A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.
A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.
Pathological processes of the OVARIES or the TESTES.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.
A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
Luciferases from RENILLA that oxidizes certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to cause emission of PHOTONS.
A genus of bioluminescent marine invertebrates in the family Renillidae, order Pennatulacea, class ANTHOZOA. It contains Renilla LUCIFERASE which oxidizes coelenterazine resulting in LUMINESCENCE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
(S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.

Entry of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus into porcine alveolar macrophages via receptor-mediated endocytosis. (1/420)

Porcine alveolar macrophages (AMphi) are the dominant cell type that supports the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in vivo and in vitro. In order to determine the characteristics of the virus-receptor interaction, the attachment of PRRSV to cells was examined by using biotinylated virus in a series of flow cytometric assays. PRRSV bound specifically to AMphi in a dose-dependent manner. Binding of PRRSV to AMphi increased gradually and reached a maximum within 60 min at 4 degrees C. By confocal microscopy, it was shown that different degrees of PRRSV binding exist and that entry is by endocytosis. Virus uptake in vesicles is a clathrin-dependent process, as it was blocked by the addition of cytochalasin D and co-localization of PRRSV and clathrin was found. Furthermore, by the use of two weak bases, NH4Cl and chloroquine, it was demonstrated that PRRSV uses a low pH-dependent entry pathway. In the presence of these reagents, input virions accumulated in large vacuoles, indicating that uncoating was prevented. These results indicate that PRRSV entry into AMphi involves attachment to a specific virus receptor(s) followed by a process of endocytosis, by which virions are taken into the cell within vesicles by a clathrin-dependent pathway. A subsequent drop in pH is required for proper virus replication.  (+info)

A modified immunoperoxidase assay for detection of antibody porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus in swine sera. (2/420)

MARC-145 cell monolayers infected with PRRS virus were fixed in 3% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. The sections were stained by avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase (ABC) method. Test sera were applied to sections as primary antibodies. The positive reactions were detected by ABC method and indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). There was good correlation between ABC and IFA, and the titers in ABC were higher than those in IFA. The present results indicate that the immunohistochemical staining is a useful test for the detection and quantitation of PRRS virus antibody in swine sera as well as IFA.  (+info)

The evolution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: quasispecies and emergence of a virus subpopulation during infection of pigs with VR-2332. (3/420)

GP5, the principal envelope glycoprotein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), contains a hypervariable region within the ectodomain which is responsible for generating diversity in field isolates. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the possible origin of this diversity by following GP5 sequence changes in pigs exposed to PRRSV strain VR-2332 in utero. A region of the PRRS virus genome containing portions of ORF4 and ORF5 was amplified directly from tissues of infected pigs from birth to 132 days of age. We observed the emergence of a new PRRSV population, identified by a single nucleotide change in the ectodomain. The Asp to Asn change at amino acid 34 was also found as a minor component in pigs that expressed the wild-type sequence. The results from this study suggest that the variability in the ectodomain of ORF5 is the result of positive or negative selection, of which the mechanism remains to be determined.  (+info)

Molecular responses of macrophages to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection. (4/420)

The detailed mechanism(s) by which porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) impairs alveolar Mo homeostasis and function remains to be elucidated. We used differential display reverse-transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) to identify molecular genetic changes within PRRSV-infected Mo over a 24 h post infection period. From over 4000 DDRT-PCR amplicons examined, 19 porcine-derived DDRT-PCR products induced by PRRSV were identified and cloned. Northern blot analysis confirmed that four gene transcripts were induced during PRRSV infection. PRRSV attachment and penetration alone did not induce these gene transcripts. DNA sequence revealed that one PRRSV-induced expressed sequence tag (EST) encoded porcine Mx1, while the remaining 3 clones represented novel ESTs. A full-length cDNA clone for EST G3V16 was obtained from a porcine blood cDNA library. Sequence data suggests that it encodes an ubiquitin-specific protease (UBP) that regulates protein trafficking and degradation. In pigs infected in vivo, upregulated transcript levels were observed for Mx1 and Ubp in lung and tonsils, and for Mx1 in tracheobronchial lymph node (TBLN). These tissues correspond to sites for PRRSV persistence, suggesting that the Mx1 and Ubp genes may play important roles in clinical disease during PRRSV infection.  (+info)

Genetic, geographical and temporal variation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Illinois. (5/420)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ORF5 gene sequences were generated by RT-PCR from 55 field isolates collected in Illinois and eastern Iowa. Spatial and temporal patterns of genetic variation in the virus were examined on a local geographical scale in order to test the hypothesis that the genetic similarity of PRRSV isolates (measured as their percentage pairwise ORF5 nucleotide similarity) was positively correlated with their geographical proximity. Levels of genetic variability in the Illinois/eastern Iowa PRRSV sample were similar to levels of variability seen across broader geographical regions within North America. The genetic similarity of isolates did not correlate with their geographical distance. These results imply that the movement of PRRSV onto farms does not generally occur via distance-limited processes such as wind or wildlife vectors, but more typically occurs via the long-distance transport of animals or semen. Genetic distances between PRRSV isolates collected from the same farms at different times increased as the time separating the collection events increased. This result implies rapid movement of new genetic types of PRRSV into and out of farms. PRRSV ORF5 displayed a pattern of third-codon-position diversity bias that was not evident in a geographically comparable sample of pseudorabies virus (a swine alphaherpesvirus) gC gene sequences. This result provides evidence that PRRSV ORF5 is experiencing stabilizing selection against structural novelty. Despite high genetic variability at all geographical levels, PRRSV ORF5 nevertheless contained potentially antigenic regions that were invariant at the amino acid level. These regions should make effective vaccine targets if they prove to be immunogenic.  (+info)

Changes of leukocyte phenotype and function in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: a role for CD8(+) cells. (6/420)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) primarily infects and destroys alveolar macrophages of the pig. The aim of the present study was to characterize the changes of leukocyte populations in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of PRRSV-infected pigs. Piglets were inoculated intranasally with PRRSV strain LV ter Huurne. On various days post-infection the piglets were sacrificed and the lungs removed, washed semi-quantitatively and analysed by flow cytometry. The total number of recovered BALF cells increased approximately 10 times between day 10 and day 21 of infection and decreased thereafter. The number of small low-autofluorescent cells (SLAC), i.e. lymphocytic and monocytic cells, increased very strongly from day 2 until day 21 of infection; in contrast, the number of large highly autofluorescent cells (LHAC), i.e. mostly macrophages, remained constant until day 14 of infection, increased slightly on day 21 and then decreased. On day 21 of infection in specific-pathogen-free piglets approximately 60% of the SLAC consisted of CD2(+)CD8(+)CD4(-)gammadeltaTCR(-) cells, which were partly CD8(+)CD6(+) and partly CD8(+)CD6(-). These phenotypes correspond to that of cytotoxic T-cells and natural killer cells respectively. From these results we can conclude that during a PRRSV infection the total number of BALF cells increases mainly due to an influx of lymphocytic cells with a cytolytic phenotype.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (7/420)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

Experimental reinfection with homologous porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in SPF pigs. (8/420)

The present examination was conducted to determine if the pigs infected with one strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) would be protected against a subsequent homologous virus challenge. Sixteen 4-week-old SPF pigs were assigned to 2 experimental groups A and B. The pigs in group A were inoculated with 10(6.5) TCID50 of PRRSV by intranasal route. On 77 days post-inoculation (PI), pigs in groups A and B were similarly inoculated with same virus. After the secondary inoculation, the pigs in group A didn't show any clinical sign including pyrexia and reduction of white blood cell (WBC) number. Viremia was detected only on 3 days PI with low virus titer and any virus was not recovered from serum and tissues at the time of necropsy on 14 or 28 days PI. In contrast, pigs in group B showed pyrexia for 14 days and reduction of WBC number on 3 days PI. Viremia was detected between 3 and 28 days PI, and virus was isolated from several tissues of all pigs. These results indicate that previous exposure to PRRSV can prevent development of clinical signs and reduce virus proliferation in pigs after subsequent infection with the homologous PRRSV.  (+info)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus responsible for a widespread contagious disease of domestic pigs with high economic impact. Switzerland is one of the rare PRRSV-free countries in Europe, although sporadic outbreaks have occurred in the past. The PRRSV isolate IVI-1173 from the short outbreak in Switzerland in 2012 was entirely sequenced, and a functional full-length cDNA clone was constructed. Genetic and antigenic characterization of IVI-1173 revealed the importance of amino acid 90 of the nucleocapsid protein N as part of a conformational epitope. IVI-1173 was not detected by SDOW17, a monoclonal antibody against N widely used to detect PRRSV-infected cells. Substitution of alanine at position 90 of N [N(A90)] with a threonine [N(T90)] restored reactivity of vIVI1173-N(T90) to SDOW17 completely. The relevance of this amino acid for the conformational SDOW17 epitope of PRRSV N was further confirmed by the opposite substitution in a functional cDNA clone of
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important globally distributed and highly contagious pathogen that has restricted cell tropism in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we found that annexin A2 (ANXA2) is upregulated expressed in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with PRRSV. Additionally, PRRSV replication was significantly suppressed after reducing ANXA2 expression in Marc-145 cells using siRNA. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that ANXA2 may be relevant to vimentin, a cellular cytoskeleton component that is thought to be involved in the infectivity and replication of PRRSV. Co-immunoprecipitation assays and confocal analysis confirmed that ANXA2 interacts with vimentin, with further experiments indicating that the B domain (109-174 aa) of ANXA2 contributes to this interaction. Importantly, neither ANXA2 nor vimentin alone could bind to PRRSV and only in the presence of ANXA2 could vimentin interact with the N protein of PRRSV. No binding to the GP2, GP3, GP5,
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important globally distributed and highly contagious pathogen that has restricted cell tropism in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we found that annexin A2 (ANXA2) is upregulated expressed in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with PRRSV. Additionally, PRRSV replication was significantly suppressed after reducing ANXA2 expression in Marc-145 cells using siRNA. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that ANXA2 may be relevant to vimentin, a cellular cytoskeleton component that is thought to be involved in the infectivity and replication of PRRSV. Co-immunoprecipitation assays and confocal analysis confirmed that ANXA2 interacts with vimentin, with further experiments indicating that the B domain (109-174 aa) of ANXA2 contributes to this interaction. Importantly, neither ANXA2 nor vimentin alone could bind to PRRSV and only in the presence of ANXA2 could vimentin interact with the N protein of PRRSV. No binding to the GP2, GP3, GP5,
Antibody or Hybridoma: anti-GP 5 of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain I10 murine monoclonal antibody, clone Hy P10-a46-15 (CCLV-RIE 1175) (Monoclonal, Diagnostic reagent, Derived product, Antibody or Hybridoma, Antibody)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macroepidemiological aspects of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus detection by major United States veterinary diagnostic laboratories over time, age group, and specimen. AU - Trevisan, Giovani. AU - Linhares, Leticia C.M.. AU - Crim, Bret. AU - Dubey, Poonam. AU - Schwartz, Kent J.. AU - Burrough, Eric R.. AU - Main, Rodger G.. AU - Sundberg, Paul. AU - Thurn, Mary. AU - Lages, Paulo T.F.. AU - Corzo, Cesar A.. AU - Torrison, Jerry. AU - Henningson, Jamie. AU - Herrman, Eric. AU - Hanzlicek, Gregg A.. AU - Raghavan, Ram. AU - Marthaler, Douglas. AU - Greseth, Jon. AU - Clement, Travis. AU - Christopher-Hennings, Jane. AU - Linhares, Daniel C.L.. PY - 2019/10/1. Y1 - 2019/10/1. N2 - This project investigates the macroepidemiological aspects of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) RNA detection by veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) for the period 2007 through 2018. Standardized submission data and PRRSV realtime reverse-transcriptase ...
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PDF version is available online.. Objectives: To construct models evaluating statistically significant associations between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and co-infectious agents, and to assess effects of changes in age and management system on co-infection status, serological profiles, lung lesions, and histopathological lesions in PRRSV-positive pigs. Materials and methods: Pigs 3, 9, 16, and 24 weeks of age from 41 sow sources representing one-, two-, and three-site production systems were necropsied on the basis of acute, subacute, and chronic disease stages (n = 5 animals per age group per farm). Logistic regression models were used to assess co-infection with other pathogens, serological profiles, and histopathological lesions in pigs PRRSV-positive by polymerase chain reaction and with lung lesions consistent with PRRSV infection, and in PRRSV-negative pigs. Additional models were stratified by age and type of production system.. Results: In the overall ...
Tilmicosin was investigated in a stable porcine alveolar macrophage cell line for its antiviral activity against types 1 and 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Tilmicosin exhibited strong antiviral effects on both genotypes of PRRSV replication in cultured porcine alveolar macrophages. The antiviral activity was more potent for type 1 PRRSV as indicated. Read More ...
Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can effectively stimulate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and are anticipated to be promising adjuvants in combination with inactivated vaccines. In this study, the adjuvant potential of three different TLR-agonists were compared with an oil-in-water (O/W) adjuvant in combination with inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (iPRRSV) applied by different administration routes: intramuscular (i.m.) or into the skin using dissolving microneedle (DMN) patches. Pigs received a prime vaccination followed by a booster vaccination four weeks later. TLR1/2 (Pam3Cys), TLR7/8 (R848) or TLR9 (CpG ODN) agonists were used as adjuvant in combination with iPRRSV strain 07V063. O/W adjuvant (Montanide™) was used as reference control adjuvant and one group received a placebo vaccination containing diluent only. All animals received a homologous challenge with PRRSV three weeks after the booster vaccination. Antibody and IFN-γ production, serum cytokines ...
Tilmicosin was investigated in a stable porcine alveolar macrophage cell line for its antiviral activity against types 1 and 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Tilmicosin exhibited strong antiviral effects on both genotypes of PRRSV replication in cultured porcine alveolar macrophages. The antiviral activity was more potent for type 1 PRRSV as indicated. Read More ...
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is a virus that causes potentially severe disease in swine with significant economic consequences for producers. There are two major strains of PRRSV, one primarily found in North America (U.S. strain), and one primarily prevalent in Europe (E.U. strain). Although they are genetically quite distinct, infection with both strains exhibits very similar clinical signs, which include respiratory, pneumonia-like symptoms and reproductive complications in sows.. The industry is primarily effected by the reproductive issues that are caused by the virus. Late-term abortion, stillbirths, mummifications, and fetal deaths during pregnancy occur with 35-50% of piglets. Piglets born alive are generally weak and the mortality of live-born piglets is 50-100% in most litters. Sows infected with PRRSV show a slow return to service. This on average, costs the swine industry $644 million annually, mostly due to loss of litters.. It is, therefore, an ...
Citation: Miller, L.C., Lager, K.M., Kehrli, Jr., M.E. 2009. Role of Toll-Like Receptors in Activation of Porcine Alveolar Macrophages by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 16(3):360-365. Interpretive Summary: The pig respiratory virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), causes highly significant losses to the swine industry worldwide. The ability of the virus to persist in its host shows that it has mechanisms to evade host immune response. The type I interferon system is an essential component of the host antiviral response. In this study, we investigated whether PRRSV suppressed the ability of a certain type of the pigs immune cells to activate important aspects of the host immune response. We found that PRRSV infection appears to suppress important aspects of host immunity which suggests that may contribute to the ability of PRRSV to establish persistent infections in pigs. Technical Abstract: Control of virus ...
Antibody or Hybridoma: anti-GP 3 of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) murine monoclonal antibody, clone Hy P10-c40-c1 (CCLV-RIE 1167) (Monoclonal, Diagnostic reagent, Derived product, Antibody or Hybridoma, Antibody)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has spread throughout Asia, causing significant losses to commercial farmers and smallholders. However, little is known about PRRS in Nepal, a South Asian country with a gradually increasing pig industry. In 2011, a pilot project was initia …
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN) genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc), green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively) and several interferons (IFNs), were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. In
The ability of the PRRS (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome) virus to spread via aerosol depends on the dose level for the individual strain of the virus, according to an Iowa State University (ISU) research project
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of the ORF4 gene of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus MN-1b. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Methods: Objective 1 (Control of PRRSV) Sub objective 1.1) PRRSV Immunity and Vaccinology: understanding correlates of immunity and mechanisms to broaden protection(UMd, Ohio, UNL, VTech, UConn , UMN, UIUC, SDSU,BARC/ARS,NADC/ARS, ISU, KSU) This objective addresses PRRSV vaccinology research related to development of new generation vaccine formulations, and their evaluation in pigs based on understanding the immune correlates. Identifying the strategies by which the efficacy of modified live (PRRSV-MLV) and inactivated PRRS virus vaccine induced immune response could be improved, and in design of alternate approaches to effectively control PRRS and reduce its transmission in swine herds. (i) Identification of ideal PRRSV strains to use in new generation vaccines: Since the 1991 strain VR2332 is commonly used in the production of PRRSV-MLV vaccine, further research is warranted to evaluate other available PRRSV strains to use in design of better vaccine candidates. An ideal strategy appears to be ...
Author Summary Research in virology is driven towards the characterization of a limited number of socioeconomically important pathogens, mostly those infecting humans. Yet, characterization of other viruses may advance our understanding of these topical pathogens and the fundamentals of virology. Here we describe the discovery of a virus of unknown clinical relevance that has many remarkable features. The virus was coined Nam Dinh virus (NDiV) after a Vietnamese province. It is a mosquito-borne virus with a 20.2 kilobase genome, the largest among non-segmented single-stranded RNA viruses of insects. Employing bioinformatics tools, we show that NDiV prototypes a new family and is a missing evolutionary link connecting the distantly related nidoviruses with small and large genomes, including important and diverse pathogens such as porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (∼15-kilobase genome) and SARS coronavirus (∼30 kilobases), respectively. NDiV and large nidoviruses form a phylogenetic
IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 1613: Porcine Interferon Stimulated Gene 12a Restricts Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication in MARC-145 Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18081613. Authors: Likai Ji Xiang Zhou Wan Liang Jianjian Liu Bang Liu. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes severe losses in the global pig industry. In the present study, we investigated the molecular characterization of porcine interferon stimulated gene 12a (ISG12A) and confirmed its anti-PRRSV ability for the first time. We found that porcine ISG12A was localized in mitochondria and significantly decreased the number of cells in G2/S phase. Porcine ISG12A mRNA was up-regulated in cells/tissues of Tongcheng (TC) pigs and Large White (LW) pigs after PRRSV challenge. More importantly, the ectopic overexpression of ISG12A could significantly suppress PRRSV replication at 24, 36 and 48 h post challenge (hpc), which was confirmed by detecting PRRSV ...
The presence of variability in the response of pigs to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection, and recent demonstration of significant genetic control of such responses, leads us to believe that selection towards more disease resistant pigs could be a valid strategy to reduce its economic impact on the swine industry. To find underlying molecular differences in PRRS susceptible versus more resistant pigs, 100 animals with extremely different growth rates and viremia levels after PRRSv infection were selected from a total of 600 infected pigs. A microarray experiment was conducted on whole blood RNA samples taken at 0, 4 and 7 days post infection (dpi) from these pigs. From these data, we examined associations of gene expression with weight gain and viral load phenotypes. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker WUR10000125 (WUR) on the porcine 60 K SNP chip was shown to be associated with viral load and weight gain after PRRSv infection, and so the effect of the
Pregnant gilts were infected at 90 days of gestation with porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) isolate SD-23983. Fetuses recovered between 109 and 112 days of gestation were analyzed for the presence of PRRSV. The results showed that not all fetuses were infected, and that infected fetuses tended to be clustered within the uterine horns, suggesting that virus is spread from fetus to fetus. Even though affected litters exhibited different degrees of gross pathology, the presence of an anatomical abnormality was not an identifier of an infected fetus. Analysis of virus replication in individual tissues identified the thymus as the principal site of PRRSV replication. The results show that PRRSV infection in the developing fetus follows a unique course and that PRRSVinduced alterations may be the result of the effect of PRRSV on maternal tissues. These factors need to be taken into consideration when diagnosing PRRSV infection as the cause for aborted and stillborn fetuses ...
Experiences from experimental studies and the field have shown that ELISA tests for the detection of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in oral fluid samples can give false positive results (Sattler et al. 2015; De Regge and Cay 2016). One possible explanation can be an exogenous source of PRRSV antibodies, for example included in the feed. The best described example is the use of spray-dried porcine plasma incorporated into the diet of nursery piglets which has been shown to cause false positive results in PRRSV oral fluid ELISA tests (Johnson et al. 2012). No reports on the use of whey in pig diets influencing the results of PRRSV oral fluid ELISA tests have been published. Feral and domestic swine represent the only known host of PRRSV (Zimmerman et al. 2012). Since cattle are not expected to support PRRSV replication or produce antibodies against the virus whey is a very unlikely exogenous source of PRRSV antibodies. If seemingly contradictory ...
Experiences from experimental studies and the field have shown that ELISA tests for the detection of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in oral fluid samples can give false positive results (Sattler et al. 2015; De Regge and Cay 2016). One possible explanation can be an exogenous source of PRRSV antibodies, for example included in the feed. The best described example is the use of spray-dried porcine plasma incorporated into the diet of nursery piglets which has been shown to cause false positive results in PRRSV oral fluid ELISA tests (Johnson et al. 2012). No reports on the use of whey in pig diets influencing the results of PRRSV oral fluid ELISA tests have been published. Feral and domestic swine represent the only known host of PRRSV (Zimmerman et al. 2012). Since cattle are not expected to support PRRSV replication or produce antibodies against the virus whey is a very unlikely exogenous source of PRRSV antibodies. If seemingly contradictory ...
A new project was established to perform functional genomic analyses to determine response pathways that differ in porcine respiratory and the reproductive syndrome (PRRS) resistant versus susceptible PRRS Host Genetics Consortium (PHGC) pigs. ARS Researchers at Beltsville, MD have partnered with Michigan State University (MSU) scientists to use PHGC samples to assess whole blood gene expression responses to identify genes and pathways that are associated with pigs that clear PRRS virus (PRRSV) and that grow well despite PRRSV infection. With MSU scientists multivariate statistical analyses of viral load and weight data have categorized PHGC pigs into 4 extreme categories including the most desirable, PRRS resistant low virus/high weight gain pigs, the worst, PRRS susceptible high virus/ low weight gain pigs, the PRRS tolerant, high virus/high weight gain pigs, and the less thrifty, low virus/low weight gain pigs. This statistical categorization of pigs from each PHGC trial provides a critical ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN) genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc), green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively) and several interferons (IFNs), were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. ...
Google Scholar Page. Schneider PT, Zhang J, Ramirez A, Wang C, Holtkamp DJ. Evaluation of disinfection protocols to reduce virus transmission via livestock transport vehicles using model trailers and experimental conditions. Swine Health Prod. 2015;23(6):306-316.. Pepin BJ*, Kittawornrat A, Lui F, Gauger PC, Harmon K, Abate S, Main R, Garton C, Hargrove J, Rademacher C, Ramirez A, Zimmerman J. Comparison of specimens for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in boar studs. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2015;62:295-304.. Neto JC*, Strait E. Raymond M, Ramirez A, Minion C. Antibody Responses of Swine Following Infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis, M. hyosynoviae and M. flocculare. Vet Micro. 2014; 174:163-171.. Ramirez A, Rowe E, Arruda P, Madson D. Use of equine origin antitoxin in piglets prior to exposure to mitigate the effects of Clostridium difficile infection - a pilot study. Swine Health Prod. 2014; 22(1):29-32.. Uddin Kahn S, Atanasova KR, ...
1. Dee SA, Joo HS. Recurrent reproductive failure associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in a swine herd. JAVMA. 1994;205:1017-1018. 2. Robertson IB. Transmission of blue-eared pig disease. Vet Rec. 1992;130:478-479. 3. Stevenson G, Van Alstine W, Kanitz C. Characterization of infection with endemic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in a swine herd. JAVMA. 1994;204:1938-1942. 8. Albina E, Madec R, Cariolet J, Torrison J. Immune response and persistence of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in infected pigs and farm units. Vet Rec. 1994;134:567-573. 9. Wills RW, Zimmerman JJ, Swenson SL, Yoon KJ, Hill HT, Bundy DS, McGinley MJ. Transmission of PRRSV by direct, close, or indirect contact. Swine Health Prod. 1997;5:213-218. 10. Yoon IJ, Joo HS, Christianson WT, Morrison RB, Dial GD. Persistent and contact infection in nursery pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus. Swine Health Prod. ...
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In North America, six different studies or field investigations reported transmission of the virus by the so-called area spread.8-13 In each of these studies, sequencing of strains suggested that what appeared to be the same strains were found, within a relatively short period of time, in neighboring farms without a simple explanation as to how they were introduced onto these farms. In five of six studies, the authors referred to the possibility of aerosol involvement in the area spread, but it is understood that there were other possible transmission means, such as insects.8,9-13 It should be noted, however, that in the epidemiological study conducted in Quebec by Larochelle et al.,12 about 75 percent of the total PRRS strains identified (226) were from cases submitted in autumn and winter, and particularly from November through April, a time of the year during which, in most of the cases, insect involvement was unlikely. The same is true for two of the field investigations referred to above, ...
The complete comparative genome analysis and experimental data reported here confirm and extend the remarkable differences between North American and European PRRSV reported earlier from an analysis of the 3′ structural gene and noncoding region sequences (42). VR-2332, the North American prototype, exhibits substantial nucleotide and amino acid sequence and length divergence from the European prototype, LV, over the entire length of the virus. The identified protease and polymerase motifs in ORF 1, relatively well conserved during evolution, signify their importance for the maintenance of viable PRRSV virus. Other than these motifs, notably in the sequence and length of the 5′ leader, most of ORF 1a, and the region of ORF 1b corresponding to the C-terminal end of the product, the strains exhibit inordinate divergence. It is striking that these and other genotypic differences in ORFs 2 to 7 and the 3′ noncoding region do not manifest appreciable differences in disease phenotype. The data ...
台灣豬隻疾病在 1975 年前較為單純,常見疾病,在病毒性疾病方面不外乎為豬瘟、日本腦炎、豬傳染性胃腸炎、假性狂犬病、豬水泡病和豬痘等;而細菌性疾病主要有豬萎縮性鼻炎、豬赤痢、豬白痢、豬水腫病和沙氏桿菌症等〔1〕。在診斷上相對亦較為容易,甚至只要有經驗的獸醫經由臨床症狀和肉眼解剖就能診斷出疾病來,而經由防治所獸醫送至行政院農業委員會家畜衛生試驗所豬隻檢體病材確診結果往往亦不謀而合。然而,今日台灣豬隻疾病種類繁多,疾病一旦侵入台灣,往往就根留台灣。在病毒性疾病除上述疾病外尚有豬流行性下痢、豬輪狀病毒感染症、豬小病毒症、豬流行性感冒、豬血球凝集性腦脊髓炎等〔2〕。而近十年來更新增不少豬隻病毒性疾病,例如 1992 年的豬生殖與呼吸綜合症(porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; PRRSV)〔7, ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has recently caused catastrophic losses in swine industry worldwide. The commercial vaccines only provide a limited protection against PRRSV infection. At present, DNA vaccine is the focus on the new vaccines. The gene fragment (p28) coding for the molecular adjuvants complement protein C3d (mC3d) from BALB/c mouse was cloned and expresse ...
CD83 was first described for Langerhans cells and activated lymphocytes. It is a conserved member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is also known as one of the most characteristic cell surface markers for fully mature DCs in peripheral circulation (31, 50, 51). Although CD83 plays essential roles in both the central and peripheral immune systems, the underlying mechanisms by which CD83 regulates immune responses remain enigmatic. Two different protein isoforms of CD83 have been reported in vivo: a membrane-bound form (mCD83) and a soluble form (sCD83). Enhancement of CD83 expression inhibits the surface expression of other molecules and influences DC function by dramatically reducing T cell activation, underlining and confirming the critical function of mCD83 (51). sCD83 is a potent inhibitor of anti-CD3-induced proliferation of T cells and production of IL-2 and IFN-γ by PBMCs, but the molecular mechanism by which CD83 suppresses the immune system is not understood (52-54). Virus-mediated ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This report describes the clinical and pathological effects of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection in three pig herds, showing that PRRSv infection increased the incidence of other common diseases in each case.
Since the beginning, two PRRS virus genotypes were established: European or Type 1 (prototype Lelystad virus) and USA or Type 2 (prototype VR-2332).
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of a pandemic that has been devastating the U.S. and global swine industry for more than twenty years. PRRSV vaccine development is challenging due to virus heterogeneity. Evidence indicates that the major envelope protein, GP5, is the primary target for a subunit vaccine. In native virions GP5 primarily exists as a disulfide linked complex with the membrane protein, M, which also possesses immunogenic properties. Recent studies report that the GP5/M complex is a more significant vaccine candidate. Currently, no bulk purification methods have been reported for PRRSV proteins. The objective of this research was to develop a purification process for GP5 or GP5/M from native virions. PRRS virions were isolated and concentrated through sucrose cushion ultracentrifugation and target envelope proteins were solubilized with Triton X-100 detergent for further processing. GP5/M was not consistently identified in samples and was ...
The objective of the study was to compare responses of pigs vaccinated with a PRRS MLV vaccine against PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 with the responses of pigs vaccinated simultaneously with both vaccines. Furthermore, the efficacy of the two PRRSV MLV vaccination strategies was assessed following challenge. The experimental design included four groups of 4-weeks old SPF-pigs. On day 0 (DPV0), groups 1-3 (N=18 per group) were vaccinated with modified live virus vaccines (MLV) containing PRRSV-1 virus (VAC-T1), PRRSV-2 virus (VAC-T2) or both (VAC-T1T2). One group was left unvaccinated (N=12). On DPV 62, the pigs from groups 1-4 were mingled in new groups and challenged (DPC 0) with PRRSV-1, subtype 1, PRRSV-1, subtype 2 or PRRSV-2. On DPC 13/14 all pigs were necropsied. Samples were collected after vaccination and challenge. PRRSV was detected in all vaccinated pigs and the majority of the pigs were positive until DPV 28, but few of the pigs were still viremic 62 days after vaccination. Virus was detected ...
Biochemical properties and processing of the three major structural proteins of PRRS virus expressed by recombinant adenoviruses. Structural, functional and community aspects
Alternative codon usage of PRRS virus ORF5 gene increases eucaryotic expression of GP5 glycoprotein and improves immune response in challenged pigs
Alternative codon usage of PRRS virus ORF5 gene increases eucaryotic expression of GP5 glycoprotein and improves immune response in challenged pigs
For the safe and simultaneous identification of RNA from the North American (NA) and European (EU) genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).
IF: 4.606] GENOME REPLICATION AND REGULATION OF VIRAL GENE EXPRESSION: Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Interacts with Nsp9 and Cellular DHX9 To Regulate Viral RNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts. AU - Du, Yijun. AU - Pattnaik, Asit K.. AU - Song, Cheng. AU - Yoo, Dongwan. AU - Li, Gang. PY - 2012/3/1. Y1 - 2012/3/1. N2 - The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. Using the human decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55), a known glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored protein, chimeric constructs were made to substitute the GPI-anchor domain of DAF with the putative lipid-anchor domain of GP4, and their membrane association and lipase cleavage were determined in cells. The DAF-GP4 fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane and was cleaved by ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Antigenic and genetic variations of the 15 kD nucleocapsid protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Elevated total testosterone is the most direct evidence for androgen excess, but it is important to note that most assays are relatively inaccurate at the lower levels present in females, and use of mass spectrometry-based assays of total testosterone are more accurate and preferred.9 Measurement of free testosterone is a more sensitive test, but commercially available free testosterone assays are often unreliable. The free testosterone index, calculated by total testosterone divided by SHBG, is considered more reliable but is not routinely performed due to the high cost of measuring SHBG.9 Serum LH and FSH levels should be measured at the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Ovulatory assessment such as mid-luteal progesterone measurement is sometimes required in patients seeking infertility treatment. In rare instances where there are rapidly progressive features of hyperandrogenism, virilising symptoms, or markedly elevated androgen levels (such as a serum testosterone ,5 nmol/L), ...
Harmon KM, Gauger PC, Zhang J, Piñeyro PE, Dunn DD, Chriswell AJ. 2015. Whole-genome sequences of novel porcine circovirus type 2 viruses detected in swine from Mexico and the United States. Genome Announc 3(6):e01315-15. doi:10.1128/genomeA.01315-15.. Thomas JT, Chen Q, Gauger PC, Giménez-Lirola LG, Sinha A, Harmon KM, et al. 2015. Effect of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infectious Doses on Infection Outcomes in Naïve Conventional Neonatal and Weaned Pigs. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0139266.. Sinha A, Gauger P, Zhang J, Yoon KJ, Harmon K. 2015. PCR-based retrospective evaluation of diagnostic samples for emergence of porcine deltacoronavirus in US swine. Vet Microbiol Sep 30: 179(3-4).. Pepin, B. J., Kittawornrat, A., Liu, F., Gauger, P. C., Harmon, K., Abate, S., Main, R., Garton, C., Hargrove, J., Rademacher, C., Ramirez, A. and Zimmerman, J. (2015), Comparison of Specimens for Detection of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection in Boar Studs. Transboundary and Emerging ...
Morgan, SB, Graham, SP, Salguero, J, Steinbach, F and Frossard, JP (2012) Increased pathology during infection with an atypical European porcine Arterivirus correlates with an enhanced adaptive immune response In: European Congress of Immunology, 2012-09-05 - 2012-09-08, Glasgow, SCOTLAND. Full text not available from this repository ...
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Disease outbreaks caused by NADC30-like PRRSV strains were a bit prevalent in China in recent years. In the present study, two newly emerged PRRSV strains, which were designated as PRRSV-ZDXYL-China-2018-1 and PRRSV-ZDXYL-China-2018-2 strains were found fr ...
In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) palmitate was synthesized and its anti-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) activity was studied. Specifically, EGCG palmitate was evaluated for its ability to inhibit PRRSV infection in MARC-145 cells when administered as pre-, post-, or co-treatment. EGCG and ribavirin were used as controls. The results showed that a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of EGCG, EGCG palmitate, and ribavirin was achieved at 2,359.71, 431.42, and 94.06 μM, respectively. All three drugs inhibited PRRSV in a dose-dependent manner regardless of the treatment protocol. EGCG palmitate exhibited higher cytotoxicity than EGCG, but lower cytotoxicity than ribavirin. EGCG palmitate anti-PRRSV activity was significantly higher than that of EGCG and ribavirin, both as pre-treatment and post-treatment. Under the former conditions and a tissue culture infectious dose of 10 and 100, the selectivity index (SI) of EGCG palmitate in the inhibition of PRRSV was 3.8 and
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in pregnant sows and acute respiratory disease in young pigs. It is a leading infectious agent of swine respiratory complex, which has significant negative economic impact on the swine industry. Commercial markets currently offer both live attenuated and killed vaccines; however, increasing controversy exists about their efficacy providing complete protection. Virus-like particles (VLPs) possess many desirable features of a potent vaccine candidate and have been proven to be highly immunogenic and protective against virus infections. Here we explored the efficacy of PRRSV VLPs together with the use of a novel 2′, 3′-cGAMP VacciGrade™ adjuvant. Animals were immunized twice intranasally with phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PRRSV VLPs, or PRRSV VLPs plus 2′, 3′-cGAMP VacciGrade™ at 2 weeks apart. Animals were challenged with PRRSV-23983 at 2 weeks post the second immunization. PRRSV specific antibody
A University of Nebraska study has confirmed that weight gains and levels of viremia (infection in the bloodstream) are not linked, but together the two variables
MANHATTAN - A collaborative study involving Kansas State University researchers has discovered a new gene expression mechanism in porcine reproductive
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Veterinary Sciences, VETERINARY SCIENCES, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Pathogenesis, Cytokines, Macrophages, Acute phase proteins, SYNDROME VIRUS PRRSV, PULMONARY INTRAVASCULAR MACROPHAGES, SCAVENGER RECEPTOR CD163, NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA, HOST IMMUNE-RESPONSE, ACUTE-PHASE PROTEINS, DENDRITIC CELLS, IN-VITRO, PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES, ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES ...
Regarded as the most common hormonal condition affecting women polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome in which the ovaries become enlarged, and develoop fluid-filled sacs, or cysts usually 12 or more. These cysts, within the ovary, resemble a string of pearls, or a pearl necklace.. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common cause of irregular periods, is a leading cause of infertility, and is the most common reproductive syndrome in women of childbearing age. Believed to be genetic in origin, and often runs in families. The most effective way to manage this condition is to maintain a normal body mass index (BMI) between 20 25.. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Association of Australia. The Jean Hailes Foundation. Download PCOS fact sheet from the Jean Hailes Foundation website. ...
Abstract. The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates antigenic peptides from the cytosol into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticular and plays a critical role in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule-mediated antigenic presentation pathway. In this study, the porcine TAP1 gene was mapped to the pig chromosome 7 (SSC7) and was closely linked to the marker SSC2B02 (retention fraction=43%, LOD=15.18). Subcellular localization of TAP1 by transient transfection of PK15 cells indicated that the TAP1 protein might be located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in pig kidney epithelial cells (PK-15). Gene expression analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that TAP1 was selectively expressed in some immune and immune-related tissues. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that this gene was up-regulated after treatments that mimic viral and bacterial infection (polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) and lipopolysaccharide ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important pathogens, that hinder the development of global pork industry. Its nonstructural protein 11 (nsp11), with the nidoviral uridylate-specific endoribonuclease (NendoU) domain, is essential for PRRSV genome replication and it also contributes to host innate immunity suppression. However, the immunogenicity and immune structure of PRRSV nsp11 have not been well investigated yet. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated 3F9, that against nsp11 was generated. Subsequently, a series of partially overlapped fragments, covered the nsp1140-223aa, were expressed to test the reactivity with mAb 3F9, and the 111DCREY115 was found to be the core unit of the B-cell epitope recognized by mAb 3F9. Further investigation indicated that both genotype 1 and genotype 2 PRRSV can be recognized by mAb 3F9, due to the 111DCREY115 is conserved in both genotype virus. Meanwhile, this epitope, localized at the
A short alternative open reading frame named ORF7a has recently been discovered within the nucleocapsid gene of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) genome. Proteins (7ap) translated from the ORF7a of two divergent strains - a type I and a type II - are able to completely reduce the motility of nucleic acids at relatively high molar charge ratios in gel retardation assays indicating strong dsDNA- and ssRNA-binding capability. Conserved RNA- and DNA-binding properties suggest that nucleic acid binding is a functional property of the divergent 7aps, and not an arbitrary consequence of their net positive charge. Sera from Hu7ap-immunised pigs and mice did not react with Hu7ap or Hu7ap-GFP; however, antinuclear antibodies were detected in the sera of the immunised animals, suggesting an ability of Hu7ap to interact with or mimic autoantigenic macromolecules. ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can cause reproductive disorder in naive dams infected in the third trimester of pregnancy.
Aim 1. To investigate the relation of the airway microbiome to risk of childhood asthma among infants with severe bronchiolitis (MARC-35). Aim 2. To investigate the relation of longitudinal patterns of the airway microbiome (e.g., infancy, age 3y, and age 6y) to the risk of childhood asthma in the MARC-35 and MARC-43 cohorts combined. MARC-43 is a separate cohort of children enrolled as healthy infants; it is funded by UG3OD023253 and covered by a separate IRB application at sites involved. Aim 3. To identify nasal airway microRNAs that are prospectively associated with asthma at age 6 years. Aim 4. To compare asthma cases vs non-cases on downstream NFκB signaling mediators and outcomes associated with nasal airway microRNAs. Aim 5. To derive asthma endotypes at age 6 years. By integrating microRNA expression, NFκB signaling mediators and outcomes, and asthma phenotyping data from the age 6-year examination, we will determine asthma endotypes with the use of an innovative systems-based
A new pair of research grants will help a Kansas State University researcher and his laboratory work on a method of preventing one of the most devastating and costly diseases found in swine.. Raymond Bob Rowland, professor of diagnostic medicine and pathobiology in the College of Veterinary Medicine, is a leading researcher in the area of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, or PRRSV. His latest efforts focus on the CD163 protein found in swine.. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, or PRRS, has cost the U.S. pork industry billions since it first appeared in the late 1980s.. The role of CD163 is so compelling that Rowland has obtained nearly $400,000 in funding from two different organizations. The U.S. Department of Agricultures National Institute of Food and Agriculture awarded him a $331,450 grant for Preventing PRRS through modifications in the virus receptor, CD163. The National Pork Board awarded him $66,576 for Adaptation of PRRSV to genetic modifications ...
Autophagy is an essential process in eukaryotic cells in which autophagosomes form to deliver cellular organelles and long-lived proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Many studies have recently identified the regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between viral infection and autophagy. LC3 turnover and the proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway were investigated using western blot analysis. The formation and degradation of autophagosomes were detected using immunofluorescence staining. Autophagy was activated by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) NSP3, NSP5 and NSP9, which are two transmembrane proteins and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. The formation of autophagosomes was induced by NSP3 and NSP5 and developed from the ER; the fusion of these autophagosomes with lysosomes was limited. Although NSP3 and NSP5 are ER transmembrane proteins, these proteins did not activate the ER stress signaling pathways. In addition, the cytoplasmic
The objective of this paper is to propose a delayed susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model for the transmission of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) among a swine population, including the latent period delay of the virus and the time delay due to the period the infectious swines need to recover. By taking different combinations of the two delays as the bifurcation parameter, local stability of the disease-present equilibrium and the existence of Hopf bifurcation are analyzed. Sufficient conditions for global stability of the disease-present equilibrium are derived by constructing a suitable Lyapunov function. Directly afterwards, properties of the Hopf bifurcation such as direction and stability are studied with the aid of the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to justify the validity of the derived theoretical results.
The IDEXX PRRS Oral Fluids Ab Test is an (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus
Rapid development of antibody-based therapeutics are crucial to the agenda of innovative manufacturing of macromolecular therapies to combat emergent diseases. Although highly specific, antibody therapies are costly to produce. Molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs) constitute a rapidly-evolving class of antigen-recognition materials that act as synthetic antibodies. We report here on the virus neutralizing capacity of hydrogel-based MIPs. We produced MIPs using porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-1), as a model mammalian virus. Assays were performed to evaluate the specificity of virus neutralization, the effect of incubation time and MIP concentration. Polyacrylamide and N-hydroxymethylacrylamide based MIPs produced a highly significant reduction in infectious viral titer recovered after treatment, reducing it to the limit of detection of the assay. MIP specificity was tested by comparing their neutralizing effects on PRRSV-1 to the effects on the unrelated bovine viral ...
Lena Meyer-Landrut es un scolera in li etate de 18 annus. Lena nequande havet instruction musical professional proque ella ne havet suficent moné. Ma ella fa ballette e dansa ja desde li etate de quin annus. Tot Germania ama Lena! Su gruppe de Facebook have ja plu quam 30.000 membres e li cante Satellite es un grande successe in Germania. Lena ha ganiat in li passat semane li qualifcation national por li Eurovision Cante Concurse per li cante Satellite ...
Downloadable! Unlike European-type derivative securities, there are no simple analytic valuation formulas for American options, even when the underlying asset price has constant volatility. The early exercise feature considerably complicates the valuation of American contracts. The strategy taken in this paper is to rely on nonparametric statistical methods using market data to estimate the call prices and the exercise boundaries. The paper focuses on the daily market option prices and exercise data on the S&P100 contract. A comparison is made with parametric constant volatility model-based prices and exercise boundaries. We find large discrepancies between the parametric and nonparametric call prices and exercise boundaries. Contrairement à ce quil est possible dobtenir dans un contexte dévaluation de titres dérivés de type européen, il nexiste pas de formule analytique simple pour évaluer les options américaines, même si la volatilité de lactif sous-jacent est supposée constante. La
Erik,. [I rather think 8D has rather clicked on to what you really believe!]. You write The first humans to arrive in the Americas clustered with Europeans whereas the later ones clustered with Asians. In other words, some of the early populations in East Asia and the Americas that you are referring to were roughly speaking European-type people who were replaced by other populations with more ancestral features.. This of course accords with your basic tenet that Caucasians are the most attractive because they are the least ancestral and most evolved. As Ive pointed out before, whether this is true or not (and there are many reasons to suggest that it is, at very best, misleading) more evolved does not mean better, and would not necessarily mean more attractive - that is unless you believe that there is some mysterious evolutionary force impelling a species towards a more perfect phenotype. But there we are outside the realm of science and into metaphysics.. But on the simple point as to ...
PMID 23543049] Replication study for the association of 3 SNP loci identified in a genome-wide association study for diabetic nephropathy in European type 1 diabetes with diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. ...
Learn about Ingelvac ERY-ALC for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage information.
Understanding the threat that pig farming operations face from the virulent PRRS virus and pathogens that can have a significant impact on your herd, production levels, and operating costs.
Lena Dunham, the writer, director and star of HBOs new series Girls took some time to talk with Heeb about her career, boobs and the word the. And she brought along Judd Apatow, the shows executive producer, to share his own feelings on such matters ...
Not exactly a surprise, but Girls executive producer Judd Apatow reports that Lena Dunham s Emmy-winning comedy already has the go-ahead to shoot a third season, and well ahead of the shows second-season premiere.
Cells, Cell, Cancer, Gene, Virus, Human, Role, Association, Patients, Treatment, Proteins, Infection, Genes, Genome, Prrsv, Syndrome, Production, Time, Disease, Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome
Próifíl-leathanach Feisire reatha de Pharlaimint na hEorpa - gníomhaíochtaí parlaiminteacha lena n-áirítear óráidí sa suí iomlánach, tuarascálacha agus tuairimí, tairiscintí i gcomhair rún, dearbhuithe scríofa agus ceisteanna parlaiminteacha
Guo C, Chen L, Mo D, Chen Y, Liu X (March 15, 2015). "DRACO inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ... group reported to have successfully observed antiviral activity against the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ... Interferons, but they are less virus specific and are only receptive to certain viruses. So in order to overcome these ... There are very few therapies or prophylactics for serious viruses, but for the ones that do exist, they can be divided into 3 ...
... formerly Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), is a virus that causes a disease of pigs, called porcine ... 2010). "The ever-expanding diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus". Virus Research. 154 (1-2): 18-30 ... "Cysteine residues of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus small envelope protein are non-essential for virus ... July 1995). "Detection of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Boar Semen by PCR". Journal of Clinical ...
"Antigen-Specific B-Cell Responses to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection". Journal of Virology. 82 (1 ... An excellent example to profile this distinction is the rabies virus. Usually the virus will replicate briefly within the first ... Active viremia is caused by the replication of viruses which results in viruses being introduced into the bloodstream. Examples ... resulting in viruses budding into capillaries and blood vessels. Passive viremia is the introduction of viruses in the ...
... and pathogenicity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on virus concentration in pigs. (2006) Evaluation of a ... US Patent 6,498,008 B2 "Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and method for detection". "SIRS vaccine and ... In Disease of Swine (7th edition). (1992) Spatial dispersal of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-contaminated ... Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome: A Review. Recent Advances in Swine Health and Production, Vol. 2. (1992) Porcine ...
181 inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication and has implications for controlling virus ... Newburn LR, White KA (August 2019). "Trans-Acting RNA-RNA Interactions in Segmented RNA Viruses". Viruses. 11 (8): 751. doi: ... Certain segmented RNA viruses can also regulate viral gene expression through RNA binding of another genome segment, however, ...
"Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replicates in testicular germ cells, alters spermatogenesis, and induces ... The mumps virus lives in the upper respiratory tract and spreads through direct contact with saliva. Prior to widespread ... Pudney J, Anderson D (1991). "Orchitis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected cells in reproductive tissues from men ... "Testicular germ cells of HIV-seropositive asymptomatic men are infected by the virus". Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 41 ( ...
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Torque Teno Sus Virus, and Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus. Meng has ... His PhD dissertation focused on an emerging virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, in the laboratory of ... terminal genomic RNA of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Journal of General Virology 75:1795-1801. DOI: ... Origin, evolution, and genotyping of emergent porcine endemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strains in the United States. mBio. 4(5): ...
... of the CD163 gene removed showed complete resistance to the virus that causes Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome. ... macrophage activation syndrome, Gaucher's disease, sepsis, HIV infection, rheumatoid arthritis and Hodgkin Lymphoma. sCD163 is ...
... antibiotic-free or conventional production systems following challenge with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ... respiratory tract infections in cattle and in some circumstances, lameness in sheep. While the human medical use of antibiotics ...
The family includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate ... Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, ... Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other ... The family includes pathogens such as rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and potato yellow dwarf virus that are of public ...
As well as equine arteritis virus the Arterivirus family includes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), ... The virus causing EVA was first identified following an outbreak of respiratory disease and spontaneous abortion on a horse ... Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by a virus of the species Alphaarterivirus equid, an RNA virus. It ... EVA is caused by an arterivirus called equine arteritis virus (EAV). Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an ...
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease). IDEXX is a ... Products of this segment include tests for Avian Influenza (AI), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), ...
... porcine influenza virus QI09AA05 Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus QI09AA06 Classical swine fever ... virus QI09AD03 Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus QI09AD04 Classical swine fever virus QI09AE01 ... QI09AA01 Aujeszky's disease virus QI09AA02 Porcine parvovirus QI09AA03 Porcine influenza virus QI09AA04 Aujeszky's disease ... erysipelothrix QI09AL04 Porcine influenza virus + erysipelothrix QI09AL05 Porcine transmissible gastro-enteritis virus + ...
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Most of these antiviral metabolites were ... 2009). "The Ascomycota tree of life: A phylum-wide phylogeny clarifies the origin and evolution of fundamental reproductive and ... These metabolites inhibit the virus's ability to replicate, thereby slowing infections. Mangrove-associated fungi have ... "Denitrification by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum and involvement of cytochrome P-450 in the respiratory nitrite reduction". The ...
... porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome MeSH C02.782.600.550 - coronaviridae infections MeSH C02.782.600.550.200 - ... respiratory syncytial virus infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.680 - rubulavirus infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.680.500 - mumps ... severe acute respiratory syndrome MeSH C02.782.600.550.800 - torovirus infections MeSH C02.782.620.365 - influenza, human MeSH ... hantavirus pulmonary syndrome MeSH C02.782.147.420.400 - hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome MeSH C02.782.147.444 - ...
... may refer to: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus Porcine ... circovirus Porcine parvovirus This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Porcine viruses. If an internal ...
Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus is one type of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome ... "Identification of a Putative Receptor for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus on Porcine Alveolar Macrophages ... Currently, inactivated and live attenuated viruses are used to try to eliminate Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome ( ... Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min (2013-12-01). "Overview: Replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus". ...
He added, instead, that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome affects pigs. On July 12, DOH Cordillera declared a low- ... He later tested positive for the virus. The boy, who was on 10-day quarantine, reportedly contracted the virus from a relative ... "First swine flu virus case in RP". Cebu Daily News. Archived from the original on 2009-05-25. Retrieved 2009-06-06. CS1 maint: ... On June 4, 2009, the confirmed cases of A(H1N1) virus rose to 29, after another De La Salle-Manila student and a staff of the ...
... porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome MeSH C22.905.832 - swine erysipelas MeSH C22.905.850 - swine vesicular disease ... marburg virus disease MeSH C22.735.500.850 - simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.735.750 - monkeypox MeSH ... poult enteritis mortality syndrome MeSH C22.131.800 - sarcoma, avian MeSH C22.131.921 - tuberculosis, avian MeSH C22.180.350 - ... hemorrhagic syndrome, bovine MeSH C22.196.429 - infectious bovine rhinotracheitis MeSH C22.196.497 - lumpy skin disease MeSH ...
Kay RM, Done SH, Paton DJ (August 1994). "Effect of sequential porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and swine ... Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is ... G4 EA H1N1, also known as the G4 swine flu virus (G4) is a swine influenza virus strain discovered in China. The virus is a ... A triple reassortment event in a pig host of North American H1N1 swine virus, the human H3N2 virus and avian H1N1 virus ...
... lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus MeSH B04.820.504.080.100.700 - porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus MeSH ... lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus MeSH B04.909.777.500.080.500.800 - porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus ... respiratory syncytial virus, bovine MeSH B04.909.777.455.600.670.600.750.730 - respiratory syncytial virus, human MeSH B04.909. ... respiratory syncytial viruses MeSH B04.820.455.600.670.600.750.700 - respiratory syncytial virus, bovine MeSH B04.820.455.600. ...
These pigs were completely resistant to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, a disease that causes major losses in ... modified green-fluorescent cats in order to find therapies for HIV/AIDS and other diseases as Feline immunodeficiency virus ( ... Edge, A.; Gosse, M.; Dinsmore, J. (1998). "Xenogeneic cell therapy: current progress and future developments in porcine cell ...
Setleis syndrome Severe acute respiratory syndrome Shaken baby syndrome Shapiro syndrome Sheehan's syndrome Shell nail syndrome ... drip syndrome Post traumatic stress syndrome Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome Post-concussion syndrome Post-Ebola virus syndrome ... ovary syndrome Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome Popliteal pterygium syndrome Porcine stress syndrome Pork-cat syndrome Post ... syndrome Mare reproductive loss syndrome Marfan syndrome Marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy syndrome Marie Antoinette syndrome ...
University of Edinburgh report that gene-edited pigs have been made resistant to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome ... Robbins, Jim (13 April 2018). "Trillions Upon Trillions of Viruses Fall From the Sky Each Day". The New York Times. Retrieved ... "Gene-edited pigs are resistant to billion dollar virus, study finds". University of Edinburgh. 20 June 2018. Archived from the ... 29 January - Scientists report, for the first time, that 800 million viruses, mainly of marine origin, are deposited daily from ...
Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/immunology. *Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/ ... Pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.. Chand RJ1, Trible BR, Rowland RR. ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most costly viral pathogen facing a modern pig industry. A ... Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/pathology*. *Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/virology* ...
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is a virus that causes potentially severe disease in swine with ... Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is a virus that causes potentially severe disease in swine with ... Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a viral pathogen of pigs that is involved in a variety of clinical diseases and syndromes. ... The industry is primarily effected by the reproductive issues that are caused by the virus. Late-term abortion, stillbirths, ...
Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus is one type of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome ... "Identification of a Putative Receptor for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus on Porcine Alveolar Macrophages ... Currently, inactivated and live attenuated viruses are used to try to eliminate Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome ( ... Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min (2013-12-01). "Overview: Replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus". ...
Virus Res. 2006 Dec;122(1-2):175-82. Epub 2006 Jul 21. Comparative Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Complete genome analysis of RFLP 184 isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.. Han J1, Wang Y, Faaberg ... Two full-length genomes of recently emerged virulent isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) along with Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, Equine arteritis ... κB by nucleocapsid protein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus," Virus Genes, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 76-81 ... "The role of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus structural and non-structural proteins in virus ... terminal kinase is required for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-induced apoptosis but not for virus ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has spread throughout Asia, causing significant losses to ... Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus / genetics * Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus / ... Serological evidence of type 2 (North American genotype) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Nepal Trop Anim ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has spread throughout Asia, causing significant losses to ...
... of PRRSV strain HB-XL isolated from a pig farm with a clinical outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. The ... the low morbidity and mortality in the pig herd from which HB-XL was isolated indicate that the virulence of the virus was weak ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causal agent of a serious disease of swine. Here, we report ... porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; Nsp2; GP5; variation analysis porcine reproductive and respiratory ...
Further studies utilizing whole genome sequencing and exploring the extent of cross-immunity between heterologous PRRS viruses ... Despite control efforts involving improved biosecurity and different vaccination protocols, the virus continues to circulate ... Despite control efforts involving improved biosecurity and different vaccination protocols, the virus continues to circulate ... Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is the most important endemic pathogen in the U.S. swine industry. ...
Molecular epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) in Quebec. Virus Res. 2003:96:3-14. 13. ... Aerosol transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv).. Disease and welfare ... Evidence for local spread of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J Swine Health Prod. 2002:10:167-170. 9. Mohr ... Below are his comments on the aerosol transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv). ...
Genetic Diversity Analysis of Genotype 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses Emerging in Recent Years in ... "Genetic Diversity Analysis of Genotype 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses Emerging in Recent Years in ...
In North America and Europe, the syndrome is caused by two genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ( ... These wild boars functioned as intermediate hosts and spread the virus to North Carolina in imported, infected European wild ... lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus) infected wild boars in central Europe. ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is a serious swine disease that appeared suddenly in the midwestern United States ...
3 million granted to researchers tackling porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. University of Minnesota ... at the University of Edinburghs Roslin Institute investigate how porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) ... And viruses often compete for hosts - some are better than others at evading the hosts immunity, depending on what that host ... But while a host may build immunity to a certain strain of PRRSv after infection, that strain - as with any RNA virus - can ...
... efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. In ... Furthermore, the IFN expressing viruses inhibited the replication of a second PRRS virus co-transfected or co-infected. ... In addition, replication‑competent IFN-expressing viruses may be good candidates for development of modified live virus (MLV) ... We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of ...
Aerosol Detection and Transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV): What Is the Evidence, and ... extensive review of studies exploring an airborne transmission in case of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. ... extensive review of studies exploring an airborne transmission in case of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. ... Line 127: Virus strain cannot alter the virus ability to become airborne since virus strain is intrinsic to the virus ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family ... Mapping the Nonstructural Protein Interaction Network of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. Jiangwei Song, ... Mapping the Nonstructural Protein Interaction Network of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus ... Mapping the Nonstructural Protein Interaction Network of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus ...
2015). Mechanisms of immune protection against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Retrieved from the ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly evolving and diverse RNA virus that causes significant disease ... Mechanisms of immune protection against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ... Although immunization plays a critical role in reducing disease and stabilizing virus-endemic herds, vaccines provide ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a small, enveloped positive single-stranded RNA virus that ... Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Comparison: Divergent Evolution on Two Continents. Chris J. Nelsen, Michael ... 1995) Structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 380:321-323. ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently described arterivirus responsible for disease in ...
porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, insects, transmission. Search the AASV web site for pages with similar ... Transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus under field conditions during a putative increase in the ... Transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus under field conditions during a putative increase in the ... Indirect transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is described, from an experimentally ...
Involvement of unfolded protein response, p53 and Akt in modulation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus- ... previous study has shown that activation of JNK plays a critical role in Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ( ... but also contributed to the virus replication. Our findings indicated that multiple signaling pathways were involved in ...
Clinical signs observed in the affected sows were typical for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). During the ... In July of 1994 an acute onset of maternal reproductive failure occurred in a 2,330 sow farrow-to-finish farm. ... Clinical Signs and Economic Losses Caused by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in a Large Breeding Farm Vet ... Clinical signs observed in the affected sows were typical for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). During the ...
Increased pathogenicity of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is associated with enhanced adaptive ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine worldwide. ... Piglets were infected with 3 strains of PRRSV-I: Lelystad virus, 215-06 a British field strain and SU1-bel from Belarus. Post- ... This difference did not appear to be caused by higher virus replication, as viraemia and viral load in broncho-alveolar lavage ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Age and management system disease modeling for pathogenic co-infection. J ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Age and management system disease modeling for pathogenic co-infection. ... Keywords: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, PRRSV, co-infection, disease modeling, epidemiology ... associations between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and co-infectious agents, and to assess ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, causes a costly global disease of swine. PRRSV ... Studies on the interaction between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and its natural host cell. Chen, Wei Yu ... Studies on the interaction between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and its natural host cell. Welcome to ... Moreover, in our previous study, the arterivirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was shown to be ...
The level of virus-specific T-cell and macrophage recruitment in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection ... Influence of N-linked glycosylation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 on virus infectivity, ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a member of family Arteriviridae which, along with the ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection of swine leads to a serious disease characterized by a ...
Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus PRRSV Viruses Zoonoses ... Em2007, a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) variant with a unique 68 aa deletion in Nsp2, was ... Characterization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates from pigs in Thailand showed 30-aa ... NADC30-like Strain Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, China Outbreaks Pigs ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus that initiates infection in pulmonary alveolar ... Browsing College of Veterinary Medicine by Subject "Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus". K-REx Repository. ... Browsing College of Veterinary Medicine by Subject "Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus". ... Complete genome sequence of two novel Chinese virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus variants  ...
"Preliminary characterization of protein binding factor for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on the surface ... Summary. In its natural host, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. virus (PRRSV) has been reported to have a ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative ... In its natural host, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to have a restricted tropism ...
... which could facilitate virus transmission or fetal pathology through dysregulation of placental function. Finally, results ... or the molecular events behind virus transmission and disease progression in the fetus. To investigate these processes, RNA- ... and provides insight into the molecular basis of virus transmission and disease progression. ... Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection of pregnant pigs can result in congenital infection and ...
Recently, DON naturally contaminated feed has been shown to decrease porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV ... naturally contaminated feed impairs the immune response induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ... naturally contaminated feed impairs the immune response induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) ... and tested for PRRSV RNA by RT-qPCR and for virus specific antibodies by ELISA. Results showed that ingestion of DON- ...
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most costly viral pathogen facing a modern pig industry. (nih.gov)
  • A strain of PRRSV (CHsx1401) was isolated from a Author affiliation: China Agricultural University, Beijing, China lung sample by using porcine pulmonary alveolar macro- phages. (cdc.gov)
  • PRRS virus (PRRSV), the ing regions and their deduced amino acid sequences of the causative agent of this disease, was identified in Europe virus were performed with representative PRRSV strains in 1991 and the United States in 1992 ( 2,3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We report emergence of a novel PRRSV (NADC30-like) other strains showed that this virus had amino acid dele- in China that is genetically similar to the NADC30 strain tions that were identical to that in NADC30 ( 8 ) and MN184 isolated in the United States in 2008 ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is a virus that causes potentially severe disease in swine with significant economic consequences for producers. (neogen.com)
  • Presence of PRRSV antibodies indicates that the animal had been previously exposed to the PRRS virus. (neogen.com)
  • The PRRSV ELISA is an antibody ELISA, so the plate wells are coated with PRRS virus. (neogen.com)
  • Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus is one type of the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSV). (wikipedia.org)
  • PRRSV causes Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome in swine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Criticism to this way of classifying the virus range from the multitude of possible combinations of different cut pattern of the three enzymes (leading to tens of thousands of different PRRSV RFLP patterns, with unknown epidemiological significance) to the quick change in RFLP types of a single virus in as few as 10 animal passages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 1987 classification of type 2 (North American-like) PRRSV, the virus has greatly diversified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two full-length genomes of recently emerged virulent isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were sequenced and compared to other PRRSV strains. (nih.gov)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a serious threat to the pork industry, and its pathogenesis needs further investigations. (hindawi.com)
  • To study the role of two structural proteins of PRRSV in virus-host cells interactions, two stable cell lines (MARC-2a and MARC-N) expressing GP2 and N proteins, respectively, were established. (hindawi.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) along with Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, Equine arteritis virus, and Simian hemorrhagic fever virus belongs to the family Arteriviridae of order Nidovirales . (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, the ERK signaling pathway is also activated in PRRSV-infected cells [ 12 , 13 ], and activation of JNK is required for the virus-induced apoptosis [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has spread throughout Asia, causing significant losses to commercial farmers and smallholders. (nih.gov)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causal agent of a serious disease of swine. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we report the genome sequence of PRRSV strain HB-XL isolated from a pig farm with a clinical outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. (mdpi.com)
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is the most important endemic pathogen in the U.S. swine industry. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further studies utilizing whole genome sequencing and exploring the extent of cross-immunity between heterologous PRRS viruses could shed further light on PRRSV immunological response and aid in developing strategies that might be able to diminish disease impact. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aerosol transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv). (thepigsite.com)
  • Below are his comments on the aerosol transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv). (thepigsite.com)
  • My hypothesis, which explains the origin and evolution of the two distinct PRRSV genotypes, is that a mutant of a closely related arterivirus of mice (lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus) infected wild boars in central Europe. (cdc.gov)
  • Initially, the disease was referred to as "mystery swine disease" until its cause was determined to be a positive-stranded RNA virus, designated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), that together with murine lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), equine arteritis virus, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus, belongs to the family Arteriviridae ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The European and North American PRRSV prototypes are Lelystad virus ( 4 ) and VR-2332 ( 3 ), respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • A new grant of nearly $3 million will help University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) researchers and collaborators at the University of Edinburgh's Roslin Institute investigate how porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) evolves and spreads. (thepigsite.com)
  • But while a host may build immunity to a certain strain of PRRSv after infection, that strain - as with any RNA virus - can counter-evolve to survive in that host and spread. (thepigsite.com)
  • As with many RNA viruses, PRRSv rapidly evolves and acquires genetic changes over time. (thepigsite.com)
  • However, scientists can study and potentially predict the genetic diversity of PRRSv in pigs better than they can study other viruses in humans or wildlife because of the rich availability of data - they know where farms are, so they know what the distribution of hosts looks like. (thepigsite.com)
  • She says, "Studying PRRSv's evolution will help us better understand and hopefully control PRRSv, but it will also help us understand the evolution and drivers of genetic diversity in viruses in humans and other animals. (thepigsite.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. (mdpi.com)
  • We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). (mdpi.com)
  • In summary, the indicator-expressing viruses provided an efficient means for real-time monitoring of viral replication thus allowing high‑throughput elucidation of the role of host factors in PRRSV infection. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, replication‑competent IFN-expressing viruses may be good candidates for development of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines, which are capable of reversing subverted innate immune responses and may induce more effective adaptive immunity against PRRSV infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Aerosol Detection and Transmission of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV): What Is the Evidence, and What Are the Knowledge Gaps? (mdpi.com)
  • Line 114: PRRSV is an enveloped virus. (mdpi.com)
  • Line 179 and following: It would be important here to mention more explicitly the clear link between viremia and virus shedding with PRRSV detection in aerosol. (mdpi.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Arteriviridae . (asm.org)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly evolving and diverse RNA virus that causes significant disease to swine populations globally. (umn.edu)
  • Although immunization plays a critical role in reducing disease and stabilizing virus-endemic herds, vaccines provide incomplete and unpredictable cross-protection against the diversity of PRRSV strains. (umn.edu)
  • The findings herein demonstrate that ORF5a protein is not important for immune protection against PRRSV but the maintenance of ORF5a in fine evolutionary balance with the GP5 variable glycosylation region suggests it plays a critical role in the virus life cycle. (umn.edu)
  • Improved understanding of immune mechanisms to PRRSV will enable more effective control, prevention and ultimately, elimination of the virus. (umn.edu)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently described arterivirus responsible for disease in swine worldwide. (asm.org)
  • Comparative sequence analysis of 3′-terminal structural genes of the single-stranded RNA viral genome revealed the presence of two genotypic classes of PRRSV, represented by the prototype North American and European strains, VR-2332 and Lelystad virus (LV), respectively. (asm.org)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a small, enveloped positive single-stranded RNA virus that causes reproductive failure in breeding swine and respiratory problems in young pigs. (asm.org)
  • The arterivirus family consists of PRRSV, lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), equine arteritis virus (EAV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) ( 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Indirect transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is described, from an experimentally infected pig population to a group of negative controls housed 30 m apart. (aasv.org)
  • M echanical transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from infected to susceptible pigs by houseflies ( Musca domestica) has been documented experimentally, and viable PRRSV has been detected in the intestinal tracts of houseflies for up to 12 hours after they fed on experimentally infected pigs. (aasv.org)
  • 3 In this case, artificial scarification did not occur, and flies were likely to have been contaminated with PRRSV during contact with porcine saliva and oro-nasal secretions. (aasv.org)
  • Our previous study has shown that activation of JNK plays a critical role in Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-mediated apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Furthermore, induction of UPR, p53 and Akt was not only involved in modulation of PRRSV-mediated apoptosis, but also contributed to the virus replication. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Since its first emergence in 1987 the PRRS virus (PRRSV) has become particularly divergent with highly pathogenic strains appearing in both Europe and Asia. (wur.nl)
  • Piglets were infected with 3 strains of PRRSV-I: Lelystad virus, 215-06 a British field strain and SU1-bel from Belarus. (wur.nl)
  • Infection with PRRSV did not affect the response to vaccination against ADV. Our results indicate that the increased clinical and pathological effect of the SU1-bel strain is more likely to be caused by an enhanced inflammatory immune response rather than higher levels of virus replication. (wur.nl)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, causes a costly global disease of swine. (illinois.edu)
  • In this regard, infection of porcine AMΦ with PRRSV reduced by >50% the amount of IFN-α otherwise produced following the cells' exposure to synthetic dsRNA. (illinois.edu)
  • In the case of PRRSV infection alone, these cytokine responses such IFN-α are barely detected in spite of massive dsRNA produced in PRRSV-infected porcine AMΦ cells. (illinois.edu)
  • Moreover, in our previous study, the arterivirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was shown to be incapable of inducing type I IFN synthesis upon infecting porcine alveolar macrophages. (illinois.edu)
  • In the present study, in conjunction with the application of selective permeabilization, our immuno-staining results demonstrated for the first time that during PRRSV infection the viral dsRNA is sequestered inside intracellular membranes, which could prevent detection of virus dsRNA by host's viral nucleic acid sensor. (illinois.edu)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection of swine leads to a serious disease characterized by a delayed and defective adaptive immune response. (asm.org)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a member of family Arteriviridae which, along with the Coronaviridae , are classified in the order Nidovirales ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • PRRSV is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus with positive-sense genome of ∼15 kb. (asm.org)
  • The clinical signs of PRRSV infection include late-term reproductive failure in sows and respiratory illness in growing pigs. (asm.org)
  • Most cases of PRRSV infection in pigs are complicated by secondary opportunistic bacterial infections, which have been attributed to the immunosuppressive nature of the virus ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The immune response to PRRSV infection is characterized by a delayed appearance of neutralizing antibodies ( 31 ), a short cell-mediated immune response ( 34 , 59 ), and slow development of a virus-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) response ( 35 ). (asm.org)
  • IFN-α production in the lungs of pigs acutely infected with PRRSV was either almost undetectable or 100- to 200-fold lower than that induced by porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) ( 8 , 57 ). (asm.org)
  • PRRSV has also been found to suppress IFN-α production by transmissible gastroenteritis corona virus (TGEV), a known inducer of IFNs in infected alveolar macrophages ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • A highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), characterized by a discontinuous 30-amino-acid deletion in its Nsp2-coding region, has been emerging in China since 2006. (k-state.edu)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus that initiates infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs), elicits weak immune responses, and establishes a persistent infection. (k-state.edu)
  • Dea, S. 2000-06-01 00:00:00 In its natural host, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to have a restricted tropism for cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. (deepdyve.com)
  • To date, cloned monkey kidney cell lines, such as MARC-145 and CL2621 cells which have been established from MA-104 cells, are the only non-porcine cells known to support PRRSV replication. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the present study, a binding assay was set up to follow by flow cytometry the attachment of PRRSV on the surface of porcine and non-porcine cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • PRRSV was found to be able to bind permissive cells like porcine alveolar macrophages and MARC-145. (deepdyve.com)
  • Experiments conduced with cells that have been previously characterized as non-permissive to PRRSV infection showed that many of them were able to bind the virus. (deepdyve.com)
  • are the only non-porcine cells kno wn to support PRRSV replication. (deepdyve.com)
  • PRRSV on the surface of porcine and non-porcine cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection of pregnant pigs can result in congenital infection and ultimately fetal death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study identified major differences in the response to PRRSV infection in the uterine endometrium and fetus at the gene expression level, and provides insight into the molecular basis of virus transmission and disease progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) causes respiratory disease and slow growth in growing pigs, and reproductive failure in pregnant sows through abortions, stillbirths, and the farrowing of weak-born piglets that have a high mortality rate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PRRSV is a single-stranded RNA virus that evolves at a rapid rate through the accumulation of random mutations and intragenic recombination events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, DON naturally contaminated feed has been shown to decrease porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) specific antibody responses following experimental infection. (umontreal.ca)
  • Blood samples were collected at day −1, 6, 13, 20, 27 and 35 post vaccination (pv) and tested for PRRSV RNA by RT-qPCR and for virus specific antibodies by ELISA. (umontreal.ca)
  • Xie, Zhixun 2014-08-01 00:00:00 We have previously reported that inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) reduces porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRSV) replication. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the Sf9 cells infected with the recombinant virus, the expressed ORF 7-GST fusion protein of B 13 strain with molecular weight about 46kD was successfully detected by Western-blot using anti-PRRSV B 13 polyclonal sera. (cnki.com.cn)
  • The PRRS virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 5 (GP5) is a major viral antigenic target and is thus suitable for development of genetically engineered PRRSV vaccines. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • First-time detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in Uruguay. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Within the last two decades, several high-impact viruses have emerged in the global swine population, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In Uruguay, the more recent serological survey for PRRSV and other notifiable diseases such as Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) dated from year 2000. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Viral isolation of selected samples was carried out in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) and MARC 145 simian kidney cells, and the virus identity was confirmed by cytopathic effect (CPE) and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using specific monoclonal antibodies for PRRSV nucleocapsid. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Data reported here evidence for the first time the circulation of PRRSV type 2 in Uruguay, and retrospective serology results suggest that the virus has been infecting pigs in this country at least since 2011. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Advantageously, transfection of CD 151 into non-simian cell lines can confer susceptibility to PRRSV and these recombinant cell lines can be used for preparation of biologics that will avoid simian cell lines which could be a source of primate viruses in xenotransplanted organs from pigs. (patents.com)
  • Dual infections of pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) followed by a second common respiratory virus, either porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) or swine influenza virus (SIV), were studied. (ugent.be)
  • It was also examined if PRRSV replication affects replication of PRCV or SIV in the respiratory tract. (ugent.be)
  • The infection with PRRSV-only induced a transient fever (40.2 degrees C) at 2 DPI, but no respiratory signs. (ugent.be)
  • The PRRSV-SIV infection resulted in fever and respiratory signs in all 3 groups. (ugent.be)
  • Mean weight gain during 14 DPI of the 2nd virus was 5.9 kg in the PRRSV-PRCV group and 4.0, 6.8 and 6.7 ki: in PRRSV-SIV groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. (ugent.be)
  • It was concluded that dual infections with viruses causes more severe disease and growth retardation than single PRRSV infection. (ugent.be)
  • Thus, replication of the second virus is not (PRCV) or only slightly (SIV) affected by a prior infection with PRRSV. (ugent.be)
  • Following the recent use of a live vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in Denmark, both American (vaccine) and European-type PRRSV now coexist in Danish herds. (dtu.dk)
  • The ORF 7-based test had particularly desirable characteristics, namely, highly sensitive detection of PRRSV without apparent type bias, typing of the detected virus, discrimination between pure and mixed virus populations, and semi-quantitative assessment of type ratios in mixed populations, all in a single PCR reaction. (dtu.dk)
  • The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major threat to swine health worldwide and is considered the most significant viral disease in the swine industry today. (prolekare.cz)
  • The causative agent is a positive sense RNA virus that groups within the order Nidovirales , family Arteriviridae , and is referred to as the PRRS virus (PRRSV) [3] . (prolekare.cz)
  • As there was a clear gap in the knowledge of PRRSV ligands that bind to specific receptors, it was difficult to aim for specific blocking of crucial steps in PRRSV infection of the porcine macrophage. (prolekare.cz)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is characterized by severe reproductive failure and severe pneumonia in neonatal pigs and is caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently, killed-virus and modified-live PRRSV vaccines are used to control PRRS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pigs intradermally injected twice with hAdV/ORF5 developed antibody titers to the authentic viral GP 5 as soon as 10 days following challenge with the homologous virulent PRRSV strain, as revealed by Western blot and virus neutralization tests, suggesting the establishment of a specific immune memory. (springer.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a major economic problem for swine industries worldwide despite several disease-reduction strategies such as age-segregated early weaning and all-in-all-out pig movement. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Routine diagnosis of PRRSV is carried out by the combined use of an antibody-detecting enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a marked tropism for cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and accordingly, replicates in fully differentiated alveolar macrophages in the natural host. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Despite the identification of several putative receptors for PRRSV on porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM), only CD163 was found to be able to make non-permissive cells susceptible to PRRSV, indicating a requirement for CD163 in productive infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The object of this study was to describe and contrast the kinetics of the humoral response in serum and oral fluid specimens during acute porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Boars were intramuscularly inoculated with a commercial modified live virus (MLV) vaccine (Trial 1), a Type 1 PRRSV field isolated (Trial 2), or a Type 2 PRRSV field isolate (Trial 3). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes chronic, economically devastating disease in pigs of all ages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As per the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service report of 2009, 49.8% of unvaccinated pigs in the US are seropositive to PRRS virus (PRRSV), suggesting PRRS an endemic disease in the US, and pig producers have to constantly battle against outbreaks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we isolated a porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) strain from piglets co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • PRRSV was detected in all the diseased piglets, genome sequence blast showed the strain belongs to genotype 2, 99.4% homologous to the PRRS virus strain JXA1 isolated in China, which has been proved to cause porcine high fever disease with high morbidity and mortality[ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a significant swine pathogen which exhibits considerable sequence diversity. (elsevier.com)
  • In an attempt to identify highly conserved T-cell epitopes contained in proteins of this virus, we examined heptadecamer peptides spanning the sequence of the PRRSV nonstructural proteins (NSPs) 9 and 10, both of which are highly conserved, for their ability to elicit a recall proliferative and interferon-gamma response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from pigs immunized against the type-II PRRSV strain FL-12. (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of the presented study was to compare susceptibility of two different types of macrophages which could be in contact with both pathogens during infection with PRRS virus (PRRSV) and in co-infection with H. parasuis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Higher sensitivity of MDMs to PRRSV infection, which is associated with limited MDMs survival and restriction of MGC formation, could contribute to the development of multifactorial respiratory disease of swine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The causative agent is porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PRRSV is considered to be one of the key etiological agents in multifactorial respiratory disease of swine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of one of the most devastating and economically significant viral disease of pigs worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) stability, besides meeting production targets, is also a requirement for several control options of PRRS in pig breeding farms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pig herds infected with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) often develop corresponding clinical diseases in sows, boars and/or their offspring. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to Holtkamp's definition, PRRSV stability [ 10 ] is the absence of virus circulation within the herd over a 90-day period, based on four consecutive negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) herd testings every 30 days, or more frequently, of at least 30 suckling pigs at weaning age from 30 different litters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent studies suggest that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) may have immunomodulatory effects on the host immune system by upregulating interleukin (IL)-10 gene expression. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • To determine the effect of PRRSV on porcine cytokine gene expression in vivo , we infected pigs with either the European or North American strain of PRRSV and monitored cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BALC) using a multiplex PCR assay. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Virus quantification and identification of cellular targets in the lungs and lymphoid tissues of pigs at different time intervals after inoculation with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • However the reproductive problems may reoccur if the breeding herd become destabilised due to recycling of PRRSv from the finishing herd or excreting gilts. (porcilis-prrs.com)
  • Co-infections involving porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are common and contribute to a range of polymicrobial disease syndromes in swine and on a world-wide basis. (osti.gov)
  • The small envelope (E) protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a hydrophobic 73 amino acid protein encoded in the internal open reading frame (ORF) of the bicistronic mRNA2. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • DNA transfection of PRRSV-susceptible cells with the E gene knocked-out genomic clone showed the absence of virus infectivity. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Taken together, our data suggest that the PRRSV E protein is likely an ion-channel protein embedded in the viral envelope and facilitates uncoating of virus and release of the genome in the cytoplasm. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • As a step toward understanding the assembly pathway of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the oligomeric properties of the nucleocapsid (N) protein were investigated. (illinois.edu)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the major pathogens affecting the swine industry worldwide. (cvd.com.ua)
  • PRRSV is a positive-sense ssRNA enveloped virus of the family Arteriviridae. (cvd.com.ua)
  • Interestingly, that PRRSV were detected only in 13% in all reproductive cases (328 samples) in contrast the percentage of PRRSV positive cases with respiratory distress is 24 % ( 225 samples). (cvd.com.ua)
  • Like other arteriviruses, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is shed in semen, a feature that is critical for the venereal transmission of this group of viruses. (psu.edu)
  • The PRRS virus (PRRSV) was initially isolated in the Netherlands and the United States and was labeled as the Lelystad and ATCC VR-2332 viruses, respectively. (umn.edu)
  • Laboratory diagnosis of PRRSV infection can be made on the basis of virus isolation or viral serology. (umn.edu)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is endemic in most swine-producing countries, causing significant economic loss to swine producers. (unl.edu)
  • Consequently, the animals infected with this epitope-201 mutant virus were serologically differentiated from those infected with wt-PRRSV through the use of a blocking ELISA. (unl.edu)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can cause reproductive disorder in naive dams infected in the third trimester of pregnancy. (pigprogress.net)
  • For within-herd dynamics of PRRSV infection, the basic reproductive number (Ro) for PRRSV and duration of detectable maternal antibodies (m) in suckling and nursery pigs was estimated. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Pig movements have been linked to the spread of a virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), RFLP-type 1-7-4, herein denoted as phylogenetic sub-lineage 1A [L1A]. (cdc.gov)
  • The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive sense single-stranded RNA virus of the arteriviridae family and is one of the most economically devastating pathogens in the swine industry today. (usask.ca)
  • Animals subject to infection with PRRSV exhibit an array of clinical symptoms, including but not limited to, respiratory difficulty and pneumonia, weight loss, immune suppression leading to secondary bacterial infections, and spontaneous abortions/fetal mummification, from which the majority of the economic losses stem. (usask.ca)
  • Lastly, PRRSV infected animals showed a higher capacity to promote the proliferation of T cells specific for swine-influenza A virus, potentially signifying that the general monocyte population from PRRSV infected animals acquired an activated state as a result of the infection. (usask.ca)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection poorly induces pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) and type I IFN production during the early phase of infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • To investigate the induction of IL-1Ra by PRRSV, monocyte-derived dendritic cells were cultured with type 2 PRRSV or other swine viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be a major problem to the pork industry worldwide. (scienceopen.com)
  • There remains an urgent need for fundamental research on this virus to understand the basic biology and the mechanism of heterogeneity and pathogenesis of PRRSV. (scienceopen.com)
  • The purpose of the study reported here was to determine the prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pigs affected with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a disease believed to be caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). (mendeley.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important globally distributed and highly contagious pathogen that has restricted cell tropism in vivo and in vitro. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, we found that annexin A2 (ANXA2) is upregulated expressed in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with PRRSV. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), is one of the most economically important diseases affecting the global pig farming industry. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was combined with a vertical flow (VF) nucleic acid detection strip to develop a universal assay for the detection of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). (edu.au)
  • Establishment of recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ( PRRSV ) with co-expression E2 Epitope of Classical Swine Fever virus (CSFV) is a crucial step to develop a genetic engineered vaccine against PRRSV and CSFV. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present study, we initially focused on the detection of recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates by examining previously published data sets of ORF5 sequences (genotypes 1 and 2) obtained worldwide. (ku.dk)
  • The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) glycoprotein 4 (GP4) resembles a typical type I membrane protein in its structure but lacks a hydrophilic tail at the C-terminus, suggesting that GP4 may be a lipid-anchored membrane protein. (elsevier.com)
  • The depletion of cholesterol from the plasma membrane of cells reduced the virus production, suggesting a role of lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus. (elsevier.com)
  • The major structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are derived from ORFs 4, 5, and 6. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ( PRRSV ) causes serious reproductive failure and respiratory disease in pigs . (bvsalud.org)
  • Concurrent infection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is known as one of the major causes for porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). (beds.ac.uk)
  • To mimic the possible field conditions, swine alveolar macrophages (AMs) were inoculated with PCV2 and PRRSV in vitro simultaneously or with one virus 18 h earlier than the other. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary Zn level on performance, serum Zn concentrations, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), and immune response of pigs inoculated with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. (ajas.info)
  • Secondary specific pathogen-free (sSPF) piglets were inoculated intranasally with Streptococcus suis serotype 2 alone, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) alone, or with PRRSV followed by S suis. (umn.edu)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a single positive-stranded RNA virus, prefers to infect African green monkey kidney cell line MA-104 and its derivatives, such as Marc-145. (scitechnol.com)
  • PrPC expression reached the peak at 12 hrs after PRRSV inoculation and then decreased sharply to recover to the original status while CD163, a PRRSV receptor in Marc-145 cells, achieved the climax at 48 hrs after virus infection and then slowly lowered its expression level. (scitechnol.com)
  • Two porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infectious clones, P129-EGFP-97C and P129-GFPm-d (2-6), were co-transfected into HEK-293T cells. (openvirologyjournal.com)
  • In this study, six enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), intended for routine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) herd monitoring, are tested for their ability to detect PRRSV specific antibodies in the serum of pigs after vaccination with an inactivated PRRSV type 1 vaccine and subsequent infection with a highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV field strain. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The purpose of this study was the development of multiplex fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) specific IgG antibodies by incorporation of non-species-specific conjugates Protein A, G, and A/G in place of the secondary antibody. (scitechnol.com)
  • In spite of extensive research, immunologic control mechanisms against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) remain poorly understood. (embrapa.br)
  • We conclude that of the eight cytokines tested in this study IFNα was the best indicator of viral load and severity of reproductive PRRSv infection. (embrapa.br)
  • Betaarterivirus suid 1, formerly Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), is a virus that causes a disease of pigs, called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), also known as blue-ear pig disease (in Chinese, zhū láněr bìng 豬藍耳病). (wikipedia.org)
  • PRRSV is a small, enveloped RNA virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the European PRRSV, this is the Lelystad virus (LV), while for the North American PRRSV, this is the VR-2332. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European and North American PRRSV strains cause similar clinical symptoms, but represent two distinct viral genotypes whose genomes diverge by approximately 40%, thus creating a veil of mystery about the origin of this virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • If cytopathic effect is observed during culture, the culture is confirmed as the PRRS virus by direct fluorescent antibody or other confirmation method prior to reporting the sample as positive for presence of PRRSV. (wikipedia.org)
  • The calculated rate of PRRSV nucleotide substitution is the highest reported so far for an RNA virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory tion was conducted by using reverse transcription PCR and syndrome (PRRS), which is characterized by reproductive 14 pairs of primers ( 10 ), which had minor modifications failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages, made on the basis of the genomic sequence of NADC30 is a viral disease with serious economic consequences for available in GenBank. (cdc.gov)
  • Currently, inactivated and live attenuated viruses are used to try to eliminate Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors concluded that there was a predominant feature of locally spread PRRS virus in Danish pig herds, probably mainly via airborne transmission. (thepigsite.com)
  • In addition to AIDS, which is caused by HIV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a prime example of the latter class of diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, the IFN expressing viruses inhibited the replication of a second PRRS virus co-transfected or co-infected. (mdpi.com)
  • The near-simultaneous global emergence of a new swine disease caused by divergently evolved viruses suggests that changes in swine husbandry and management may have contributed to the emergence of PRRS. (asm.org)
  • Clinical signs observed in the affected sows were typical for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). (nih.gov)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases of swine worldwide. (wur.nl)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has caused huge economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • It has been almost three decades since the PRRS virus was first recognized as the infectious agent responsible for reproductive failure in sows and severe pneumonia in piglets. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • The PRRS virus is a significant source of that risk. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • While swine previously vaccinated or infected with the PRRS virus are protected from related strains of the virus, they are less protected against unrelated or new strains. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Outbreaks in PRRS-positive breeding herds can occur when unrelated strains of the virus are introduced. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • This 'mystery swine disease' manifested itself in respiratory problems and reproductive disorders and was eventually designated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), reflecting the associated disease symptoms. (prolekare.cz)
  • assessing the economic impact of PRRS on swine production in the US reported an annual loss of approximately 560.32 million US dollars due to this syndrome [4] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Also, recent studies report on the emergence of highly pathogenic variants of the virus in Asia causing atypical PRRS or 'High Fever' disease [5] - [7] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Research compiled over the years has given pork producers better tools in their toolbox to combat porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), says Scott Dee, DVM, director of the Swine Disease Eradication Center at the University of Minnesota. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Geographical information systems help producers map and analyze PRRS virus in pig sites regionally, a fundamental tool in area PRRS control programs. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Our research as it relates to area/regional PRRS control and elimination shows that the virus can travel long distances in the air and presents a significant risk factor in the spread of the disease under certain weather conditions," he says. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Dee's research team at the University of Minnesota has proved that the PRRS virus and Mycoplasmal pneumonia can spread via aerosols out at least 2.8 miles. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Using a simple cotton rope, the pigs' natural chewing behavior and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) lab diagnostics, this method may be effective in monitoring not only PRRS, but porcine circovirus type 2, swine influenza virus and other diseases," Dee says. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • He also presented information on how vaccination protocols can be used to reduce transmission of PRRS virus and improve response to infections and pig performance. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • PRRS control is hampered by the inadequacies of existing vaccines to combat the extreme diversity of circulating viruses. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • PRRS virus receptors and their role for pathogenesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a chronic respiratory and reproductive viral disease of pigs that is responsible for huge economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There was no Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) detected in all the samples, but we detected PCV2 from all the PRRS infected piglets (Figure 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant and economically important infectious diseases affecting swine worldwide and can predispose pigs to secondary bacterial infections caused by, e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory disease (PRRS) is the name now commonly used and is recognized by the World Organisation for Animal Health (O.I.E. (porcilis-prrs.com)
  • To develop an attenuated vaccine against the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) virus, the HP-PRRS virus strain TJ was attenuated by serial passages and plaque cloned every 5 to 10 passages in Marc-145 cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a relatively new, economically important disease of pigs and is characterized by reproductive failure in sows and gilts, pneumonia in young growing pigs, and an increase in preweaning mortality. (umn.edu)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an endemic disease causing important economic losses to the US swine industry. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous studies have addressed the impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), but have not provided detailed information regarding how the disease affected farm performance. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is a severe disease with very high mortality in all age groups which has been considered to be caused by highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus strains. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Started in 1999, the newly formed NC 229 Multistate Committee first addressed the topic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Disease Syndrome: Methods for the integrated control, prevention and elimination of PRRS in United States Swine Herds. (nimss.org)
  • MANHATTAN - A collaborative study involving Kansas State University researchers has discovered a new gene expression mechanism in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, or PRRS, virus - an important swine pathogen that costs the U.S. pork industry more than $600 million a year. (kansasresearchnexus.org)
  • Ying Fang , Ph.D., associate professor of diagnostic medicine and pathobiology at Kansas State University, led a study that looked at the unique gene expression mechanism of the PRRS virus. (kansasresearchnexus.org)
  • In it, researchers identified the nsp2TF protein in the PRRS virus. (kansasresearchnexus.org)
  • With the most recent study, Fang and colleagues have shown that this -2 frameshifting requires a PRRS virus protein, nsp1beta. (kansasresearchnexus.org)
  • Fang's research lab cloned the PRRS virus and then genetically engineered nsp2TF protein knockout viruses. (kansasresearchnexus.org)
  • Although there is evidence that supports a genetic basis for resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), it is not known whether pigs also differ genetically in tolerance. (wur.nl)
  • Multi-trait linear mixed models and random regression sire models were fitted to PRRS Host Genetics Consortium data from 1320 weaned pigs (offspring of 54 sires) that were experimentally infected with a virulent strain of PRRS virus to obtain genetic parameter estimates for resistance and tolerance. (wur.nl)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has a substantial economic effect on the swine industry worldwide. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a viral disease of swine, has major economic impacts on the swine industry. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The objectives of this study were to develop a model to simulate between-farm spread of a homologous strain of PRRS virus in Ontario swine farms via direct (animal movement) and indirect (sharing of trucks between farms) contacts using the NAADSM and to compare the patterns and extent of outbreak under different simulated conditions. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The increase of 44% in epidemic size when indirect contact, via sharing of trucks, was incorporated into the model highlights the importance of proper biosecurity measures in preventing transmission of the PRRS virus. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Simulation of between-farm spread of the PRRS virus in swine farms has highlighted the relative importance of direct and indirect contact and provides important insights regarding the possible patterns and extent of spread of the PRRS virus in a completely susceptible population with herd demographics similar to those found in Ontario, Canada. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Similarly, maintaining diagnostic PCR detection assays is difficult due to the high mutation rate of this virus, see Risk of Missed PRRS PCR Detection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory-based diagnostic tests have evolved significantly since initial discovery of the PRRS virus in the late 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an RNA virus with a 15 kb genome, PRRS mutates at a relatively high rate as it is transmitted from pig-pig over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scenario that follows demonstrates how this hazard can result in risk to pork producers and laboratories: →A strain of PRRS virus mutates during circulation within a herd. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two recent virus isolates from China (HENAN-XINX rum samples from diseased sows and piglets, and lungs and HENAN-HEB), whose sequences were submitted to and lymph nodes of dead piglets were tested for viral RNA GenBank in 2013, also had these deletions. (cdc.gov)
  • The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. (mdpi.com)
  • Inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in porcine alveolar macrophages with the 3' UTR-targeted amiRNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Modulation of CD163 receptor expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in porcine macrophages. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The 54 papers discuss such aspects as the proteomic dissection of viral pathogenesis, identifying genes involved in tick infestation in cows, the dynamic differential regulation of innate immune transcripts during the infection of alveolar macrophages by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and using RNAi and transgenics to develop viral disease resistant livestock. (acronymfinder.com)
  • A unique feature of the virus is the ability to cause severe clinical disease and maintain a life-long subclinical infection. (nih.gov)
  • Although they are genetically quite distinct, infection with both strains exhibits very similar clinical signs, which include respiratory, pneumonia-like symptoms and reproductive complications in sows. (neogen.com)
  • However, in late state gestation transplacental infection to and from fetuses can occur and large scale reproductive failure may occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the conclusions was that biosecurity measures did not prevent infection of the herds, and the authors suggested that the virus spread from neighboring herds by aerosol. (thepigsite.com)
  • We focused on NSP1α and NSP1β (self-cleavage products of NSP1 during virus infection) and NSP11, three NSPs with strong inhibitory activity. (asm.org)
  • Upon initial virus infection, viremia lasts for a few weeks, after which it resolves. (asm.org)
  • Little is known about immune responses to infection at the maternal-fetal interface and in the fetus itself, or the molecular events behind virus transmission and disease progression in the fetus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • That's because not all animals become infected with the virus at the same time, which creates subpopulations of animals that may be in various stages of infection and immunity. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Experimental infection of pigs with European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus : correlations with pathology. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The virus can predispose pigs to infection by bacteria such as Streptococcus suis , Haemophilus parasuis , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Salmonella spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pulse-chase analysis revealed that N protein homodimers become specifically disulfide linked within the virus-infected cell, albeit at the later stages of infection, conceivably when the virus particle buds into the oxidizing environment of the endoplasmic reticulum. (illinois.edu)
  • Protective monotherapy against lethal Ebola virus infection by a potently neutralizing antibody. (nature.com)
  • Small molecule inhibitors reveal Niemann-Pick C1 is essential for Ebola virus infection. (nature.com)
  • Dendritic cells exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 transmit a vigorous cytopathic infection to CD4+ T cells. (nature.com)
  • Innate immunity to influenza virus infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We conclude that infection with Lelystad virus is the likely cause of mystery swine disease. (scienceopen.com)
  • Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Recombination in RNA viruses is a process to form chimeric offspring from parental genomes of mixed origin, which requires co-infection or super-infection of a cell with at least two viruses. (openvirologyjournal.com)
  • Duplex nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for simultaneous detection of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 from tissue samples. (gcgenome.com)
  • Hossain MM, Rowland RRR (2017) Fluorescence Microsphere Immunoassay for Detection of Antibodies to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Circovirus type 2 using Protein A, Protein G, and Protein A/G. J Immunol Tech Infect Dis 6:1. (scitechnol.com)
  • This difference did not appear to be caused by higher virus replication, as viraemia and viral load in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were lower in the SU1-bel group. (wur.nl)
  • Generation of a porcine alveolar macrophage cell line for the growth of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As dsRNA is currently considered to be the most potent type I interferon (IFN) agonist, it has been suggested that sequestration of viral dsRNA may also help viruses evade host innate immune detection by reducing exposure of viral dsRNA to viral nucleic acids cytoplasmic sensors. (illinois.edu)
  • Overall, our data show that both PI3K and Akt1 play a role in viral gene expression, leading to an increase in virus replication. (deepdyve.com)
  • Frequent mutations in the viral genome result in viruses with immune escape mutants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Porcine viral respiratory diseases. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Cytokine mRNA profiles in bronchoalveolar cells of piglets experimentally infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: association of sustained expression of IFN- γ and IL-10 after viral clearance. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here, we found that Ebola virus entry into activated DCs requires the sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 1 (Siglec-1/CD169), which recognizes sialylated gangliosides anchored to viral membranes. (nature.com)
  • Blockage of the Siglec-1 receptor by anti-Siglec-1 monoclonal antibodies halted Ebola viral uptake and cytoplasmic entry, offering cross-protection against other ganglioside-containing viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 3: Ebola virus uptake by Siglec-1 facilitates cytoplasmic viral entry into activated DCs. (nature.com)
  • Finally, use of vaccines or field virus inoculation on sow farms one year prior reduced the risk of L1A occurrence in downstream farms by 36% (P=0.04), suggesting that control measures that reduce viral circulation and enhance immunological protection in sow farms have a carry-over effect on L1A occurrence in downstream farms. (cdc.gov)
  • Of 165 sows reportedly afflicted by the disease, 123 (75 per cent) seroconverted to Lelystad virus, whereas less than 10 per cent seroconverted to any of the other virus isolates or to the known viral pathogens. (scienceopen.com)
  • Capped RNAs were transcribed in vitro from a full-length cDNA clone of the viral genome and transfected into BHK-21 cells by liposome to acquire the rescued virus . (bvsalud.org)
  • The results of IFA showed that the inserted E2 epitope could be expressed by the recombinant viruses and the E2 epitope gene was stable during the viral serial passage . (bvsalud.org)
  • The results of plaque assay and viral growth curve showed that the recovery viruses possessed similar characterses of viral growth to those of the parental virus . (bvsalud.org)
  • The different stages of the viral replication cycle were investigated by immunofluorescence staining of the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alice: Cytokine profiles in pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and relationships with viral load and fetal outcome. (embrapa.br)
  • This thesis presents studies conducted to investigate an outbreak of porcine high fever disease (PHFD) in a small area of Vietnam, in terms of mortality, morbidity, spatial transmission between herds, and risk factors for the disease. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Several human and animal virus diseases, generally caused by RNA viruses, have emerged in the last 40 years ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Some of these diseases are caused by preexisting viruses that have the capacity to infect alternate hosts under certain conditions (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • Other diseases are caused by viruses that seem to have adapted to new hosts after accidental transspecies transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Although specific prophylactics against respiratory diseases were administered, the death rate doubled for the weaned and fattening pigs. (nih.gov)
  • The porcine species has seen its share of new diseases over recent decades. (umn.edu)
  • Diseases currently causing concern include avian flu and new strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, which are circulating in China, plus African swine fever, which has spread from Africa to Russia. (acronymfinder.com)
  • During the past 30 years, swine production has been intensified with larger herd sizes and confinement rearing, contributing to the increased incidence and complexity of the respiratory diseases. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Amino acid comparison of the GP5 ectodomains of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus-P, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus VR-2332, and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus Lelystad virus (GenBank accession nos. (cdc.gov)
  • Comparison of the pathogenicity of two US porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates with that of the Lelystad virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mystery swine disease in The Netherlands: the isolation of Lelystad virus. (scienceopen.com)
  • This agent was characterised as a virus and designated Lelystad virus. (scienceopen.com)
  • Antibodies directed against Lelystad virus were also found in pigs with mystery swine disease in England, Germany, and in the United States. (scienceopen.com)
  • therefore, many viruses have evolved strategies to prevent or delay apoptosis in order to provide a window of opportunity in which virus replication, assembly, and egress can take place. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast, replication of IFN-expressing viruses was attenuated, similar to the level of replication observed after the addition of exogenous IFN. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we further investigate the mechanism by which PI3K inhibition affects virus replication and the role of Akt1 kinase in virus replication. (deepdyve.com)
  • Strand-specific RT-PCR demonstrated that the E protein-negative, non-infectious P129-DeltaE virus particles were able to enter cells but further steps of replication were interrupted. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The residues T158 (ω -2, where ω is the GPI moiety at E160), P159 (ω -1), and M162 (ω + 2) of GP4 were determined to be important for virus replication, with M162 being of particular importance for virus infectivity. (elsevier.com)
  • Up to now, there are few informations about the role of PrPC in virus replication in host cells . (scitechnol.com)
  • To investigate the genetic relationship of this newly identified Shanghai PCV2 isolate with existing viruses isolated from other parts of the world, we sequenced the complete genome of the sh0901 strain and carried out phylogenetic and polymorphic analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. (mdpi.com)
  • The combination of this virus' extensive genetic diversity and its immunosuppressive characteristics has made it difficult to design vaccines that are effective in the event of heterologous challenge. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further research is needed to explore the potential of TLR agonists as adjuvants for inactivated porcine vaccines with a preference for TLR9 agonists. (ucc.ie)
  • Immunization with modified live vaccines are the most popular intervention to control disease, and although they are effective in improving health status of animals, the currently distributed vaccines pose a risk of reversion to virulence and afford limited cross protection amongst circulating strains of the virus. (usask.ca)
  • These knockout viruses could be potentially used to develop vaccines," Fang said. (kansasresearchnexus.org)
  • Although numerous vaccines were developed against the virus , licensed vaccines showed limited efficacy . (bvsalud.org)
  • The genetic variation among the viruses isolated from different places increases the difficulty of developing vaccines against it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wootton, SK & Yoo, D 2003, ' Homo-oligomerization of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein and the role of disulfide linkages ', Journal of virology , vol. 77, no. 8, pp. 4546-4557. (illinois.edu)
  • Preliminary characterization of protein binding factor for porcine reproductive and respiratory. (deepdyve.com)
  • Mutational studies for residues adjacent to the GPI modification site and characterization of respective mutant viruses generated from infectious cDNA clones show that the ability of GP4 for membrane association corresponded to virus viability and growth characteristics. (elsevier.com)
  • Conzelmann KK, Visser N, van Woensel P, Thiel HJ (1993) Molecular characterization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, a member of the arterivirus group. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • PRCV excretion curves were similar in single and dual virus inoculated groups. (ugent.be)
  • Other members of the genus Arterivirus include: equine arteritis virus, simian hemorrhagic fever virus, wobbly possum disease virus, and lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly effective pathogen that can cause death of new-born piglet, resulting in big economical loss in pig farming industry. (springer.com)
  • This economically important, panzootic disease causes reproductive failure in breeding stock and respiratory tract illness in young pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This virus is divided into European genotype 1 no. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic Diversity Analysis of Genotype 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses Emerging in Recent Years in China," BioMed Research International , vol. 2014, Article ID 748068, 13 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • The leading meat processor punished 13 officials involved in use of the vaccine administered to parent pigs since 1998 to protect baby pigs from the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome , Nippon Meat senior managing director Yosuke Umemoto said at a press conference. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Complete genome analysis of RFLP 184 isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. (nih.gov)
  • Sequence comparisons were made by aligning the sequence of the virus isolate with those of other isolates using the algorithm CLUSTALW (version 1.8) method in the program MEGALIGN (DNASTAR, Lasergene version 7) at both the nucleotide (nt) and deduced aa levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the swine industry, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome causes interstitial pneumonia of grown swine and fetal death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. (nih.gov)
  • An analysis of patterns of non- synonymous and synonymous mutations revealed evidence of positive selection on immunologically important regions of the genome, further supporting the potential that immune-mediated selection shapes the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics for this virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • This predicted type of immune evasion by virus-induced intracellular membrane structures had been confirmed for flaviviruses. (illinois.edu)
  • Despite lacking definitive experimental evidence regarding members of the nidovirales family including arteriviruses and coronaviruses, it has been suggested that these viruses also utilize a similar immune evasion strategy. (illinois.edu)
  • However, the virus can be detected in secondary lymphoid organs for several months, indicating failure of host immune response to clear the virus ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • The virus replicates in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, from where it can suppress innate antiviral immune mechanisms and delay the onset of an effective adaptive immune response using a variety of immune evasion strategies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although these enhanced immune responses clear virus from the serum and BALF more quickly than responses seen in other strains, if these responses go unchecked, as they seem to in this case, it can have disastrous consequences for the animal. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Influenza Virus-Induced Oxidized DNA Activates Inflammasomes. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replicon particles (VRP) have been used successfully to induce protection against influenza A virus (IAV) in chickens and bluetongue virus in sheep. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Essential role of IL-6 in protection against H1N1 influenza virus by promoting neutrophil survival in the lung. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • They also know how animals are moving between farms, and there is already a lot of ongoing sequencing, so scientists know where and when strains of the virus occur. (thepigsite.com)
  • And, multiple strains of the virus may coexist in the herd, setting the stage for periodic outbreaks. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • NADC30-like strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus first appeared in Chinese swine herds in 2012. (openvirologyjournal.com)
  • Indik S, Valícek L, Klein D, Klánová J (2000) Variations in the major envelope glycoprotein GP5 of Czech strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • After cotransfecting the cultured Sf9 cells with pAcGHLT-B-ORF 7 and the linearized genome DNA of AcNPV-SVI-G and TnNPV-SVI-G respectively, the recombinant virus AcNPV-OCC--GST-6×His-ORF 7 was obtained. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Immunization with a recombinant fusion of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modified GP5 and ferritin elicits enhanced protective immunity in pigs. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The rescued recombinant viruses were passaged on MARC-145 cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • In summary, the full-length infectious cDNA clones containing the marker gene were constructed and the marker recombinant viruses were rescued. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hummel KB, Erdman DD, Heath J, Bellini WJ (1992) Baculovirus expression of the nucleoprotein gene of measles virus and utility of the recombinant protein in diagnostic enzyme immunoassays. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The reverse genetics system incorporating the use of high throughput sequencing creates a genetic platform to study the generation of viable recombinant viruses. (openvirologyjournal.com)
  • Finally, our study found that the sensitivity of tissue PCR is higher than the sensitivity of serum PCR and the likelihood of detecting the virus in tissue was higher in pigs with dyspnea or rough hair coat, but lower in lame pigs. (uoguelph.ca)
  • A simple and rapid chromatographic strip test for detection of antibody to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Virus detection classifies a herd as unstable. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rapid and sensitive detection of type II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a vertical flow visualization strip. (edu.au)
  • By 2010, of the top ten swine production states in the United States, viruses in 3 of the 9 major lineages were present. (wikipedia.org)
  • By coupling a selective permeablization technique with immunostaining analysis, a positive correlation between the cytosolic exposure of virus dsRNA and a host type I IFN response was demonstrated. (illinois.edu)
  • In this case, the extent of flavivirus dsRNA exposure was dependent on both the virus species and host cell type. (illinois.edu)
  • Typing of viruses was accomplished by any one of three strategies: (i) use of type-specific PCR primers, (ii) size determination of ORF 7 amplicons, (iii) DNA sequencing. (dtu.dk)
  • In neonatal pigs, the disease causes respiratory distress, with increased susceptibility to respiratory infections such as Glasser's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • 00 Hardcover Immunology and imune system disorders QR175 The eight chapters in this collection present mathematical models of the host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome , review theories on the reciprocal influence between hosts and pathogens, investigate the codon preferences found in bee virus genomes, and discuss the molecules released by entomopathogenic nematodes. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Cytokine profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node cells from piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The apoptotic program is switched on in irreparably damaged or potentially dangerous cells such as self-reactive lymphocytes or cells that have been infected by viruses. (psu.edu)
  • Ebola and Marburg viruses replicate in monocyte-derived dendritic cells without inducing the production of cytokines and full maturation. (nature.com)
  • Zaire Ebola virus entry into human dendritic cells is insensitive to cathepsin L inhibition. (nature.com)
  • The successfully rescued viruses were tested by RT-PCR, digestion , and genome sequence. (bvsalud.org)
  • GP5m-ferritin-vaccinated pigs had significantly lower mean rectal temperatures, respiratory scores, viremia, and macroscopic and microscopic lung lesion scores post-challenge compared with unvaccinated pigs. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • NSP1β was found to inhibit both IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)- and NF-κB-dependent gene induction by dsRNA and Sendai virus. (asm.org)
  • The virus was also found to inhibit the dsRNA-mediated upregulation of IFN-β gene transcription ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Additionally, this novel mechanism of gene expression may also be used by other viruses or in cellular gene expression. (kansasresearchnexus.org)
  • The results showed that these rescued viruses could be distinguished from the parental virus (HuN4-F112) with the mutant genetic marker (Mlu I enzyme site of virual genome at 14 667nt was created by synonymous mutation ) and the inserted nsp2 gene region. (bvsalud.org)
  • Involvement of unfolded protein response, p53 and Akt in modulation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-mediated JNK activation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The novel finding that nsp2 was a structural protein (part of the infecting virus) led us to further examine the nsp2 biochemical structure, post-synthesis additions such as sugar modification, as well as to determine the origin and potential cleavage of the different sized nsp2 products. (pork.org)
  • Epitopes described in Antigenic structure analysis of glycosylated protein 3 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. (iedb.org)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The small envelope protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus possesses ion channel protein-like properties. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Through the use of reverse genetics, two mutant viruses were generated, both of which carried mutations in a conserved and immunodominant epitope (designated as epitope-201) located in the membrane protein. (unl.edu)
  • She and colleagues found a new protein in the virus, nsp2TF, was generated through novel ribosomal frameshifting signals. (kansasresearchnexus.org)
  • A neutralizing epitope of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 protein was inserted into the two nonessential region of nsp2 by the method of mutant PCR , basing on the infectious clone of HuN4-F112 vaccine strain . (bvsalud.org)
  • Protein A, G, and A/G have been tested in place of secondary conjugate porcine IgG. (scitechnol.com)
  • Pigs of groups 2 and 3 had fever for 5 and 3 days (peaks 40.6 and 40.3 degrees C) respectively and mild respiratory disorders. (ugent.be)
  • The syndrome causes significant losses in the pig industry due to reproductive disorders and growth retardation. (porcilis-prrs.com)
  • The virus produces two different sets of clinical signs - reproductive and respiratory. (porcilis-prrs.com)
  • Clinical signs include reproductive failure in sows such as abortions and giving birth to stillborn or mummified fetuses, and cyanosis of the ear and vulva. (wikipedia.org)
  • This syndrome results in failure during breeding and respiratory problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July of 1994 an acute onset of maternal reproductive failure occurred in a 2,330 sow farrow-to-finish farm. (nih.gov)
  • At the end of the 1980s, a new syndrome was described affecting pig herds in North America and Canada [1] , [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • However, the low morbidity and mortality in the pig herd from which HB-XL was isolated indicate that the virulence of the virus was weak, so it has potential as a future vaccine strain. (mdpi.com)
  • Line 127: Virus strain cannot 'alter' the virus ability to become airborne since virus strain is intrinsic to the virus particle itself. (mdpi.com)
  • The capacity to be airborne varies according to the virus strain. (mdpi.com)
  • Ebola virus, hantavirus, and Nipah virus). (cdc.gov)
  • Unfortunately, due to the fact that PEDV and a different Alphacoronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), have the same epidemiological and clinical features. (springer.com)