Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.HLA-DQ beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.HLA-DQ alpha-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Genealogy and HeraldryHeterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Bahrain: An independent state, an archipelago in the western Persian Gulf, northwest of Qatar. It comprises low-lying islands of Bahrain (the largest), Muharraq, Sitra, and several islets. It has extensive oil fields. The name comes from the Arabic al-bahrayn, "the two seas", with reference to its lying in the middle of a bay with its "two seas" east and west of it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p107 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.HLA-B8 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.AfricaHLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Gene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Polynesia: The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)EuropeLikelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.South AmericaAsia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Receptors, KIR: A family of receptors found on NK CELLS that have specificity for a variety of HLA ANTIGENS. KIR receptors contain up to three different extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains referred to as D0, D1, and D2 and play an important role in blocking NK cell activation against cells expressing the appropriate HLA antigens thus preventing cell lysis. Although they are often referred to as being inhibitory receptors, a subset of KIR receptors may also play an activating role in NK cells.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Nuclear Family: A family composed of spouses and their children.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Tandem Repeat Sequences: Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).JapanHaploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
2003). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Romanian population sample". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 117 (5): 312- ... 2008). "Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in three native Sarawak populations (Iban, Bidayuh and Melanau) in East ... 2005). "A 9-loci Y chromosome haplotype in three Italian populations". Forensic Science International: Genetics. 159 (1): 64-70 ... 2009). "Y-chromosome haplotype database in Venezuelan central region and its comparison with other Venezuelan populations". ...
The haplotype, at 4.7 million nucleotide, exists in a population with other haplotypes which, when combined, exceed A1::DQ2 in ... Other haplotypes exist in the region of Europe where this haplotype formed and expanded, some of these haplotypes also are ... HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (Also: AH8.1, COX,[1] Super B8, ancestral MHC 8.1[2] or 8.1 ancestral haplotype[3]) is a multigene ... For a haplotype of this length the process is fast, 50% loss of the complete haplotype within 500 years. And yet the haplotype ...
Population and subgroups[edit]. Romani population[edit]. Main article: Romani populations. For a variety of reasons, many ... "Croatian national reference Y-STR haplotype database" (PDF). Draganprimorac.com. Retrieved 20 December 2016.. ... "Population and Housing Census. Resident population by nationality" (PDF). SK: Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... "Population dupa etnia si religie, pe medii" [Population by ethnicity and religion (on average)] (PDF) (in Romanian). Romanian ...
May 2008). "Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample". Int. J. Legal Med. ... the Tajik population of Panjikent (64%), the Kyrgyz population of Central Kyrgyzstan (63.5%), Sorbs (63.39%), Bihar Brahmins ( ... a b Miroslava Derenko et al 2005, Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and ... 2005), "Genetic affinity among five different population groups in India reflecting a Y-chromosome gene flow", J. Hum. Genet., ...
The HLA-A antigens can mediate apoptosis in autoimmune disease and HLA A*0201 in with the HLA-DQ8 haplotypes has been ... Homozygotes of DQ8, DQ2.5/DQ8 and DQ8/DQ2.2 are higher than expected based on levels in the general population.(see: ... Understanding DQ Haplotypes and DQ isoforms on the right). HLA-DQ2 primarily presents gliadins with the HLA-DQ isoform DQ2.5 ( ... Understanding DQ haplotypes and DQ isoforms). HLA-DQ8 is generally not as involved in the most severe complications, and it ...
HLA-DQ haplotypes in 15 different populations. In: The Major Histocompatibility Complex: Evolution, Structure and Function. M ... In: Progress in Population Genetics and Human Evolution. P. Donnelly and S. Tavare (eds.), Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 1-13 ... In: Genomic Diversity: Applications in Human Population Genetics. S. S. Papiha, R. Deka and R. Chakraborty (Eds.), Plenum Press ... Vigilant L, Stoneking M, Harpending H, Hawkes K, Wilson AC (September 1991). "African populations and the evolution of human ...
0.05) in this population. 1. Introduce the reference of a SNP of interest, as an example: rs429358, in a database (dbSNP or ... allele frequency The International HapMap Consortium (2005). "A haplotype map of the human genome". Nature. 437 (7063): 1299- ... Minor allele frequency (MAF) refers to the frequency at which the second most common allele occurs in a given population. SNPs ... It is widely used in population genetics studies because it provides information to differentiate between common and rare ...
... bearing population is implied ... The Andaman M4 haplotype ... is still present among populations in India, suggesting it was ... Onge population numbers were substantially reduced in the aftermath of colonisation and settlement, from 672 in 1901 to barely ... A major cause of the decline in Onge population is the changes in their food habits brought about by their contact with the ... With their population estimated at only around 100 before the incident, the director of Survival International described the ...
Such haplotypes are frequent in Southwestern Ethiopia, especially among Omotic-speaking populations.[67][68] ... Following civil war between the Jewish population and the Christian population, the Beta Israel appear to have forged an ... Population[edit]. Ethiopian Jews in Israel[edit]. Main articles: Ethiopian Jews in Israel and Racism in Israel § Beta Israel ... This is a little more than 1 percent of the Israeli population.[119] Most of this population are the descendants and the ...
2012). "Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-str loci in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon". Genetics and Molecular ... Turrina S, Atzei R, De Leo D (2006). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Northeast Italian population sample using 17plex loci ... Robino C, Gino S, Ricci U, Grignani P, Previdere C, Torre C (2002). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in an Albanian population ... Immel UD, Erhuma M, Mustafa T, Kleiber M, Klintschar M (2006). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in an Arab population from Libya ...
D. Gusfield, "Inference of haplotypes from samples of diploid populations: complexity and algorithms." Journal of computational ... "Inference of haplotypes from samples of diploid populations: complexity and algorithms", Journal of Computational Biology, 8 (3 ... Gusfield, D. (2003). "Haplotype inference by pure parsimony." In Combinatorial Pattern Matching (pp. 144-155). Springer Berlin/ ... haplotyping in DNA sequences, the multi-state perfect phylogeny problem using chordal graph theory, and fast algorithms for RNA ...
2013). "Characterization and Haplotype analysis of 11 Y-STR loci in Ecuadorian population". Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. Suppl. ... Population Estimates Archived 2014-12-18 at the Wayback Machine *^ Hammer; et al. (Dec 2006). "Population structure of Y ... Y-chromosome-Specific STR haplotype data on the Rapanui population (Easter Island). PMID 17506287 DOI: 10.1353/hub.2007.0005 ... Table 1: Y-chromosome haplotype frequencies in 49 Eurasian populations, listed according to geographic region. ...
"Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes" (PDF). Proceedings ... Jewish populations have been studied more thoroughly than most other human populations, for a variety of reasons: *Jewish ... found that Ashkenazi Jews were most closely clustered with Arabic North African populations when compared to Global population ... population and 0.1% of the world population,[131] 27% of United States Nobel prize winners in the 20th century,[131] 25% of ...
"Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Proceedings of the ... Core Jewish population in 2010[44]. Enlarged Jewish population in 2010[44]. Jewish groups. Jewish history. Lists of Jews. ... The Jewish population growth/decline by country between 1945-1946 and 2010. The countries with the greatest Jewish population ... all mention Jewish populations in the cities of the Mediterranean Basin. Most Jewish population centers of this period were ...
The second haplotype (KC574389) has so far only been found in Flemish Cap populations. 28S rDNA. C1-D2 domains. Genbank numbers ... Folmer fragment: 2 haplotypes with 1 base pair difference. One haplotype (EU442194) is present throughout the North Atlantic. ...
French and Swiss wolves share the same mtDNA haplotype,[35] a haplotype that has never been found in any other wolf population ... Their population decline continued until the 1960s, with isolated populations surviving in Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, and ... of 26 grey wolf populations worldwide revealed that the Italian wolf has a unique mitochondrial haplotype not shared by any ... unlike several European grey wolf populations, Italian wolves do not share haplotypes with either other grey wolves or domestic ...
"Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes" (PDF). Proceedings ... "World Jewish Population, 2010" (PDF). Current Jewish Population Reports. Storrs, Connecticut: North American Jewish Data Bank. ... Historical comparison of Jewish population. Main article: Historical Jewish population comparisons. Region Jews, №. (1900)[110] ... The predominantly Muslim populations of Syrians, Palestinians and Jordanians cluster on branches with other Muslim populations ...
Zurita AI, Hernandez A, Sanchez JJ, Cuellas JA (March 2005). "Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in the Canary Islands population ( ... The population seems to have lived in relative isolation up to the time of the Castilian conquest, around the 14th century ( ... El Hierro and the Bimbache population were the next to fall, then La Gomera, Gran Canaria, La Palma and in 1496, Tenerife. In ... An account of the Guanche population may have been made around AD 1150 by the Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi in the ...
... or genetic markers occur more or less frequently in a population than would be expected from a random formation of haplotypes ... Haplotypes can also show association with a disease or trait. One of the earliest successes in this field was finding a single ... Genetic association is when one or more genotypes within a population co-occur with a phenotypic trait more often than would be ... Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a term used in the study of population genetics for the non-random association of alleles at two ...
Zurita AI, Hernandez A, Sanchez JJ, Cuellas JA (March 2005). "Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in the Canary Islands population ( ... However, some Sub-Saharan lineages are also found in North African populations, and as a result, some of these L lineages could ... The Canarian population includes long-tenured and new waves of Spanish immigrants, including Andalucians, Galicians, Castilians ... In 1402, they began to subdue and suppress the native Guanche population. The Guanches were initially enslaved and gradually ...
"Study on HLA haplotypes in Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai Han population". Yi Chuan Xue Bao. 30 (6): 584-8. PMID 12939805. Chen, ... bridge the gap between Northern Han and Southern Han populations and thus are an intermediate between both populations. Even ... 2008). "Pinghua population as an exception of Han Chinese's coherent genetic structure". Journal of Human Genetics. 53 (4): 303 ... 2009). "Genetic Structure of the Han Chinese Population Revealed by Genome-wide SNP Variation". The American Journal of Human ...
... is a specific technique that cannot be performed outside of a specifically designed population such as the Maize NAM population ... November 2009). "A first-generation haplotype map of maize". Science. 326 (5956): 1115-7. doi:10.1126/science.1177837. PMID ... The NAM population has, however, been successfully used for linkage analysis. In the linkage study that has been released, the ... One of the creators' stated goals for the NAM population was to be able to perform genome-wide association studies in maize by ...
These haplotypes can be used to trace migrations in the human population because they are often much like a fingerprint of an ... Haplotypes[edit]. An HLA haplotype is a series of HLA "genes" (loci-alleles) by chromosome, one passed from the mother and one ... Individuals in a population frequently have different haplotypes, and this results in many combinations, even in small groups. ... There are 100,000s of extended haplotypes, but only a few show a visible and nodal character in the human population. ...
The other yDNA haplotype was unique to the breed. All four haplotypes were distinct from those of the parental populations. ... The two mDNA haplotypes and one yDNA haplotype originated with German Shepherds and was the result of back-crossing. ... Since that time, breeding has been carried out only in closed populations and the developed breed referred to as ... German Shepherds and Carpathian wolves found only two maternal mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and two paternal Y DNA haplotypes ...
"Estimation of Pairwise Identity by Descent from Dense Genetic Marker Data in a Population Sample of Haplotypes". Genetics. 178 ... Via IBD mapping, genome-wide significant regions in isolated populations as well as outbred populations were found while ... "The Architecture of Long-Range Haplotypes Shared within and across Populations". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 29 (2): 473- ... also used an isolated population to fine-map a signal found by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of plasma plant sterol ( ...
... especially in small mapping populations where the effect of correlation between genotypes in the mapping population may be ... Garnier, Sophie, Truong, Vinh, Genome-Wide Haplotype Analysis of Cis Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Monocytes [1] ... He also was able to demonstrate this point by selectively breeding laboratory populations of rats to obtain a hooded phenotype ... Family-based mapping of quantitative trait loci in plant breeding populations with resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat ...
In populations and studies where this ratio is lower, and haplotype reconstruction is more advanced (e.g., in the DO population ... Bayesian Modeling of Haplotype Effects in Multiparent Populations Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... haplotype mosaic. Our aim is to provide a framework for coherent estimation of haplotype and diplotype (haplotype pair) effects ... vector of expected haplotype counts; these "haplotype dosages" can then be used to detect additive "haplotype effects." This ...
Genotype, haplotype and copy-number variation in worldwide human populations.. Jakobsson M1, Scholz SW, Scheet P, Gibbs JR, ... New approaches for haplotype analysis produce inferences about population structure that complement results based on unphased ... Our results produce new inferences about inter-population variation, support the utility of CNVs in human population-genetic ... haplotype and copy number have generally focused on a small number of population groups. Here we report the analysis of high- ...
Inference of population structure using dense haplotype data.. Lawson DJ1, Hellenthal G, Myers S, Falush D. ... between haplotype 1 and each other haplotype, as a function of sequence position. Note multiple haplotypes can share the same ... A) Effective population size and B) population splits used for creating the simulated data. C) Coancestry heatmaps for linked ... A) Relationship between populations for the whole world data. Each tip corresponds to a population; labels include the number ...
A new statistical method for haplotype reconstruction from population data. ... The sequence of each chromosome separately is called a haplotype. The determination of the haplotypes within a population is ... Inference of haplotypes from samples of diploid populations: complexity and algorithms by Dan Gusfield - Journal of ... A new statistical method for haplotype reconstruction from population data. (2001) by M Stephens, Smith NJ, P Donnelly ...
... Georgios D. Kitsios1,2 and Elias Zintzaras1,2 ... Georgios D. Kitsios and Elias Zintzaras, "An NOS3 Haplotype Is Protective against Hypertension in a Caucasian Population," ...
HaploPOP: a software that improves population assignment by combining markers into haplotypes. Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas ... However, assigning individuals to known populations can be difficult if the level of genetic differentiation among populations ... Results: To improve the accuracy of population assignment, we present an algorithm, implemented in the HaploPOP software, that ... We evaluate the performance of HaploPOP to assign individuals to populations using a split-validation approach. We investigate ...
Med haplotype), the DYS221136-T allele (haplotype 1Ha), and the DYS211105-T allele (haplotype 1Hb). Haplotype 1R is also the ... The Jewish populations were characterized by a diverse set of 13 haplotypes that were also present in non-Jewish populations ... The Med haplotype, the most frequent haplotype in Jewish communities, was also common in circum-Mediterranean populations. Its ... The second most frequent Jewish haplotype, YAP+ haplotype 4, was common in Middle Eastern and southern European populations and ...
The next phase of human genomics will involve large-scale screens of populations for significant DNA polymorphisms, notably ... The next phase of human genomics will involve large-scale screens of populations for significant DNA polymorphisms, notably ... 15699029 - Inference of missing snps and information quantity measurements for haplotype blocks.. 18451979 - How to perform ... 18627599 - Malhaplofreq: a computer programme for estimating malaria haplotype frequencies from bl.... ...
Haplotype I (39.2%) and haplotype II (56.9%) accounted for more than 95% of all haplotypes. These two haplotypes differ by a ... If haplotypes I and II are neutral in nature, the fixation of haplotype II in the population cage experiments deserves an ... These populations were derived from a representative set of isofemale lines from a natural population whose mtDNA haplotype ... Haplotypes IV, V, VII, VIII, IX and X differ by a single site from haplotype II, whereas haplotype III and VI differ by a ...
... we compare and contrast three previously published Bayesian methods for inferring haplotypes from genotype data in a population ... A comparison of bayesian methods for haplotype reconstruction from population genotype data Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Nov;73(5):1162 ... we compare and contrast three previously published Bayesian methods for inferring haplotypes from genotype data in a population ...
... general population with no known association to HD and examine the haplotype of new mutation and general population IAs. CAG ... There was no difference in the haplotype distribution of new mutation and general population IAs. These findings suggest that ... High frequency of intermediate alleles on huntington disease-associated haplotypes in British Columbias general population. ... Haplotypes were determined using 22 tagging SNPs across the HTT gene. 5.8% of individuals were found to have an IA, of which 60 ...
... to construct seven-position haplotypes across 1,395 individuals from Sierra Leone, Africa, from U.S. E … ... To better understand the population substructure of African Americans living in coastal South Carolina, we used restriction ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes reveal maternal population genetic affinities of Sea Island Gullah-speaking African ... Analyses showed a high degree of similarity within the New World African-derived populations, where haplotype frequencies and ...
Haplotype-based case-control study of DNA repair gene XRCC3 and hepatocellular carcinoma risk in a Chinese population. ... Haplotype-based case-control study analysis indicated that TTG haplotype was more frequent in HCC groups than in the control ... Haplotype analysis of the CYP8A1 gene associated with myocardial infarction. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2009;15(5):574-80. doi: ... Li Z, Zhang Z, He Z, Tang W, Li T, Zeng Z, He L, Shi Y. A partition-ligation-combination-subdivision EM algorithm for haplotype ...
Results Three different ancestral haplotypes were found in the patient group: B*2705-Cw*0202 (82.3%), B*2705-Cw*0102 (13.8%), ... and B*27 has to be noted as characteristic for our population. ... analysis of hla-b27 haplotypes in the croatian population. Free ...
Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in the Caspase-3, Caspase-7, and Caspase-8 Genes and Risk for Endometrial Cancer: A Population- ... Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in the Caspase-3, Caspase-7, and Caspase-8 Genes and Risk for Endometrial Cancer: A Population- ... Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in the Caspase-3, Caspase-7, and Caspase-8 Genes and Risk for Endometrial Cancer: A Population- ... Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in the Caspase-3, Caspase-7, and Caspase-8 Genes and Risk for Endometrial Cancer: A Population- ...
When our minHt haplotypes frequencies compared with the other seven populations, we have found statistically significant ... The aHt haplotype has found a higher discriminatory potential than minHt haplotype with a better Pd combined value (0.9999936 ... aHt haplotype can be proposed as an alternative to minHt in paternity testing and forensic medicine applications involving ... Gene diversity per locus varied from 0.5788 (DYS388) to 0.8903 (DYS385a/b). The numbers of haplotypes in minHt recommended by ...
... ... a role in the genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population by analyzing polymorphisms and haplotypes of ... Linkage disequilibrium across the P2 promoter region was preserved in the Japanese population, consistent with previous reports ... we found very strong evidence of the association between type 2 diabetes and the haplotype consisting of two polymorphisms in ...
Haplotype association analysis showed the associations between ThrPro haplotype and TG levels (OR = 2.520; 95% CI = 1.139 - ... Haplotype association analysis showed the associations between ThrPro haplotype and TG levels (OR = 2.520; 95% CI = 1.139 - ... 5.575; p = 0.027) and between ThrPro haplotype and TC and LDL-c levels when compared to AlaPro haplotype (difference = 0.175, ... 5.575; p = 0.027) and between ThrPro haplotype and TC and LDL-c levels when compared to AlaPro haplotype (difference = 0.175, ...
... forward simulation of Fisher-Wright populations with stochastic population size and neutral single step mutations in haplotypes ... Andersen, MM & Eriksen, PS 2012 Efficient forward simulation of Fisher-Wright populations with stochastic population size and ... forward simulation of Fisher-Wright populations with stochastic population size and neutral single step mutations in haplotypes ... forward simulation of Fisher-Wright populations with stochastic population size and neutral single step mutations in haplotypes ...
Haplotype that looks Neandertal-introgressed may reflect African population structure (Gokcumen et al. 2013) ... However, an in-depth assessment of the variation in this region across multiple populations reveals that African NE1 haplotypes ... But despite the higher variation within African NE1 haplotypes, the frequency of those haplotypes are the highest outside of ... for African NE1 haplotypes and ~134 K YBP and ~304 K YBP for European NE1 haplotypes. These observations collectively suggest ...
The G-G-T haplotype could be a useful genetic marker of CAD in a Han population of China. There is no association between the 4 ... HAPLOTYPE STUDY OF THE CYP4A11 GENE AND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN A HAN AND A UYGUR POPULATION OF CHINA ... HAPLOTYPE STUDY OF THE CYP4A11 GENE AND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN A HAN AND A UYGUR POPULATION OF CHINA ... The G-G-T haplotype in CAD was significantly higher than that in control group (p=0.037). In a Uygur population, neither the ...
... код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт ... Association of AKT1 Haplotype With the Risk of Schizophrenia in Iranian Population. Am J Med Genet Part B 141B:383-386. ... Failure to confirm association between AKT1 haplotype and schizophrenia in a Japanese case-control population. Mol Psychiatry 9 ... Five-SNP Haplotypes and Their Frequencies (if ,0.03) in Iranian Schizophrenic Patients and Controls Haplotypes AGCAG AGCGA ...
... and the frequency of carriers of t haplotypes in natural populations of house mice Mus musculus, Russian Journal of Genetics" ... Analysis of t-Haplotypes in Natural Populations of House Mouse: I. Identification of t-Haplotypes in Mus musculus L. ... Analysis of t-Haplotypes in Natural Populations of House Mouse: II. Test for Belongings to Complementation Group ... The expression of transmission ratio distortion (TRD) and the frequency of carriers of t haplotypes in natural populations of ...
2002 Jan 24;125(1):86-9. Related Articles, Links Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in a southwest Spain population sample. Gamero JJ ... Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in a southwest Spain population sample. Forensic Sci Int. 2002 Jan 24;125(1):86-9. Related Articles ... Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in a southwest Spain population sample.. Gamero JJ, Romero JL, Gonzalez JL, Carvalho M, Anjos MJ, ... Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from southwest Germany -Freiburg. By Euclides in forum Y-Chromosome (Y-DNA ...
If the origin of the haplotypes (i.e., linkage phase) for the parents of the mapping population is unknown, it also needs to be ... Linkage Analysis and Haplotype Phasing in Experimental Autopolyploid Populations with High Ploidy Level Using Hidden Markov ... Linkage Analysis and Haplotype Phasing in Experimental Autopolyploid Populations with High Ploidy Level Using Hidden Markov ... Linkage Analysis and Haplotype Phasing in Experimental Autopolyploid Populations with High Ploidy Level Using Hidden Markov ...

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