Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Immunologic Surveillance: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)United States Department of Defense: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government whose mission is to provide the military forces needed to deter WARFARE and to protect the security of our country.PeruMilitary Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Cardiac Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.Eisenmenger Complex: A condition associated with VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT and other congenital heart defects that allow the mixing of pulmonary and systemic circulation, increase blood flow into the lung, and subsequent responses to low oxygen in blood. This complex is characterized by progressive PULMONARY HYPERTENSION; HYPERTROPHY of the RIGHT VENTRICLE; CYANOSIS; and ERYTHROCYTOSIS.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Transposition of Great Vessels: A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Mandatory Testing: Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Fertility Preservation: A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.EstoniaPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Cyprus: An island republic in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Its capital is Nicosia. It was colonized by the Phoenicians and ancient Greeks and ruled successively by the Assyrian, Persian, Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine Empires. It was under various countries from the 12th to the 20th century but became independent in 1960. The name comes from the Greek Kupros, probably representing the Sumerian kabar or gabar, copper, famous in historic times for its copper mines. The cypress tree is also named after the island. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p308 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p134)Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Coxiella burnetii: A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.Cupressus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. Cypress ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Watchful Waiting: Clinical management approach wherein immediate therapy is not provided but there is a period of observation during which periodic tests monitor patient and the progression of the illness. (Driffield T, Smith PC Med Decis Making. 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):178-88)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.

Epidemiological field studies of animal populations. (1/10096)

Numerous survey designs have been developed for epidemiological field studies of human populations, most of which are also applicable to field studies of animal poulations. Each design has its own advantages and disadvantages. The final design selected for a particular study depends upon such factors as the overall purpose of the study, the geographic dimensions of the study area, the diseases incidence or prevalence and species to be studied as well as the planned use for the data. Population dynamics including the distribution and density of the species to be studied are factors that should also be considered in the initial design of a study. A surveillance system, using mailed questionnaire data and a subsequent survey using direct interviews of validate the data in a statewide study of swine birth defects are used to illustrate some of the techniques that can be applied to domestic animal populations in a fairly large geographic area. The type of data collected, its use and its limitations are also considered.  (+info)

Constitutional, biochemical and lifestyle correlates of fibrinogen and factor VII activity in Polish urban and rural populations. (2/10096)

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen and factor VII activity are known to be related to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but population differences in clotting factors and modifiable characteristics that influence their levels have not been widely explored. METHODS: This paper examines correlates of plasma fibrinogen concentration and factor VII activity in 2443 men and women aged 35-64 in random samples selected from the residents in two districts in urban Warsaw (618 men and 651 women) and from rural Tarnobrzeg Province (556 men and 618 women) screened in 1987-1988, and assesses which characteristics might explain urban-rural differences. Fibrinogen and factor VII activity were determined using coagulation methods. RESULTS: Fibrinogen was 12.9 mg/dl higher in men and 14.1 mg/dl higher in women in Tarnobrzeg compared to Warsaw. Factor VII activity was higher in Warsaw (9.2% in men and 15.3% in women). After adjustment for selected characteristics, fibrinogen was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers by 28 mg/dl in men and 22 mg/dl in women. In women, a 15 mg/dl increase in HDL-cholesterol was associated with a 10 mg/dl decrease in fibrinogen (P < 0.01). After adjustment for other variables, a higher factor VII activity in Warsaw remained significant (a difference of 9.4% in men and 14.8% in women). Lower fibrinogen in Warsaw remained significant only in women (15.4 mg/dl difference). CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that sex, age, BMI, smoking and blood lipids are related to clotting factors. However, with the exception of gender differences and smoking, associations between clotting factors and other variables were small and of questionable practical importance.  (+info)

Socioeconomic inequalities and disability pension in middle-aged men. (3/10096)

BACKGROUND: The issue of inequalities in health has generated much discussion and socioeconomic status is considered an important variable in studies of health. It is frequently used in epidemiological studies, either as a possible risk factor or a confounder and the aim of this study was to analyse the relation between socioeconomic status and risk of disability pension. METHODS: Five complete birth year cohorts of middle-aged male residents in Malmo were invited to a health survey and 5782 with complete data constituted the cohort in this prospective study. Each subject was followed for approximately 11 years and nationwide Swedish data registers were used for surveillance. RESULTS: Among the 715 men (12%), granted disability pension during follow-up, three groups were distinguished. The cumulative incidence of disability pension among blue collar workers was 17% and among lower and higher level white collar workers, 11% and 6% respectively. With simultaneous adjustment for biological risk factors and job conditions, the relative risk for being granted a disability pension (using higher level white collar workers as reference) was 2.5 among blue collar workers and 1.6 among lower level white collar workers. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status, as defined by occupation, is a risk factor for being granted disability pension even after adjusting for work conditions and other risk factors for disease.  (+info)

A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes. (4/10096)

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes.  (+info)

Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (5/10096)

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)

Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older. (6/10096)

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

Capture-recapture models including covariate effects. (7/10096)

Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries.  (+info)

Cancer risk in close relatives of women with early-onset breast cancer--a population-based incidence study. (8/10096)

Inherited susceptibility to breast cancer is associated with an early onset and bilateral disease. The extent of familial risks has not, however, been fully assessed in population-based incidence studies. The purpose of the study was to quantify the risks for cancers of the breast, ovary and other sites of close relatives of women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed at an early age. Records collected between 1943 and 1990 at the Danish Cancer Registry were searched, and 2860 women were found in whom breast cancer was diagnosed before age 40. Population registers and parish records were used to identify 14 973 parents, siblings and offspring of these women. Cancer occurrence through to 31 December 1993 was determined within the Cancer Registry's files and compared with national incidence rates. Women with early-onset breast cancer were at a nearly fourfold increased risk of developing a new cancer later in life (268 observed vs. 68.9 expected). The excess risk was most evident for second cancer of the breast (181 vs. 24.5) and for ovarian cancer (20 vs. 3.3). For mothers and sisters, risks for cancers of the breast and ovary were significantly increased by two- to threefold. Bilateral breast cancer and breast-ovarian cancer were very strong predictors of familial risks, with one in four female relatives predicted to develop breast and/or ovarian cancer by age 75. Mothers had a slightly increased risk of colon cancer, but not endometrial cancer. The risk for breast cancer was also increased among fathers (standardized incidence ratio 2.5; 95% CI 0.5-7.4) and especially brothers (29; 7.7-74), although based on small numbers. The risk for prostatic cancer was unremarkable. In this large population-based survey, the first-degree relatives of women who developed breast cancer before age 40 were prone to ovarian cancer as well as male and female breast cancer, but not other tumours that may share susceptibility genes with breast cancer.  (+info)

  • As part of that process, reform the architecture that delivers data and surveillance, with a stronger emphasis on collaboration with those who are charged with implementation of the National HIV Strategy . (afao.org.au)
  • there is poor coverage of key populations, particularly non-gay identified men who have sex with men, sex workers and heterosexuals (particularly those from high prevalence countries and women). (afao.org.au)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The suggested approach should lead to more complete and timely information for public health interventions, however there is a clear need for comparative validation studies to assess the validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of traditional and enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance systems. (arctichealth.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Geographic atrophy is the predominant type of AMD in Iceland, and the ratio of GA to neovascular AMD is higher than in racially similar populations. (arctichealth.org)
  • Passive sentinel influenza surveillance, however, only detects symptomatic cases severe enough to prompt the patient to seek health care and could easily miss mild cases in an incipient pandemic and delay the recognition of an outbreak. (who.int)
  • These results support the integration of rodent population variables to reduce the uncertainty of tularemia risk estimates. (springer.com)
  • Accurate pathogen-specific estimates of the number of bacterial meningitis cases are needed to monitor and refine vaccination programs, but such estimates are challenging to obtain in many countries because of limited laboratory-based surveillance capacity. (cdc.gov)
  • At provincial level, the seroprevalence estimates do not follow the geographical distribution of tick bites and diagnoses of Lyme borreliosis as detected through other surveillance systems. (springer.com)
  • Although the use of residual samples for seroprevalence estimates has several advantages, it seems to be a limited tool for serological surveillance of Lyme borreliosis in Belgium, other than follow-up of trends if repeated over time. (springer.com)
  • As previous studies have shown that those who are colonized are at a higher risk of subsequent MRSA disease, this puts a significant amount of our population--and particularly, our children--at risk of developing serious disease due to this bacterium, which is extremely difficult to treat. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The model includes population surveillance of main risk factors that predict many NCDs and combines modules on population surveillance of injuries, mental health, and stroke. (nih.gov)
  • This editorial highlights the requirement for comprehensive dental surveillance to detect and manage poor oral health (a significant risk factor for bacteraemia) as an essential preventative strategy for infective endocarditis and its potentially life-threatening complications. (bmj.com)
  • The implications Strategies for increasing the recognition of risk factors for HCC and for improving surveillance rates among people at risk, in line with established international guidelines, are needed. (mja.com.au)
  • Infectious disease surveillance aims to assess the size of a health problem (disease burden), to identify high risk groups and/or areas to target interventions, to monitor trends and to detect outbreaks, in order to guide public health practice. (springer.com)
  • Results -Two of 40 patients with UC and 18 of 102 controls had undergone at least one surveillance colonoscopy (relative risk (RR) 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 1.31). (bmj.com)
  • There are three major barriers to the adoption of VAE surveillance and prevention: 1) ongoing uncertainty about VAE and concern about its limited overlap with clinically-defined VAP, 2) a paucity of studies defining risk factors for VAEs and how best to prevent VAEs, and 3) lack of emphasis on VAE surveillance and prevention by regulatory agencies. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Elective cervical cerclage versus serial ultrasound surveillance of cervical length in a population at high risk for preterm delivery. (afar.info)
  • Population: Women at high risk for preterm delivery. (afar.info)
  • Conclusion: Serial transvaginal ultrasound surveillance of cervical length in women at high risk of preterm delivery appears to reduce cerclage rates without compromising pregnancy outcome. (afar.info)
  • Lack of surveillance increases the risk that men miss the opportunity to be treated with curative intent. (mja.com.au)
  • Patients outside these ages may still be offered screening or surveillance testing if they are in a high risk group. (bowelandkeyholeclinic.com)
  • Detection of multiple cocirculating wild poliovirus type 1 lineages through environmental surveillance: impact and progress during 2011-2013 in Pakistan. (springermedizin.de)
  • To assess exposure of an entire population of a community in a highly polluted area, pollutant concentrations in microenvironments and population time-activity patterns are required. (mdpi.com)
  • ABCs sites collect isolates for all cases included in surveillance areas, except where indicated (*) as different in the table below. (cdc.gov)
  • Although safe and effective influenza vaccines are available, every year seasonal influenza affects from 5% to 15% of the world's population and causes an estimated 250 000 to 500 000 deaths worldwide. (who.int)
  • 1 Novel influenza A virus strains can cause sporadic pandemics, such as the 1918 "Spanish flu" that killed at least 3% of the world's population. (who.int)
  • Within 24 randomly selected sentinel sites, home visitors performed a census, weekly demographic surveillance of births, deaths, and in- or out-migration, and weekly anthropometry on a sample of children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because the estimate was heterogeneous, possible causes of variations among populations were analyzed: random variation, Under-reporting and over-reporting bias, variation in proportion of termination of pregnancies among all registered cases and real differences among populations. (diva-portal.org)
  • Maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) contributes to better information for action by promoting routine identification and timely notification of maternal deaths, review of maternal deaths, implementation and monitoring of steps to prevent similar deaths in the future. (unfpa.org)
  • The predicted determinants of cost were: age, recurrence, duration of surveillance since diagnosis, and adjuvant treatments. (lse.ac.uk)
  • A total of 4664 individuals with a definite diagnosis of UC were derived from a background population comprising approximately three million people living in Stockholm County and in the Uppsala Health Care Region. (bmj.com)
  • This article presents the results from the first season of AGE surveillance through NVSN, which was also the final rotavirus season before widespread implementation of the US rotavirus vaccine program. (aappublications.org)
  • From the results it is apparent that the guppy population colonized and established in the sewage drain habitats following the augmentative release to regulate mosquito. (scitechnol.com)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Population surveillance. (who.int)