The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
Disorders in which phagocytic cells cannot kill ingested bacteria; characterized by frequent recurring infection with formulation of granulomas.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.
The engulfment and degradation of cells by other cells.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
CroV enters cells via phagocytosis. Once inside the cell, the CroV capsid disassembles and the viral proteins and genome are ... Mavirus integrates into the genome of cells of Cafeteria roenbergensis, and thereby confers immunity to the population. ... When there are low numbers of Cafeteria roenbergensis due to extensive CroV infections, the bacterial populations rise ...
Lucinids were able to colonize these sulfide rich sediments because they already maintained a population of sulfide-oxidizing ... Symbionts are acquired via phagocytosis of bacteria by bacterioctyes. Symbiont transmission occurs horizontally, where juvenile ... Lucinids maintain their symbiont population by reacquiring sulfur-oxidizing bacteria throughout their lifetime. Although ...
They rapidly attach to foreign surfaces and readily engage in phagocytosis. Oenocytoids do not readily spread on foreign ... In mosquitoes, hemocytes are functionally divided into three populations: granulocytes, oenocytoids and prohemocytes. ... Plasmatocytes are the hemocytes responsible for cell ingestion (phagocytosis) and represent about 95% of circulating hemocytes ...
Low C3 levels may impair complement-mediated phagocytosis and bacterial killing. Around 250 cases have been reported since the ... contribute significantly to increased morbidity in these patients compared with the general population. Although uncommon, ...
Researchers have found a change in the sex ratios of affected populations with fewer males than females being present with the ... When inside the gonad, it phagocytoses the sperm thus rendering the starfish infertile. ...
Researchers have found skewed sex ratios of affected populations with fewer males than females being found, and males being ... When inside the gonad, it phagocytoses the sperm thus rendering the starfish infertile. ... however its ability to regulate sea star populations is uncertain. Warren, Alan (2010). "Orchitophrya stellarum Cépède, 1907". ...
Their population density is decisive for these many processes. They are highly adaptive and can release many secretions, to ... For example, phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized pathogens occurs through the Fcγ receptors (FcγR), and involves phagocyte extensions ... Alveolar macrophages are also involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic and necrotic cells. They need to be selective of the ... PGE2 inhibits bacterial killing and ROI production by AM by impairing Fcγ-mediated phagocytosis through its ability to ...
The phagocytosis of electrode material also brings to question the issue of a biocompatibility response, which research ... The short term response occurs within hours of implantation and begins with an increased population of astrocytes and glial ... The recruited microglia then initiate inflammation and a process of phagocytosis of the foreign material begins. Over time, the ...
Besides phagocytosis, they play a critical role in nonspecific defense (innate immunity) and also help initiate specific ... The initial wave is a phagocytic population that comes along during periods of increased muscle use that are sufficient to ... Upon phagocytosis by a macrophage, the Leishmania parasite finds itself in a phagocytic vacuole. Under normal circumstances, ... The process is called phagocytosis, which acts to defend the host against infection and injury. These large phagocytes are ...
Ayala S.C. and Spain J.L. (1976) A population of Plasmodium colombiense sp. n. in the iguanid lizard, Anolis auratus. J. ... Host response is similar to avian or primate infections, including erythropoiesis, phagocytosis, and interference with parasite ...
The process of Trogocytosis is considered different from but similar to the unrelated processes known as Phagocytosis and ... and applicable to any population of T or B cells. TRAP assays have been successfully used to detect T cell responses against ...
For comparison, populations with high levels of smoking can have a lung cancer incidence of over 1,000 per 1,000,000. Incidence ... Following asbestos phagocytosis, macrophages generate increased amounts of hydroxyl radicals, which are normal by-products of ... The incidence of mesothelioma has been found to be higher in populations living near naturally occurring asbestos. People can ... resulting in a population of tumor cells that are, albeit only slightly, genetically different. Asbestos fibers have been shown ...
A significant aim of this research is to create mosquito populations resistant to Plasmodium parasites therefore reducing the ... TEP1 covalently binds to the surface of invading pathogens, promoting phagocytosis, lysis and melanisation. Through this ... "Conserved role of a complement-like protein in phagocytosis revealed by dsRNA knockout in cultured cells of the mosquito, ... is coded for by two different alleles TEP1-S and TEP-R which are specific to susceptible and resistant mosquito populations ...
Pericytes regulate capillary blood flow and phagocytosis of cellular debris and ischemia of the nerves can occur if pericytes ... The population trends suggest that hyperglycemia likely plays a role but may not be the causative factor. The nerve damage ...
iC3b is generated by proteolysis of C3b and binding to the receptor causes phagocytosis and destruction of the foreign cell ... are generally thought to exhibit overlapping functions in myeloid cells and certain lymphoid populations. CR3 and CR4 have been ... CR3 has also been shown to mediate phagocytosis of the Lyme disease causing bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, in the absence of ... Schlesinger LS, Bellinger-Kawahara CG, Payne NR, Horwitz MA (1990). "Phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by ...
Apoptotic death is crucial for the correct population size of neuronal and glial cells. Similarly to ferroptosis, deficiencies ... apoptotic bodies taken up through phagocytosis. This process occurs continuously within mammalian nervous system processes that ...
Ethnic diversity among the mostly black and Hispanic population served (94%) by Kings County is high, with large populations ... Upon this conclusion they developed the first explanation for such a similarity being inability of macrophage phagocytosis in ... Working with populations in which sickle cell anemia was endemic, in 1966, Drs. Margaret G. Robinson and R. Janet Watson ... Accordingly, Kings County employees speak 39 different languages to meet this diverse population's needs. Kings County Hospital ...
Weldon, D.T., et al., Fibrillar beta-amyloid induces microglial phagocytosis, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, ... Olbrich, K.C., et al., Surfaces modified with covalently-immobilized adhesive peptides affect fibroblast population motility. ... a control population was treated with the same surgical procedures, but the electrode was implanted and immediately removed so ... If populations of neurons can be induced to grow onto inserted electrodes, electrode failure should be minimized. Kennedy's ...
Since YpM can activate large numbers of the T cell population, this leads the release of inflammatory cytokines. Members of ... China B, N'Guyen BT, de Bruyere M, Cornelis GR (1994). "Role of YadA in resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica to phagocytosis ... By causing actin filament depolymerisation, YopE, YopT, and YpkA resist endocytosis by intestinal cells and phagocytosis while ... YadA has lost its adhesion, opsonisation-resisting, phagocytosis-resisting, and respiratory burst-resisting functions in Y. ...
This was about 25% to 60% of the European population. Because the plague killed so many of the working population, wages rose ... Infected lymph nodes develop hemorrhages, which result in death of tissue.Y. pestis bacilli can resist phagocytosis and even ... The fleas that transmit the disease only directly infect humans when the rat population in the area is wiped out from a mass ... With no new rat inputs being added to the population from other areas, the infection would only spread to humans in very rare ...
BMDMs provide a large homogenous population of macrophages that play an increasingly important role in making macrophage- ... Macrophages have a wide variety of functions in the body including phagocytosis of foreign invaders and other cellular debris, ...
... s are due to normal proteins that are in themselves polymorphic in a given population. Even ... This contrasts with MHC class II molecules's antigens which are peptides derived from phagocytosis/endocytosis and molecular ...
The incidence of trichorrhexis invaginata (bamboo hair) may be as high as 1 case in 50,000 population. Girls are affected more ... lesions of ichthyosis linearis circumflexa may be caused by a dermal influx of inflammatory cells that undergo phagocytosis and ...
Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health (1995). "IUDs-An Update". Population Reports. XXII (5). ... and increased phagocytosis of sperm.30,31… The progestin in the LNg IUC enhances the contraceptive action of the device by ... and increased phagocytosis of sperm.30,31… The progestin in the LNg IUC enhances the contraceptive action of the device by ...
In the absence of antibiotics or other stressors, filamentation occurs at a low frequency in bacterial populations (4-8% short ... the increased cell length protecting bacteria from protozoan predation and neutrophil phagocytosis by making ingestion of the ... The number and length of filaments within a bacterial population increases when the bacteria are treated with various chemical ...
200 nm by phagocytosis. All vertebrates carry a population of endothelial cells that are remarkably active in blood clearance ... Normal LSEC turnover is maintained by the liver resident population of LSEC progenitor cells; in addition, recruitment of bone ... marrow derived cells contributes to replenish the LSEC population when needed. By the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th ...
Thus, initial population control efforts championed by fisherman and conservationists in the 1960s, which involved sectioning ... clots at starfish amputation sites but also help clear the wound site of debris and foreign microorganisms via phagocytosis. Re ... Additionally, in a process analogous to mammalian platelet clot formation, a morphologically heterogenous population of ... and releasing caught starfish, may have unknowingly exacerbated population outbreaks in the western Pacific coral reefs. ...
... population - population dynamics - population ecology - population genetics - potential energy - predation - pregnancy - ... phagocytosis - phenotype - phloem - phospholipid - phospholipid bilayer - phosphorylation - photobiology - photolysis - photon ...
Including mixotrophic dinoflagellates would better explain the control of prey population and cycling of limited materials as ... On the other hand, mixotrophic dinoflagellates with individual plastids that depend mainly on phagocytosis are also ... They are flagellated eukaryotes that combine photoautotrophy when light is available, and heterotrophy via phagocytosis. ... Mixotroph dinoflagellates belonging to the species Gymnodinium sanguineum feed on nanociliate populations in Chesapeake Bay. ...
In some species the host will sometimes digest algae to keep their population at a constant level. Hatena arenicola is a ... proposes that these organelles evolved from certain types of bacteria that eukaryotic cells engulfed through phagocytosis. ... Oliver KM, Campos J, Moran NA, Hunter MS (February 2008). "Population dynamics of defensive symbionts in aphids". Proceedings. ... Because the cicada life cycle takes years underground, natural selection on endosymbiont populations is relaxed for many ...
Theoretical population biology. 16: 144-158. doi:10.1016/0040-5809(79)90010-8. PMID 538731. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... Monographs in Population Biology. 11. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. xv+1-190. ISBN 978-0-691-08202-8.. ... Population structure, migration rates, and environmental refuge for prey are other possible causes for pyramids with biomass ... Although the predators do not eat the plants directly, they regulate the population of herbivores that are directly linked to ...
... allowing a new population of healthy B cells to develop from lymphoid stem cells. ... Uncertain: may undergo phagocytosis and catabolism in RES. Identifiers. CAS Number. *174722-31-7 Y ...
Boyle JM, Buckley RH (2007). "Population prevalence of diagnosed primary immunodeficiency diseases in the United States". J. ... phagocytosis), and destroy them with chemicals. Monocytes/macrophages as well as granulocytes are capable of this process. In ...
The phagocytosis theory is based on the notion that phagocytes are cells that have the power to englobe foreign bodies - and ... Back in France, he acquired enough snakes to continue his work and create serum for the local population.[1]:98 ... Metchnikoff's phagocytosis theoryEdit. Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov already announced the "principle of immunization" during his ... where he produced an amount of smallpox and rabies vaccines sufficient to satisfy the needs of the population, and started a ...
In order for a molecule to be taken into the cell either by endocytosis, phagocytosis, or receptor-mediated endocytosis, often ... Thiriet, M. (2015). Interactions between cardiac cell populations. In Diseases of the cardiac pump (1st ed., Vol. 7, pp. 59-61 ...
6,0 6,1 Colley NJ, Trench RK (1983) Selectivity in phagocytosis and persistence of symbiotic algae by the scyphistoma stage of ... Andras J P, Kirk NL, Harvell CW (2011) Range-wide population genetic structure of Symbiodinium associated with the Caribbean ... Manning MM, Gates RD (2008) Diversity in populations of free-living Symbiodinium from a Caribbean and Pacific reef. Limno. ... Coffroth MA, Lewis CF, Santos SR (2006) Environmental populations of symbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium can ...
Currently, the success of such treatment has been mixed, since the use of probiotics to restore healthy populations of ... may improve immune function by increasing the number of IgA-producing plasma cells and increasing or improving phagocytosis, as ... Metchnikoff had also observed that certain rural populations in Europe, for example in Bulgaria and the Russian steppes, who ... of healthy females have a group of bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus that dominate the population of organisms in the vagina ...
The M-protein aids in immune evasion by inhibiting phagocytosis and inactivating the complement system. Furthermore, ... "Population-based study of invasive disease due to beta-hemolytic streptococci of groups other than A and B". Clinical ... "Pharyngeal carriage of group C and group G streptococci and acute rheumatic fever in an Aboriginal population". Lancet. 356 ( ...
... making it susceptible to selective recognition by macrophages and subsequent phagocytosis in the mononuclear phagocyte system ( ... "Red Blood Cell Population Dynamics". Clinics in Laboratory Medicine. 35 (1): 43-57. doi:10.1016/j.cll.2014.10.002. PMC 4717490 ...
Cooper MA, Adam RD, Worobey M, Sterling CR (November 2007). "Population genetics provides evidence for recombination in Giardia ... extending their cell membrane around them to form a food vacuole and digesting them internally in a process termed phagocytosis ... populations in Argentina. Spore-producing protists such as Kneallhazia solenopsae (recognized as a sister clade or the closest ... relative to the fungus kingdom now)[67] can reduce red fire ant populations by 53-100%.[68] Researchers have also been able to ...
In the 19th century, tuberculosis killed an estimated one-quarter of the adult population of Europe;[58] by 1918 one in six ... a direct effect upon a pathogen, such as antibody-initiated complement-dependent bacteriolysis, opsonoization, phagocytosis and ... Between 1518 and 1568 disease pandemics are said to have caused the population of Mexico to fall from 20 million to 3 million.[ ... The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 (or the Spanish flu) killed 25-50 million people (about 2% of world population of 1.7 billion).[ ...
A population study has shown that the protective effect of the sickle-cell trait against falciparum malaria involves the ... Opsonization: Coating antigen with antibody enhances phagocytosis. *Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity: Antibodies ... Historically, infectious disease has been the leading cause of death in the human population. Over the last century, two ... marking for phagocytosis) and complement-fixing antibodies, and leads to cell-mediated immunity.[2] In general, Th1 responses ...
Further information: Population dynamics and Lotka-Volterra equations. In the absence of predators, the population of a species ... or changes in its population density, can have drastic cascading effects on the equilibrium of many other populations in the ... Thieme, Horst R. (2003). Mathematics in Population Biology. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-09291-1. .. ... Such models predict widely differing and often chaotic predator-prey population dynamics.[157][159] The presence of refuge ...
Agglutination, in which antibodies "glue together" foreign cells into clumps that are attractive targets for phagocytosis ... The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments ... Almroth Wright suggested that soluble antibodies coated bacteria to label them for phagocytosis and killing; a process that he ... early characterization of safety and initial proof of concept in a small specific patient population (in vito or in vivo ...
Particles larger than 50 micrometers cannot enter the ostia and pinacocytes consume them by phagocytosis (engulfing and ... Management Insights from the History of Marine Animal Populations. Earthscan. pp. 25-27. ISBN 1-84407-527-3.. ... their middle jelly-like layers have large and varied populations of cells, and some types of cells in their outer layers may ... "Population Dynamics of a Sponge Disease on Caribbean Reefs". In: Steller D, Lobel L, eds. Diving for Science 2012. Proceedings ...
Krysko DV, Vandenabeele P (2009-01-14). Phagocytosis of dying cells: from molecular mechanisms to human diseases. Springer. ... It can be interpreted by counting, measuring, and analyzing the cells of the Sub/G1 cell population.[100] When HeLA cells are ... Fragmentation: The cell breaks apart into multiple vesicles called apoptotic bodies, which undergo phagocytosis. The plasma ... A BAX-1 knock-out mouse exhibits normal forebrain formation and a decreased programmed cell death in some neuronal populations ...
Phagocytosis - by opsonizing antigens. C3b has most important opsonizing activity. *Inflammation - by attracting macrophages ... and cardiovascular mortality in the elderly population at large". Experimental Gerontology. 42 (11): 1116-22. doi:10.1016/j. ...
February 2009). "Population differences in SLE susceptibility genes: STAT4 and BLK, but not PXK, are associated with systemic ... decisively important for an efficiently operating phagocytosis. With SLE, these components are often missing, diminished, or ... Atherosclerosis also occurs more often and advances more rapidly than in the general population.[23][24] ... People with SLE have intense polyclonal B-cell activation, with a population shift towards immature B cells. Memory B cells ...
For many populations, such as the Japanese or European populations, so many patients have been typed that new alleles are ... engulf the pathogen through a process called phagocytosis. Proteins from the pathogen are digested into small pieces (peptides ... Six loci have over 100 alleles that have been detected in the human population. Of these, the most variable are HLA B and HLA ... Individuals in a population frequently have different haplotypes, and this results in many combinations, even in small groups. ...
Little decrease in viable population of the three species was noted on inoculated pecan halves stored at -18, -7, and 5°C for ... Salmonellae are also able to breach the intestinal barrier via phagocytosis and trafficking by CD18-positive immune cells, ... Mortality differences between wholly uninjured and predominantly injured populations were small and consistent (5% level) with ... of iNTS in sub-Saharan Africa compared to other regions is thought to be due to the large proportion of the African population ...
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous leukocyte (white blood cell) population. DCs in healthy peripheral tissues (steady ... phagocytosis). The components of the innate response of the dentin/pulp complex to caries include at least the following six: ( ...
However, in recent years tissue-resident NK cell populations have been described.[36][37] These specialized NK-cell subsets can ... IFNγ activates macrophages for phagocytosis and lysis, and TNFα acts to promote direct NK tumor cell killing. Patients ... Only 15-25% of the population expresses the 158 V/V allele. To determine the ADCC contribution of monoclonal antibodies, NK-92 ... They are highly polymorphic on the population level; though they are structurally unrelated to KIRs, they are the functional ...
... for GAP in Baghdad and Iran population, and 0.47% in Japanese population.[2] ... "Impaired phagocytosis in localized aggressive periodontitis: rescue by Resolvin E1". PLOS One. 6 (9): e24422. doi:10.1371/ ... High levels of Aggregatibacter (or Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans and, in some populations, Porphyromonas gingivalis.[15 ... in the African population and in groups of African descent, 2.6% in African-Americans, 0.5-1.0% in Hispanics in North America, ...
Aw D, Silva A, Palmer D (2007). "Immunosenescence: emerging challenges for an ageing population". Immunology. 120 (4): 435-446 ... "Phagocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton". J Cell Sci. 114 (Pt 6): 1061-77. PMID 11228151 ... "A Special Population of Regulatory T Cells Potentiates Muscle Repair". Cell (dalam bahasa English). 155 (6): 1282-1295. doi ...
phagocytosis, engulfment. • negative regulation of actin filament severing. • positive regulation of protein processing in ... The disease has been reported worldwide and there is no evidence of variation in prevalence across ethnic populations.[42] ...
Study Reveals How Diet, Antioxidants Prevent Blindness in Aging Population Newswise, Retrieved on August 19, 2008. ... "The age-lipid A2E and mitochondrial dysfunction synergistically impair phagocytosis by retinal pigment epithelial cells.". J ...
A population-based study. J Infect. March 2, 2009. PMID 19261333 ... Peningkatan phagocytosis leukocytes. *Pengurangan kesan ...
Due to the expanding human population, cougar ranges increasingly overlap with areas inhabited by humans. Attacks on humans are ... Because many relatively healthy populations of Nile crocodiles occur in East Africa, their proximity to people living in ...
By contrast, outbred populations are used when identical genotypes are unnecessary or a population with genetic variation is ... I. Demonstration of a defect in phagocytosis". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 124 (2): 227-40. doi:10.1084/jem.124.2.227 ... By having this kind of population, it is possible to conduct experiments on the roles of genes, or conduct experiments that ... This mutation results in defective retinal pigment epithelium phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments.[34] ...
Additional study regarding the dynamic relationships between the respiratory burst and phagocytosis in the population with ... Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytosis Is Impaired in Children With Poorly Controlled Asthma Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ... Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytosis Is Impaired in Children With Poorly Controlled Asthma. James R. Banks, Timothy Andrews ... Phagocytosis was quantified by using a phagocytic index (PI) calculated from the percentage of phagocytic cells multiplied by ...
Frequency in whole bone marrow is shown adjacent to each gated population. (B) Colony output on day 7 of individually sorted LT ... F) Results of phagocytosis assays using IAP+/+ or IAP-/- c-Kit enriched bone marrow. n=3, error bars represent 1 SD. (G) ... E) Results of in vivo phagocytosis assay comparing IAP+/+ and IAP+/- c-Kit enriched cells. Percent recipient GFP+ F4/80 cells ... CD47 is upregulated on circulating hematopoietic stem cells and leukemia cells to avoid phagocytosis.. Jaiswal S1, Jamieson CH ...
S8). These mice express 25% Foxp3-GFP+ cells within the CD4+ CD25+ population and exhibit T cell receptor V alpha 2 (Vα2) ... In Vitro Phagocytosis Assay.. For the in vitro phagocytosis assay, 2 × 104 macrophages or dendritic cells per well were plated ... After phagocytosis of cancer cells by anti-CD47, macrophages do not prime CD4+ T cells to proliferate. (A) RFP+ macrophages ... Percentage of phagocytosis was determined by the percentage of GFP+ cells within RFP+ macrophage cell gate. (B) RFP+ ...
Statistic comparisons between each population to the A5− population were carried out for each treatment using ANOVA, followed ... Cell viability was measured at different time points after sorting in the A5−PI− (D) and A5+PI− (E) populations, using A5/PI ... B) U937 cells treated as above were added on TG peritoneal macrophages at a 2.5:1 ratio, and phagocytosis was analyzed by flow ... Phagocytosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (mean ± SD). BMDMs with or without addition of live cells served as negative ...
This phagocytosis was dependent on time and target concentration. Both populations exhibited identical mean fluorescence ... Connexin43 Is Dispensable for Phagocytosis. Aaron M. Glass, Benjamin J. Wolf, Karin M. Schneider, Michael F. Princiotta, Steven ... Connexin43 Is Dispensable for Phagocytosis. Aaron M. Glass, Benjamin J. Wolf, Karin M. Schneider, Michael F. Princiotta, Steven ... Phagocytosis of sRBCs. IgG-opsonized sRBCs were added to wells at a target/macrophage ratio of 100:1 (to ensure an abundance of ...
Mortality caused by sepsis in patients with end-stage renal disease compared with the general population. Kidney Int. 2000;58(4 ... Phagocytosis assays. Phagocytosis assays were performed as described previously (12). Briefly, RAW 264.7 cells or primary ... Phagocytosis of E. coli was assessed after 60 minutes by FACS. Control assays were done in RPMI. (E) PDF of patient A was ... and completely abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis (Figure 2, B and C). However, H89 did increase baseline phagocytosis of ...
CroV enters cells via phagocytosis. Once inside the cell, the CroV capsid disassembles and the viral proteins and genome are ... Mavirus integrates into the genome of cells of Cafeteria roenbergensis, and thereby confers immunity to the population. ... When there are low numbers of Cafeteria roenbergensis due to extensive CroV infections, the bacterial populations rise ...
B, left) Phagocytosis of A. fumigatus conidia by peritoneal neutrophils from PTX3−/− or PTX3+/+ mice after 15 or 45 min. One ... Western blot analysis showed that PTX3 is expressed in the three populations of neutrophil precursors (Fig. 1 F, right). In ... Mouse neutrophils and phagocytosis assay.. Neutrophils from C57BL/6 mice (Charles River Laboratories) were isolated from bone ... After 15 or 45 min of incubation at 37°C, phagocytosis was blocked by using NaF (final concentration = 0.2 M). In some of the ...
Gated populations were defined as CD45+CD64+ macrophages, CD45+CD64− lymphocytes (including T cells, B cells, etc.), CD45−CD31+ ... As integrins are FN receptors and are required for FN-mediated phagocytosis (29), we studied their role in phagocytosis of the ... In accordance, phagocytosis abrogation resulted in transient Wnt activity and a more regenerative healing. Phagocytosis of ... To ask whether excessive phagocytosis of SFRP4 by macrophages might lead to the WIHN− phenotype, we inhibited phagocytosis in ...
Lindberg A, Eriksson B, Larsson LG, et al. Seven-year cumulative incidence of COPD in an age-stratified general population ... These comparative phagocytosis experiments suggest that, in COPD, defective macrophage phagocytosis is acquired during ... Comparison of alveolar macrophage and MDM phagocytosis. Initial experiments demonstrated that phagocytosis of polystyrene beads ... Defective macrophage phagocytosis of bacteria in COPD. A. E. Taylor, T. K. Finney-Hayward, J. K. Quint, C. M. R. Thomas, S. J. ...
Immunoactivating Peptide P4 Augments Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytosis in Two Diverse Human Populations ... Immunoactivating Peptide P4 Augments Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytosis in Two Diverse Human Populations. Antimicrobial Agents ... In this study, using two diverse populations of adult volunteers, we determined whether P4 treatment of human alveolar ...
CD11b+ splenic macrophages from Irf5−/− mice display enhanced phagocytosis. (A) PECs were collected from Irf5+/+ (wt) and Irf5 ... The monocyte/macrophage population was gated on using anti-Cd11b-FITC and anti-Ly6G-allophycocyanin Abs. ... Phagocytosis assay. Splenic macrophages were isolated by positive selection with CD11b magnetic beads. Cells were seeded in a ... B) Splenic macrophages from Irf5+/+ and Irf5−/− mice were isolated by positive selection and in vitro phagocytosis determined ...
Seven-year cumulative incidence of COPD in an an age-stratified general population sample. Chest 2006; 129: 879-885. ... In non-smokers and smokers, bacterial phagocytosis did not alter mROS or ΔΨm; however, in COPD, phagocytosis increased early ... of cells were capable of phagocytosis, measured by % macrophage phagocytosis (figure 2a, c). In addition, there were no ... After phagocytosis of S. pneumoniae, there was a similar increase in mROS levels in M-Mφ, but not G-Mφ, from COPD patients, and ...
On average, leukocytes sorted into the intracellular (red+ green−) population had 3 bacteria per cell (see Fig. S5A in the ... Bone marrow neutrophil phagocytosis and cell death assays.Marrow cavities of the tibias and femurs of female BALB/c mice were ... For phagocytosis assessment, neutrophils were pelleted at 400 × g for 5 min after 30 min of infection. Neutrophils were then ... Regulation of Rab5 function during phagocytosis of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa in macrophages. Infect. Immun. 81:2426-2436. doi ...
Lucinids were able to colonize these sulfide rich sediments because they already maintained a population of sulfide-oxidizing ... Symbionts are acquired via phagocytosis of bacteria by bacterioctyes. Symbiont transmission occurs horizontally, where juvenile ... Lucinids maintain their symbiont population by reacquiring sulfur-oxidizing bacteria throughout their lifetime. Although ...
1994) Invasive pneumococcal disease in a pediatric population, Auckland, New Zealand. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13:873-878. ... Sera with undetectable phagocytosis titers were reported as having a phagocytosis titer 4, with a titer of 8 being the highest ... Mean antibody titers and phagocytosis titers for the different serotypes are shown in Table 1. In spite of the low phagocytosis ... Results are expressed as log10 of the phagocytosis titer, in which the phagocytosis titer is the reciprocal serum dilution ...
... during phagocytosis of preopsonized zymosan. Phagocytosis was estimated by direct counts of extracellular survivors after ... Therefore increased phagocytosis per se did not stimulate intracellular killing of Staph. aureus. Intracellular survival but ... aureus (P , 0·01). PMN from cows with a high rate of phagocytosis generally killed internalized Staph. aureus more efficiently ... The estimates of total bacterial survival were highly correlated with both phagocytosis and intracellular survival of Staph. ...
Despite scatter indicating heterogeneity in the population, a few clear trends are observed. First, increases of cortical ... A) Phagocytosis of a bead of radius 1.1 μm by a neutrophil of radius 4.2 μm. (B) phagocytosis of a bead of radius 2.3 μm by a ... C) left, phagocytosis of a bead of radius 3.3 μm by a neutrophil of radius 4.5 μm; right, attempted phagocytosis of a bead of ... Phagocytosis of beads of radius 2-3 μm often took a few minutes to start. For the smallest beads (radius ∼1.2 μm), phagocytosis ...
Influences a Murine WEHI-3 Leukemia Model In Vivo Through Enhancing Phagocytosis of Macrophages and Populations of T- and B- ... Influences a Murine WEHI-3 Leukemia Model In Vivo Through Enhancing Phagocytosis of Macrophages and Populations of T- and B- ... Influences a Murine WEHI-3 Leukemia Model In Vivo Through Enhancing Phagocytosis of Macrophages and Populations of T- and B- ... EGCG promoted the phagocytosis of macrophages from 5 mg/kg treatment and promoted natural killer cell activity at 40 mg/kg, ...
Phagocytosis. Request a detailed protocol Bacterial phagocytosis in BMDMs was measured by incubating cells for 2 hr with E. ... Fat tissue has its own population of immune cells called adipose tissue macrophages that remove dead fat cells and keep the ... Cells were gated within the live single cell population as CD45+/Ly6g-/SiglecF-/CD11b+/F4/80+ for ATMs. For BMDMs, median ... As indicated by the normal surface expression of macrophage markers F4/80, CD206 and CD301, unaltered bacterial phagocytosis ...
FcγRIIb inhibition promotes phagocytosis of rituximab-treated CLL cells. (A) Phagocytosis assays: CFSE-labeled CLL cells were ... Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism Version 5 (GraphPad). All populations were assumed to be nonparametric ... Importantly, maximal phagocytosis for rituximab was restored through blocking of FcγRIIb on CLL cells using AT10 F(ab′)2 ... Phagocytosis of CLL cells could be visualized by light microscopy (Figure 5A). For more objective assessment, macrophages were ...
Functional characterization of Zebrafish DC-enriched populations. (A Upper) In vivo phagocytosis by PNAhi myelomonocytes. S. ... 2B, iii). After stimulating each purified fraction with E. coli LPS, the Mpx−PNA+ population uniquely up-regulated il-12p40, an ... After 16 h, we collected i.p. exudate (IPEX) and assessed phagocytosis by FACS. As shown in Fig. 1A Center, 5 ± 1.8% (n = 11) ... 2A Left, green gate) and comprised 2.05 ± 0.2% (n = 4) of cells within this population. However, the final yield obtained by ...
Physiological heat-triggered acidification also increases population fitness and promotes cell cycle reentry following heat ... Chemotactic network responses to live bacteria show independence of phagocytosis from chemo-receptor sensing. ... The genetic/molecular model Dictyostelium and mammalian phagocytes share mechanistic pathways for chemotaxis and phagocytosis; ... Finally, analyses of signaling-networks for chemotaxis and phagocytosis indicate that chemoattractant receptor-signaling is not ...
CC16 does not markedly influence phagocytosis in isolated PMNL. a Phagocytosis of PMNL after their incubation with IL-8 or sera ... 3 a. According to manufacturers protocol, the negative populations were set according to the CD16+ ROS-negative population. ... c Phagocytosis of immature CD16dimCD62Lbright, (d) mature CD16brightCD62Lbright and (e) immunesuppressive CD16brightCD62Ldim ... b Phagocytosis in CD16+ granulocytes after incubation with CC16 and neutralization of CXCR1 (CXCR1-ab), CXCR2 (CXCR2-ab) as ...
Our results show that the oocyst internalization kinetics can vary among a given population of macrophages, but similar ... following phagocytosis by macrophages. Here, we further characterize the dynamics of the oocyst phagocytosis at the single-cell ... Here, we further characterize the dynamics of the oocyst phagocytosis at the single-cell level by using optical tweezers and ... Our results show that the oocyst internalization kinetics can vary among a given population of macrophages, but similar ...
coli in viable CD14+CD16- and CD14+CD16- cells in CD45+CD33+ population from IgG- or anti-LILRB2-treated humanized MISTRG mice ... Phagocytosis of GFP-expressing E. coli ex vivo. Humanized MISTRG mice were screened by assessment of human CD33+ cell ... Expression of Lilrb1-Lilrb5 is enriched in myeloid cell populations and appears to be primate-specific (14-16). LILRB3 and ... PMN-MDSC, M-MDSC, DC, and TAM populations were identified. (B) Representative LILRB1-LILRB4 staining among CD33+ gate from A. ( ...
Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived RPE, which phagocytoses and degrades POS in culture and can be derived from ... it is not unlikely that excess Fe and cigarette smoke exposure together occur in a subset of people in the general population. ... 3: CSE supplementation of culture media is sufficient to alter MMP-1 activity but has no impact on POS phagocytosis and ... Phagocytosis and degradation of POS. Age-matched mature monolayers of hiPSC-RPE cells on transwell inserts were utilized to ...
Our findings provide evidence for a modulatory role of inflammation-induced Aβ phagocytosis and degradation by newly recruited ... specifically by recruitment of Ly6Chi monocytes and by enhancement of phagocytosis and degradation of soluble Aβ. ... Ex vivo phagocytosis assay was performed with mononuclear cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse brains. Populations were gated as ... 3a and representative pictures for each population are shown in Fig. 4c. Microglia and activated microglia populations ...
... affected by size of population; Density independent factors affect organisms whatever the population size, or, examples used to ... Active transport; Phagocytosis; Synthesis of glycogen; Protein / enzyme; DNA / RNA; Lipid / cholesterol; Urea in glycolysis; ... Describe the techniques you would use to obtain reliable data in order to compare the sizes of the populations of the snail in ... Describe how the mark-release-recapture method could be used to estimate the population of mice in the area being studied. ...
In most applications, the cell-surface and internalized ligand populations are spatially resolved by imaging. It is often ... Vybrant Phagocytosis Assay Kit. The Vybrant Phagocytosis Assay Kit (V6694) provides a convenient set of reagents for ... pHrodo Phagocytosis Particle Labeling Kit. In addition to the pHrodo BioParticles conjugates, we offer the pHrodo Phagocytosis ... Figure 16.1.9 Principle of the Vybrant Phagocytosis Assay Kit (V6694) for the simple quantitation of phagocytosis. A) Briefly, ...
  • Because alveolar macrophages (AMs) are important in innate immunity, evidence was sought that AM phagocytosis might be impaired in poorly controlled asthma. (
  • In this study, using two diverse populations of adult volunteers, we determined whether P4 treatment of human alveolar macrophages would upregulate phagocytic killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae ex vivo. (
  • Macrophages clear pathogens and damaged or aged cells from the blood stream via phagocytosis. (
  • Cell-surface CD47 interacts with its receptor on macrophages, SIRPalpha, to inhibit phagocytosis of normal, healthy cells. (
  • EGCG promoted the phagocytosis of macrophages from 5 mg/kg treatment and promoted natural killer cell activity at 40 mg/kg, increased T-cell proliferation at 40 mg/kg but promoted B-cell proliferation at all three doses. (
  • Macrophages that lack connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, have been reported to exhibit dramatic deficiencies in phagocytosis. (
  • Our findings suggest that modulation of Cx43 levels in cultured macrophages does not have a significant impact on phagocytosis. (
  • Throughout these studies, we have found no evidence that Cx43 is required for phagocytosis, or that macrophages generated from mice that lack Cx43 display any impairment of phagocytic uptake, a prerequisite for bactericidal activity, as compared with macrophages derived from wild type (WT) animals. (
  • However, the cells analyzed were only characterized according to their expression of CD45, not macrophage-specific markers, making the proportion of macrophages in the population difficult to determine. (
  • We present data in this article showing that a well-characterized macrophage population lacking Cx43 is indeed capable of phagocytosis, and that no significant differences between WT and Cx43 −/− macrophages were apparent in any phagocytic parameter measured. (
  • Phagocytosis of fluorescently labelled polystyrene beads and Haemophillus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae by alveolar macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) was assessed by fluorimetry and flow cytometry. (
  • One reason for the increased incidence of bacterial infections in the respiratory tract of COPD patients might be failure of macrophages to clear pathogens because of reduced phagocytosis due to chronic activation 10 , 11 . (
  • Monocytes/macrophages have been increasingly recognized to play a dynamic role in the initiation and perpetuation of SLE given their hallmark functions in phagocytosis, Ag presentation, and cytokine production ( 4 ). (
  • Fat tissue has its own population of immune cells called adipose tissue macrophages that remove dead fat cells and keep the tissue working. (
  • By using an oocyst-macrophage co-culture platform, we previously demonstrated in vitro that the excystation of sporozoites and their differentiation into replicative tachyzoites could occur in absence of digestive factors, following phagocytosis by macrophages. (
  • Our results show that the oocyst internalization kinetics can vary among a given population of macrophages, but similar processes and dynamics could be observed. (
  • Moreover, both large and small peritoneal Aath4a DBA/DBA macrophages showed reduced phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. (
  • Phagocytosis and mechanisms of killing of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by murine alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the main phagocytic cells of the innate immunity of the lung, were investigated. (
  • Following inhalation of airborne A. fumigatus conidia, as with most airborne particles or microorganisms entering the respiratory tract, the normal host is protected by pulmonary innate immunity, including phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AM), the major resident phagocytic cells in the respiratory tract. (
  • IK17 inhibited the uptake of OxLDL by macrophages and also bound to apoptotic cells and inhibited their phagocytosis by macrophages. (
  • Studies of the role of macrophages in phagocytosis are of great theoretical and practical importance for understanding how these cells are involved in the organism's defense response and in the development of various pathologies. (
  • phagocytosis occurred mostly through the Fc receptors, as shown previously for M1 macrophages. (
  • As LTB 4 is an important proinflammatory product of macrophages, we speculate that this divergence evolved to permit FcγR-mediated phagocytosis to proceed in an inflammatory milieu, while apoptotic cell clearance is noninflammatory. (
  • Variants containing this substitution have up to 70-fold greater FcγRIIa affinity and 15-fold improvement in FcγRIIa/FcγRIIb ratio and mediate enhanced phagocytosis of antibody-coated target cells by macrophages. (
  • Macrophages are a phenotypically diverse, multifunctional population of immune cells found in every tissue in the body that play key roles in maintaining normal tissue function and immune defense against pathogens. (
  • In a study reported in the journal Nature , they show that populations of macrophages harboring certain mutations in their DNA can lead directly to neurodegeneration in mice. (
  • We were particularly interested in the alterations in endothelium, pericytes and the differentiated population of cerebral macrophages. (
  • Nonopsonic phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa by murine and human macrophages has previously been reported to require the expression of a flagellum, and the interpretation of these results concluded that the flagellum is a necessary ligand for triggering phagocytic internalization of the bacteria ( 18 ). (
  • For example, phagocytosis of some particles such as apoptotic cells is noninflammatory ( 2 ). (
  • When Mertk cDNAs from 129S6 and DBA/2J mice were overexpressed in HEK293T (human embryonic kidney 293T) cells, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was equally enhanced in direct proportion to Mertk levels, indicating that phagocytosis is modulated by the amount of MERTK, but that it is not affected by MERTK amino acid differences between 129S6 and DBA/2J. (
  • MERTK is primarily expressed in monocytes as well as in epithelial and reproductive tissues, 5 and it is involved in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. (
  • Decreased phagocytic ability is thus independent of the reduced adhesion phenotype, since phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was reduced despite normal adhesion levels. (
  • 2 , 3 A variety of surface receptors have been implicated in recognition and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, 1 with the specific receptors used depending both on the apoptotic cell target and on the activation state of the phagocyte. (
  • CD22 blockade restores homeostatic microglial phagocytosis in ageing brains. (
  • We combined CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screens with RNAsequencing analysis to discover age-related genetic modifiers of microglial phagocytosis. (
  • A positive feedback from microglial phagocytosis is the removal of dead neurones and neuronal debris, which in turn contributes to the attenuation of inflammatory stress. (
  • Phagocytosis of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by immature vs. mature neutrophils. (
  • In isolated PMNL, CXCR1 and CXCR2 were neutralized before stimulation with CC16, and oxidative burst, phagocytosis and apoptosis were analyzed in neutrophils and their subsets. (
  • Macrophage phagocytosis of aging neutrophils in inflammation. (
  • A close correlation was observed between the increasing properties of apoptosis in neutrophils and the degree of macrophage recognition of the aging neutrophil population, and a direct relationship between these parameters was confirmed within aged neutrophil populations separated by counterflow centrifugation into fractions with varying proportions of apoptosis. (
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) improves phagocytosis by neutrophils ex vivo. (
  • Acquired impairment of phagocytosis by neutrophils in critically ill patients predicts the development of new infection, and is reversed by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) ex vivo, but trials have not tested whether GM-CSF restores neutrophil phagocytosis in patients. (
  • AM function is compromised in children with poorly controlled asthma, as characterized by decreased phagocytosis and increased apoptosis, and might account for the aberrant response to respiratory infection commonly seen in this population. (
  • The loss of GMPs is likely due to increased apoptosis and increased phagocytosis, the latter due to the up-regulation of cell surface calreticulin, a prophagocytic marker. (
  • In this paper we study the time-dependent response of the cortical tension of the neutrophil during phagocytosis. (
  • PMN adherence, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis are impaired. (
  • We have shown previously that tyrosine phosphorylation of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is important for diverse macrophage functions including phagocytosis, chemotaxis, podosome dynamics, and matrix degradation. (
  • Consistent with reduced WASP tyrosine phosphorylation, phagocytosis, chemotaxis, and matrix degradation are reduced in Hck −/− BMMs or Hck shRNA cells. (
  • Finally, externalization of PS by necroptotic cells drives recognition and phagocytosis, and this may limit the inflammatory response to this nonapoptotic form of cell death. (
  • Microbial recognition by phagocytes triggers phagocytosis, induction of microbial killing, production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and initiates the development of adaptive immunity. (
  • Similarly, inflammatory signaling does not require initiation of phagocytosis because many soluble microbial products such as LPS and bacterial lipoproteins are potent inducers of inflammation ( 3 - 6 ). (
  • In myeloid cells zymosan stimulates phagocytosis, the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and is a potent adjuvant in stimulating adaptive immune responses. (
  • 8 However, since FcγR-mediated phagocytosis promotes inflammation 9 while PSR-mediated phagocytosis is anti-inflammatory, 10 it is likely that divergent features must distinguish these 2 parallel processes. (
  • Investigation on the effect of GLP was carried by quantitative determination of the microglial pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expressions and behavioural modulations including migration, morphology and phagocytosis. (
  • Our work focuses on defining the molecular pathways that regulate macrophage motility, phagocytosis and inflammatory responses related to their roles in the clearance of dying cells and cancer cells. (
  • Our results indicate that chronic Toxoplasma infection ameliorates β-amyloidosis in a murine model of AD by activation of the immune system, specifically by recruitment of Ly6C hi monocytes and by enhancement of phagocytosis and degradation of soluble Aβ. (
  • The monoclonal antibody R139 blocks C1q-mediated enhancement of phagocytosis. (
  • Antibody- and complement-mediated phagocytosis is the main defense mechanism against Streptococcus pneumoniae . (
  • Highly significant correlations were observed between flow assay phagocytosis titers, killing assay phagocytosis titers, and ELISA antibody titers for serotype 6B and 23F as well. (
  • The main defense mechanism against pneumococcal infections is antibody- and complement-mediated phagocytosis. (
  • Although, in general, strong correlations between PS immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers and phagocytosis titers are measured ( 11 , 14 , 31 ), direct measurement of opsonophagocytosis is a better predictor of in vivo protective capacities of anti-PS antibodies, than anti-PS IgG concentration as measured by ELISA ( 1 , 15 , 25 , 32 ). (
  • Ameliorative effects of sodium bentonite on phagocytosis and Newcastle disease antibody formation in broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis. (
  • Yersinia pestis infection of mammalian hosts is attributed to suppression and avoidance of the host's immune defences-e.g., phagocytosis and antibody production. (
  • Because a hallmark of APCs is the phagocytosis of pathogens, we performed i.p. injections of Alexa 488-labeled, heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus to identify resident phagocytes. (
  • The complement system consists of approximately 30 proteins and its main functions are killing of pathogens by lysis through the membrane attack complex (MAC), activation and attraction of leukocytes and opsonisation of pathogens for phagocytosis by leukocytes 7 . (
  • Our findings provide evidence for a modulatory role of inflammation-induced Aβ phagocytosis and degradation by newly recruited peripheral immune cells in the pathophysiology of AD. (
  • While recent evidence suggests that microglia lose their intrinsic beneficial function during the course of AD and may even acquire a "toxic" phenotype over time, Aβ may also simply not be an appropriate trigger to induce phagocytosis and degradation by microglia in vivo. (
  • CD47 is also constitutively upregulated on mouse and human myeloid leukemias, and overexpression of CD47 on a myeloid leukemia line increases its pathogenicity by allowing it to evade phagocytosis. (
  • However, in the high-risk refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) stages of MDS, the GMP population is increased in frequency compared with normal, and myeloid progenitors evade phagocytosis due to up-regulation of CD47, an antiphagocytic marker. (
  • We report that ExoS does inhibit phagocytosis during pneumonia. (
  • Budesonide, formoterol or azithromycin did not suppress phagocytosis suggesting that reduced responses in COPD MDM were not due to medications. (
  • Within the tumor microenvironment, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induce differentiation towards a tumor-supportive M2 phenotype of monocyte-derived cells and suppress phagocytosis, but also induce increased numbers of supportive regulatory T cells. (
  • Septilin stimulates phagocytosis by macrophage activation and increases the polymorphonuclear cells and helps overcome infection. (
  • These cells, which we call 'lipid-droplet-accumulating microglia' (LDAM), are defective in phagocytosis, produce high levels of reactive oxygen species and secrete proinflammatory cytokines. (
  • These screens identified CD22, a canonical Bcell receptor, as a negative regulator of phagocytosis that is upregulated on aged microglia. (
  • In a novel approach, the standard birth-death process is extended to incorporate a fundamental mechanism undergone by intracellular bacteria, phagocytosis. (
  • Intracellular parasite populations gradually decreased during a 3-week period in vitro, although dividing forms were occasionally seen at all incubation temperatures (32-37°C). There was evidence that viable amastigotes were liberated by cytolysis and/or exocytosis of some infected cells. (
  • Phagocytosis was quantified by using a phagocytic index (PI) calculated from the percentage of phagocytic cells multiplied by the relative fluorescence units (RFU) of S aureus per cell. (
  • CD47 is upregulated on circulating hematopoietic stem cells and leukemia cells to avoid phagocytosis. (
  • In that study, a population of adherent cells was isolated from fetal livers of Cx43 +/+ , Cx43 +/− , and Cx43 −/− mice. (
  • These cells were assessed for phagocytic capacity, and the cells displayed differential phagocytosis, leading the authors to propose a "direct role" for Cx43. (
  • Mavirus integrates into the genome of cells of Cafeteria roenbergensis, and thereby confers immunity to the population. (
  • CroV enters cells via phagocytosis. (
  • There was no difference in phagocytosis of beads by MDM from COPD patients compared with cells from smokers and nonsmokers. (
  • High speed allows the imaging and analysis of large populations of cells for statistically robust assay results even with rare sub-populations in heterogeneous samples. (
  • A major obstacle to a thorough analysis of the mechanics of phagocytosis is that almost all experimental data available in the literature pertain to phagocytosis by spread cells. (
  • Internalization correlated strongly with FcγRIIb expression on normal and malignant B cells, and resulted in reduced macrophage phagocytosis of mAb-coated targets. (
  • Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived RPE, which phagocytoses and degrades POS in culture and can be derived from control individuals (no history/susceptibility for retinal disease), provides a model system to investigate the singular effect of excess Fe and/or cigarette smoke on POS processing by RPE cells. (
  • When soluble or surface-bound IgG immune complexes interact with Fc receptors on phagocytic cells, a number of host defense mechanisms are activated, including phagocytosis and activation of an NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative burst. (
  • Septilin also augments the population of erythropoietic and granulopoietic precursor cells, stab cells and primary. (
  • The model accounts for stochastic interaction between bacteria and cells of the immune system and heterogeneity in susceptibility to infection of individual hosts within a population. (
  • Notably, the proliferative and differentiation output of the CD71(intermediate(int)/+) CD105(+) subset of cells within the MEP population was completely restricted to the erythroid lineage with the loss of MegK potential. (
  • C) Effect of LY294002 treatment on phagocytosis of bacteria by AX3 cells. (
  • A) Time series showing phagocytosis of yeast cells (marked with asterisks) by Dictyostelium amoebae expressing various PH-domain-GFP fusion proteins as indicated. (
  • B) Phagocytosis of 1 μm beads by cells expressing GRP1 and TAPP1-PH-GFP. (
  • The movement of yeast particles during engulfment was tracked and the average velocity from five phagocytosis events from different cells plotted. (
  • Phagocytosis is impaired in PTEN null cells. (
  • C) Comparison of GRP1-PH and TAPP1-PH membrane localisation during yeast phagocytosis in wild-type AX2 and PTENnull cells. (
  • LOX-1 is expressed on a population of polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs) in peripheral blood of cancer patients 1 . (
  • For example, they scavenge dead cells and other debris in a process called phagocytosis. (
  • We demonstrate that isogenic P. aeruginosa mutants deficient in flagellar function, but retaining an intact flagellum, are highly resistant to phagocytosis by both murine and human phagocytic cells at levels comparable to those of flagellum-deficient mutants. (
  • Here, we provide data that challenge the current paradigm that the flagellum functions as a primary phagocytic ligand for P. aeruginosa ingestion by immune cells with the formal demonstration that motility, rather than loss of flagellar expression, confers the advantage toward P. aeruginosa evasion of phagocytosis. (
  • Third, TLR analysis can be further complicated if the 'purified' cells contain contaminating populations. (
  • Therefore, a newly developed phagocytosis assay based on flow cytometry (flow assay) was compared with the conventional killing assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using sera obtained from adults pre- and postvaccination with either a bivalent conjugate, a tetravalent conjugate, or the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. (
  • Suppression of alveolar macrophage membrane receptor-mediated phagocytosis by model and actual particle-adsorbate complexes. (
  • Symbionts are acquired via phagocytosis of bacteria by bacterioctyes. (
  • Lucinids maintain their symbiont population by reacquiring sulfur-oxidizing bacteria throughout their lifetime. (
  • Scavenger receptor proteins are involved in the cellular internalization of a broad variety of foreign material, including pathogenic bacteria during phagocytosis. (
  • CC16 seemed to have no influence on oxidative burst and phagocytosis in TP. (
  • We then used two distinct assays to demonstrate that ExoS inhibited phagocytosis during pneumonia. (
  • The FlowSight operates at a fixed 20X magnification, can accept up to four excitation lasers, and is optimized for standard flow cytometry assays with visual verification of all events and populations for improved gating and artifact detection. (
  • We showed that MBL is capable of binding B. burgdorferi through its carbohydrate recognition domains, but in vitro complement killing assays, peritoneal macrophage and whole blood stimulations, phagocytosis assays and an in vivo migration experiment did not reveal the mechanism by which MBL facilitates early clearance of B. burgdorferi . (
  • Activation of one response such as phagocytosis does not necessarily require activation of other responses. (
  • The M protein is a major virulence factor in that it confers resistance to phagocytosis. (
  • Our data demonstrate that loss of bacterial motility confers a dramatic resistance to phagocytosis that is independent of both flagellar expression and TLR signaling. (
  • The mechanical implementation of phagocytosis requires a well-coordinated deployment of cytoplasm and membrane during the creation of a phagosome. (
  • We further find that the onset of viscous tension, proportional to the rate of area expansion and caused by the unfurling of plasma membrane wrinkles, is significantly delayed in phagocytosis compared with aspiration. (
  • We propose that this is the result of phagocytosis-triggered enzymatic activity that releases spare plasma membrane normally sequestered by velcro-like bonds in a reservoir of surface folds and villi. (
  • We suggest that this is indicative of active management of spare surface membrane availability geared towards facilitating phagocytosis and opposing passive deformation. (
  • Quantitative analysis of membrane localisation during phagocytosis. (
  • Estimating recent migration and population-size surfaces. (
  • In addition, GLP attenuates inflammation-related microglial migration, morphological alterations and phagocytosis probabilities. (
  • Intronic CNVs and gene expression variation in human populations. (
  • Additional study regarding the dynamic relationships between the respiratory burst and phagocytosis in the population with asthma is needed. (
  • Once phagocytosis occurs, the respiratory burst is carried out as part of the metabolic processes to remove endocytosed material. (
  • In this study, we used a mouse model to investigate the role of ExoS in inhibiting phagocytosis during pneumonia. (
  • The lack of a role for Cx43 in macrophage phagocytosis is in sharp contrast with a study by Anand et al. (
  • By contrast, the work presented in this paper employs the simplest configuration possible: an initially spherical isolated cell that phagocytoses an opsonized sphere. (
  • By contrast, LTB 4 dose-dependently amplified FcγR-mediated phagocytosis as well as Syk activation. (
  • Blocking calreticulin on low risk MDS myeloid progenitors rescues them from phagocytosis in vitro. (
  • Figure 16.1.1 Fc OxyBURST Green assay reagent ( F2902 ) for fluorescent detection of the Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis pathway. (
  • Population genetic analysis of autophagy and phagocytosis genes in Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. (
  • These genes also exhibit unusually high levels of segregating nonsynonymous polymorphism in D. melanogaster and D . simulans populations. (
  • Many candidate genes are present in the chromosomal region in which Aath4 resides, including several phagocytosis-related genes. (
  • We analyzed patterns of intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation in 20 immune-related genes and 17 nonimmune genes from a wild population of A. coluzzii and asked if patterns of genetic variation in the immune genes are consistent with pathogen-driven selection shaping the evolution of defense. (
  • A population genetic interpretation of GWAS findings for human quantitative traits. (
  • Furthermore, a role for endogenous LTB 4 in Syk activation during FcγR-mediated phagocytosis was demonstrated using pharmacologic and genetic abrogation of 5-lipoxygenase. (
  • Therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and the risk of incident AMD in a prospective population-based cohort study and to study possible underlying genetic pathways by investigating an overlap in genome-wide significant hits (that is, bidirectional genetic look-up). (
  • In this work, we employ bacterial and mammalian genetic approaches to demonstrate that loss of motility, not the loss of the flagellum per se , is the critical factor in the development of resistance to phagocytosis by P. aeruginosa . (
  • Involved in positive regulation of T cell activation and positive regulation of cell population proliferation. (
  • Both types of phagocytosis appear to share certain signals, including the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), protein tyrosine kinases (PTK), and protein kinase C (PKC). (
  • The activation of Syk and of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) are 2 events that have been shown to be critical for optimal ingestion of IgG-coated targets but have not been investigated in the context of apoptotic cell phagocytosis. (
  • TLR activation leads to a wide range of effects, including inflammation, complement activation, and phagocytosis. (
  • Pro-inflammation predominates in about 15% of the population on the basis of genetics. (
  • Rather, they were interested in tracing the activities of a particular population of macrophage precursors called erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). (
  • Moreover, their role in removal of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms via phagocytosis is essential in maintaining the normally sterile environment within the lung. (
  • The most-severe impairment in phagocytosis occurred in the children with the most-severe asthma. (
  • These results suggest no significant role of EhROM1 in complement resistance but unexpected roles in parasite adhesion and phagocytosis. (
  • The multiple images of each cell help ensure that different cell populations can be distinguished based on their morphology (brightfield imagery), granularity (darkfield imagery), and fluorescence brightness and sub-cellular distribution. (
  • Blocking CD47 leads to the selective phagocytosis of this population. (
  • Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase that decreased the production of reactive oxidant intermediates inhibited the killing of A. fumigatus without altering the phagocytosis rate. (
  • In particular, we monitor the cortical tension as the apparent cellular surface area increases due to cell-driven deformations induced by phagocytosis. (
  • Here, we further characterize the dynamics of the oocyst phagocytosis at the single-cell level by using optical tweezers and micropipette aspiration techniques. (
  • Additionally, CD93 has been shown to define an early bone marrow stem cell population of hematopoietic and hepatic precursors. (
  • Described in detail herein is a method for generating viable merozoites using the E64 protease inhibitor, and an assay of merozoite opsonin-dependent phagocytosis using the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. (
  • B) Localisation of PTEN-GFP during phagocytosis of a yeast cell (asterisks). (
  • Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that promastigotes of the invasive species entered fibroblasts flagellum-end first through pseudopodia-like structures formed on the host cell surface, reminiscent of "induced phagocytosis. (
  • The enhancements in phagocytosis described here provide the potential to improve the performance of therapeutic antibodies targeting cancers. (
  • Antibodies that aid phagocytosis apparently play little or no role in the destruction of the tubercle bacillus. (
  • Low concentrations of the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 slightly increase yeast uptake while high concentrations reduce phagocytosis of yeast particles. (
  • Analysis of cytokine profiles showed that PMA at a concentration of 100 nM induced development of the proinflammatory macrophage population. (
  • Secondary outcomes included neutrophil phagocytosis over time, neutrophil functions other than phagocytosis, monocyte HLA-DR expression and safety. (
  • The proportion of patients with neutrophil phagocytosis≥50% at day 2, and monocyte HLA-DR, appeared significantly higher in the GM-CSF group. (
  • Analysis of microglial morphology and phagocytosis modulations was confirmed in the zebrafish brain. (
  • The primary outcome measure was neutrophil phagocytosis 2 days after initiation of GM-CSF. (
  • Phagocytosis is a key capability through which the neutrophil fulfills its role as foot-soldier of the immune system. (
  • These previously unclassified populations may facilitate further understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing human erythroid development and serve as potential therapeutic targets in disorders of the erythroid lineage. (
  • reactant a. assists enzymes ___ phagocytosis b. forms a. (
  • Background Critically ill patients with impaired neutrophil phagocytosis have significantly increased risk of nosocomial infection. (
  • Neutrophil functions other than phagocytosis did not appear significantly different between the groups. (
  • Localisation of PH-domain probes during phagocytosis. (
  • Localisation of f-actin specific probes during phagocytosis. (