, ... Inferiorly, it is the same, and the sciatic nerve also travels inferiorly to the piriformis. Pelvis seen from behind (the ...
Adductor magnus : Its adductor part by posterior division of obturator nerve and hamstring part by tibial part of sciatic nerve ... Digastric muscle: Its anterior belly is supplied by nerve to mylohyoid (a branch of trigeminal nerve). The posterior belly is ... Its long head is supplied by the tibial part of sciatic nerve, whereas the short head is supplied by the common peroneal nerve ... Pectineus: Its anterior set of fibers are supplied by the femoral nerve, whereas posterior set of fibers are supplied by the ...
... and/or lower leg via the sciatic nerve. Other symptoms may include tingling and numbness. Coughing and sneezing can intensify ... A retrolisthesis is a posterior displacement of one vertebral body with respect to the subjacent vertebra to a degree less than ... Generalized lower-back pain may also be seen, with intermittent shooting pain from the buttocks to the posterior thigh, ...
... which passes obliquely downward and lateralward across the sciatic nerve to end in an aponeurosis which covers the posterior ... The popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries. Nerves of the right lower extremity Posterior view. Back of left lower ... while the long head is innervated by the tibial branch of the sciatic nerve (L5, S2). The muscle's vascular supply is derived ... From the posterior border of the tendon a thin expansion is given off to the fascia of the leg. The tendon of insertion of this ...
Scalp dysesthesia Sciatic nerve injury Scrotodynia Syringomyelia (Morvan's disease) Traumatic neuroma (amputation neuroma) ... Poland anomaly Posterior fossa malformations-hemangiomas-arterial anomalies-cardiac defects-eye abnormalities-sternal cleft and ... myxoma of the nerve sheath, myxomatous perineurioma, nerve sheath myxoma) Nevus flammeus (capillary malformation, port-wine ... solitary nerve sheath tumor, sporadic neurofibroma) Spider angioma (nevus araneus, spider telangiectasia, spider nevus, ...
... the tibial nerve. (The short head of the biceps femoris is innervated by the common fibular nerve). The sciatic nerve runs ... particularly the sciatic nerve. The posterior compartment is a fascial compartment bounded by fascia. It is separated from the ... The hamstrings are innervated by the sciatic nerve, specifically by a main branch of it: ... The posterior compartment of the thigh is one of the fascial compartments that contains the knee flexors and hip extensors ...
... accompanied by the sciatic and posterior femoral cutaneous nerves, and covered by the gluteus maximus, and is continued down ... It passes down on the sacral plexus of nerves and the piriformis muscle, behind the internal pudendal artery, to the lower part ... The inferior gluteal artery (sciatic artery), the smaller of the two terminal branches of the anterior trunk of the internal ... The arteries of the gluteal and posterior femoral regions. Dissection of side wall of pelvis showing sacral and pudendal ...
... is innervated by the posterior division of the obturator nerve while the hamstring portion is innervated by the sciatic nerve. ... and with the posterior branches of the obturator artery, obturator vein and obturator nerve. By its posterior surface with the ... It is a composite muscle as the adductor and hamstring portions of the muscle are innervated by two different nerves. The ... The ischiocondylar portion of the adductor magnus is considered a muscle of the posterior compartment of the thigh while the ...
Nerves of the right lower extremity. Posterior view. Sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve. Namely the flexor hallicus ... The sciatic nerve (/saɪˈætɪk/; also called ischiadic nerve, ischiatic nerve, "butt nerve") is a large nerve in humans and ... The sciatic nerve also innervates muscles. In particular: Via the tibial nerve, the muscles in the posterior compartment of the ... by performing a regional nerve blockade called a sciatic nerve block. According to Jewish law, the sciatic nerve (Hebrew: Gid ...
The tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch ... Tibial nerve Cross-section through middle of left calf Cutaneous nerves of the right lower extremity. Front and posterior views ... Tibial nerve Tibial nerve Tibial nerve Tibial_nerve at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program. ... and a cutaneous branch that will become the sural nerve. The sural nerve is joined by fibres from the common fibular nerve and ...
The sciatic nerve consists of the anterior divisions of ventral nerve roots from L4 through S3. These nerve roots are part of ... Posterior surface. The popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries. Back of left lower extremity. Semimembranosus muscle ... The tibial part of the sciatic nerve is also responsible for innervation of semitendinosus and the long head of biceps femoris ... The semimembranosus is innervated by the tibial part of the sciatic nerve. ...
The sciatic nerve branches into the deep fibular nerve and the tibial nerve. The tibial nerve innervates the semitendinosus as ... The semitendinosus, remarkable for the great length of its tendon of insertion, is situated at the posterior and medial aspect ... From the sacral plexus, the lower motor neuron travels down the sciatic nerve. ... The popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries. Back of left lower extremity. Semitendinosus muscle Semitendinosus ...
... affecting the two branches of the sciatic nerve. It is done above the knee on the posterior leg where the sciatic nerve starts ... The sciatic nerve is located in the gluteus maximus muscle, where the block is performed. The sciatic nerve can be blocked at ... A sciatic nerve block is a nerve block that uses local anesthetic to achieve analgesia in the leg. The block works by affecting ... At the popliteal fossa, the sciatic nerve divides into its two branches: The tibial and the common peroneal nerve. If surgery ...
Sciatic Nerve: Superior Gluteal Nerve: Inferior Gluteal Nerve: Pudendal Nerve: Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve Nerve to ... The greater sciatic foramen is wider in women than in men. It is bounded as follows: anterolaterally by the greater sciatic ... The following structures also exit the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen: The foramen contains: 7 nerves: ... The greater sciatic foramen is an opening (foramen) at the back of the human pelvis. It is formed by the sacrotuberous and ...
... the sciatic and posterior femoral cutaneous nerves; the internal pudendal artery and veins, and the nerves to the internal ... The greater sciatic notch is a notch in the ilium, one of the bones that make up the human pelvis. It lies between the ... The greater sciatic notch is wider in women (about 74.4 degree in female) than in men (about 50.4 degree in male). Gray's ... The notch holds the piriformis, the superior gluteal vein and artery, and the superior gluteal nerve; the inferior gluteal vein ...
The sciatic nerve (L4 to S3), the largest nerve of the body, immediately leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen ... The nerve may also send a branch to the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. The inferior gluteal nerve reliably emerged inferior ... The nerve was always seen close to and medial to the sciatic nerve when it left the sacral plexus inferior to the piriformis. ... The inferior gluteal nerve is superficial to the sciatic nerve. It has been described as having multiple branches with ...
Front and posterior views of cutaneous nerves of the right lower extremity Common fibular nerve Common peroneal nerve Common ... the upper one occasionally arises from the trunk of the sciatic nerve. The third (recurrent) articular nerve is given off at ... The common peroneal nerve (common fibular nerve; external popliteal nerve; lateral popliteal nerve) is a nerve in the lower leg ... Surgical procedures involving the nerve involve: Peroneal nerve decompression To surgically decompress the peroneal nerve, an ...
Muscles will be innervated by the tibial branch of the sciatic nerve. Muscle will participate in flexion of the knee joint and ... In human anatomy, a hamstring is one of the three posterior thigh muscles in between the hip and the knee (from medial to ... The three muscles of the posterior thigh (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris long & short head) flex (bend) the ...
闭孔内肌神经(英语:Obturator internus nerve). *梨状肌神经(英语:Piriformis nerve)). 皮神经(英语:Cutaneous nerve): 股后皮神经(英语:Posterior cutaneous nerve ... 陰部神經源自的神經位置也可能會變化,例如有些人的陰部神經可能是源自坐骨神經(英语:Sciatic nerve)[8]。,因此坐骨神經的損傷也會影響陰部神經。有時第1節骶神經的後
... approach include more rapid onset of anesthesia with an evoked motor response of inversion compared to a classic posterior ... A randomized comparison of a modified intertendinous and classic posterior approach to popliteal sciatic nerve block Anesth ... with the classic posterior (n = 54) popliteal sciatic nerve block for patients undergoing ankle/foot surgery. ... Methods: Nerve stimulator-guided blocks were performed 7-8 cm (classic posterior) or 12-14 cm (modified intertendinous) above ...
Toshihiro YorozuyaAbstractChronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve is frequently considered as a cause of chronic ... injury of the sciatic nerve in rats causes different activation modes of microglia between the anterior and posterior horns of ... Toshihiro YorozuyaAbstractChronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve is frequently considered as a cause of chronic ... Cancer Rehabilitation:: Acute and Chronic Issues, Nerve Injury, Radiation Sequelae, Surgical and Chemo-Related, Part 2. ...
The sciatic nerve also innervates muscles. In particular:[2]:422-4 *Via the tibial nerve, the muscles in the posterior ... The sciatic nerve (also called ischiadic nerve, ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve in humans and other animals. It begins in the ... Sciatic nerve injury occurs between 0.5% and 2.0% of the time during a hip replacement.[5] Sciatic nerve palsy is a ... this can cause sciatic nerve palsy which may resolve after the fragment is removed and the nerve freed. The nerve can be ...
The distance from the screw head to the sciatic nerve, posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh, and the inferior cluneal nerves ... The distance from the screw head to the sciatic nerve, posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh, and the inferior cluneal nerves ... The distance from the screw head to the sciatic nerve, posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh, and the inferior cluneal nerves ... The distance from the screw head to the sciatic nerve, posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh, and the inferior cluneal nerves ...
... is a branch of the sciatic nerve. After entering the lower leg between the two heads of the gastrocnemius, it runs deep to the ... The posterior tibial nerve (L4-S3) is a branch of the sciatic nerve. After entering the lower leg between the two heads of the ... in nerve entrapment syndromes of the lower extremity?) and What is the anatomy of the posterior tibial nerve (L4-S3) in nerve ... The medial calcaneal nerve or nerves penetrate the flexor retinaculum and innervate the skin over the medial and posterior heel ...
... sciatic nerve transection, peroneal nerve transection, and posterior tibial nerve transection. Preoperative and postoperative ( ... sciatic nerve transection, peroneal nerve transection, and posterior tibial nerve transection. Preoperative and postoperative ( ... sciatic nerve transection, peroneal nerve transection, and posterior tibial nerve transection. Preoperative and postoperative ( ... sciatic nerve transection, peroneal nerve transection, and posterior tibial nerve transection. Preoperative and postoperative ( ...
... the tibial nerve. (The short head of the biceps femoris is innervated by the common fibular nerve). The sciatic nerve runs ... The hamstrings are innervated by the sciatic nerve, specifically by a main branch of it: ... The posterior compartment of the thigh is one of the fascial compartments that contains the knee flexors and hip extensors ... The posterior compartment is a fascial compartment bounded by fascia. It is separated from the anterior compartment by two ...
Pudendal Nerve Injury After a Sciatic Nerve Block by the Posterior Approach Bondar, Attila; Egan, Michael; Jochum, Denis; More ... An Ultrasonographic Assessment of Nerve Stimulation-Guided Median Nerve Block at the Elbow: A Local Anesthetic Spread, Nerve ... The Long-Term Outcome of Mandibular Nerve Block with Alcohol for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia. Han, Kyung Ream; Kim, ...
Dissection of posterior aspect of left thigh. Adductor magnus muscle; nerve supply from sciatic nerve. For permissions ... Adductor magnus muscle; nerve supply from sciatic nerve. The biceps, semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles have been ... The branch (18) of the sciatic nerve that supplies the extensor part of the adductor magnus is shown in this dissection. The ... remainder of the muscle receives its innervation from the obturator nerve as illustrated in view 188-3. ...
A-C, Posterior horns; D-F, sciatic nerves. For iPLA2β-KO mice, white bars represent data at 15 weeks (n = 2, mean), gray bars ... A-E, Anterior funiculus; F, G, K-M, sciatic nerve; H-J, posterior horn. Semithin Epon sections stained with PAS and thionin (A- ... In both posterior horns of the lumbar cord and sciatic nerves of iPLA2β-KO mice, the number of PAS-positive granules was very ... A, D, In both posterior horns and sciatic nerves, PAS-positive granules are significantly more frequent at 100 weeks than at 56 ...
Iatrogenic injury to the sciatic nerve has been reported to occur in 0.6 - 1.9% of cases. ... The posterior approach to the hip joint involves operating in close proximity to the sciatic nerve. ... Anatomy of the sciatic nerve The sciatic nerve is the longest and widest single nerve in the body. It arises from the lumbo- ... Sciatic Nerve, Posterior Approach, Hip Arthoplasty, Nerve injury, Magnetic resonance Imaging, MRI, sutures, iatrogenic nerve, ...
posterior and lateral thigh and leg pain ==, inner foot. 18 Sciatic nerve = ...
Posterior hip dislocation 90% of hip dislocations; MVA most common mechanism; HIP & KNEE FLEXED WITH IR & ADD; SCIATIC NERVE ... Assesses for sciatica; passively flex hip w/ knee straight; lower leg slightly; dorsiflex (+) finding is pain in sciatic n. at ... 10% of hip dislocations; Leg shortened; ABD; flex; ER; Medical emergency due to potential FEMORAL NERVE damage ... Intervertebral disc bulges or ruptures; places pressure on spinal nerves exiting intervertebral foramen ...
Shooting, burning, laming pain, affecting posterior femoral muscles ; shooting along left sciatic nerve to foot, , by motion ; ... sciatic pain in hip joint ; painful drawing and lameness behind trochanter ; pain along sciatic nerve to foot ; in leg ... Pain confined to left leg, shooting, burning, laming, affecting posterior femoral muscles, and shooting along left sciatic ... Motion : pain in right hypochondriac region , ; pain in region of umbilicus , ; pain in shoulder , ; pain along sciatic nerve ...
Posterior view of the right leg, showing the sciatic nerve and its branches.. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. ... Posterior view of the right leg, showing the muscles of the hip, thigh, and lower leg.. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. ... only the posterior or lower two are so called. ...
Posterior view of the right leg, showing the sciatic nerve and its branches.. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Sciatic Nerve in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Sciatic Nerve. Posterior view of pelvic area showing location of sciatic nerve and associated skeletal structures.. LifeART ... Sciatic Nerve. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Sciatic Nerve in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes ...
Figure 2 (A) Posterior italic-S surgical access; n: retractors applied to the sciatic nerve; av: aneurysm of the popliteal vein ... Posterior access should be used when the objective is to expose only the segments of the popliteal vessels posterior to the ... 7 However, the large volume of the venous aneurysm interfered with the arterial dissection procedure and the posterior approach ... When we analyzed the angiotomography images retrospectively, we concluded that the posterior access should not have been ...
... indications and ultrasound-guided technique description to perform a sciatic nerve block. Anterior, posterior and continuous ... Obturator Nerve Block - Landmarks and nerve stimulator technique. Features the anatomy and landmark base techniques to perform ... Ultrasound-Guided Sciatic Nerve Block. Highlights the anatomy, ... Cutaneous Nerve Blocks of the Lower Extremity. Features the ... anatomy and technique description for the lateral femoral cutaneous, saphenous, sural, and superficial peroneal nerves block. ...
Anterior compartment Major muscle : quadriceps femoris Femoral artery Femoral nerve Slideshow 1775810 by alyson ... Posterior compartment: • Biceps femoris • Branches of profundafemoris artery • Sciatic nerve. *. Medial fascial compartment: • ... posterior fascial compartment of leg • Gastrocnemius, plantaris • Posterior tibial artery • Tibial nerve • Plantar flexes the ... Nerve Injuries in the Lower Limb - . joseph frantzias, haroon rehman and shami acharya for nansig. content. femoral nerve ...
14] Posteriorly, the sciatic nerve lies 2.9 cm from the posterior portal; it may be at risk if the portal drifts too far that ... Superiorly, the superior gluteal nerve and artery lie 4.4 cm from the anterior and posterior lateral portals. ... Preoperative Femoral Nerve Block for Hip Arthroscopy: A Randomized, Triple-Masked Controlled Trial. Am J Sports Med. 2015 Nov. ... Cross-section at hip, showing locations of femoral nerve, artery, and vein. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. View Media Gallery ...
The leg is innervated by the sciatic nerve.. In contrast to the usual use of the term, the anatomy of the leg refers strictly ... At the back of the leg, the posterior group is divided into superficial and deep posterior compartments. Together these groups ... The fibula, the rear or posterior bone in the anatomy of the leg, doesnt support any of the bodys weight. Still, it serves as ... The muscles of the leg receive blood mostly through the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. They supply the leg muscles ...
Pioglitazone attenuates tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in mice subjected to peripheral nerve injury. - Takehiko ... Posterior Horn Cells (drug effects, metabolism) *Sciatic Nerve (surgery) *Sciatic Neuropathy (complications, drug therapy, ... Mice were subjected to partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL) and given pioglitazone (1 - 25 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily. PPARgamma ... Pioglitazone attenuates tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in mice subjected to peripheral nerve injury.. Abstract. To ...
The change in position of the sciatic nerve during the posterior approach to the hip. ...
Posterior Abdominal Wall (Texas A&M MGA Week 7). Den Kurs können Sie am PC ✓, Tablet ✓ und auf dem Smartphone ✓ nutzen. Mit ... Sciatic Nerve - Lumbosacral Plexus 02:20 Coccygeal Plexus - Lumbosacral Plexus 01:48 ... For the slide about the lumbar nerves, only subcostal (T12) is listed. It would be helpful to list other nerves, such as ... Posterior Abdominal Wall (Texas A&M MGA Week 7). Von Craig Canby, PhD, James Pickering, PhD (8) ...
  • Visualization of the sciatic nerve may be obstructed by the lesser trochanter of the femur and needle tracking can be difficult due to the steep angle of needle trajectory. (usra.ca)
  • Sciatic nerve injury may also occur from improperly performed injections into the buttock, and may result in sensory loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • After skin and transducer preparation (see transducer preparation section), place a curved low frequency 2-5 MHz transducer firmly on the buttock region to capture the best possible transverse view of the sciatic nerve. (usra.ca)
  • The sciatic nerve goes from the lower back, through the buttock on both left and right, and down the back of the leg to the foot. (healthtap.com)
  • Injecting here reduces the chance of injury to the sciatic nerve which runs through the lower and middle area of the buttock. (isteroids.com)
  • Nerve injury following injection is a type of iatrogenic peripheral nerve injury, with 80% of cases occurring during intramuscular injection into the buttock, most commonly in infants. (bmj.com)
  • The skin of the buttock is supplied by a number of small nerves derived ultimately from the region of the twelfth thoracic nerve to the third sacral nerve (T12 to S3). (dartmouth.edu)
  • The superolateral quadrant of the buttock is relatively free of nerves and vessels and is frequently used for intramuscular injections in order to avoid the sciatic nerve and other important structures. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The short head of the biceps femoris is innervated by the common fibular nerve ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The sciatic functional index previously described in rats has proven to be a reliable index of functional recovery following sciatic nerve injury and repair. (elsevier.com)
  • The sheath is formed anteriorly by the transverslis fascia of the abdomen (pierced by the femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve and the great saphenous vein) and posteriorly by the iliac fascia. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Fascia iliaca block or femoral nerve block is used frequently in hip fracture patients because of their opioid-sparing effects and reduction in opioid-related adverse effects. (bioportfolio.com)
  • posterior - fascia on the pectineus m. (uams.edu)
  • The sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), tibialis anterior muscle weight, muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), and changes in agrin, AChR-ε, and AChR-γ expression levels were analysed. (bmj.com)
  • The disclosure herein generally relates to a method and apparatus for performing minimally invasive hip surgery and, more particularly, to an improved method and apparatus for performing minimally invasive hip replacement surgery for the acetabulum using a posterior retractor instrument. (google.com)
  • The femoral head comes to lie posterior to the acetabulum and assumes a semi-flexed, internally rotated position. (proceduresconsult.com)
  • Stretching, transection or suturing of the nerve may occur during access or while closing the capsule and short external rotators to the hip. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Following unilateral nerve transection, the Iba-1 (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1) and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) reactivities increased equally in both strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The perineal branch of the pudendal nerve travels through the Alcock's Canal of the obturator internus muscle. (pelvicpainrehab.com)
  • While any of the usual suspects or a combination of the usual suspects might be the cause of a patient's PN, there are a handful of very specific issues that are strongly associated with pain along the course of the pudendal nerve that should be considered when a PT does his or her evaluation. (pelvicpainrehab.com)
  • Sacroiliac joint dysfunction-The pudendal nerve runs out of the sacrum and through the sacroiliac joint ligaments. (pelvicpainrehab.com)
  • Any of the bundles of fibers made up of nerve cells that carry information in the form of electrical impulses throughout the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1-5 Discovery of multiple opiate receptor sites present on primary afferent nerve fibers 6 increased interest in using opioid analgesics as adjuvants to LAs. (asahq.org)
  • The epineurium, which is the outermost sheath, envelops the nerve and consists of dense connective tissue and thick collagen and elastin fibers. (appliedradiology.com)