Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)
Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.
The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government whose mission is to provide the military forces needed to deter WARFARE and to protect the security of our country.
The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.
A condition associated with VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT and other congenital heart defects that allow the mixing of pulmonary and systemic circulation, increase blood flow into the lung, and subsequent responses to low oxygen in blood. This complex is characterized by progressive PULMONARY HYPERTENSION; HYPERTROPHY of the RIGHT VENTRICLE; CYANOSIS; and ERYTHROCYTOSIS.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.
Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.

Epidemiological field studies of animal populations. (1/10096)

Numerous survey designs have been developed for epidemiological field studies of human populations, most of which are also applicable to field studies of animal poulations. Each design has its own advantages and disadvantages. The final design selected for a particular study depends upon such factors as the overall purpose of the study, the geographic dimensions of the study area, the diseases incidence or prevalence and species to be studied as well as the planned use for the data. Population dynamics including the distribution and density of the species to be studied are factors that should also be considered in the initial design of a study. A surveillance system, using mailed questionnaire data and a subsequent survey using direct interviews of validate the data in a statewide study of swine birth defects are used to illustrate some of the techniques that can be applied to domestic animal populations in a fairly large geographic area. The type of data collected, its use and its limitations are also considered.  (+info)

Constitutional, biochemical and lifestyle correlates of fibrinogen and factor VII activity in Polish urban and rural populations. (2/10096)

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen and factor VII activity are known to be related to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but population differences in clotting factors and modifiable characteristics that influence their levels have not been widely explored. METHODS: This paper examines correlates of plasma fibrinogen concentration and factor VII activity in 2443 men and women aged 35-64 in random samples selected from the residents in two districts in urban Warsaw (618 men and 651 women) and from rural Tarnobrzeg Province (556 men and 618 women) screened in 1987-1988, and assesses which characteristics might explain urban-rural differences. Fibrinogen and factor VII activity were determined using coagulation methods. RESULTS: Fibrinogen was 12.9 mg/dl higher in men and 14.1 mg/dl higher in women in Tarnobrzeg compared to Warsaw. Factor VII activity was higher in Warsaw (9.2% in men and 15.3% in women). After adjustment for selected characteristics, fibrinogen was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers by 28 mg/dl in men and 22 mg/dl in women. In women, a 15 mg/dl increase in HDL-cholesterol was associated with a 10 mg/dl decrease in fibrinogen (P < 0.01). After adjustment for other variables, a higher factor VII activity in Warsaw remained significant (a difference of 9.4% in men and 14.8% in women). Lower fibrinogen in Warsaw remained significant only in women (15.4 mg/dl difference). CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that sex, age, BMI, smoking and blood lipids are related to clotting factors. However, with the exception of gender differences and smoking, associations between clotting factors and other variables were small and of questionable practical importance.  (+info)

Socioeconomic inequalities and disability pension in middle-aged men. (3/10096)

BACKGROUND: The issue of inequalities in health has generated much discussion and socioeconomic status is considered an important variable in studies of health. It is frequently used in epidemiological studies, either as a possible risk factor or a confounder and the aim of this study was to analyse the relation between socioeconomic status and risk of disability pension. METHODS: Five complete birth year cohorts of middle-aged male residents in Malmo were invited to a health survey and 5782 with complete data constituted the cohort in this prospective study. Each subject was followed for approximately 11 years and nationwide Swedish data registers were used for surveillance. RESULTS: Among the 715 men (12%), granted disability pension during follow-up, three groups were distinguished. The cumulative incidence of disability pension among blue collar workers was 17% and among lower and higher level white collar workers, 11% and 6% respectively. With simultaneous adjustment for biological risk factors and job conditions, the relative risk for being granted a disability pension (using higher level white collar workers as reference) was 2.5 among blue collar workers and 1.6 among lower level white collar workers. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status, as defined by occupation, is a risk factor for being granted disability pension even after adjusting for work conditions and other risk factors for disease.  (+info)

A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes. (4/10096)

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes.  (+info)

Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (5/10096)

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)

Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older. (6/10096)

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

Capture-recapture models including covariate effects. (7/10096)

Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries.  (+info)

Cancer risk in close relatives of women with early-onset breast cancer--a population-based incidence study. (8/10096)

Inherited susceptibility to breast cancer is associated with an early onset and bilateral disease. The extent of familial risks has not, however, been fully assessed in population-based incidence studies. The purpose of the study was to quantify the risks for cancers of the breast, ovary and other sites of close relatives of women in whom breast cancer was diagnosed at an early age. Records collected between 1943 and 1990 at the Danish Cancer Registry were searched, and 2860 women were found in whom breast cancer was diagnosed before age 40. Population registers and parish records were used to identify 14 973 parents, siblings and offspring of these women. Cancer occurrence through to 31 December 1993 was determined within the Cancer Registry's files and compared with national incidence rates. Women with early-onset breast cancer were at a nearly fourfold increased risk of developing a new cancer later in life (268 observed vs. 68.9 expected). The excess risk was most evident for second cancer of the breast (181 vs. 24.5) and for ovarian cancer (20 vs. 3.3). For mothers and sisters, risks for cancers of the breast and ovary were significantly increased by two- to threefold. Bilateral breast cancer and breast-ovarian cancer were very strong predictors of familial risks, with one in four female relatives predicted to develop breast and/or ovarian cancer by age 75. Mothers had a slightly increased risk of colon cancer, but not endometrial cancer. The risk for breast cancer was also increased among fathers (standardized incidence ratio 2.5; 95% CI 0.5-7.4) and especially brothers (29; 7.7-74), although based on small numbers. The risk for prostatic cancer was unremarkable. In this large population-based survey, the first-degree relatives of women who developed breast cancer before age 40 were prone to ovarian cancer as well as male and female breast cancer, but not other tumours that may share susceptibility genes with breast cancer.  (+info)

Meningococcal disease is a nationally notifiable disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. Rates of the disease have decreased since 2000 and are currently at a historic low (1). The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) and Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) are the two surveillance systems in the United States that track cases of meningococcal disease (2). Whereas NNDSS (a passive surveillance system) covers all of the United States and records both probable and confirmed cases of meningococcal disease, ABCs (an active surveillance system) covers six states and portions of four other states and records only culture-confirmed cases. However, ABCs surveillance data are more detailed than NNDSS and are more widely used in vaccine policy and development. To determine whether ABCs estimates of the number of cases of meningococcal disease were far lower than NNDSS counts and the contribution of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to that difference, CDC conducted ...
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Even with legal and regulatory restrictions on release and use of data sets that can be used for public health surveillance, mechanisms have been created that facilitate surveillance and other programs ability to share data or to use other programs data. In many cases, the possibility exists to either 1) deidentify the data, 2) obtain a subset of restricted data that complies with regulations concerning release (e.g., a perturbed data set in which data are changed before the dissemination in such a way that the disclosure risk for the confidential data is decreased but the information content is retained as far as possible, or one with small cells suppressed), or 3) develop agreements whereby data are released to others who need it for public health surveillance but who agree not to identify or contact any persons. In some cases, with sufficient cooperation or collaboration between surveillance program and data steward, surveillance programs are able to obtain at least a subset of data that ...
The purpose of this quality improvement study is to measure the effectiveness of surveillance using optimized statistical process control (SPC) methods and feedback on rates of surgical site infection (SSI) compared to traditional surveillance and feedback.. The primary objective is to determine if hospital clusters randomized to receive feedback from optimized SPC surveillance methods collectively have lower rates of SSI compared to hospital clusters randomized to receiving feedback from traditional surveillance methods. Secondary objectives are 1) to estimate and compare the number of signals identified using optimized SPC methods and traditional surveillance methods; 2) to estimate and compare the time and effort required to investigate signals generated using optimized SPC methods and traditional surveillance methods; and 3) to estimate the number and proportion of false-positive signals identified using optimized SPC methods and traditional surveillance methods.. The Early 2RIS study will ...
Subject: 1994 Surveillance Report CDC HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, Vol. 6, No. 1. Mid-year Edition U.S. HIV and AIDS cases reported through June 1994 Report Description The U.S. HIV and AIDS case data presented below are extracted from the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, published semi-annually by the Division of HIV/AIDS, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 30333. In addition to the data presented here, the printed copy of the report contains maps and figures. Single copies of the printed report are available from: CDC National AIDS Clearinghouse P.O. Box 6003 Rockville, MD 20849-6003 (800) 458-5231 (800) 243-7012 (TTY/TDD) Notice to Readers: With this issue, the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report will be published semi-annually as mid-year and year-end surveillance summaries. Suggested citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 1994;6(no.1). Table 1. AIDS cases and annual rates per 100,000 ...
Since the first cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in the United States in 1981, surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (the cause of AIDS) and AIDS have undergone several revisions to respond to diagnostic advances. ...
Read chapter 3 Active Surveillance Systems: Recent concerns about the unexpected adverse effects of marketed drugs, such as COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) inhib...
1. Smith RA. Encyclopedia of AIDS. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers; 1998:1-601. 2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1992;41(RR-17):1-19. 3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Kaposis sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men-New York City and California. MMWR Morb Mortal Weekly Rep. 1981;30(25):305-308. 4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for national human immunodeficiency virus case surveillance, including monitoring for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1999;48(RR-13):1-31. 5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Revision of the CDC surveillance case definition for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists; AIDS Program, Center for Infectious Diseases. MMWR Morb Mortal ...
In 1998, the WHO African region adopted a strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR). Here, we present the current status of IDSR implementation; and provide some future perspectives for enhancing the IDSR strategy in Africa.. In 2017, we used two data sources to compile information on the status of IDSR implementation: a pretested rapid assessment questionnaire sent out biannually to all countries and quarterly compilation of data for two IDSR key performance indicators (KPI). The first KPI measures country IDSR performance and the second KPI tracks the number of countries that the WHO secretariat supports to scale up IDSR. The KPI data for 2017 were compared with a retrospective baseline for 2014.. By December 2017, 44 of 47 African countries (94%) were implementing IDSR. Of the 44 countries implementing IDSR, 40 (85%) had initiated IDSR training at subnational level; 32 (68%) had commenced community-based surveillance; 35 (74%) had event-based surveillance; 33 (70%) ...
Connex Clinical Surveillance allows clinicians to proactively view patient status 24/7, helping them to respond earlier than with most traditional methods used today on medical/surgical floors. The Connex System integrates into your hospitals network infrastructure for ease of deployment, and builds on your existing vital signs workflow to give clinicians immediate access to the critical data they need to help keep their patients safer than ever before ...
These results emphasised the need for routine antimicrobial surveillance at least at regional level, and preferably at each hospital or even each unit. Based on this report, it is clear that the concept of know your bugs has never been as crucial to guiding and optimising empirical treatment for bacteraemic infections in particular. This also applies to several other common hospital-acquired pathogens such as enterococci, where current comprehensive data on vancomycin resistance in private institutions are largely lacking. The true incidence of Clostridium difficile infections is also unknown. These challenges must all be urgently addressed to improve future private sector HAI pathogen and AMR surveillance.. The Group for Enteric Respiratory and Meningeal disease Surveillance in South Africa (GERMS-SA). GERMS-South Africa is an active laboratory-based surveillance programme for bacterial and fungal pathogens of public health importance. Funded by the NHLS and Centers for Disease Control and ...
A Long History in Ventilated Patient Clinical Surveillance Bernoullis roots go back over 25 years to when the company first began to develop and sell mechanical ventilators.
A Long History in Ventilated Patient Clinical Surveillance Bernoullis roots go back over 25 years to when the company first began to develop and sell mechanical ventilators.
This Work-Related Lung Disease (WoRLD) Surveillance Report is the sixth in a series of occupational respiratory disease surveillance reports (see page iv) produced by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). It presents summary tables and figures of occupational respiratory disease surveillance data focusing on various occupationally-relevant respiratory diseases, including pneumoconioses, occupational asthma and other airways diseases, and several other respiratory conditions. For many of these diseases, selected data on related exposures are also presented. The 2002 WoRLD Surveillance Report has three major sections: (1) a section that provides data highlights and data usage limitations; (2) a section comprised of 15 subsections, each concerning a major disease category and (where available) related occupational exposures, and one subsection concerning smoking status; (3) a section of appendices that provide descriptions of data sources, methods, and other ...
The Annual HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Hepatitis, and Tuberculosis (TB) Surveillance Report for the District of Columbia shows the District continues to experience complex epidemics of HIV, STIs, hepatitis, and TB.
We evaluated performance of 5 case definitions for Zika virus disease surveillance in a human cohort during an outbreak in Singapore, August 26-September 5, 2016. Because laboratory tests are largely inaccessible, use of case definitions that include rash as a required clinical feature are useful in identifying this disease.
TB surveillance has traditionally depended on reporting by laboratories, public health clinics, hospitals, and private practitioners. Several retrospective studies (3,10-13) indicate that TB cases may be underreported, particularly those without positive cultures. In this study, we found that 6% of all TB cases in the three participating health plans had not been reported to state health departments. Most cases missed by traditional surveillance were culture- and smear-negative; however, nearly all patients with missed cases had clinical evidence of pulmonary disease and were therefore of public health interest.. The recent shift of populations at risk for TB, including Medicaid recipients, into managed care raises concerns about reporting. As the proportion of patients with TB who are cared for outside traditional public health-funded clinics grows, the benefit of adjunct surveillance methods based on pharmacy data is likely to increase, since these data are available for a large segment of the ...
Terming June as very crucial in the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic, the Odisha government, here on Wednesday, asked the District Collectors to focus on the community surveillance.
The Annual Surveillance Report has been published each year since 1997. The report provides a comprehensive analysis of HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia and includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of HIV and viral hepatitis, by demographic and risk groups, patterns of treatment for HIV and viral hepatitis infection, and behavioural risk factors for HIV and hepatitis C infection. ...
The details of bibliography - HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia: annual surveillance report 2012
A. a patient with acute respiratory illness (that is, fever and at least one sign or symptom of respiratory disease, for example, cough or shortness of breath) AND with no other etiology that fully explains the clinical presentation AND a history of travel to or residence in a country, area or territory that has reported local transmission of Covid-19 disease during the 14 days prior to symptom onset ...
FOR SINGLE DATA YEARS: Case rates are calculated based on the resident population of the ABCs surveillance areas for the data year involved. For census years (e.g. 2010), population counts enumerated as of April 1 are used. For all other years, populations estimates as of July 1 are used. Postcensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for years after a census year and match the data year vintage (e.g. July 1, 2011 resident population estimates from Vintage 2011 are used as the denominator for 2011 rates). Postcensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for the years between censuses (e.g. 1991-1999, 2001-2009). Data reflect cases of Hib disease among children less than 5 years of age submitted to Active Bacterial Core surveillance.. The Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) system is an active laboratory and population-based surveillance system that provides reports of H. influenzae cases from all or parts of 10 states in the United States. ABCs is supported by ...
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Detection of antibodies (serology) can be used for both diagnosis and population surveillance. Antibody tests show how many people are infected, including those with minor symptoms. The exact mortality rate and herd immunity level of the disease can be determined from the results of this test.. Part of the immune response to infection is the production of antibodies, including IgM and IgG. These can be used in individuals starting 7 days after the onset of symptoms to detect infection, determine immunity, and under population surveillance.. Usage:. ...
About IDSP: The Integrated Disease Surveillance Program (IDSP) is a disease surveillance scheme under the Ministry of Health and Family Affairs in India, assisted by the World Bank. The scheme aims to strengthen disease surveillance for infectious diseases to detect and respond to outbreaks quickly. The scheme seeks to set up a Central Disease Surveillance Unit and a State
The Surveillance, Evaluation and Research program monitors the pattern of transmission of HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) in Australia. We also conduct research and evaluation of public health interventions.. Our public health surveillance activities are conducted in collaboration with the Australian Commonwealth Government Department of Health, State and Territory health departments and collaborating networks. Each year we publish an Annual Surveillance Report which includes an analysis and interpretation of recent trends in new diagnoses of HIV, viral hepatitis and STIs. In these reports we also estimate prevalence and incidence of infection in key population subgroups.. We collaborate with a national network of 25 specialist sexual health services; research laboratories in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and PNG; the School of Population Health at the University of Melbourne; the Burnet Institute in Melbourne; and the Menzies School of Health Research.. Our ...
An Introduction to HIV Case Surveillance. Irum Zaidi Epidemiologist Global AIDS Program Centers for Disease Control. Have you ever laid awake at night wondering…. How many people know their HIV status (diagnosed) in my country?. Have you ever laid awake at night wondering…. Slideshow...
In the aftermath of the Ebola crisis the Gates Foundation has announced that it will be giving $75m to a network of disease surveillance sites in Africa and Asia to gather better data about childhood mortality.
The definition and use of racial categories in health data were largely unquestioned until recently because of the tacitly accepted role of genetically transmitted physical characteristics in defining racial groups (such as skin colors), as well as the role of genetically transmitted physical characteristics in health status differences (such as skin cancers). When race is used in health data, there is a tendency to assume that a genetic reason may explain differences. But often there is no known potential genetic explanation for differences that are documented. Until recently, there has been little research dedicated to how well or how poorly the racial categories of health data used for public policy actually meet scientific criteria of mutually exhaustive and exclusive groupings of people by any definable characteristics. A recent multiracial Public Health Service workshop concluded, Current concepts of race and ethnicity in public health surveillance data lack clarity, precision and ...
PREDICTs surveillance for emerging pathogens focuses on areas of the world at the highest risk for zoonotic disease emergence. The goal is to move countries away from a reactive post-outbreak response to a proactive approach in which pathogens of pandemic potential are discovered at their source before diseases have the opportunity to spillover.. Our staff and partners focus surveillance on species most likely to serve as reservoirs of disease, and we work at human-animal interfaces where pathogen transmission is most likely to occur.. Traditional public health and disease surveillance systems have ignored the inextricable link between animals, humans and the environment. PREDICT has been instrumental in broadening understanding, improving capabilities, and linking key stakeholders to build a more comprehensive and flexible approach to surveillance. Rather than prescribing an across-the-board surveillance plan, we allow project leads in each country to establish targeted, measurable, adaptive, ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) network conducts population-based surveillance for pathogens of public health importance. Central to obtaining estimates of disease burden and tracking microbiological characteristics of these infections is accurate laboratory detection of pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) in clinical settings presents both opportunities and challenges to EIP surveillance. Because CIDTs offer better sensitivity than culture and are relatively easy to perform, their use could potentially improve estimates of disease burden. However, changes in clinical testing practices, use of tests with different sensitivities and specificities, and changes to case definitions make it challenging to monitor trends. Isolates are still needed for performing strain typing, antimicrobial resistance testing, and identifying other molecular characteristics of organisms. In this article, we outline current and future EIP
This is the fourth in a series of posts mapping global surveillance challenges discussed at EFFs State Surveillance and Human Rights Camp in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This article has been co-written with Elonnai Hickok - Centre for Internet and Society India, and a speaker at EFFs Camp....
From September 2 through November 30, 2013, we enrolled 175 health facilities; 130(74%) were private and 45(26%) were public. Of the 175 health facilities, 77 (44%) facilities classified as adequate reporting and 98 (56%) were reporting poorly. Multivariate analysis identified three factors to be independently associated with weekly adequate reporting: having weekly reporting forms at visit (AOR19, 95% CI: 6-65], having posters showing IDSR functions (AOR8, 95% CI: 2-12) and having a designated surveillance focal person (AOR7, 95% CI: 2-20 ...
Communicable Diseases Intelligence, publishes a number of annual, quarterly, and regular reports produced by various communicable disease surveillance groups. This document summarises the methodology used for each of these regular reports to be published during 2012.
To identify people with chronic diseases, provincial and territorial health insurance registry records are linked using a unique personal identifier to the corresponding physician billing claims, hospital discharge abstract records and prescription drug records.. Data are collected by fiscal year since 1995-1996 in most provinces and territories.Footnote 2 However, the start year for reporting CCDSS data is determined on a case-by-case basis for each disease to allow enough time to capture all prevalent cases as well as to ensure that previously prevalent cases are excluded from incident cases. Under this distributed model, CCDSS data extraction is conducted in each jurisdiction using a standardized analytical protocol developed by PHAC.Footnote 3,Footnote 4 Using this protocol, case definitions are applied to these linked databases and individual data are aggregated at the provincial or territorial level before being submitted to PHAC for analysis and reporting. Throughout the process, data are ...
Integrating Data from INDEPTH Networks Health and Demographic Surveillance System Centres And Multiple Household Surveys to Monitoring Vital Events in Kenya
article{fc8de849-b9a8-491d-8dce-4bf518305f7a, abstract = {One way to maintain confidence in vaccination programmes is to improve monitoring of immunisation safety. We studied active parental reporting of adverse events after a booster dose of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (DT). 7193 children received the vaccine. Questionnaires were submitted by 84.2% of the parents, who reported reactions for 9.2% of the children. Four percent of events were classified as moderate/severe by interviews. Relative risk of redness and swelling reported was 0.24 (95% CI. 0.13-0.42) compared to a clinical trial, while it was 71.0 (44-114) compared to passive surveillance. Active surveillance by parental reports is a useful complement to passive surveillance of childhood immunisations to generate hypotheses for evaluation in controlled studies. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.}, author = {Netterlid, Eva and Edwinson Månsson, Marie and Håkansson, Anders}, issn = {1873-2518}, keyword = {Local reactions,Vaccine ...
Historically, surveillance was difficult and expensive.. Over the decades, as technology advanced, surveillance became easier and easier. Today, we find ourselves in a world of ubiquitous surveillance, where everything is collected, saved, searched, correlated and analyzed.. But while technology allowed for an increase in both corporate and government surveillance, the private and public sectors took very different paths to get there. The former always collected information about everyone, but over time, collected more and more of it, while the latter always collected maximal information, but over time, collected it on more and more people.. Corporate surveillance has been on a path from minimal to maximal information. Corporations always collected information on everyone they could, but in the past they didnt collect very much of it and only held it as long as necessary. When surveillance information was expensive to collect and store, companies made do with as little as possible.. Telephone ...
This includes an executive summary and more detailed reports with the public health context of PRAMS data and actions. Each topic includes a multi-year table and detailed tables.. Because we must wait until the birth year ends and send our files to CDC for processing, we cannot provide surveillance report data until at least two years after each birth year.. Contact us at our [email protected] email address or call 505-476-8895 if you need the most recent data or need a printed copy of the entire surveillance report.. ...
This surveillance report was prepared by EUVAC.net, which is a European surveillance network for vaccine-preventable diseases. The network collects data on surveillance systems and selected epidemiological characteristics of vaccine preventable diseases in the EU and other participating countries. It is jointly funded by ECDC and the Statens Serum Institut (Denmark). ...
This surveillance report was prepared by EUVAC.net, which is a European surveillance network for vaccine-preventable diseases. The network collects data on surveillance systems and selected epidemiological characteristics of vaccine preventable diseases in the EU and other participating countries. It is jointly funded by ECDC and the Statens Serum Institut (Denmark). ...
This surveillance report was prepared by EUVAC.net, which is a European surveillance network for vaccine-preventable diseases. The network collects data on surveillance systems and selected epidemiological characteristics of vaccine preventable diseases in the EU and other participating countries. It is jointly funded by ECDC and the Statens Serum Institut (Denmark). ...
Your pharmacy teams priority is optimizing medication use to deliver the most cost-effective therapy for every patient. That requires quickly identifying patients who need adjustments to improve patient safety, quality and performance.
BCT encourages bat workers and members of the public to submit dead bats to the Animal & Plant Health Agencys (APHA) passive surveillance programme...
Information and communication technologies are not value-neutral. I examine two domains, public health surveillance and sustainability, in five papers covering: (i) the design and development of a software package for computer-assisted outbreak detection; (ii) a workflow for using simulation models to provide policy advice and a list of challenges for its practice; (iii) an analysis of design documents from three smart home projects presenting intersecting visions of sustainability; (iv) an analysis of EU-financed projects dealing with sustainability and ICT; (v) an analysis of the consequences of design choices when creating surveillance technologies. My contributions include three empirical studies of surveillance discourses where I identify the forms of action that are privileged and the values that are embedded into them. In these discourses, the presence of ICT entails increased surveillance, privileging technological expertise, and prioritising centralised forms of knowledge.. ...
Guidelines recommend SC1 within 6 months of EMR. SERT accurately stratifies the incidence of RRA after EMR. SERT = 0 lesions could safely undergo first surveillance at 18 months, whereas lesions with SERT scores between 1 and 4 (SERT 1-4) require surveillance at 6 and 18 months. (Clinical trial regi …
NNDSS is a multifaceted public health surveillance system that gives public health officials powerful capabilities to monitor the occurrence and spread of diseases. NNDSS encompasses everything that supports the activity of collecting and monitoring disease data, including policies, laws, people, partners, information systems, processes, and resources at the local, state, and national levels. ...
These are provisional cases of selected national notifiable diseases from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). NNDSS data from the 50 states, New York City, the District of Columbia are collated and published weekly on the NNDSS Data and Statistic web page (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/data-and-statistics.html). Cases reported by state health departments to CDC for weekly publication are provisional because of the time needed to complete case follow-up. Therefore, numbers presented in later weeks may reflect changes made to these counts as additional information becomes available. The national surveillance case definitions used to define a case are available on the NNDSS web site at https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/. Information about the weekly provisional data and guides to interpreting data are available at: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/infectious-tables.html ...
This table contains provisional cases of national notifiable diseases from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). NNDSS data from the 50 states, New York City, the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories are collated and published weekly on the NNDSS Data and Statistics web page (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/data-and-statistics.html). Cases reported by state health departments to CDC for weekly publication are provisional because of the time needed to complete case follow-up. Therefore, numbers presented in later weeks may reflect changes made to these counts as additional information becomes available. The national surveillance case definitions used to define a case are available on the NNDSS web site at https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/. Information about the weekly provisional data and guides to interpreting data are available at: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/infectious-tables.html ...
Brownstein was trained as an epidemiologist at Yale University, where he received his PhD. Dr. Brownsteins research interests are in the development of methods and data sources in public health informatics which focuses on two major areas: (1) the design, evaluation and implementation of public health surveillance systems and (2) statistical modeling of public health surveillance data to improve prevention and control activities. This research has focused on a variety of infectious disease systems including malaria, HIV, dengue, West Nile virus, Lyme disease, RSV, salmonella, listeria and influenza.. Dr. Brownstein has advised the World Health Organization, Institute of Medicine, the US Departments of Health and Human Services and Homeland Security, and the White House on real-time public health surveillance data. He has used this experience in his role as Vice President of the International Society for Disease Surveillance. He has authored over one hundred articles in the area of disease ...
NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2015. In this Table, provisional cases of selected infrequently reported notifiable diseases (,1,000 cases reported during the preceding year) are displayed. Note:These are provisional cases of selected national notifiable diseases, from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). NNDSS data reported by the 50 states, New York City, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories are collated and published weekly as numbered tables printed in the back of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). Cases reported by state health departments to CDC for weekly publication are provisional because of ongoing revision of information and delayed reporting. Case counts in these tables are presented as they were published in the MMWR issues. Therefore, numbers listed in later MMWR weeks may reflect changes made to these counts as additional information becomes available. Footnote:-: No reported cases N: Not ...
NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2015. In this Table, provisional cases of selected infrequently reported notifiable diseases (,1,000 cases reported during the preceding year) are displayed. Note:These are provisional cases of selected national notifiable diseases, from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). NNDSS data reported by the 50 states, New York City, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories are collated and published weekly as numbered tables printed in the back of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). Cases reported by state health departments to CDC for weekly publication are provisional because of ongoing revision of information and delayed reporting. Case counts in these tables are presented as they were published in the MMWR issues. Therefore, numbers listed in later MMWR weeks may reflect changes made to these counts as additional information becomes available. Footnote:-: No reported cases N: Not ...
data.cdc.gov , Last Updated 2017-01-05T16:46:43.000Z. NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† infrequently reported notifiable diseases (,1,000 cases reported during the preceding year) are displayed. Note: These are provisional cases of selected national notifiable diseases, from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). NNDSS data reported by the 50 states, New York City, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories are collated and published weekly as numbered tables printed in the back of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). Cases reported by state health departments to CDC for weekly publication are provisional because of ongoing revision of information and delayed reporting. Case counts in these tables are presented as they were published in the MMWR issues. Therefore, numbers listed in later MMWR weeks may reflect changes made to these counts as additional information becomes ...
Abstract. Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis historically associated with exposure to infected livestock. This study summarizes cases of Q fever, a notifiable disease in the United States, reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through two national surveillance systems with onset during 2000-2012. The overall incidence rate during this time was 0.38 cases per million persons per year. The reported case fatality rate was 2.0%, and the reported hospitalization rate was 62%. Most cases (61%) did not report exposure to cattle, goats, or sheep, suggesting that clinicians should consider Q fever even in the absence of livestock exposure. The prevalence of drinking raw milk among reported cases of Q fever (8.4%) was more than twice the national prevalence for the practice. Passive surveillance systems for Q fever are likely impacted by underreporting and underdiagnosis because of the nonspecific presentation of Q fever.
o) The data used to verify the case meets clinical criteria, or laboratory criteria, or both. These criteria include, but are not limited to, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists case definitions ...
The Australian Influenza Surveillance Report and Activity Updates are compiled from a number of data sources, which are used to monitor influenza activity and severity in the community. These data sources include laboratory-confirmed notifications to NNDSS; influenza associated hospitalisations; sentinel influenza-like illness (ILI) reporting from general practitioners and emergency departments; ILI-related call centre calls and community level surveys; and sentinel laboratory testing results.
The Australian Influenza Surveillance Report and Activity Updates are compiled from a number of data sources, which are used to monitor influenza activity and severity in the community. These data sources include laboratory-confirmed notifications to NNDSS; influenza associated hospitalisations; sentinel influenza-like illness (ILI) reporting from general practitioners and emergency departments; ILI-related call centre calls and community level surveys; and sentinel laboratory testing results.
The case outlines the challenges that the National Institute for Health and Welfare in Helsinki, Finland is facing in light of an ongoing national health care reform. The health care reform has taken precedence over other research activities, and the Institute is anticipating changes to population health surveillance methods. The Institute elected a new Director General in the fall of 2018 who will influence decisions about which population surveillance data collection methods are used. The Health Monitoring Unit at the Institute fears that the Director General will decide that all surveillance data will be collected using administrative patient registries with the consequent elimination of population health surveys. The team responsible for the 2017 National FinHealth population health survey must determine how they can advocate for the continued use of survey data in population health surveillance.
Public health surveillance is one of the most effective and efficient ways of monitoring population health on daily basis. The main purpose of the communicable disease surveillance is to identify potential threats to public health due to communicable disease and to provide guidance to prevention and control programs. Most people do not recognize the critical role public health surveillance plays in their daily lives. The reason is that potential threats to peoples are either being eliminated or eradicated before they start appearing in large populations. At the local level, surveillance of communicable disease serves various functions including monitoring trends of infectious diseases, assessment of communicable disease risks, and to provide information which may be used to track the progress of disease prevention and control programs. Communicable disease surveillance plays a major role in local, state and national health security through early detection of outbreaks and effective public ...
The Oregon Public Health Division collects data from a variety of sources to inform physicians and the public about the infections that are identified in Oregon and whom they tend to affect. This page is your link to data on the diseases we track.
TY - JOUR. T1 - HIV/AIDS surveillance in Japan, 1984-2000. AU - Kihara, Masahiro. AU - Ono-Kihara, Masako. AU - Feldman, Mitchell D.. AU - Ichikawa, Seiichi. AU - Hashimoto, Shuji. AU - Eboshida, Akira. AU - Yamamoto, Taro. AU - Kamakura, Mitsuhiro. PY - 2003/2. Y1 - 2003/2. N2 - The HIV/AIDS surveillance system in Japan, which began collecting data on the number of AIDS patients in 1984 and the number of HIV-infected persons in 1987, has played an important role in monitoring the trend and magnitude of Japans HIV/AIDS epidemic and its distribution across various population subgroups. However, the system lacks any personal identifiers, making it impossible to eliminate duplication or to track cases for disease progression. It also does not permit the identification of the residence of HIV-infected persons because the residence of only the reporting physician is documented under the New Infectious Diseases Control Law, effective since April 1, 1999. The number of people with HIV/AIDS in Japan ...
Surveillance and follow-up continues to expand as more diseases become reportable. The communicable disease program staff is responsible for morbidity reporting and gathering, compiling and interpreting data and statistics for all communicable diseases reported in Niagara County. They communicate with Niagara County based hospitals on a daily basis to assess for cluster activity or anything unusual and the electronic state reporting system has greatly improved staff efficiency.. Community education continues to be a vital component of the program. Staff is available to provide information to the general public on a variety of infections and diseases.. You can reach the Communicable Disease Surveillance Program in Niagara County by calling (716) 278-8598.. Page last updated 3/23/17. ...
Surveillance is the systematic, regular collection of information on the occurrence, distribution and trends of a specific infection, disease or other health-related event. HIV surveillance is designed to collect and integrate data reported from a variety of sources, including behavioural surveillance, case reporting, seroprevalence surveillance, and sexually transmitted infections surveillance. The goals of second generation HIV surveillance are to help countries better understand the HIV epidemic trends over time, to better understand the behaviours driving the epidemic, to focus on subpopulations at highest risk for infection and to better use surveillance data for planning the response to the epidemic. HIV surveillance in the Eastern Mediterranean Region needs to be strengthened in order to fill the gaps in our understanding of the dynamics of the epidemic and to be in a better situation to plan appropriately for an effective response. This training course is part of a series of 4 training ...
Virtually all low- and middle-income countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition whose progression is more varied than experienced in high-income countries. Observed changes in mortality and disease patterns reveal that the transition in most low- and middle-income countries is characterized by reversals, partial changes and the simultaneous occurrence of different types of diseases of varying magnitude. Localized characterization of this shifting burden, frequently lacking, is essential to guide decentralised health and social systems on the effective targeting of limited resources. Based on a rigorous compilation of mortality data over two decades, this paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the epidemiological transition in a rural South African population. We estimate overall and cause-specific hazards of death as functions of sex, age and time period from mortality data from the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System and conduct statistical tests of changes and
Abortion surveillance in the United States continues to provide the data necessary for examining trends in numbers and characteristics of women who obtain legal induced abortions and to increase understanding of this pregnancy outcome. Policymakers and program planners use these data to improve the …
This document contains the case definitions for meningococcal disease (invasive) which is nationally notifiable within Australia. This definition should be used to determine whether a case should be notified.
This document contains the case definitions for meningococcal disease (invasive) which is nationally notifiable within Australia. This definition should be used to determine whether a case should be notified.
Carbapenem-Resistant Gram- Negative Bacilli in Canadian Acute-Care Hospitals: Surveillance Report January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Follow-up care, surveillance protocol, and secondary prevention measures for survivors of colorectal cancer. T2 - American society of clinical oncology clinical practice guideline endorsement. AU - Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.. AU - Mangu, Pamela B.. AU - Flynn, Patrick J.. AU - Korde, Larissa. AU - Loprinzi, Charles L.. AU - Minsky, Bruce D.. AU - Petrelli, Nicholas J.. AU - Ryan, Kim. AU - Schrag, Deborah H.. AU - Wong, Sandra L.. AU - Benson, Al B.. PY - 2013/12/10. Y1 - 2013/12/10. N2 - Purpose The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing recent clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. Methods The Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) Guideline on Follow-up Care, Surveillance Protocol, and Secondary Prevention Measures for Survivors of Colorectal Cancer was reviewed by ASCO for methodologic rigor and considered for endorsement. Results The ASCO Panel concurred with the CCO recommendations and ...
Revised Classification System The revised classification system for HIV infection is based on the recommended clinical standard of monitoring CD4+ T- lymphocyte counts, since this parameter consistently correlates with HIV-related immune dysfunction and disease progression and provides information needed to guide medical management of persons infected with HIV (14-18, 22-28). The classification system also allows for use of the percentage of CD4+ T-cells instead of absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts (Appendix A). Other markers of immune status -- such as serum neopterin, beta-2 microglobulin, HIV p24 antigen, soluble interleukin-2 receptors, immunoglobulin A, and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin-test reactions -- may be useful in the evaluation of individual patients but are not as strongly predictive of disease progression or as specific for HIV-related immunosuppression as measures of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (14-21, 31). DTH skin-test reactions are often used in conjunction with the Mantoux ...
The use of statistical techniques recently developed for application with sequential cross sectional data allowed quantification of the relative importance of influences on decisions about food choices. New findings included a temporal association between fast food consumption and BMI; two independent healthful eating indicators; and evidence of precursors and consequences of running out of food. While the findings are directly applicable to adults in Western Australia, the methods offer the possibility of wider application.. ...
Author Summary Public health agencies use surveillance systems to detect and monitor chronic and infectious diseases. These systems often rely on data sources that are chosen based on loose guidelines or out of convenience. In this paper, we introduce a new, data-driven method for designing and improving surveillance systems. Our approach is a geographic optimization of data sources designed to achieve specific surveillance goals. We tested our method by re-designing Texas provider-based influenza surveillance system (ILINet). The resulting networks better predicted influenza associated hospitalizations and contained fewer providers than the existing ILINet. Furthermore, our study demonstrates that the integration of Internet source data, like Google Flu Trends, into surveillance systems can enhance traditional, provider-based networks.
Detecting outbreaks is a crucial task for public health officials, yet gaps remain in the systematic evaluation of outbreak detection protocols. The authors objectives were to design, implement, and test a flexible methodology for generating detailed synthetic surveillance data that provides realistic geographical and temporal clustering of cases and use to evaluate outbreak detection protocols. A detailed representation of the Boston area was constructed, based on data about individuals, locations, and activity patterns. Influenza-like illness (ILI) transmission was simulated, producing 100 years of in silico ILI data. Six different surveillance systems were designed and developed using gathered cases from the simulated disease data. Performance was measured by inserting test outbreaks into the surveillance streams and analyzing the likelihood and timeliness of detection. Detection of outbreaks varied from 21% to 95%. Increased coverage did not linearly improve detection probability for all
Updated 5/4/20. As part of Minnesotas overall surveillance efforts, MDH urgently needs data that tells us more about who is seeking care in a hospital setting for symptoms that may be related to COVID-19. This syndromic surveillance effort requires MDH to be able to compute ratios of the volume of inpatient and emergency department patients presenting with COVID or COVID-like symptoms as a function of total daily emergency department and hospital patient volume. This will enable monitoring of hot-spots as social distancing policies are adjusted and assist in the states response effort.. MDH is utilizing an existing service to support this activity. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, beginning a few years ago, the Department of Human Services (DHS) funded the Encounter Alert Service (EAS) infrastructure to support statewide care coordination. MDH has been working with DHS to leverage this existing EAS infrastructure to fulfill the syndromic surveillance use case since more than half of the ...
OCLC 660143951.. "Sorties sous surveillance". Éducaloi. 2009. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011.. "Population urban ... Quebec is the only Canadian province whose population is mainly Francophone; 6,102,210 people (78.1% of the population) ... change from its 2011 population of 7,903,001. With a land area of 1,356,625.27 km2 (523,795.95 sq mi), it had a population ... Much of the population live in urban areas along the Saint Lawrence River, between the most populous city, Montreal, and its ...
Animal Health Monitoring & Surveillance. USDA APHIS. Clarke, G. R., et al. (1996). Experimental infection of swine with a ... 2010). Circadian activity of Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae) during late season population peaks. Journal of the ...
"2018 STD Surveillance Report". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 8 October 2019. Kovacs, Kasia (November 3, 2016). " ... Wilfley DE, Agras WS, Taylor CB (July 2013). "Reducing the burden of eating disorders: a model for population-based prevention ... "STDs in Adolescents and Young Adults - 2017 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance". Centers for Disease Control and ... These guidelines included both individual-level and population-level strategies, including restricting alcohol consumption on ...
Zureik, Elia (2010). "Colonialism, surveillance, and population control: Israel/Palestine". In Zureik, Elia; Lyon, David; Abu- ... of population), Area B (20% of territory, 41% of the population), and Area C (62% of territory, 5.8% of population). Israel ... I prophesy that, on the ultimate map of population and land-holding in Palestine, the Jewish population and the land in Jewish ... Surveillance and Control in Israel/Palestine: Population, Territory and Power. Routledge. pp. 99-111. ISBN 978-1-136-93097-3. ...
Eysenbach, Gunther (2003-01-01). "SARS and Population Health Technology". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 5 (2): e14. doi ... Eysenbach, G (2006). "Infodemiology: tracking flu-related searches on the web for syndromic surveillance". AMIA ... Annual ... Infoveillance Global Public Health Intelligence Network Infodemic Participatory surveillance Infodemiology Theme (JMIR ... than traditional syndromic surveillance methods such as reports by sentinel physicians. Researchers have applied an ...
"Vaccine safety, surveillance and reporting". Government of Canada. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2020. "Share of children ... In a response to the narcolepsy reports following immunization with Pandemrix, the CDC carried out a population-based study and ... Although most children do get vaccinated, the adult population of the USA is still below the recommended immunization levels. ... When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results. Herd immunity protects those ...
Within any one population, males, on average, tend to have fewer spots on the underside, and are paler in colour, than females ... A nest box can also be regarded as an animal surveillance device, as they give direct access to the breeding location. While ... While barn owls are prolific breeders and able to recover from short-term population decreases, they are not as common in some ... A 1995-1997 survey put their British population at between 3,000 and 5,000 breeding pairs, out of an average of about 150,000 ...
The creation of SUS was important in that more than 80% of the Brazilian population depend on it to receive medical treatment. ... Sanitation and health surveillance; Epidemiological vigilance; Occupational safety and health; Integral therapeutic assistance ... Brazil provides two-tier health care, and almost 25% of the population pay for private insurance. The SUS's objectives are, by ... of the Brazilian population; 220 million people), land area coverage (3.3 million square miles), and affiliated network/number ...
Recommendations to the population. Protection of the family. Security and surveillance of affected areas. Mexican Armed Forces ... to the case of a situation disastrous among the population, and establishing the National Defence Plan No. III on September 18 ...
Ninety to 100 percent of the Israeli population and 70 to 90 percent of the Saudi population have good access to health care. ... "Global Surveillance, National Surveillance, and SARS", Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10 (2): 173-5, doi:10.3201/eid1002.031038 ... and the extent of surveillance and response systems. A major obstacle to effective global surveillance and control of ... HIV has not yet made a move into the general populations of some countries, such as Russia. The single social factor (80-90% of ...
... risk behavior surveillance-United States, 2003. MMWR. Surveillance Summaries, 53(2), 1-96. MacArthur G, Caldwell DM, ... discourses on population control, 'safe sex', and 'sexual rights'. Sex education programmes grounded in evidence-based ... "Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)". Adolescent and School Health. CDC. 22 August 2018. Grunbaum, J.A., Kann, L., ... The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed its Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) in 2003 to ...
Watts SJ (July 1987). "Dracunculiasis in Africa in 1986: its geographic extent, incidence, and at-risk population". The ... "WHO , Dracunculiasis eradication: global surveillance summary, 2017". WHO. Retrieved 2020-02-27. MacKenzie D (14 January 2011 ...
Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. (2002). "A population-based comparison of strategies to prevent early-onset group B ... Multistate Laboratory and Population-Based Surveillance". JAMA Pediatrics. 173 (3): 224-33. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics. ... and differences in populations studied. Though GBS is an asymptomatic and harmless colonizer of the gastrointestinal human ... Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs)/Emerging Infections Program Network, CDC (2008). "Revisiting the need for vaccine ...
Museum Association of Douglas County (April 1997). "The History of Tuscola's Negro* Population" (PDF). Cabin Chatter: ... Peterson, Andrea (3 October 2014). "Librarians won't stay quiet about government surveillance". The Washington Post. "The ... Peterson, Andrea (3 October 2014). "Librarians won't stay quiet about government surveillance". The Washington Post. Orenstein ... while also pointing out that librarians had been monitored and been under FBI surveillance as far back as the McCarthy Era. ...
According to the Population Cancer Registry of Indian Council of Medical Research, the incidence and mortality of cancer is ... "SEER Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results". Retrieved 2007-11-02. Furlow B (September 2007). "Accuracy of US cancer ... Breast cancer is the most common, and stomach cancer is the leading cause of death by cancer for the population as a whole. ... 149-156 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: All Sites by Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results, a project of the U.S. National Cancer ...
0.17% of the population of Florida, or 1 out of 584.53. Florida's COVID-19 Dashboard reports the population as 20,598,139. " ... "Florida's COVID-19 Data and Surveillance Dashboard". Archived from the original on March 18, 2020. Retrieved May 1, 2021. "2019 ... She states that reporting positivity as a percentage of total tests instead of as a percentage of the total population tested ... These people may no longer be hospitalized." 10.67% of the population of Florida, or 1 out of 9.38. Florida's COVID-19 ...
UNAIDS Population Information Network. "95/01/13 AIDS Daily Summary." January 13, 1995. Citation from "City Can't Pay for AIDS ... "U.S. HIV and AIDS Cases Reported Through December 1993." HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: Year-End Edition. Vol. 5, No. 4. See ... "Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2012." HIV Surveillance Report. Vol. 24. See pages 67-73 ... "96/11/19 AIDS Daily Summary". United Nations Population Information Network. UNFPA. November 19, 1996. Retrieved April 6, 2016 ...
By March 26, the United States, with the world's third-largest population, surpassed China and Italy as the country with the ... "Florida's COVID-19 Data and Surveillance Dashboard". Florida Department of Health, Division of Disease Control and Health ... "Less than 10% of US population has COVID-19 antibodies, data show". Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. ... "Less than 10% of US population has COVID-19 antibodies, data show". Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. ...
"Surveillance de la COVID-19, Haiti, 2020-2021" (PDF). Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population [Ministry of Public ... He ran model simulations in which 7% of the population is tested every day using a test with a 20% false negative rate and a 1 ... "新型コロナ:「感染追跡」デジタル監視とプライバシーの新しい日常" [New Corona: "Infection Tracking" New Everyday Life in Digital Surveillance and Privacy] (in ... Antibody tests can be used to assess what fraction of a population has once been infected, which can then be used
Presence of this population in humans is currently under investigation. TVM : As of now, the only function apparent in TVM ... Tumor surveillance also becomes important at this stage. At later stages of life, at about 65-70 years of age, immunosenescence ... Thus, although this population as a whole is abundant within the peripheral circulation, individual virtual memory T cell ... One theory is that homeostatic proliferation gives rise to this T cell population. Although CD8 virtual memory T cells were the ...
Diagnostic testing may also be done for surveillance. As hypoglycemia occurs in approximately 10% of infants and young children ... Szajewska, H; Dziechciarz, P (January 2010). "Gastrointestinal infections in the pediatric population". Current Opinion in ... ISBN 978-0-7216-8973-9. World Health Organization (November 2008). "Global networks for surveillance of rotavirus ... measuring serum glucose in this population is recommended. Electrolytes and kidney function should also be checked when there ...
Surveillance occurs in production areas and near international airports. Losses on tomatoes can reach 100% due to larval ... Some populations of T. absoluta have developed resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides. Newer compounds such as ... This concept is used to monitor populations of T. absoluta in tomato orchards. The combined use of pheromones as well as ... In 2006, it was identified in Spain from a Chilean parental population introduced to Spain in the early 2000s. The following ...
... he favors mass government surveillance of the American population; he has stated that gun control laws fail to achieve their ... He voted "yes" on extending the roving wiretaps provision of the Patriot Act, which governs surveillance of suspected ...
A population review conducted in three U.S. communities showed the annual incidence of CA-MRSA during 2001-2002 to be 18-25.7/ ... "MRSA Surveillance". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 8, 2011. "Outcomes in EHCI 2015" (PDF). Health Consumer ... A population-based study of the incidence of MRSA infections in San Francisco during 2004-05 demonstrated that nearly one in ... Cases of MRSA in such populations were first reported in the United States and later in Canada. The earliest reports were made ...
CaliciNet, an outbreak surveillance network for noroviruses, is another example of a network which uses BioNumerics to submit ... In: Molecular Identification, Systematics, and Population Structure of Prokaryotes (ed. Erko Stackebrandt). Springer, 2006. ... Vega E, Barclay L, Gregoricus N, Williams K, Lee D, Vinjé J (August 2011). "Novel surveillance network for norovirus ...
... creation of funded population based active surveillance sites for 5 invasive bacterial pathogens (the forerunner of domestic ... Toxic shock surveillance in the United States, 1980 81. Ann Internal Med 1982;96:875 880. Bolan G, Broome CV, Facklam RR, ... Pneumococcal vaccine efficacy in selected populations in the United States. Ann Intern Med 1986;104:1 6. Reingold AL, Broome CV ... Claire Veronica Broome (born August 24, 1949) is an American epidemiologist, specializing in public health surveillance and ...
regional population data in the UK in 2011 from 2011 Census, Population Estimates by single year of age and sex for Local ... "Rapport final de l'enquête pour la surveillance des facteurs de risque des maladies non transmissibles par l'approche STEPSwise ... Ankara's population in 2000 from Turkey: Provinces and Major Cities, CITY POPULATION. Özer, Basak Koca (2008). "Secular trend ... Ljubljana's population in 2011 from UNdata, United Nations. Starc G, Strel J. "Is there a rationale for establishing Slovenian ...
Zuckerbraun NS, Powell EC, Sheehan KM, Uyeda A, Rehm KP, Barlow B (June 2004). "Community childhood injury surveillance: an ... "Improving access to comprehensive injury risk assessment and risk factor reduction in older adult populations." "A national ... "Community childhood injury surveillance: an emergency department-based model." "A benefit-cost analysis of the Harlem hospital ... "Improving access to comprehensive injury risk assessment and risk factor reduction in older adult populations". American ...
Population by Race, ethnicity, sex/age". Census.gov. Retrieved August 29, 2017. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by ... "Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results. Race and Nationality Descriptions from the 2000 Census and Bureau of Vital ... as it conflates vastly different population groups and ignores marked differences within individual latino populations. Each ... All population groups have, at different times, their own unique set of beliefs, fears, hopes and prejudices. When different ...
Zureik, Elia; Lyon, David; Abu-Laban, Yasmeen (December 13, 2010). Surveillance and Control in Israel/Palestine: Population, ... "In 'Quiet Skies' program, TSA is tracking regular travelers like terrorists in secret surveillance". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved ...
General population. Education of the general public about the risk factors for Ebola infection and of the protective measures ... It is expected that more people will be identified as surveillance activities increase.[223] By 15 June the case count had ... decline in tracking indices of observed chimpanzee populations in the 420 km2 Lossi Sanctuary between 2002 and 2003.[243] ... a 90-day period of heightened surveillance was announced by that agency. "This is the first time that all three countries - ...
... with some sources estimating up to half of the official reeducation through labor camp population is Falun Gong practitioners.[ ... Residential Surveillance at a Designated Location. *Soft detention. *Shuanggui. *Two-faced person ... 22] In some labor camps, Falun Gong practitioners make up the majority population.[23] ...
This factor is particularly interesting due to the fact that a large population of people listen to music while exercising. ... Effects of surveillance towed array sensor system (SURTASS) low frequency active sonar on fish. The Journal of the Acoustical ...
Measles case based surveillance is in process to meet the target of elimanation of Measles by 2019. One percent of children in ... Nepal is one of the countries recognized for the well‐functioning immunization system with coverage of 97% population equally, ... Results from the 2007 Integrated Bio-Behavioral Surveillance Study (IBBS) among IDUs in Kathmandu, Pokhara, and East and West ... Nepal: Ministry of Health and Population. 2011. ,access-date= requires ,url= (help) Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Nepal ...
"Abortion Surveillance --- United States, 2001." MMWR. 53(SS09) (2004).. *^ Warren M. Hern, Abortion Practice 23‐24 (1984), ... Certain countries, like China have measures to control their population growth.. Any of these factors might force a pregnant ... Strauss, L.T., Gamble, S.B., Parker, W.Y, Cook, D.A., Zane, S.B., & Hamdan, S. (November 24, 2006). Abortion Surveillance - ...
An estimated 25% of the population is covered by at least one form of health insurance; 75% of the insurance plans are offered ... Since 1999, the Ministry of Public Health has been carrying out a health surveillance project in Amazonia that includes ... To expand the access of the population to drugs, incentives have been offered for marketing generic products, which cost an ... The national average ratio was of 14 physicians per 10,000 population. In 1999, of the 665,000 professional positions, 65% were ...
"Euro Surveillance. 11 (6): E060622.1. doi:10.2807/esw.11.25.02977-en. PMID 16819127.. ... For example, in the U.S., reducing the deer population to levels of 8 to 10 per square mile (from the current levels of 60 or ... "Euro Surveillance. 11 (10): 257-60. PMID 17130658. Archived from the original on 17 June 2012.. ... Surveillance Summaries. 57 (10): 1-9. PMID 18830214. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012.. ...
"We believe that number is really an undercount."[26] This is confirmed by SNRG-NYC's New York City population estimate of 2008 ... and a surveillance system to prevent children from being coerced into prostitution."[16] ... The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimate that 2 million children are ... The CSEC Population in New York City: Size, Characteristics, and Needs. National Institute of Justice, United States Department ...
Control of the Mastomys rodent population is impractical, so measures focus on keeping rodents out of homes and food supplies, ... limited public health surveillance infrastructure, and high clustering of incidence near high intensity sampling make for an ...
Population-based estimates from the Connecticut Upper-extremity Surveillance Project (CUSP). Journal of Occupational Health ... Kasl, S.V., & Jones, B.A. (2011). An epidemiological perspective on research design, measurement, and surveillance strategies. ... A cross-sectional study of a random sample of the Swedish working population. American Journal of Public Health, 78(10), 1336- ... Measures for use in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 1229-1236. ...
The second strategy is to reduce populations of the adult yellow fever mosquito. Lethal ovitraps can reduce Aedes populations, ... WHO Division of Emerging and other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control.. *^ Monath, T. P. (1989). "The absence of ... Two main strategies are employed to reduce mosquito populations. One approach is to kill the developing larvae. Measures are ... That immunity is present in the populations because of other diseases caused by related viruses (for example, dengue). ...
Similarly, in some instances a small invading population can threaten much larger native populations. For example, Spartina ... Holden, Matthew H.; Nyrop, Jan P.; Ellner, Stephen P. (2016-06-01). "The economic benefit of time-varying surveillance effort ... The model evaluated individual populations rather than entire species. It classified each population based on its success in ... while the population is small, is less expensive that managing the invasive population when it is widespread and already ...
Johnson F, Cooke L, Croker H, Wardle J. Changing perceptions of weight in Great Britain: comparison of two population surveys. ... Obesity and workers' compensation: Results from the Duke Health and Safety Surveillance System. Arch. Intern. Med. (Research ... Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies.. Lancet. 2004-01 ... Feasibility Study in Minority Populations. British Journal of Nutrition (Randomized Controlled Trial). 2002, 88 (6): 719-728. ...
Edward remained in captivity until March, and even after his release he was kept under strict surveillance.[36] Then, on 28 May ... The King now had full backing for collecting lay subsidies from the entire population. Lay subsidies were taxes collected at a ...
Many jurisdictions report shortfalls in the number of trained health human resources to meet population health needs and/or ... surveillance of cases, and promotion of healthy behaviors. This category includes community and preventive medicine specialists ... all of which occur at higher rates in health professionals than the general working population. Elevated levels of stress are ... including communities that provide health services to First Nations and Inuit populations.[8] ...
Location of Louisville, Kentucky, with the highlighted portion of Jefferson County representing the "balance" population of ... said that unless police had a reason to suspect that Taylor's residence had surveillance cameras "a no-knock warrant would be ...
It is also helpful as part of a system of health surveillance, in which breathing patterns are measured over time.[1] ... It is considered normal if it is 60% to 140% of the average value in the population for any person of similar age, sex and body ... Average ranges in the healthy population depend mainly on sex and age, with FEF25-75% shown in diagram at left. Values ranging ... of the average value in the population for any person of similar age, sex and body composition.[11] ...
Diplomats in Residence represent 16 population-based regions that encompass the United States.[30] ... Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. *Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. *Money Laundering Control Act ...
Regional Force Surveillance Units[edit]. Training for recruits in the Regional Force Surveillance Units usually differs greatly ... covered by the RFSUs often come from indigenous cultures radically different from that of the general Australian population, ...
Temperature increases initially favor a population shift from species requiring the high-oxygen concentration of cold water to ... Temperature differences may discourage establishment of thermophilic populations in intermittently operated facilities; and ... Temperatures may become high enough to support thermophilic populations. Biofouling of heat exchange surfaces can reduce heat ... intentional short term temperature spikes may periodically kill less tolerant populations. Biocides have been commonly used to ...
Scout-Sniper and Surveillance, Target, and Acquisition[edit]. Main articles: Scout Sniper and STA platoon ... the population (secret service, professions and occupations, naval and military forces). *existing defenses (location, form and ... As the CSSE is often in more direct contact with the indigenous population, it can collect HUMINT unavailable to the other ... They are highly skilled in marksmanship, reconnaissance and surveillance, and target acquisition. Every Marine Scout Sniper can ...
Ethical concerns regarding international security, surveillance, and the right to privacy are on the rise.[22] The issues of ... Mill believes humans are unable to have true beliefs when information is withheld from the population via censorship and ... After the events of 9-11 and other terrorism attacks on civilians, surveillance by states raises ethical concerns of the ... is looking for a balancing between stricter security and surveillance, and not committing the same ethical concerns associated ...
Population estimates. Lesbians in the U.S. are estimated to be about 2.6% of the population, according to a National Opinion ... HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: Cases of HIV Infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2006. Centers for ... A population-based study completed by the National Alcohol Research Center found that women who identify as lesbian or bisexual ... The study estimated the total population of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals at 8.8 million, but did not differentiate between men ...
In the United States, the classic H1N1 subtype was exclusively prevalent among swine populations before 1998; however, since ... "Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report - Seasonal Influenza (Flu) - CDC". 2018-12-07.. ... of the population, with a low death rate.[9] In the United States, about 33,800 people died.[10] ... influenza A/H3N2 virus that were collected across six continents from 2002 to 2007 by the WHO's Global Influenza Surveillance ...
MMWR Surveillance Summaries. 61 (8): 1-44. PMID 23169413.. *^ Fjerstad, Mary; Trussell, James; Sivin, Irving; Lichtenberg, E. ... Hartmann, B (1997). "Population control I: Birth of an ideology". International Journal of Health Services. 27 (3): 523-40. doi ... "Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2011". Retrieved 25 January 2017.. *^ Raymond, E. G.; Grimes, D. A. (2012). "The ... "CDCs Abortion Surveillance System FAQs". Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012-11-21. Retrieved 2013-08-08.. ...
Clot Bey argued that female-provided health care for women and children was crucial to maintain a healthy population.[26] He ... They began housing soldiers in barracks, leadership enforced a strict regime of surveillance, roll call was done several times ... Although one task of the hakimas was overseeing childbirth, the majority of the population continued to use the dayas.[26] ... Ali's military and economic goals required a healthy army and population from which young boys could be conscripted. Venereal ...
A pestilence in the northwestern provinces of China in 311 AD that killed 98% of the population locally was blamed on locusts, ... More recently, changes in agricultural practices and better surveillance of locations where swarms tend to originate, have ... Swarming behaviour decreased in the 20th century, but despite modern surveillance and control methods, the potential for swarms ... The technology to control locust populations is now available, but the organisational, financial, and political problems may be ...
Public health surveillance *Disease surveillance. *Quarantine. *Sexually transmitted infection. *Tropical disease. *Vaccine ... Population health. *Biostatistics. *Child mortality. *Community health. *Epidemiology. *Global health. *Health impact ...
Public health surveillance *Disease surveillance. *Quarantine. *Sexually transmitted infection. *Social distancing. *Tropical ... Population health. *Biostatistics. *Child mortality. *Community health. *Epidemiology. *Global health. *Health impact ...
WHO case definitions of HIV for surveillance and revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV-related ... Sharma, A.K. Population and society. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. p. 242. ISBN 9788180698187.. ... HIV and AIDS in Canada - Surveillance Report to December 31, 2009 (PDF) (Informe) (en inglés). Public Health Agency of Canada. ... ECDC (2011). Reporting on 2009 surveillance data and 2010 epidemic intelligence data (PDF). Annual Epidemiological Report 2011 ...
Information about the surveillance population for each pathogen and state for the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance System ( ... Print-friendly version - Surveillance Population Matrix pdf icon[2 pages]. Surveillance Population Matrix, 1997-2021 pdf icon[ ... Surveillance Areas/Isolate Collection. The total population of Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) for invasive disease ... The table below summarizes the population under surveillance and isolate collection for each pathogen and state as of June 2021 ...
... on the health status of the population, or subgroups within the population. However, survey data and biological samples ... 75 of the S. aureus-colonized individuals were carrying MRSA--.8% of the population, or about 2.3 million Americans. In this ... Extrapolating to the U.S. population, that means that almost 90 million people are colonized with this pathogen. Prevalence was ... population-based study had been carried out to date. This new study begins to fill that void. ...
Population-based active surveillance. Population-based active surveillance can complement routine passive sentinel surveillance ... The main advantage of population-based influenza surveillance is that it provides the data needed to determine the population ... Population-based active surveillance cohort studies for influenza: lessons from Peru. Hugo Razuri a, Candice Romero a, Yeny ... Population-based surveillance for 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Guatemala. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2009; 4: ...
Gillum, R.F.; Yorrick, R.; Obisesan, T.O. Population Surveillance of Dementia Mortality. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health ... Population Surveillance of Dementia Mortality. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(4): ... "Population Surveillance of Dementia Mortality." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 4: 1244-1257. ...
This is a common population surveillance mechanism for all NCDs (with the exception of cancer). The model includes population ... Integrated population-based surveillance of noncommunicable diseases: the Pakistan model.. Nishtar S1, Bile KM, Ahmed A, Amjad ... surveillance of main risk factors that predict many NCDs and combines modules on population surveillance of injuries, mental ... and sustainable population-based NCD surveillance system is being established, and will be maintained and expanded over time. ...
Infection Surveillance Protocol for a Multicountry Population-based Study in South Asia to Determine the Incidence, Etiology ... We are conducting active surveillance in 1 peri-urban and 4 rural communities. During 2 years of surveillance, we expect to ... The data generated from this surveillance will help guide evidence-based decision making to improve health care in similar ... The objectives of ANISA are to establish a comprehensive surveillance system for registering newborns in study catchment areas ...
HIV/AIDS surveillance in Europe 2013  World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (‎World Health Organization. ... HIV/AIDS surveillance in Europe: 2019  World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; European Centre for Disease ... WHO Regional Office for Europe guidance for influenza surveillance in humans  World Health Organization. Regional Office for ... Situation update in the European Region : overview of influenza surveillance data week 40/2009 to week 07/2010  ...
Population-based laboratory surveillance for AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Calgary.. Pitout JD1, Gregson DB, ... Population-based Laboratory Surveillance for AmpC β-Lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Calgary ... Population-based Laboratory Surveillance for AmpC β-Lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Calgary ... Population-based Laboratory Surveillance for AmpC β-Lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Calgary ...
To the Editor, we read with interest the editorial by Chambers et al1 exploring the issue of dental surveillance in the UK and ... This editorial highlights the requirement for comprehensive dental surveillance to detect and manage poor oral health (a ... The authors comment that approximately 30% of the population do not attend … ...
... pollutant concentrations in microenvironments and population time-activity patterns are required. To date, population exposure ... In this study, the latest trends in published papers on the assessment of population exposure to air pollution were reviewed. ... develop an environmental health surveillance system that evaluates the distribution of air pollution exposure for a population ... To assess exposure of an entire population of a community in a highly polluted area, ...
Generic protocol for population-based surveillance of haemophilus influenzae type B / prepared by Orin S. Levine ... [‎et al.]‎ ... Protocole générique de surveillance des populations pour haemophilus influenzae type b. ... 1998)‎. Protocole générique de surveillance des populations pour haemophilus influenzae type b. Genève : Organisation ... population-based surveillance study / Mira Kojouharova ... [‎et al.]‎  ...
Active, Population-Based Surveillance for Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in the United States. Daniel C. Payne, ... population-based surveillance. In 2006, a new vaccine for the prevention of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by rotavirus ( ... In active, population-based, NVSN surveillance, 301.0 per 10 000 children ,3 years of age had ED visits attributable to ... Because limited population-based, laboratory-confirmed, active surveillance data on severe rotavirus existed,8 the Centers for ...
There are an increasing number of geo-coded information streams available which could improve public health surveillance ... Human population data was obtained from the Finnish Population Register Centre [13]. However, the population variation between ... Towards integrated surveillance of zoonoses: spatiotemporal joint modeling of rodent population data and human tularemia cases ... In this research, we attempted to assess the surveillance relevance of regularly collected rodent population data to i) improve ...
Seeing population: census and surveillance by numbers.. In: Ball, Kirstie; Haggerty, Kevin and Lyon, David eds. Routledge ... The chapter outlines how the development of population censuses and their alternatives such as population registers and ... That is, it investigates how the gaze of these devices is fixed on surveilling whole populations and governing by numbers. ... Rather than being more or less surveillant or constituting better and cheaper information about populations it argues that ...
Optimal M-Switch Surveillance Policies for Liver Cancer in Hepatitis C-Infected Population. ... Although surveillance for HCC in hepatitis C patients can improve survival, the optimal surveillance policies remain unknown. ... We theoretically analyze the HCC surveillance problem, characterize when the surveillance policies should be adapted to ... Optimal M-Switch Surveillance Policies for Liver Cancer in Hepatitis C-Infected Population (May 10, 2017). Available at SSRN: ...
Surveillance improves survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective population-based study. ... Secondly, effective surveillance might be best achieved with a national HCC surveillance program. HCC fulfils many of the ... Surveillance was associated with improved survival. Despite the acknowledged role of HCC surveillance in managing cirrhosis, ... One hundred and ten patients (40%) were participating in surveillance at the time of HCC diagnosis; surveillance data were ...
Adolescents and young adults: a neglected population group for tuberculosis surveillance. Alberto L. García-Basteiro, H. Simon ... Adolescents and young adults: a neglected population group for tuberculosis surveillance. Alberto L. García-Basteiro, H. Simon ... Adolescents and young adults: a neglected population group for tuberculosis surveillance. Alberto L. García-Basteiro, H. Simon ... Adolescents and young adults: a neglected population group for tuberculosis surveillance Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ...
Population Surveillance Prevalence Risk factors Risk-Taking Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology Turkey - epidemiology ... Population Surveillance Retrospective Studies Risk factors Siberia - epidemiology Socioeconomic Factors Survival Rate Urban ... Population Surveillance Prevalence Psychiatric Status Rating Scales Time Factors Abstract. This study set out to estimate the ... Population Surveillance Prospective Studies Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt Sex Distribution Abstract. PURPOSE: To examine the ...
A combination of data obtained by classical epidemiological techniques with insights gained from the analysis of the population ... Maiden M.C.J., Begg N.T. (2001) Overview: Epidemiology, Surveillance, and Population Biology. In: Walker J.M., Pollard A.J., ... Barcelona Meningococcal Disease Surveillance Group. Arch. Intern. Med. 159, 2329-2340.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Maiden M. C. J. and Feavers I. M. (1995) Population genetics and global epidemiology of the human pathogen Neisseria ...
Most infectious disease surveillance maintains a single-disease focus, but broader testing of existing serologic surveys with ... In this perspective, we highlight multiple areas for potential synergy where integrated surveillance could add more value to ... Throughout, we illustrate how information generated through integrated surveillance platforms can create new opportunities to ... multiplex antibody assays would create new opportunities for integrated surveillance. ...
Identification of Streptococcus suis Meningitis through Population-Based Surveillance, Togo, 2010-2014 On This Page ... Identification of Streptococcus suis Meningitis through Population-Based Surveillance, Togo, 2010-2014. Emerging Infectious ... Identification of Streptococcus suis Meningitis through Population-Based Surveillance, Togo, 2010-2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016; ... Identification of Streptococcus suis Meningitis through Population-Based Surveillance, Togo, 2010-2014. ...
... a population based clinical outcomes study involving 257 patients from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end result (SEER) ... A Population Based Clinical Outcomes Study Involving 22,343 Patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result ... Data for the current study was extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database provided by the ... Table 1: Annual cases of gallbladder carcinoma from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database (1973-2013). ...
For France, the surveillance cost represented 4.4% of the cost of colorectal cancer management. The cost of surveillance should ... Estimating the cost related to surveillance of colorectal cancer in a French population ... Estimating the cost related to surveillance of colorectal cancer in a French population. European Journal of Health Economics, ... to estimate surveillance costs if French guidelines are respected, and to identify the determinants related to surveillance ...
UN Population Award. *Frequently asked questions. *What we do*Sexual & reproductive health*Family planning ... Maternal death surveillance and response: technical guidance. Information for action to prevent maternal death. ... Maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) contributes to better information for action by promoting routine ... Home Publications Maternal death surveillance and response: technical guidance. Information for action to prevent maternal ...
UN Population Award. *Frequently asked questions. *Corporate Environmental Responsibility in UNFPA. *Topics*Sexual & ... Maternal death surveillance and response: technical guidance. Information for action to prevent maternal death. ... Maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR) contributes to better information for action by promoting routine ... Home Publications Maternal death surveillance and response: technical guidance. Information for action to prevent maternal ...
  • Population-based active surveillance can complement routine passive sentinel surveillance systems by providing important public health data and insights into the complex epidemiology of influenza. (who.int)
  • Maiden M. C. J. and Feavers I. M. (1995) Population genetics and global epidemiology of the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis , in Population Genetics of Bacteria (Baumberg S., Young J. P. W., Wellington E. M. H., and Saunders J. R., eds. (springer.com)
  • Data for the current study was extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database provided by the National Cancer Institute between 1973 and 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Information on the epidemiology of HPE is limited, both because few population-based studies have been reported, and because small Studies must observe a greater number of years in order to accumulate sufficient numbers of births for a reliable estimate. (diva-portal.org)
  • To further investigate the epidemiology of Q fever in Cyprus, we conducted the current study by establishing active surveillance of Q fever, to detect clinical cases in real time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 4. Illustrate how descriptive epidemiology can be used to quantify population disease burden and support surveillance. (uwo.ca)
  • Waheed A, Cason F D (December 05, 2019) Adjuvant Radiation Survival Benefits in Patients with Stage 1B Rectal Cancer: A Population-based Study from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result Database (1973-2010). (cureus.com)
  • Demographic and clinical data on 4,054 Stage 1B rectal cancer patients were abstracted from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result (SEER) database (1973-2010). (cureus.com)
  • Regional Epidemiology of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Among Adult Intensive Care Unit Patients Following State-Mandated Active Surveillance. (rush.edu)
  • Continued surveillance will be important to monitor the epidemiology of candidemia and to detect emergence of resistance to azoles. (oup.com)
  • The so called '2nd generation surveillance (SGS) systems' aim to enhance surveillance by broadening the range of indicators to prevalence, behaviors and correlates, for a better understanding and a more complete and timely awareness of evolving epidemics. (arctichealth.org)
  • Crude prevalence estimates of equivocal and seropositive results were calculated and further adjusted accounting for clustered sampling and standardized for age, sex and population per province, according to the Belgian population structure in 2014. (springer.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data do not suggest large differences in total prevalence of HPE among the studied Populations that would be useful to generate etiological hypotheses. (diva-portal.org)
  • While HIV prevalence may remain an important surveillance indicator, it will increasingly confound the magnitude of the epidemic and the success in providing treatment. (upenn.edu)
  • In an attempt to obtain geographically more representative estimates of HIV prevalence, many countries are now also conducting national population-based surveys in which HIV testing is included. (bmj.com)
  • We compare adult HIV prevalence estimates from antenatal clinic surveillance to those from national population-based surveys to assess the implications for calibrating surveillance data. (bmj.com)
  • HIV prevalence estimates derived from fitting prevalence curves to antenatal clinic surveillance data are statistically compared to prevalence from national population-based surveys using data from 26 countries with generalised epidemics for the year in which the survey was conducted. (bmj.com)
  • Appropriate transformations are applied to inform the correction factors needed to adjust prevalence in countries where population-based surveys have not been conducted. (bmj.com)
  • HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data generally overestimate population-based survey prevalence by about 20% (95% confidence interval: 10% to 30%) in both urban and rural areas. (bmj.com)
  • In countries where national population-based HIV surveys have been conducted, survey estimates of HIV prevalence (adjusted for potential survey biases as appropriate) can be used directly to calibrate antenatal clinic surveillance data. (bmj.com)
  • In countries where national HIV surveys have not been conducted, HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data should be multiplied by about 0.8 to adjust for overestimation. (bmj.com)
  • 1 In countries with generalised HIV epidemics, defined by UNAIDS and the World Health Organization as countries where adult prevalence is firmly established in the general population and transmission occurs mostly through heterosexual sex, 2 annual HIV surveillance among pregnant women attending public-sector antenatal clinics has over time become the primary source of data on the spread of HIV. (bmj.com)
  • 4 While national population-based surveys provide better coverage of the general population, sentinel surveillance provide important information on prevalence trends over time. (bmj.com)
  • To describe patterns, sources and consequences of bias in antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV prevalence estimates in a high contraceptive prevalence population. (nih.gov)
  • As in high fertility populations, HIV prevalence is higher in pregnant women at young ages and lower at older ages but the crossover point occurs later due to delayed sexual activity. (nih.gov)
  • ANC estimates understate female HIV prevalence in this low fertility population but, here, the primary cause is not selection of pregnant women. (nih.gov)
  • outline ethical issues of "improving" surveillance through the use of biometric identification (i.e. fingerprints, iris scanning) with a specific focus on hyper-criminalized communities who also are communities that have high prevalence of HIV-e.g., sex workers and people who inject drugs. (hivlawandpolicy.org)
  • The sentinel surveillance method (HIV prevalence: antenatal clinic 3%, STI clinic 22.8%, female sex workers 12.8%) led to an estimate of 112635 (4.38%) people with HIV, 15-49 years old, in Guntur district, which was 2.5 times the 45942 (1.79%) estimate based on our population-based study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In regions of high cost, prevalence could in fact be average, or better, meaning this high cost exists due to population density and the frequency of a health related need. (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • Some companies or agencies like to add such measures as prevalence or incidence to their metrics for the population under review, trying to combine together two opposing ideologies- trying to make people healthier and trying to reduce financial losses thereby increasing corporate income. (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends passive health-provider based surveillance, or "sentinel surveillance", for influenza-like illness (ILI) 4 because it is simple and calls for standardized methods costing relatively little that can be implemented throughout the world. (who.int)
  • OBJECTIVES: HIV/AIDS surveillance methods are under revision as the diversity of HIV epidemics is becoming more apparent. (arctichealth.org)
  • In recognition of the importance of the multi-disciplinary approach necessary to establish these insights, this section contains chapters ranging from outbreak management through surveillance and isolate characterization techniques to phylogenetic methods. (springer.com)
  • First, we argue that antibody-based methods provide a unique opportunity to augment and integrate surveillance across diverse global health initiatives. (cdc.gov)
  • Serological surveillance, based on the measurement of the presence of specific antibodies in a given population, can be used in addition to traditional and routine disease surveillance methods. (springer.com)
  • Methods: We use data for females aged 15-49 from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (1993-2013). (diva-portal.org)
  • METHODS: We collected data from 2000 through 2004 from 24 of the 46 Birth Defects Registry Members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. (diva-portal.org)
  • Methods -Colonoscopic surveillance in all patients with UC who had died from colorectal cancer after 1975 was compared with that in controls matched for age, sex, extent, and duration of the disease. (bmj.com)
  • Methods Two separate national surveillance studies were conducted on CZS and severe microcephaly using the well-established Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program from 2016 to 2019. (bmj.com)
  • This article highlights methods of EHR-based surveillance of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and describes a model of population-level EHR-based surveillance of CHD risk factors that is being used in the Heart of New Ulm (HONU) project, an ongoing 10-year study designed to reduce the rate of myocardial infarctions (MIs) in a rural area of southwestern Minnesota. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Methods Population-based mortality follow-back study via Sentinel Networks of general practitioners (GPs) in Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain. (bmj.com)
  • The health care reform has taken precedence over other research activities, and the Institute is anticipating changes to population health surveillance methods. (uwo.ca)
  • The Institute elected a new Director General in the fall of 2018 who will influence decisions about which population surveillance data collection methods are used. (uwo.ca)
  • 1. Compare alternative methods for collecting population health data using knowledge of study designs to analyze strengths and inherent sources of bias for each method. (uwo.ca)
  • Methods: Cases of elective cervical cerclage were matched for maternal age, ethnic group, previous cervical surgery, previous second trimester loss and early preterm delivery to women undergoing serial ultrasound surveillance of cervical length. (afar.info)
  • Before its widespread adoption for surveillance purposes, there is a need to standardise DNA extraction methods, recording and reporting nomenclature, and data interpretation. (up.ac.za)
  • In order to insure timely disease intervention for optimal animal health, surveillance methods and sampling options need to be readily available. (iastate.edu)
  • In order to understand population status from a collection of individual samples, diagnostic and sampling methods require evaluation. (iastate.edu)
  • In continuation of the study of disease surveillance methods, the objective of the first research paper (Chapter 2) was to evaluate different sample collection techniques for the early detection Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in a boar stud population based in individual sampling techniques. (iastate.edu)
  • Combined with a proficient and reasonably well-equipped laboratory, passive ILI surveillance can provide information on seasonal trends, give early indication of increased disease incidence and lead to typing of circulating influenza viruses, including variant strains considered for inclusion in future vaccines against novel influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. (who.int)
  • Age- and sex-specific incidence of AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates per 100,000 population, Calgary Health Region, 2000-2003. (nih.gov)
  • A case study is provided of spatiotemporal modeling of human tularemia incidence and rodent population data from Finnish health care districts during years 1995-2012. (springer.com)
  • We theoretically analyze the HCC surveillance problem, characterize when the surveillance policies should be adapted to populations with different disease progression rates, and quantify the trade-off between decreasing HCC incidence and increasing treatment outcomes. (ssrn.com)
  • "CDC has created an HIV incidence surveillance system in selected areas of the United States as a component of its national human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) reporting system.1 The purpose of the new system. (natap.org)
  • comprehensive surveillance systems are essential for HIV incidence estimation. (natap.org)
  • All states are now implementing confidential, name-based HIV surveillance, and national data on HIV diagnoses and incidence likely will continue to improve. (natap.org)
  • CDC has created an HIV incidence surveillance system in selected areas of the United States as a component of its national human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) reporting system.1 The purpose of the new system is to estimate the number of new HIV infections occurring each year in the United States. (natap.org)
  • The new incidence data will help guide local, state, and national intervention measures tailored to those populations at greatest risk for HIV infection. (natap.org)
  • The ability to distinguish recent from long-standing HIV infection using a serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS)3-4 enabled development of the new national HIV incidence surveillance system and integration with the established national HIV/AIDS reporting system.1 HIV surveillance data, testing and treatment history, and STARHS results are now used to estimate HIV incidence using a stratified extrapolation approach. (natap.org)
  • The human incidence rate was estimated at 1.2 per 100,000 population per year. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sensitivity of AFP surveillance to detect serotype 1 poliovirus infection in a district and its neighbours per month was on average 30.0% (95% CI 24.8-35.8) and increased with the incidence of poliomyelitis cases. (springer.com)
  • EHR disease detection algorithms combined laboratory reports, diagnosis codes, and medication orders to identify cases and, in the case of Lyme disease, found incidence rates 4-7 times higher than those from traditional surveillance. (populationmedicine.org)
  • The average annual incidence of candidemia at both sites was 8 per 100,000 population. (oup.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The suggested approach should lead to more complete and timely information for public health interventions, however there is a clear need for comparative validation studies to assess the validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of traditional and enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance systems. (arctichealth.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Geographic atrophy is the predominant type of AMD in Iceland, and the ratio of GA to neovascular AMD is higher than in racially similar populations. (arctichealth.org)
  • Little is known about costs related to the surveillance of patients that have undergone curative resection of colorectal cancer. (lse.ac.uk)
  • For France, the surveillance cost represented 4.4% of the cost of colorectal cancer management. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Is colonoscopic surveillance reducing colorectal cancer mortality in ulcerative colitis? (bmj.com)
  • Background -Colonoscopic surveillance is a standard procedure in many patients with long standing, extensive ulcerative colitis (UC), in order to avoid death from colorectal cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Aims -To evaluate the association between colonoscopic surveillance and colorectal cancer mortality in patients with UC. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion -Colonoscopic surveillance may be associated with a decreased risk of death from colorectal cancer in patients with long standing UC. (bmj.com)
  • 16-18 In order to evaluate the impact of colonoscopic surveillance on colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality in patients with UC, a nested case control study was performed using observational data from a large population based cohort of patients with UC. (bmj.com)
  • Adenoma detection rate metrics in colorectal cancer surveillance colonoscopy. (rush.edu)
  • Surveillance involves testing people who have previously had colorectal cancer or polyps. (bowelandkeyholeclinic.com)
  • HCC surveillance facilitates diagnosis at a stage of disease when curative treatments are effective, and is associated with reduced mortality. (mja.com.au)
  • Based on a rigorous compilation of mortality data over two decades, this paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the epidemiological transition in a rural South African population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We estimate overall and cause-specific hazards of death as functions of sex, age and time period from mortality data from the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System and conduct statistical tests of changes and differentials to assess the progression of the epidemiological transition over the period 1993-2013. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From the early 1990s until 2007 the population experienced a reversal in its epidemiological transition, driven mostly by increased HIV/AIDS and TB related mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over time, mortality and disease patterns in human populations transition from very high and fluctuating mortality concentrated at younger ages and largely caused by infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies to relatively stable low mortality concentrated at older ages and largely caused by non-communicable diseases and injuries - the 'epidemiological transition' [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Introduction : Data on diabetes morbidity and mortality and the quality of care among U.S. minority populations are necessary to assess progress toward eliminating racial/ethnic disparities and to design and implement effective interventions. (cdc.gov)
  • Possible VAPs missed by VAE surveillance are associated with lower mortality rates than VAEs and have similar outcomes whether treated with ≤3 days of antibiotics or more conventional courses, suggesting VAE focuses surveillance on severe events. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Immediately a system of surveillance of morbidity and mortality from malaria was set up. (msf.org)
  • Little is known of the empirical basis for mortality statistics in China, which accounts for roughly one-fifth of the world's population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Ministry of Health introduced the Disease Surveillance Point System in 1980, to generate cause specific mortality statistics from a nationally representative sample of sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In general, such sample based mortality registration systems hold much promise as models for rapidly improving knowledge about levels and causes of mortality in other low-income populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We focus on vital registration because we consider it as the 'gold standard' for mortality statistics, since it provides population level data on causes of death on an annual basis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, censuses and annual population change surveys do not provide routine information on causes of death, retrospective surveys could be affected by recall bias, and the child mortality surveillance system does not inform about causes of death or adult mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The geographic scope of NCD as an important population heath issue, and causing significant premature mortality, now covers most middle income countries, and some high income and upper low income countries, with both significant increases and decreases in premature mortality from various NCDs over the 20th Century, and to the present time. (edu.au)
  • This provides essential strategic information needed for design, implementation and evaluation of effective and cost-effective interventions at a population level to reduce morbidity and premature mortality from these illnesses. (edu.au)
  • The research focus is on tracking trends in NCD risk factors and premature mortality (by cause) at a population level, determining the effects of NCD premature mortality on trends in overall mortality and life expectancy, relating changes in risk factors to changes in mortality, and modelling likely effects of various types of population interventions on premature mortality and morbidity. (edu.au)
  • Abstract Currently about 160 population-based cancer registries (CRs) in Europe have extensive experience in generating valid information on variation in cancer risk and survival with time and place. (eur.nl)
  • Another major limitation of passive surveillance is the lack of a precise population denominator from which to calculate attack rates and disease burden without resorting to additional studies, especially in developing countries, where accurate data on demographics and health service usage are rarely available. (who.int)
  • The main advantage of population-based influenza surveillance is that it provides the data needed to determine the population at risk of infection and to calculate from it accurate attack rates and disease burden. (who.int)
  • The objectives of ANISA are to establish a comprehensive surveillance system for registering newborns in study catchment areas and collecting data on bacterial and viral etiology and associated risk factors for infections among young infants aged 0-59 days. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The data generated from this surveillance will help guide evidence-based decision making to improve health care in similar settings. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • To date, population exposure to air pollutants has been assessed using air monitoring data from fixed atmospheric monitoring stations, atmospheric dispersion modeling, or spatial interpolation techniques for pollutant concentrations. (mdpi.com)
  • Because limited population-based, laboratory-confirmed, active surveillance data on severe rotavirus existed, 8 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) undertook such an effort. (aappublications.org)
  • To this end, we develop a spatiotemporal joint modeling framework to integrate human case data and animal host data to offer a modeling alternative for combining multiple surveillance data streams in a novel way. (springer.com)
  • A combination of data obtained by classical epidemiological techniques with insights gained from the analysis of the population biology of Neisseria meningitidis have proved to be critical in understanding the spread of menin-gococcal disease. (springer.com)
  • The potential to combine public health and environmental surveillance data with innovations in machine learning, statistical modeling, and data visualization has contributed to an emerging vision of precision public health, the idea that global health programs should use high-resolution data to guide interventions and direct scarce resources to those who would benefit most ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Finally, we draw on innovations in laboratory and data science to suggest key ingredients for an integrated serologic surveillance (serosurveillance) platform. (cdc.gov)
  • Seroprevalence studies within risk groups or risk areas in Belgium could provide a useful alternative approach to complement routine surveillance data of Lyme borreliosis. (springer.com)
  • CDC conducted a more detailed analysis of data from the new surveillance system. (natap.org)
  • Estimates of the impact of HIV in countries with generalised epidemics are generally based on antenatal clinic surveillance data collected over time. (bmj.com)
  • HIV surveillance in Africa relies on data from pregnant women attending ANCs. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of parallel cross-sectional population and antenatal survey data from rural Zimbabwe, where 60% of women are recent contraceptive users. (nih.gov)
  • This offers a major advantage for epidemiological researchers who have difficulty collecting community-wide data in areas beyond the reach of existing surveillance systems. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At the population level, surveillance of CHD events is sometimes performed using aggregated administrative data. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The value of population-based studies of quality of oncologic care and mass screening and the flawless reputation with regard to data protection of intensively used CRs in the northwest of Europe offered a sharp contrast, although they also follow the 1995 EU guideline on data protection. (eur.nl)
  • The Health Monitoring Unit at the Institute fears that the Director General will decide that all surveillance data will be collected using administrative patient registries with the consequent elimination of population health surveys. (uwo.ca)
  • The team responsible for the 2017 National FinHealth population health survey must determine how they can advocate for the continued use of survey data in population health surveillance. (uwo.ca)
  • 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages associated with alternative sources of population health data? (uwo.ca)
  • This study provides trend data for vulnerable women in Hargeisa, by establishing a third data point for HIV surveillance with the same population, over nine years. (iom.int)
  • Populations of wild vertebrates living in southern polar areas are increasingly the subject of threats from infectious diseases, which can add to other environmental threats, and it is becoming critical to establish baseline data and sound understanding of the dynamics of host-parasite interactions in these systems. (institut-polaire.fr)
  • Unfortunately, however, public health administrators do not use these categories to assess the safety of using surveillance to measure data points in certain communities. (hivlawandpolicy.org)
  • Further work is needed to better define the clinical significance of VAPs missed by VAE surveillance, to rigorously evaluate the impact of an optimized VAE prevention bundle on VAEs and other outcomes, and to weigh whether these additional data provide adequate evidence to support mandating VAE surveillance and prevention. (populationmedicine.org)
  • A wide variety of EHR data is used in infectious disease surveillance. (populationmedicine.org)
  • As public health infrastructure and investment allow health departments to establish closer relationships with healthcare providers, EHR data use in public health surveillance activities should continue to increase. (populationmedicine.org)
  • More efforts in epidemiological and laboratory early screening and surveillance of highly pathogenic germs/microbes, and confirmation of asymptomatic and syndromic cases amongst suspected Hajj and Umrah pilgrims, local vulnerable populations and expatriate workers is vital in generating reliable data and data sharing platform for timely risk communication and tourist information update, appropriate immunization campaigns or safe and efficacious care delivery implementation. (bvsalud.org)
  • It suggests, however, given the significant estate tax considerations that surround the timing of a death, that this is an issue that calls for a registry with ongoing " Big Data " style surveillance. (blogspot.com)
  • The Compensation Research Database (CRD) established at the Institute for Safety Compensation and Recovery Research at Monash University, holds over 20 years of population-based data for transport and workplace injury in the state of Victoria, Australia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Variations in the population size classes corresponded significantly to the ambient water temperature explaining ~70% variation of the data observed on the population abundance of guppy. (scitechnol.com)
  • Significant differences in the composition of the macro invertebrates (prospective prey) and the guppy population was observed, that could be represented through a Principal component analysis which explained for more than 60% variations of the data obtained on the relative abundance of the representative members of the aquatic community. (scitechnol.com)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden among adults in India is estimated officially by direct extrapolation of annual sentinel surveillance data from public-sector antenatal and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and some high-risk groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We calculated the number of people with HIV in Guntur district based on these data, compared it with the estimate using the sentinel surveillance data and method, and analysed health services use data to understand the differences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lung function data and detailed work histories for workers in recovery coke ovens of a steelworks were extracted from a lung function surveillance system. (bmj.com)
  • In the fields of demographics and public health, a demographic surveillance system (DSS), also called a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS), gathers longitudinal health and demographic data for a dynamic cohort of the total population in a specified geographic area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tracking population migration is particularly important for understanding of HDSS data. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are other demographic and health data gathering programs similar to DSS that are not part of INDEPTH, such as the Sample Registration system in India and the Disease Surveillance Points system in China. (wikipedia.org)
  • Should Data from Demographic Surveillance Systems Be Made More Widely Available to Researchers? (wikipedia.org)
  • BND) transfers "massive amounts of intercepted data to the NSA", while Swedish Television revealed the National Defence Radio Establishment (FRA) provided the NSA with data from its cable collection, under a secret treaty signed in 1954 for bilateral cooperation on surveillance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surveillance for chronic kidney disease (CKD) using nationally representative samples of the US population is central in providing information about the magnitude and trends in CKD burden that will guide disease management and prevention planning for clinicians and public health authorities. (nih.gov)
  • Concerns about the limitations associated with antenatal clinic surveillance have in recent years led to an increase in the number of countries conducting large national population-based surveys in which HIV testing has been included. (bmj.com)
  • These surveys are geographically more representative than antenatal clinic surveillance and include samples from urban and rural areas, men and women and different age groups. (bmj.com)
  • Eighty-one seronegative humans and 239 seronegative animals from both villages participated in the first phase surveillance period of Q fever. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During the second phase of surveillance, 82 humans, 100 goats, and 76 sheep were considered suspected cases of Q fever. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I say, "appear to be," because no good, population-based study had been carried out to date. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In this study, the latest trends in published papers on the assessment of population exposure to air pollution were reviewed. (mdpi.com)
  • Subsequently, this study proposes a methodology that will enable policymakers to develop an environmental health surveillance system that evaluates the distribution of air pollution exposure for a population within a target area and establish countermeasures based on advanced exposure assessment. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we develop a mixed-integer programming (MIP)-based framework to systematically analyze a rich set of policies and determine the optimal HCC surveillance policies with the maximum societal net benefit. (ssrn.com)
  • Prospective population-based cohort study of patients newly diagnosed with HCC in seven tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, 1 July 2012 - 30 June 2013. (mja.com.au)
  • DESIGN: Population-based, prospective cohort study. (arctichealth.org)
  • The aim of this study was to calculate the observed surveillance costs for 385 patients followed-up over a 3-year period, to estimate surveillance costs if French guidelines are respected, and to identify the determinants related to surveillance costs to derive a global estimation for France, using a linear mixed model. (lse.ac.uk)
  • The objective of this study was to create a nomogram model integrating clinical and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI)-based variables to predict prostate cancer upgrading in a population of active surveillance (AS) patients. (ovid.com)
  • In the second phase of the study, active surveillance for one year was conducted in the entire Cyprus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main objectives of this study were to conduct active surveillance of Q fever, initially in "high risk" regions of Cyprus (VIL1 and VIL2) and afterwards in the entire human and animal population of Cyprus, to detect acute clinical cases of the disease and assess the pathogenicity of C. burnetii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The overall aim of this study was to assess if the small number of reported acute clinical cases of Q fever in the local population of Cyprus, despite the high seroprevalence (52.7%) identified in previous studies, is due to under diagnosis of Q fever or to under reporting of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patients -A population based, nested case control study comprising 142 patients with a definite UC diagnosis, derived from a study population of 4664 patients with UC, was conducted. (bmj.com)
  • The study population consisted of all patients with UC diagnosed in Stockholm County between 1955 and 1984 19 and in the Uppsala Health Care Region between 1965 and 1983, 20 who were 10 years of age or more at the time of UC diagnosis and had at least five years duration of disease since diagnosis. (bmj.com)
  • Populations of vertebrates breeding in colonies are especially important to study in those respects because they are distributed in very discrete units among and within which the transmission of infectious agents can be affected by various processes and can lead to disease outbreaks than can affect hundreds to thousands of individuals at the same time. (institut-polaire.fr)
  • We conducted a prospective, population-based study in one community to examine the frequency of recovery of uropathogenic E. coli genotypes from retail meat samples. (asm.org)
  • Occurrence of shigellosis in the young and elderly in rural China: results of a 12-month population-based surveillance study. (tropmedres.ac)
  • In 2002, population- and treatment center-based surveillance was used to study the disease burden of shigellosis in rural Hebei Province in the People's Republic of China. (tropmedres.ac)
  • The validity of these extrapolations has not been systematically examined with a large sample population-based study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The new Active surveillance was not implemented according to published protocols in 73.5% of men diagnosed with low risk prostate cancer in this Victorian cohort study. (mja.com.au)
  • Studies of Quality of Life and overall population health often never become a part of the study. (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • Design Population-based cross-sectional study using a complex survey sampling design. (bmj.com)
  • In the Calgary Health Region during 2000-2003, prospective, active, population-based laboratory surveillance for all cefoxitin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates was performed. (nih.gov)
  • This surveillance system establishes baseline estimates of rotavirus disease burden and allows for the prospective monitoring of rotavirus vaccination impact. (aappublications.org)
  • This surveillance is needed to assess the effectiveness of vaccination through prospective, direct monitoring of the burden of disease caused by rotavirus and the genotypes of circulating rotavirus strains. (aappublications.org)
  • A 1-y prospective population-based survey of Lyme borreliosis was conducted in southern Sweden between 1992 and 1993. (arctichealth.org)
  • We conducted prospective, active population-based surveillance for candidemia (defined as any Candida species isolated from blood) in Atlanta and San Francisco (total population, 5.34 million) during 1992-1993. (oup.com)
  • That is, it investigates how the gaze of these devices is fixed on surveilling whole populations and governing by numbers. (open.ac.uk)
  • Secret legal authorities empowered the NSA to sweep in the telephone, Internet and location records of whole populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Describing and understanding factors affecting the distribution and circulation of infectious agents in animal populations is important for basic and applied reasons. (institut-polaire.fr)
  • Swine disease surveillance is of great importance to the swine industry in order to raise and provide healthy animal populations. (iastate.edu)
  • These researchers also explain what efforts to track these diseases among people, and the movement of the pathogens in the environment, reveal about how infection moves from animals to people, especially among vulnerable populations. (nap.edu)
  • Tetanus immunity among women aged 15 to 39 years in Cambodia: a national population-based serosurvey, 2012. (cdc.gov)
  • In this perspective, we encourage an integrated approach to surveillance of population immunity and infectious disease transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Facility-based sentinel surveillance of HIV has been recommended for monitoring the HIV epidemic since the mid-1980s, mainly because of easy access to people attending public health facilities. (bmj.com)
  • Both sentinel surveillance and population-based surveys have strengths and weaknesses, but taken together provide complementary information and can provide a clearer picture of both overall trends and geographical distribution of HIV in a country. (bmj.com)
  • Of women who had become pregnant during the past 2 years, 21.1% had used antenatal care in large public-sector hospitals participating in sentinel surveillance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine the factors associated with survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the effect of HCC surveillance on survival. (mja.com.au)
  • Given the major expense and expertise required for large, traditional epidemiological surveillance options and the fact that EHRs are becoming more common, there is great potential to use a new paradigm for population-level surveillance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Manna B, Banerjee S, Aditya G (2016) Population Surveillance of Poecilia reticulata in Kolkata, India: Implications in Mosquito Regulation. (scitechnol.com)
  • Figure 5-1 in particular highlighted the relevant partners that are critical to the effort of advancing population health objectives, including the community, other government agencies, the education sector, nonprofit organizations, the media, employers and businesses, and the clinical care system. (nap.edu)
  • To assess exposure of an entire population of a community in a highly polluted area, pollutant concentrations in microenvironments and population time-activity patterns are required. (mdpi.com)
  • Infectious disease surveillance aims to assess the size of a health problem (disease burden), to identify high risk groups and/or areas to target interventions, to monitor trends and to detect outbreaks, in order to guide public health practice. (springer.com)
  • The project aims to 1) determine the extent to which current systems meet user requirements 2) assess utility and reliability of these systems specifically for active populations and 3) develop recommendations for future systems development and improved user application. (monash.edu)
  • RESULTS: The scope of HIV/AIDS surveillance needs to be broadened following principles of SGS. (arctichealth.org)
  • The distribution of new HIV infections in 2006 demonstrates that, more than 25 years after the first report of AIDS, the disease continues to affect the MSM population more than any other in the United States. (natap.org)
  • The table below summarizes the population under surveillance and isolate collection for each pathogen and state as of January 2018. (cdc.gov)
  • Electronic Health Record Use in Public Health Infectious Disease Surveillance, USA, 2018-2019. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Passive sentinel influenza surveillance, however, only detects symptomatic cases severe enough to prompt the patient to seek health care and could easily miss mild cases in an incipient pandemic and delay the recognition of an outbreak. (who.int)
  • As part of the National Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs in Pakistan, an integrated, systematic, and sustainable population-based NCD surveillance system is being established, and will be maintained and expanded over time. (nih.gov)
  • Lee, C. Environmental Health Surveillance System for a Population Using Advanced Exposure Assessment. (mdpi.com)
  • Yang W, Park J, Cho M, Lee C, Lee J, Lee C. Environmental Health Surveillance System for a Population Using Advanced Exposure Assessment. (mdpi.com)
  • Population-based, laboratory-confirmed rotavirus surveillance in the final rotavirus season before implementation of the US rotavirus vaccine program indicated a considerable burden of disease on the US health care system. (aappublications.org)
  • We retrospectively characterized HCC surveillance among cirrhosis patients followed between January 2010 and December 2012 at an integrated health care delivery system in Washington state. (ovid.com)
  • As ES for poliovirus is expanded, it will be important to identify factors associated with variation in site sensitivity, leading to improved site selection and surveillance system performance. (springer.com)
  • Similarly, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 5 a very large national survey, provides national and state-level estimates on behavioral risk factors such as smoking, but it does not permit reliable estimates of such risk factors at smaller geographical levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The UK Obstetric Surveillance System for rare disorders of pregnancy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Chinese vital registration system currently covers 41 urban and 85 rural centres, accounting for roughly 8 % of the national population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this paper, we review the history of vital registration in China, and describe the establishment and operation of the Chinese Disease Surveillance Points (DSP) system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, as discussed in Chapter 5 , implementing population-level improvements is the responsibility of the entire population health system, including all the healthy system's stakeholders. (nap.edu)
  • At present, there is no long-term investment in surveillance and research to identify the most at-risk populations, associated risk and protective factors, cost-effective treatments, and efficient health care and public health system models to expand access to care. (nap.edu)
  • The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system, maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), utilizes state health departments to actively collect information describing the public health consequences of acute hazardous substances incidents. (cdc.gov)
  • The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) maintained the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system from 1990-2009. (cdc.gov)
  • A lung function surveillance system has operated from 18 October 1978 at the recovery coke ovens of a steelworks. (bmj.com)
  • Since 2 July 1990, the surveillance system has continued with reselected surveillance parameters and modified assessment of smoking. (bmj.com)
  • Of the 1727 subjects who ever worked in relatively highly exposed positions of coke ovens and hence were eligible to be registered in the surveillance system, 324 with no lung function measurements were excluded, along with 22 females (too few for useful analysis), and four subjects of unstated sex. (bmj.com)
  • More than half (738) of the subjects in the surveillance system began their coke oven work long before the surveillance system started. (bmj.com)
  • Barton Gellman, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist who led The Washington Post's coverage of Snowden's disclosures, summarized the leaks as follows: Taken together, the revelations have brought to light a global surveillance system that cast off many of its historical restraints after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, most studies were performed in select patient populations, which may not be informative of practice patterns in population-based community practices. (ovid.com)
  • To characterise the practice of active surveillance (AS) for men with low risk prostate cancer by examining the characteristics of those who commence AS, the rate of adherence to accepted AS follow-up protocols over 2 years, and factors associated with good adherence. (mja.com.au)
  • Moreover, the emphasis in eye and vision care research has shifted away from more population-based studies that focus on the translation of clinical research into effective practice and the evaluation of specific interventions and programs to promote population health to research that focuses on the pathophysiology of disease and new treatments. (nap.edu)
  • Infection Surveillance Protocol for a Multicountry Population-bas. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • First, we find that, in addition to cirrhotic patients, expanding surveillance to patients in earlier stage of hepatitis C infection improves the cost-effectiveness of HCC surveillance. (ssrn.com)
  • Second, compared with the one-size-fits-all type routine policies, we find that it is cost-effective to stratify surveillance strategies based on the stage of hepatitis C infection with less frequent cancer surveillance in earlier stages of infection. (ssrn.com)
  • This framework was used to estimate the sensitivity of poliovirus detection from each surveillance source and parameters such as the duration of infection within a community. (springer.com)
  • HIV estimates from pregnant women understate female infection levels in low income, high fertility populations. (nih.gov)
  • A case of GAS infection was defined as isolation of GAS from a sterile site in a resident of a surveillance area who was pregnant or in the postpartum period. (oup.com)
  • Population-based approaches provide ideal platforms for the development of transmission models and for future testing of community control measures directed at influenza and other respiratory diseases, including both pharmaceutical (e.g. influenza vaccination) and non-pharmaceutical (e.g. hand washing) interventions. (who.int)
  • As the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication approaches, detection of poliovirus is critical and additional surveillance activities are important. (springer.com)
  • Enhanced surveillance and response approaches for pilgrims and local Saudi populations against emerging Nipah, Zika and Ebola viral diseases outbreaks threats. (bvsalud.org)
  • Consequently, promoting and investing on new and sensitive proven effective and innovative surveillance and monitoring approaches, including enhanced risk communication , improved integrated vectors surveillance in addition to improved sustainable highly pathogens surveillance control programs to human motility and environmental sanitation strategies all represent ' One Health ' approach implementation strategic core. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most infectious disease surveillance maintains a single-disease focus, but broader testing of existing serologic surveys with multiplex antibody assays would create new opportunities for integrated surveillance. (cdc.gov)
  • Characterize guideline-concordant HCC surveillance rates and patient-level factors associated with surveillance among a population-based cohort of patients with cirrhosis. (ovid.com)
  • However, most states further restrict the population for certain pathogens to ensure complete reporting. (cdc.gov)
  • Throughout, we illustrate how information generated through integrated surveillance platforms can create new opportunities to more quickly and precisely identify global health program gaps that range from undervaccination to emerging pathogens to multilayered health disparities that span diverse communicable diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Robust disease surveillance is a cornerstone of global health efforts that range from detecting emerging pathogens and epidemics to the control or elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases, HIV, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) ( http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/9789241564540/en/ ) ( 2 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We therefore evaluated the use of genetic sequencing for surveillance of drug resistance in tuberculosis. (up.ac.za)
  • INTERPRETATION : Genetic sequencing can be a valuable tool for surveillance of drug resistance, providing new opportunities to monitor drug resistance in tuberculosis in resource-poor countries. (up.ac.za)
  • Population-based laboratory surveillance for AmpC beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Calgary. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of field and expert laboratory microscopy for active surveillance for asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in western Thailand. (msf.org)
  • We began surveillance in May 2010 for acute bacterial meningitis in hospitals in 2 rural districts in Togo. (cdc.gov)
  • To support poliomyelitis eradication in Pakistan, environmental surveillance (ES) of wastewater has been expanded alongside surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). (springer.com)
  • Surveillance for poliomyelitis relies on investigation and reporting of children who develop acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). (springer.com)
  • The total population of Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) for invasive disease is approximately 45 million. (cdc.gov)
  • The total population of Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) for invasive disease is approximately 44.1 million. (cdc.gov)
  • Active surveillance of households can identify persons with ILI or with mild or even severe influenza-related illness who do not seek health care or who are kept from doing so by lack of time, financial constraints or cultural preferences. (who.int)
  • We are conducting active surveillance in 1 peri-urban and 4 rural communities. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The integration of magnetic resonance imaging findings with clinical parameters can add value to a model predicting upgrading from a Gleason score of 3 + 3 = 6 in men on active surveillance. (ovid.com)
  • This can potentially be used as a noninvasive approach for confirming active-surveillance patients with low-risk disease for whom biopsy may be deferred. (ovid.com)
  • A long-term active surveillance of Q fever was conducted in Cyprus organized in two phases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Generally, all CRs depended on their regional and/or national oncological context and were increasingly involved in population-based studies of quality of cancer care, long-term prognosis and quality of life, one third being very active. (eur.nl)
  • Purpose: Prior studies have reported the underuse of deferred treatment (ie active surveillance or watchful waiting) for low risk prostate cancer in the United States. (diva-portal.org)
  • We examined contemporary trends in active surveillance and watchful waiting in the nationwide Swedish prostate cancer registry. (diva-portal.org)
  • Subclassification of very low risk disease, and active surveillance vs watchful waiting was possible beginning in 2007. (diva-portal.org)
  • Active, population-based surveillance was conducted in 9 regions from 1995 through 2000. (oup.com)
  • The known Active surveillance is increasingly employed to manage men with low risk prostate cancer, both to avoid unnecessary treatment and to monitor them in a manner that allows detection of progression that would justify deferred radical treatment. (mja.com.au)
  • The implications The reasons for poor adherence to active surveillance require further investigation. (mja.com.au)
  • Low risk prostate cancer is increasingly being managed with active surveillance (AS). (mja.com.au)
  • All in all, CRs are likely to remain unique sources of independent expert information on the burden of cancer, indispensable for cancer surveillance, with increased attention to cancer survivors, up to 4% of the population. (eur.nl)
  • Investments in the expanding CR network across Europe offer an excellent way forward for comparative future cancer surveillance with so many epidemiologic and clinical changes ahead. (eur.nl)
  • These media reports have shed light on the implications of several secret treaties signed by members of the UKUSA community in their efforts to implement global surveillance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most infectious disease surveillance maintains a single-disease focus. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this review is to examine the current state of EHR use in public health infectious disease surveillance in the USA. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Generally, information from these surveys has been used to look at the effect of nutrition, particularly micronutrients, on the health status of the population, or subgroups within the population. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Following two successful rounds of integrated biological and behavioural surveillance (IBBS) surveys in 2008 and 2014, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) undertook a third IBBS survey in 2017. (iom.int)
  • These results support the integration of rodent population variables to reduce the uncertainty of tularemia risk estimates. (springer.com)
  • At provincial level, the seroprevalence estimates do not follow the geographical distribution of tick bites and diagnoses of Lyme borreliosis as detected through other surveillance systems. (springer.com)
  • Although the use of residual samples for seroprevalence estimates has several advantages, it seems to be a limited tool for serological surveillance of Lyme borreliosis in Belgium, other than follow-up of trends if repeated over time. (springer.com)
  • CDC retrieved populations from the National Center for Health Statistics bridged-race vintage 2019 postcensal file. (cdc.gov)
  • As previous studies have shown that those who are colonized are at a higher risk of subsequent MRSA disease, this puts a significant amount of our population--and particularly, our children--at risk of developing serious disease due to this bacterium, which is extremely difficult to treat. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The model includes population surveillance of main risk factors that predict many NCDs and combines modules on population surveillance of injuries, mental health, and stroke. (nih.gov)
  • This editorial highlights the requirement for comprehensive dental surveillance to detect and manage poor oral health (a significant risk factor for bacteraemia) as an essential preventative strategy for infective endocarditis and its potentially life-threatening complications. (bmj.com)
  • Results -Two of 40 patients with UC and 18 of 102 controls had undergone at least one surveillance colonoscopy (relative risk (RR) 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 1.31). (bmj.com)
  • There are three major barriers to the adoption of VAE surveillance and prevention: 1) ongoing uncertainty about VAE and concern about its limited overlap with clinically-defined VAP, 2) a paucity of studies defining risk factors for VAEs and how best to prevent VAEs, and 3) lack of emphasis on VAE surveillance and prevention by regulatory agencies. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Elective cervical cerclage versus serial ultrasound surveillance of cervical length in a population at high risk for preterm delivery. (afar.info)
  • Population: Women at high risk for preterm delivery. (afar.info)
  • Conclusion: Serial transvaginal ultrasound surveillance of cervical length in women at high risk of preterm delivery appears to reduce cerclage rates without compromising pregnancy outcome. (afar.info)
  • Lack of surveillance increases the risk that men miss the opportunity to be treated with curative intent. (mja.com.au)
  • When population health is measured at a non-profit level, the focus is on people, at the risk of providing inadequate services due to limited financial support. (brianaltonenmph.com)
  • Detection of multiple cocirculating wild poliovirus type 1 lineages through environmental surveillance: impact and progress during 2011-2013 in Pakistan. (springermedizin.de)
  • Incident isolates were tested from two surveillance periods (2002-2003 and 2007-2008) when population-based surveillance was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa. (asm.org)
  • ABCs sites collect isolates for all cases included in surveillance areas, except where indicated (*) as different in the table below. (cdc.gov)
  • Although safe and effective influenza vaccines are available, every year seasonal influenza affects from 5% to 15% of the world's population and causes an estimated 250 000 to 500 000 deaths worldwide. (who.int)
  • 1 Novel influenza A virus strains can cause sporadic pandemics, such as the 1918 "Spanish flu" that killed at least 3% of the world's population. (who.int)
  • Surveillance was conducted in hospitals, emergency departments (EDs), and outpatient clinics, with institutional review board approval from the CDC and each participating NVSN site. (aappublications.org)
  • During 2010-2014, we conducted surveillance for patients with signs and symptoms of meningitis at 5 hospitals in northern Togo: 4 in Dapaong, Tône District, and 1 in Cinkassé, Cinkassé District. (cdc.gov)
  • Many U.S. hospitals are conducting VAE surveillance but uptake beyond the U.S. has been limited. (populationmedicine.org)
  • An understanding of the science of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) begins with the surveillance, spectrum, and burden of disease. (nap.edu)
  • Although surveillance for HCC in hepatitis C patients can improve survival, the optimal surveillance policies remain unknown. (ssrn.com)
  • Survival for patients with HCC is poor, but may be improved by surveillance, associated with the identification of earlier stage tumours, enabling curative therapies to be initiated. (mja.com.au)
  • Surveillance is associated with improved survival, but participation rates are low (40%), despite 89% of patients with HCC qualifying for surveillance. (mja.com.au)
  • During 2010-2014, we enrolled 511 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis into surveillance in 2 districts of northern Togo. (cdc.gov)
  • Of 1137 patients with cirrhosis, 22 (2%) underwent consistent surveillance, 371 (33%) had inconsistent surveillance, and 744 (65%) received no surveillance during follow-up. (ovid.com)
  • Hence the benefits of colonoscopic surveillance in patients with UC have been questioned. (bmj.com)
  • The CDC expanded the purview of safety surveillance for ventilated patients from ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) to ventilator-associated events (VAE) in 2013. (populationmedicine.org)
  • Routledge International Handbook of Surveillance Studies. (open.ac.uk)
  • Breiman, Robert F. / The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and Urban Kenya . (elsevier.com)
  • A small number of confirmed clinical cases of Q fever were observed despite the high seroprevalence for C. burnetii in human and animal population of Cyprus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although electronic health records (EHRs) were designed as individual-level documentation tools for patient-provider clinical interactions, some have advocated for their use in population-level health surveillance efforts. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The chapter outlines how the development of population censuses and their alternatives such as population registers and government administrative databases can be understood as different forms of surveillance by numbers. (open.ac.uk)

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