Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Crowding: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Contact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Paramecium aurelia: A species of ciliated PARAMECIUM possessing two micronuclei.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Hantavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.HomoserinePredatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Management Audit: Management review designed to evaluate efficiency and to identify areas in need of management improvement within the institution in order to ensure effectiveness in meeting organizational goals.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Acyl-Butyrolactones: Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Certificate of Need: A certificate issued by a governmental body to an individual or organization proposing to construct or modify a health facility, or to offer a new or different service. The process of issuing the certificate is also included.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.BrazilHost-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.VietnamAnopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.ScotlandAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.CaliforniaLipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.EuropeCausality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.United StatesMalaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.GermanyDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.SwedenAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Post-Synaptic Density: Cytoskeleton specialization at the cytoplasmic side of postsynaptic membrane in SYNAPSES. It is involved in neuronal signaling and NEURONAL PLASTICITY and comprised of GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS; scaffolding molecules (e.g., PSD95, PSD93), and other proteins (e.g., CaCMKII).IndiaReceptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Great Britain
Capture-recapture models including covariate effects. (1/3450)Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries. (+info)
Estimating the effective number of breeders from heterozygote excess in progeny. (2/3450)The heterozygote-excess method is a recently published method for estimating the effective population size (Ne). It is based on the following principle: When the effective number of breeders (Neb) in a population is small, the allele frequencies will (by chance) be different in males and females, which causes an excess of heterozygotes in the progeny with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. We evaluate the accuracy and precision of the heterozygote-excess method using empirical and simulated data sets from polygamous, polygynous, and monogamous mating systems and by using realistic sample sizes of individuals (15-120) and loci (5-30) with varying levels of polymorphism. The method gave nearly unbiased estimates of Neb under all three mating systems. However, the confidence intervals on the point estimates of Neb were sufficiently small (and hence the heterozygote-excess method useful) only in polygamous and polygynous populations that were produced by <10 effective breeders, unless samples included > approximately 60 individuals and 20 multiallelic loci. (+info)
Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States. (3/3450)To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Nino) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns. (+info)
Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods. (4/3450)Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease. (+info)
Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona. (5/3450)For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus. (+info)
A longitudinal study of Sin Nombre virus prevalence in rodents, southeastern Arizona. (6/3450)We determined the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in small mammals in southeastern Arizona. Of 1,234 rodents (from 13 species) captured each month from May through December 1995, only mice in the genus Peromyscus were seropositive. Antibody prevalence was 14.3% in 21 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 13.3% in 98 brush mice (P. boylii), 0.8% in 118 cactus mice (P. eremicus), and 0% in 2 deer mice (P. maniculatus). Most antibody-positive mice were adult male Peromyscus captured close to one another early in the study. Population dynamics of brush mice suggest a correlation between population size and hantavirus-antibody prevalence. (+info)
Statistical sensitivity for detection of spatial and temporal patterns in rodent population densities. (7/3450)A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hantavirus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. Analyzing data from two sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998, we found that for many species of Peromyscus, Reithrodontomys, Neotoma, Dipodomys, and Perognathus, the monitoring program detected species-specific spatial and temporal differences in rodent densities; trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. The program also detected a short-term increase in rodent densities in the winter of 1997-98, demonstrating its usefulness in identifying conditions conducive to increased risk for human disease. (+info)
Natural history of Sin Nombre virus in western Colorado. (8/3450)A mark-recapture longitudinal study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in rodent populations in western Colorado (1994-results summarized to October 1997) indicates the presence of SNV or a closely related hantavirus at two sites. Most rodents (principally deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, and pinyon mice, P. truei) did not persist on the trapping webs much beyond 1 month after first capture. Some persisted more than 1 year, which suggests that even a few infected deer mice could serve as transseasonal reservoirs and mechanisms for over-winter virus maintenance. A positive association between wounds and SNV antibody in adult animals at both sites suggests that when infected rodents in certain populations fight with uninfected rodents, virus amplification occurs. At both sites, male rodents comprised a larger percentage of seropositive mice than recaptured mice, which suggests that male mice contribute more to the SNV epizootic cycle than female mice. In deer mice, IgG antibody prevalence fluctuations were positively associated with population fluctuations. The rates of seroconversion, which in deer mice at both sites occurred mostly during late summer and midwinter, were higher than the seroprevalence, which suggests that the longer deer mice live, the greater the probability they will become infected with SNV. (+info)
Habitat quality and population density drive occupancy dynamics of snowshoe hare in variegated landscapes - Thornton - 2012 -...
The influence of habitat quality and population density on occupancy dynamics may surpass that of traditional metrics of area and isolation, but often this is not considered explicitly in studies of spatially structured populations. In landscapes that are not easily characterized as binary habitat/non-habitat (e.g. variegated landscapes), this influence may be even more important and occur at both local and landscape levels. It follows that occupancy dynamics may be driven by disparate processes depending on how extinction or colonization relate to habitat quality and population density. We examined the relative influence of area, structural isolation, habitat quality, local population density, and neighborhood population density (i.e. population density in the landscape around a site) on the probability of extinction and colonization of snowshoe hare Lepus americanus across an expansive forest mosaic landscape (encompassing the northern third of Idaho). Habitat quality and population density ...
Population - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A population is the number of living things that live together in the same place. A citys population is the number of people living in that city. These people are called inhabitants or residents. The population includes all individuals that live in that certain area.The world population was estimated to have reached 7.5 billion in April 2017. Asia is the most populous continent, with its 4.3 billion inhabitants being 60% of the world population. Population density is the average number of people in a place. Urban areas such as big cities have a high population density. People there live close to each other. In areas with a low population density, people usually live far away from each other, such as in rural areas out in the countryside. Usually population refers to the number of humans in a certain area. The maximum population that can be supported in an area is called the carrying capacity. ...
Insects | Free Full-Text | Mazes to Study the Effects of Spatial Complexity, Predation and Population Density on Mate Finding
The difficulty to locate mates and overcome predation can hamper species establishment and population maintenance. The effects of sparseness between individuals or the effect of predators on the probability of population growth can be difficult to measure experimentally. For testing hypotheses about population density and predation, we contend that habitat complexity can be simulated using insect mazes of varying mathematical difficulty. To demonstrate the concept, we investigated whether the use of 3D printed mazes of varying complexity could be used to increase spatial separation between sexes of Drosophila simulans, and whether the presence of a generalist predator hampered mate-finding. We then examined how increasing D. simulans population density might overcome the artificially created effects of increasing the distance between mates and having a predator present. As expected, there was an increase in time taken to find a mate and a lower incidence of mating as habitat complexity increased.
Population Dynamics of Dhaka Megacity
Bangladesh is a developing country with a very high population density. The country has 160 million populations with a small area of only 147, 570 km . Currently, the population density is around 1200 persons per km 2 which is 50 times higher than the global average density of population, 3 times that of our neighbor India, 7 times that of China and 35 times that of the United States of America. The density in urban areas, particularly within Dhaka Megacity remains very high. The average density within the 1500 km 2 DMC region was over 10,000 persons per km 2 2 . in 2011 Census. However, within the urban built up area the density mostly varied from 20,000 to 75,000 persons per km . In some parts of the city, mostly at the older part, the density was found as high as over 200,000 inhabitants per km 2 2 . This thesis mainly deals with the population dynamics of Dhaka Megacity (DMC), more particularly the distribution and variation of population density and growth within the DMC region in recent ...
A global assembly of adult female mosquito mark-release-recapture data to inform the control of mosquito-borne pathogens. -...
BACKGROUND: Pathogen transmission by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a standard method for estimating such parameters including dispersal, population size and density, survival, blood feeding frequency and blood meal host preferences. METHODS: We assembled a comprehensive database describing adult female MMRR experiments. Bibliographic searches were used to build a digital library of MMRR studies and selected data describing the reported outcomes were extracted. RESULTS: The resulting database contained 774 unique adult female MMRR experiments involving 58 vector mosquito species from the three main genera of importance to human health: Aedes, Anopheles and Culex. Crude examination of these data revealed patterns associated with geography as well as mosquito genus, consistent with bionomics varying by species-specific life history and ecological context. Recapture success varied considerably and was
Geography and Economic Development
This paper addresses the complex relationship between geography and macroeconomic growth. We investigate the ways in which geography may matter directly for growth, controlling for economic policies and institutions, as well as the effects of geography on policy choices and institutions. We find that location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth, through their effects on transport costs, disease burdens, and agricultural productivity, among other channels. Furthermore, geography seems to be a factor in the choice of economic policy itself. When we identify geographical regions that are not conducive to modern economic growth, we find that many of these regions have high population density and rapid population increase. This is especially true of populations that are located far from the coast, and thus face large transport costs for international trade, as well as populations in tropical regions of high disease burden. Furthermore, much of the population increase in the next
mstyles2 | UW-Madison Department of Chemistry
Many common bacterial pathogens use chemical signals to coordinate group behaviors. In the canonical quorum sensing (QS) system of V. fischeri, a synthase, LuxI, produces an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) that is recognized by a receptor, LuxR, at high signal density. LuxR is a transcription factor that regulates bioluminescence and other group behaviors at high population density in an AHL dependent manner. SdiA is a LuxR homolog found in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. SdiA does not have a corresponding synthase, however, and these species do not produce AHL signals. SdiA does not respond to population density, but rather has been shown to respond to AHLs produced by other bacterial species in its environment. SdiA regulates many aspects of pathogenesis including directing the location of the infection, survival in the mammalian digestive system, and the production of virulence factors. Accordingly, modulation of SdiA activity might be a useful anti-virulence ...
Faculty | People | CSBi | Computational and Systems Biology at MIT
We have found that cell-cell signaling is used to regulate horizontal transfer of the integrative and conjugative element ICEBs1, a conjugative transposon found in the B. subtilis genome. These types of elements are widespread in the microbial world and contribute to horizontal gene transfer, evolution, virulence, and the spread of antibiotic resistance. ICEBs1 is regulated by population density and cell-cell signaling in two ways. 1) At high population density, in the presence of potential mating partners, the element is stimulated to excise from the chromosome and can then transfer to potential recipients. 2) However, if the potential recipients already contain a copy of the element, then excision of the element is inhibited and there is little or no transfer to the potential recipients that already contain the element. We found that the secreted pentapeptide, a product of phrI, that regulates this "recognition of self" is encoded in the element. In the absence of this peptide, as cells grow ...
A global assembly of adult female mosquito mark-release-recapture data to inform the control of mosquito-borne pathogens |...
Phosphorus, once only a nutrient, has become a contaminant on a global scale | CREAF
If a river or lake is in good condition, we usually find that there is much more nitrogen than phosphorus, and if the growth of algae and aquatic plants is limited it is usually due to a lack of phosphorous," explains Peñuelas. However, the constant dumping of detergents, pesticides, fertilizers, and urban and industrial wastewater in many river basins throughout the world adds huge quantities of phosphorous, which is accumulating much more quickly than nitrogen or other elements such as potassium. With this, the special role of phosphorus has changed from a desirable nutrient to a contaminant in urban areas with high population density and areas with intensive agriculture.. Under natural conditions, algae tissues contain seven times more nitrogen than phosphorous, and in terrestrial plants this proportion can be as high as 15 times greater. "Most soils and rocks contain low amounts of phosphorous, an element which has very low solubility in water. For this reason, freshwater species have ...
Agricultural Ammonia Indicator - Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)
Ammonia emissions have been increasing as a result of agricultural activities in Canada. Since 1981, emissions from fertilizer have more than doubled (from 63,000 kilotonnes of nitrogen in 1981, up to 130,000 kilotonnes of nitrogen in 2011). Conversely, livestock-related emissions have been decreasing, particularly since 2006. These trends reflect Canadas national trend towards more land under annual crops, and less area given to livestock and associated forage production.. Use the interactive map below to zoom in and explore different regions. Note that some of the highest emissions per hectare (relating to both livestock and fertilizer emissions) occur in the Mixedwood Plains region of southern Ontario and Quebec. The high population density in these regions increases the potential for human health implications. Other areas of relatively high emissions include the Aspen Parkland, Moist Mixed Grassland and Lake Manitoba Plain regions of the Prairies. The Lower Fraser Valley region of British ...
Notification, an Important Neglected Essential Education for Children in Kindergartens and Primary Schools (Education about...
One of the most important threats to global public health, especially in developing countries is parasitic infections. These infections are very common in children and young people especially those who kept in kindergarten and primary schools. Because of the high population density and sometimes by the lack of adequate hygiene, these places are prone to parasitic infections. Infestation causes by ectoparasites like pediculosis, water-borne protozoan infections like giardiasis and the last but not less important, helminth infection like as Oxyuris are a permanent threat for children in this places.
Asthma action plan | The EPA Blog
It was a hazy and hot day as I sat in my grade school New York City classroom. Suddenly, everyones attention was drawn to my classmates wheezing and labored breathing. Àngel was one of the biggest kids in our class, but he was clearly in distress and the memory of his pain is vivid. I now understand that my friend was having an asthma attack. Thankfully, our teacher knew precisely what to do and she had his inhaler inside her desk and ready.. Our Manhattan public school was located adjacent to a major highway known as the FDR Drive, which snakes up Manhattans eastside near the Williamsburg Bridge. The combination of high population density, cars, trucks and industrial activity was a recipe for dismal air quality.. Àngel and many of my inner-city cohort shared a Puerto Rican ancestry. To this day, I remain puzzled by the disproportionately high asthma rate among Latinos. Latinos are 30 percent more likely to go to the hospital for asthma, as compared to non-Hispanic Whites. For reasons that ...
Us Population Density Map | |techgenial.com
US census maps - demographics ECPM Département de langues Map United States Population Density , Direct Maps File:US population map.png Wikimedia Commons Map United States Population Density , Direct Maps What is a map? Map skills and higher order thinking The Functional Art: An Introduction to Information Graphics and Map of NFL teams overlaying a US population density map : nfl US census maps - demographics ECPM Département de langues US Population Density Map in 3D , ...
UN WPP-Adjusted Population Density, v4.11: Gridded Population of the World (GPW), v4 | SEDAC
The Gridded Population of the World, Version 4 (GPWv4): Population Density Adjusted to Match 2015 Revision of UN WPP Country Totals, Revision 11 consists of estimates of human population density (number of persons per square kilometer) based on counts consistent with national censuses and population registers with respect to relative spatial distribution, but adjusted to match the 2015 Revision of the United Nations World Population Prospects (UN WPP) country totals, for the years 2000, 2005, 2011, 2015, and 2020. A proportional allocation gridding algorithm, utilizing approximately 13.5 million national and sub-national administrative units, was used to assign UN WPP-adjusted population counts to 30 arc-second grid cells. The density rasters were created by dividing the UN WPP-adjusted population count raster for a given target year by the land area raster. The data files were produced as global rasters at 30 arc-second (~1 km at the equator) resolution. To enable faster global processing, and ...
Effective size of density dependent populations in fluctuating environments
Knowledge of the effective size of populations, Ne, and the ratio of effective population size to the size of the mature population Ne/N, provide important information of the genetic diversity and fitness of populations. However, the theoretical parameter Ne was originally defined for populations with discrete generations, and most models that aim to estimate Ne for populations with overlapping generations relies on a set of simplifying, often unrealistic assumptions. Whenever these assumptions are violated, the predicted size of Ne may be highly biased and this may potentially lead to erroneous decisions in conservation and management. Hence, there is a need for more knowledge about how different processes occurring in natural populations affect the effective size of populations, and the Ne/N ratio. The main goal of this thesis was to relax one of the most unrealistic assumptions underlying many models: constant population size, or at the very best that fluctuations are only caused by density ...
Population density methods for large-scale modelling of neuronal networks with realistic synaptic kinetics: Cutting the...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Population density methods for large-scale modelling of neuronal networks with realistic synaptic kinetics. T2 - Cutting the dimension down to size. AU - Haskell, Evan. AU - Nykamp, Duane Q.. AU - Tranchina, Daniel. PY - 2001/5. Y1 - 2001/5. N2 - Population density methods provide promising time-saving alternatives to direct Monte Carlo simulations of neuronal network activity, in which one tracks the state of thousands of individual neurons and synapses. A population density method has been found to be roughly a hundred times faster than direct simulation for various test networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons with instantaneous excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic conductances. In this method, neurons are grouped into large populations of similar neurons. For each population, one calculates the evolution of a probability density function (PDF) which describes the distribution of neurons over state space. The population firing rate is then given by the total flux of ...
Population Genetic Consequences of the Allee Effect and the Role of Offspring-Number Variation | Genetics
An increase in offspring-number variation leads to more variable population dynamics, which on one hand lets successful populations escape even faster from the range of small population sizes than under the Poisson model. On the other hand, a large variation also prevents successful Allee-effect populations from spending much time near or above the critical population size because those that do still have a high risk of going extinct even at such high population sizes. Therefore, an increase in variability reinforces the speed-up effect but mitigates the slow-down effect and thus increases the range of founder population sizes for which the genetic consequences of the Allee effect are positive (see Figure 2 and Figure 4). In that sense, variation in family sizes plays a similar role as variation in founder population size and in the number of introduction events (see Figure 4), two factors that were examined in Wittmann et al. (2014) and, in the case of founder population size, also by Kramer ...
A generalized approach for estimating effective population size from temporal changes in allele frequency. | Genetics
The temporal method for estimating effective population size (Ne) from the standardized variance in allele frequency change (F) is presented in a generalized form. Whereas previous treatments of this method have adopted rather limiting assumptions, the present analysis shows that the temporal method is generally applicable to a wide variety of organisms. Use of a revised model of gene sampling permits a more generalized interpretation of Ne than that used by some other authors studying this method. It is shown that two sampling plans (individuals for genetic analysis taken before or after reproduction) whose differences have been stressed by previous authors can be treated in a uniform way. Computer simulations using a wide variety of initial conditions show that different formulas for computing F have much less effect on Ne than do sample size (S), number of generations between samples (t), or the number of loci studied (L). Simulation results also indicate that (1) bias of F is small unless ...
NEESTIMATOR v2: re-implementation of software for the estimation of contemporary effective population size (N-e) from genetic...
NeEstimator v2 is a completely revised and updated implementation of software that produces estimates of contemporary effective population size, using several different methods and a single input file. NeEstimator v2 includes three single-sample estimators (updated versions of the linkage disequilibrium and heterozygote-excess methods, and a new method based on molecular coancestry), as well as the two-sample (moment-based temporal) method. New features include the following: (i) an improved method for accounting for missing data; (ii) options for screening out rare alleles; (iii) confidence intervals for all methods; (iv) the ability to analyse data sets with large numbers of genetic markers (10000 or more); (v) options for batch processing large numbers of different data sets, which will facilitate cross-method comparisons using simulated data; and (vi) correction for temporal estimates when individuals sampled are not removed from the population (Plan I sampling). The user is given ...
The Human Body as an Ecosystem
From a microbes "point of view" the human body is a vast array of surfaces some internal, others external that are continuously colonized by endemic and exotic microbes beginning from the time of our birth and continuing throughout life up until and even beyond the point of death. The surfaces on which these organisms grow and are constantly being sloughed off as new tissues form beneath existing ones resulting in the loss of established biofilms but providing new and uncolonized, or at least less colonized, cell surfaces on which new biofilm communities can be come established. These interconnected ecosystems vary from highly abraded, exceptionally dry habitats on the surface of the skin (e.g. the elbow) to constantly moist, highly nutritious membranous surfaces (the conjunctiva of the eye), from niches of low population density and a pH of 3 (stomach) to habitats with a hydrogen ion concentration a million fold lower and a population density of 1011 cells /gram (gut). Then, within the same ...
Bayesian Approaches to Nonparametric Estimation of Densities on the Unit Interval
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This paper investigates nonparametric estimation of density on [0, 1]. The kernel estimator of density on [0, 1] has been found to be sensitive to both bandwidth and kernel. This paper proposes a unified Bayesian framework for choosing both the bandwidth and kernel function. In a simulation study, the Bayesian bandwidth estimator performed better than others, and kernel estimators were sensitive to the choice of the kernel and the shapes of the population densities on [0, 1]. The simulation and empirical results demonstrate that the methods proposed in this paper can improve the way the probability densities on [0, 1] are presently estimated.
Population Density of a Lawn
Learning Goals: Use a quadrat to sample an area of the school lawn and calculate the population density of 4 common weeds.. Key Concepts: density, carrying capacity, biodiversity, quadrat sampling. Download a copy of the Population Density lab Indoor Quadrat Alternate Assignment:. http://www.patriotspointsciencespotlight.com/images-and-data-submission.html. Lab - Introduction to Quadrats. Quadrats - the Point-Intercept Method. ...
Social Attraction in cane toads | Biology Letters
As predicted, invasion-front toads were more likely to approach conspecifics and spent more time with them than did toads from long-colonized populations. We also found a sex effect; males were more likely to approach conspecifics and spent more time with them than did females. Because our stimulus toads were female, that sex bias might reflect sexual rather than social attraction. However, the greater sociality of male than female toads was seen in both long-colonized and range-edge populations, suggesting that the effect of invasion history on social attraction was not due to differences in sexual selection among populations. Below, we consider possible explanations for the divergence in social attraction between long-colonized and invasion-front populations.. First, the costs and benefits of social attraction may differ at high versus low population densities, which in turn differ predictably across the invasion range. For example, low densities at the invasion front may reduce ecological ...
Population, service and enterprise in Sweden's rural areas - Tillväxtanalys
The conditions for enterprise differ in some respects between companies in urban and rural areas. The geographical situation in rural areas entails large distances to customer and suppliers. A limited labour market and other functions of significance mean that travel and transports are more expensive and take more time. The possibility of recruiting personnel with the right expertise is affected by a limited local labour market. Long distances make work commutes difficult. Properties and facilities in rural areas often have low second-hand value which makes it difficult for companies to provide collateral for bank loans. Low population density and climate need not necessarily always be competitive disadvantages. For enterprises where the business has a special need for space, natural resources, climate, etc. these characteristics are often an advantage and in some cases a prerequisite. Agriculture, forestry, mineral extraction, some kinds of tourism, testing activities, etc. are examples of ...
Policies & ProgramsPolicies and programs that can improve healthfiltered by "Housing and Transit" | County Health Rankings &...
Sandwalk: April 2014
Figure 1 of Nielsen et al., paper shows multiple (up to 21) synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions in thousands of chimp proteins compared to the related human proteins. In the second paper Behe & Snoke conclude that in order to generate a new function that requires mutations of two amino acids, like forming a disulfide bridge, 108 generations are needed with a population size of at least 109. In the third paper, Lynch countered that much smaller populations could reach this goal in less time. Now, if we take the human population size from the above two studies (Ne about 104) for the population size in Figure 3 of the Lynch article, we can see that it would take 108 generations for the arrival of a new function, even if the two changed amino acid were any 2 of 50 (with a high s = 0.01). For humans, 108 generations mean 2 Billion years: an impossibly long period. Needless to say, a new function requiring 3, 4 … up to 21 amino acid changes would take much longer than 108 generations. And ...
Sandwalk: April 2014
Figure 1 of Nielsen et al., paper shows multiple (up to 21) synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions in thousands of chimp proteins compared to the related human proteins. In the second paper Behe & Snoke conclude that in order to generate a new function that requires mutations of two amino acids, like forming a disulfide bridge, 108 generations are needed with a population size of at least 109. In the third paper, Lynch countered that much smaller populations could reach this goal in less time. Now, if we take the human population size from the above two studies (Ne about 104) for the population size in Figure 3 of the Lynch article, we can see that it would take 108 generations for the arrival of a new function, even if the two changed amino acid were any 2 of 50 (with a high s = 0.01). For humans, 108 generations mean 2 Billion years: an impossibly long period. Needless to say, a new function requiring 3, 4 … up to 21 amino acid changes would take much longer than 108 generations. And ...
Population Dynamics Wildlife Management. - ppt download
Pangloss revisited: a critique of the dilution effect and the biodiversity-buffers-disease paradigm
The twin concepts of zooprophylaxis and the dilution effect originated with vector-borne diseases (malaria), were driven forward by studies on Lyme borreliosis and have now developed into the mantra biodiversity protects against disease. The basic idea is that by diluting the assemblage of transmi …
PLOS ONE: Controlled Breast Cancer Microarrays for the Deconvolution of Cellular Multilayering and Density Effects upon Drug...
Background Increasing evidence shows that the cancer microenvironment affects both tumorigenesis and the response of cancer to drug treatment. Therefore in vitro models that selectively reflect characteristics of the in vivo environment are greatly needed. Current methods allow us to screen the effect of extrinsic parameters such as matrix composition and to model the complex and three-dimensional (3D) cancer environment. However, 3D models that reflect characteristics of the in vivo environment are typically too complex and do not allow the separation of discrete extrinsic parameters. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we used a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel-based microwell array to model breast cancer cell behavior in multilayer cell clusters that allows a rigorous control of the environment. The innovative array fabrication enables different matrix proteins to be integrated into the bottom surface of microwells. Thereby, extrinsic parameters including dimensionality, type of matrix
The Mermaid's Tale: November 2012
In summary, the spectrum of protein-coding variation is considerably different today compared to what existed as recently as 200 to 400 generations ago. Of the putatively deleterious protein-coding SNVs, 86.4% arose in the last 5,000 to 10,000 years, and they are enriched for mutations of large effect as selection has not had sufficient time to purge them from the population. Thus, it seems likely that rare variants have an important role in heritable phenotypic variation, disease susceptibility and adverse drug responses. In principle, our results provide a framework for developing new methods to prioritize potential disease-causing variants in gene-mapping studies. More generally, the recent dramatic increase in human population size, resulting in a deluge of rare functionally important variation, has important implications for understanding and predicting current and future patterns of human disease and evolution. For example, the increased mutational capacity of recent human populations has ...
Using a relatively simple density-dependent population model and assuming constant young of year survival with no immigration/emigration, reductions in cumulative fecundity have been predicted to yield declines in population size over time (Miller and Ankley 2004). Under real-world environmental conditions, outcomes may vary depending on how well conditions conform with model assumptions. Nonetheless, cumulative fecundity can be considered one vital rate that contributes to overall population trajectories (Kramer et al. 2011).. ...
Frankston Heights population density
Reynella population density
World Population Density Interactive Map - CityGeographics: urban form, dynamics and sustainability
A brilliant new dataset produced by the European Commission JRC and CIESIN Columbia University was recently released- the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL). This is the first time that detailed and comprehensive population density and built-up area for the world has been available as open data. As usual, my first thought was to make an…
Maps Mania: Oslo Population Density in 3D
The second map in the post provides a 3d visualization on the same population data, with each grids population density shown as a 3d tower or block on the map. The usual problem with such an approach is that the towers or blocks in the foreground obscure the view of the towers in the background. Bjørns 3d interactive map largely overcomes this problem by allowing you to rotate and zoom in and out on the map ...
What Factors Determine the Carrying Capacity of an Ecosystem? - Population Education
We can also look at factors that determine carrying capacity in terms of their density-dependence. Density-dependent limiting factors make the per capita growth rate decrease as the population increases. Density-dependent limiting factors tend to be biotic, including factors such as food and disease. For example, in a population of panthers, there is access to a fixed amount of food. When the population remains small there will be plenty of food for all panthers. When the panther population gets large enough the food may become insufficient, leading to competition among panthers, from this competition, panthers may starve, or die, and stop reproducing. As such, the per capita growth rate of the panther population may shrink or level off. Food in this case is an example of a density-dependent limiting factor.. ...
Dynamics of heterogeneous populations and communities and evolution of distributions
Most population models assume that individuals within a given population are identical, that is, the fundamental role of variation is ignored. Inhomogeneous models of populations and communities allow for birth and death rates to vary among individuals; recently, theorems of existence and asymptotic of solutions of such models were investigated. Here we develop another approach to modeling heterogeneous populations by reducing the model to the Cauchy problem for a special system of ODEs. As a result, the total population size and current distribution of the vector-parameter can be found in explicit analytical form or computed effectively. The developed approach is extended to the models of inhomogeneous communities.
A nonlinear mathematical model for innovation diffusion is proposed. The system of ordinary differential equations incorporates variable external influences (the cumulative density of marketing efforts), variable internal influences (the cumulative density of word of mouth) and a logistically growing human population (the variable potential consumers). The change in population density is due to various demographic processes such as intrinsic growth rate, emigration, death rate etc. Thus the problem involves two dynamic variables viz. a non-adopter population density and an adopter population density. The model is analysed qualitatively using the stability theory of differential equations, with the help of the corresponding characteristic equation of the system. The interior equilibrium point can be stable for all time delays to a critical value, beyond which the system becomes unstable and a Hopf bifurcation occurs at a second critical value. Employing normal form theory and a centre manifold ...
PPT - Lecture 9 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:36189
Worldpop - Methods
Land cover-based: Through detailed mapping of settlements, and linkage of these settlement extents with gazetteer population numbers, the substantial majority of resident population can be mapped within settlements with good precision. Mapping of the remaining minority rural populations follows the approaches outlined in detail elsewhere. The settlement maps are used to refine land cover data, while local high resolution census data is exploited to identify typical regional per-land cover class population densities, which are then applied to redistribute census counts to map human population distributions. This population mapping approach forms the basis of some older WorldPop datasets, but is now being replaced by an alternative Random Forest mapping approach described below.. Random Forest: Stevens et al (2015) provides full details on the novel random forest regression tree-based mapping approach. In brief, a new semi-automated dasymetric modeling approach has been built that incorporates ...
Number of population and key demographic indicators | Latvijas statistika
When publishing monthly population number, only registered population change is taken into account (both natural increase and net migration). In the 2nd quarter of the following year, the population number at the beginning of the year and in previous month is specified considering non-registered migration as well as fertility and mortality data in line with the actual month of the event.. Number of live births. The data on registered number of live births occurred during the corresponding month in the database short-term statistical data section are published in the last reference year. It means that statistics on the number of births includes part of the births occurred during the previous month, but not all births occurred during the respective month are included in the statistics, as in line with the Law On Registration of Civil Status Documents a child shall be registered within a month after the birth thereof. In June of the following year, the data on all live births occurred during the ...
Difference between revisions of "Elizabeth Polidan Week2" - OpenWetWare
Figure 4 represents an initial cell concentration of one. The population still spikes up, but the leveling off occurs at a lower population than in figure 1 (note change in y-axis scale here). In figure 5 the inflow rate (and therefore the amount of nutrients in the system) was increased, allowing the cell population to increase past the 110 count in figure 4. However, there is still the knee where the initial higher concentration of nutrients is depleted and the increase in cells proceeds at a slower rate ...
A general approach to modeling and analysis of species abundance data with extra zeros | Springer for Research & Development
I need you to attack this argument
Thermal triplets: PM, sintering, and case hardening | Thermal Processing Magazine
Over the decades engineers and manufacturing were desperate to find more uses for PM primarily due to the net shape capability they provided. However, PM has two major stumbling blocks that they continue to try and overcome: First, the part had to be capable of being removed from a hydraulic press, therefore any component had to be fairly simple in configuration - cylindrical or some similar shape with straight sides. Second, although extreme pressure is used to compress parts, 100 percent void free is impossible to achieve. Why? First, a binder is blended with the powder because without a binder/lube the compact has no strength when its removed from the press and some strength is required for the parts to hold their shape through the handling required to transport parts between processes. Since the maximum practical sintered density can vary depending on the alloy grade and application about 85 to 92 to 98 percent the binder/lube serves two purposes. It allows the part to retain its shape and ...
Calculating Statistical Significance?
World Population by Sara Damon - Flipsnack
Black-tailed prairie dog
Home range and population density. The home range and territorial boundaries of black-tailed prairie dogs are determined ... Population density and growth are influenced by habitat quality  and are restricted by topographic barriers, soil structure ... Demography and population dynamics of prairie dogs. In: Uresk, Daniel W.; Schenbeck, Greg L.; Cefkin, Rose, tech coords. 8th ... Burrow entrances without structures around them are usually located on slopes more than 10°. The density of burrow openings ...
Soil seed bank
Population densities and diversity. The mortality of seeds in the soil is one of the key factors for the persistence and ... Species of Striga (witchweed) are known to leave some of the highest seed densities in the soil compared to other plant genera ... density fluctuations of plant populations, especially for annual plants. Studies on the genetic structure of Androsace ... The soil seed banks of north west Europe : methodology, density and longevity. New York : Cambridge University Press. 276 p. ...
Mexico-United States relations
Saint John County, New Brunswick
Population density:. 52.3/km2 (135/sq mi). 51.0/km2 (132/sq mi). ... Population. Canada census - Saint John County, New ... Population:. 76,550 (+2.6% from 2006). 74,621 (-2.3% from 2001). Land area:. 1,464.53 km2 (565.46 sq mi). 1,462.03 km2 (564.49 ... Saint John County (2016 population: 74,020) is located in southern New Brunswick, Canada. The city of Saint John dominates the ... There are two municipalities within Saint John County (listed by 2011 population): ...
Population density: 87.3/km2 (226/sq mi) 86.5/km2 (224/sq mi) 84.7/km2 (219/sq mi) ... Total population. 20,500. 100% Education. Kingsville has three elementary schools, Kingsville Public School, Jack Miner ... Kingsville District High School has a student population of 656. Attractions. Kingsville is home to the Jack Miner ... The town had a population of 21,552 in the Canada 2016 Census, up from 21,362 in the Canada 2011 Census. ...
Population density. 7,819.7/sq mi. 1,315.5/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic). 94.5%. 73.8%. 75.0 ... of the population. Other languages spoken were well below 1% of the population. ... "CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING (1790-2000)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-07-17.. ... As of 2000, the CDP population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 24.1% ...
Port St. Lucie, Florida
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010. +85.4%. +44.2%. +17.6% Population density. 1,444.5/sq mi. 485.7/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi ... "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-08-01.. *^ "Port St. Lucie, FL Metro Area". Data USA. ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.. *^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. *^ Modern Language Association Data Center Results of ...
Bulgaria-United States relations
Population Density. 68.9 /km² (185 /sq mi). 31/km² (80/sq mi). ... It saw large dislocations of populations, economic depression, ... In Spring 1943, the Bulgarian government ordered the deportation of the Jewish population of Bulgaria. The deportation of Jews ... "Every territorial settlement involved in this war must be made in the interest and for the benefit of the population concerned ... where the Ottoman Government had given them permission to preach to the Christian population. One of these missionaries, Elias ...
Kendale Lakes, Florida
Population density. 6,933.3/sq mi. 1,315.5/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic). 92.1%. 73.8%. 75.0 ... of the population, and the sixth highest percentage of Nicaraguan residents in the US, at 4.59% of its population. It ... "CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING (1790-2000)". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2010-07-08. Retrieved 2010-07- ... In 2000, the CDP the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 31.0% from 25 to 44, 23.0% ...
Germany-United States relations
Population density 232/km² (601/sq mi) 31/km² (80/sq mi) ... Population 82,800,000 329,555,000 Area 357,168 km² (137,847 sq ... By 1890 more than 40 percent of the population of the cities of Cleveland, Milwaukee, Hoboken and Cincinnati were of German ... Conversely, nearly half of the German population can speak English well. A German-American Friendship Garden was built in ... Self-reported ancestry of the population of the United States (by countries, 2001) ...
Population. (2018) Pop (World rank) Density (rank) Density (/km2) Density (/mi2) ... "Demographic Yearbook-Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations ... "Overall total population" - World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via ... "World Population prospects - Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs ...
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010. +24.2%. +24.4%. +17.6% Population density. 1,492.6/sq mi. 334.9/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi ... 12.6% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. In 2000, the city the population was spread out with 21.4% under ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. *^ "Lakeland (city) QuickFacts from the US Census ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.. *^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. ...
Australia-United States relations
Population density 2.8/km2 (1.74/sq mi) 34.2/km2 (13.2/sq mi) ... The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily ... "Population clock". Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 15 December 2016.. ... Although the US has a sizable sheep population, American imports of lamb meat from Australia and New Zealand remain stronger ... at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation. ...
Pembroke Park, Florida
Population density. 4,481.5/sq mi. 1,444.9/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic). 37.6%. 63.1%. 75.0 ... of the city's population, and the 137th highest percentage of Cuban residents in the US, at 1.52% of the city's population ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.. *^ a b "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. ...
Coconut Creek, Florida
Population density. 4,464.7/sq mi. 1,444.9/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic). 75.3%. 63.1%. 75.0 ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved March 24, 2018.. *^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. ... It had a population of 55,001 in 2012. It is part of the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL Metropolitan Statistical ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. ...
Population (2016) Land Area Population Density km2 mi2 /km2 /mi2 ... "Évolution de la population de Montréal, 1660 à nos jours". ... It serves a population of approximately 3.7 million people who make more than 750,000 trips daily. ... "Population and dwelling counts, for census metropolitan areas, 2016 and 2011 censuses - 100% data". Statistics Canada. ... The outer ring is composed of low-density municipalities located on the fringe of Metropolitan Montreal. Most of these cities ...
Central American Integration System
Population. (2018) Area Population density Belize Belmopan BZ 1998 383,071 22,966 km2. (8,867 sq mi) 16/km2. (41/sq mi) ... "Overall total population" - World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via ... "World Population prospects - Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs ... website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.. ...
Virginia Gardens, Florida
Population density. 8,062.3/sq mi. 1,315.5/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic). 90.7%. 73.8%. 75.0 ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. *^ "MLA Data Center Results of Virginia Gardens, FL". ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.. *^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. ... About 9.5% of families and 11.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.3% of those under age 18 and 6.6% ...
... including areas of high population density such as Stornoway. However, the Education (Scotland) Act 1872 mandated English-only ... "Factfile:Population". Comhairle nan Eilean Siar. Retrieved 20 July 2013.. *^ a b c General Register Office for Scotland (28 ... a b c National Records of Scotland (15 August 2013) (pdf) Statistical Bulletin: 2011 Census: First Results on Population and ... and the archipelago's populations continued to dwindle throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries. By 2001 the population of ...
Population density:. 23.2/km2 (60/sq mi). 22.3/km2 (58/sq mi). ... Malahide (Canada 2006 Census population 8,828) is a municipal ... Population in 2001: 8809 (or 8777 when adjusted to 2006 boundaries). *Population total in 1996: 8891 *Malahide (township): 6255 ... "2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-08-09.. Cite error: Invalid ,ref,. tag; name "cp2011" defined ...
Population density:. 24.6/km2 (64/sq mi). 25.3/km2 (66/sq mi). ... Density. 25.4/km2 (66/sq mi). Time zone. Eastern Time Zone (EST ... Population:. 13,734 (-2.5% from 2006). 14,088 (2.1% from 2001). Land area:. 557.44 km2 (215.23 sq mi). 557.32 km2 (215.18 sq mi ... "2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-03-07.. *^ Elevation taken from Google Earth at geographical ...
North Stormont, Ontario
Demographics of Oceania
Population (mid-2016 estimate). Area (km2). Population density (/km2). Urban population. Life expectancy. Literacy Rate. ... "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of ... "Geographical structure and differential natural selection among North European populations." Genome research 19.5 (2009): 804- ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office does not hold any statistical information on the literacy rate of the Pitcairn population.[ ...
Population density:. 55.7/km2 (144/sq mi). 58.5/km2 (152/sq mi). 59.0/km2 (153/sq mi). ... Haileybury had a population of 4,543, and Dymond had a population of 1,181. ... The city had a total population of 9,920 in the Canada 2016 Census. Temiskaming Shores is Ontario's second-smallest city, in ... Population:. 9,920 (-4.6% from 2011). 10,400 (-0.4% from 2006). 10,442 (-1.8% from 2001). ...
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Population. (2016). Population. (2011). Change. . Land area. (km²). Population. density. Highest Historical ... Population since 1851. Year. Population. Five year. % change. Ten year. % change. ... Counties by population. Historical county. Historical. county seat. ... "Population by year of Canada of Canada and territories". Statistics Canada. September 26, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2016.. ...
Districts of Bhutan
Population (2017)[A] Population (2005) Change Land area (km2) Population density Number of. National Assembly. ... "Population and Housing Census of 2017 (National Report)" (PDF). National Statistics Bureau. 2018-06-26. p. 102. Archived from ... "Results of the 2005 Population and Housing Census of Bhutan" (pdf). National Statistics Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the ... National Assembly representatives are distributed among the dzongkhags in proportion to their registered voter population as ...
The population density was 2,025.7 people per square mile (785.6/km2). There were 26,203 housing units at an average density of ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.. *^ a b c d Buck A. Young. "Baytown, TX". Handbook of Texas ... As of 2010, Baytown had a population of 71,802, and it had an estimated population of 77,192 in 2019. ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. *^ "Baytown Community Info". Trulia, Inc. Retrieved ...
The population density was 143.6 people per square mile (55.4/km²). There were 342 housing units at an average density of 85.6 ... The 2010 United States Census[Note 1] reported that Independence had a population of 669. The population density was 137.4 ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2016.. *^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. ... 7.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.. There were 272 households out of which 23.2% had children under ...
The population density was 1,965.8 people per square mile (758.6/km²). There were 961 housing units at an average density of ... The 2010 United States Census reported that Calipatria had a population of 7,800. The population density was 2,073.6 people ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.. *^ a b c d e Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic ... 57.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.. There were 899 households out of which 50.4% had children under ...
Theoretical population biology. 16: 144-158. doi:10.1016/0040-5809(79)90010-8. PMID 538731. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... These regions of high link density are often referred to as cliques, hubs, compartments, cohesive sub-groups, or modules... ... Monographs in Population Biology. 11. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. xv+1-190. ISBN 978-0-691-08202-8.. ... Population structure, migration rates, and environmental refuge for prey are other possible causes for pyramids with biomass ...
The current population of Chinese water deer at Whipsnade is currently estimated to be more than 600, while the population at ... Density per 100 ha of individuals 0.4 3.7 5.3 6.2 6.6 7.8 8.0 ... A small population existed in France originating from animals which had escaped an enclosure in 1960 in western France (Haute- ... The majority of the current population of Chinese water deer in Britain derives from escapees, with the remainder being ...
Antonov, A.; Atanasova, D. (2002). "Nest-site selection in the magpie Pica pica in a high-density urban population of Sofia ( ... Retrospective investigation of trends in population density and breeding success". Journal of Applied Ecology. 28 (3): 1068- ... Other studies have found that songbird populations increased in places where magpie populations were high and that they do not ... The population trend in Europe has been stable since 1980. There is no evidence of any serious overall decline in numbers, ...
Human population density was very low, around only one person per square mile. This was most likely due to low body fat, ... resulting in a drop in population. The small populations were then hunted out by Paleolithic humans. The global warming ... The Wrangel Island population became extinct around the same time the island was settled by prehistoric humans. There is no ... The entire population of Europe between 16,000 and 11,000 BP likely averaged some 30,000 individuals, and between 40,000 and ...
Level of measurement
The number of females per herd is variable, generally ranging from 14 to 32, but is highest in the densest populations ... and also increases with forage density. A strong attachment exists among members of the female herd, many of which are ... The natural populations of black wildebeest, endemic to the southern part of Africa, were almost completely exterminated in the ... The population is now trending upward (particularly on private land) and for this reason the International Union for ...
Globally, acne affects approximately 650 million people, or about 9.4% of the population, as of 2010. It affects nearly 90 ... and decreased bone mineral density, make its use for male acne impractical in most cases. Pregnant and lactating ... Acne appears to be strongly inherited; genetics explain 81% of the variation in the population. Studies performed in ... "Dermatological manifestations of stress in normal and psychiatric populations". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America ( ...
Webster (village), New York
The population density was 2,376.2 people per square mile (915.4/km²). There were 2,304 housing units at an average density of ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. *^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. ... The population was 5,399 at the 2010 census. The village and town are named after orator and statesman Daniel Webster. ... Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.09% of the population. There were 2,231 households out of which 32.1% had children under ...
high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle. Biological process. • lipid ... "Genome-wide association studies in an isolated founder population from the Pacific Island of Kosrae". PLoS Genet. 5 (2): ... very-low-density lipoprotein particle assembly. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle clearance. ... 2007). "Proteomic analysis of human very low-density lipoprotein by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF". ...
Population. (2011). • Total. 22,975. • Density. 260/km2 (670/sq mi). Time zone. WET/WEST (UTC+0/+1). ... listen)) is a town in the former-district of Faro, in the Portuguese region of the Algarve. The population in 2011 was ... 22,975, in an area of 88.25 km². Its urban population is 6100 inhabitants. ...
Matlacha Isles-Matlacha Shores, Florida
The population density was 1,391.5 people per square mile (533.5/km²). There were 205 housing units at an average density of ... The population was 304 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Cape Coral-Fort Myers, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. ... Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.32% of the population. There were 159 households out of which 5.7% had children under the ... In the CDP, the population was spread out with 6.6% under the age of 18, 2.6% from 18 to 24, 15.5% from 25 to 44, 40.1% from 45 ...
HM Prison Pentridge
Mann-Whitney U test
The probability of an observation from population X exceeding an observation from population Y is different (larger, or smaller ... Population. *Statistic. *Probability distribution. *Sampling distribution *Order statistic. *Empirical distribution *Density ... If one is only interested in stochastic ordering of the two populations (i.e., the concordance probability P(Y,X)), the Mann- ... This test can be used to determine whether two independent samples were selected from populations having the same distribution ...
Evolution of biological complexity
When species do evolve, it is not out of need but rather because their populations contain organisms with variants of traits ... Energy rate density. *Evolutionary trade-offs. *Evolvability. References. *^ Werner, Andreas; Piatek, Monica J.; Mattick ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ... but the loss may be fixed in the population through mutation accumulation if no disadvantage is incurred by loss of that ...
Usually the hip (head of the femur), lower back (lumbar spine), or heel (calcaneum) are imaged, and the bone density (amount of ... the American Society of Radiologic Technologists have launched a similar campaign to address this issue in the adult population ... Since liquid blood and the vessels are not very dense, a contrast with high density (like the large iodine atoms) is used to ... Lead is the most common shield against X-rays because of its high density (11340 kg/m3), stopping power, ease of installation ...
Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011.. *^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population ... Based on the total area, both land and water, the density is therefore 553.8 persons per square mile.) As of the 2000 census, ... population estimate. Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data. ... 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.. *^ "1850 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census ...
Overhunting can reduce the local population of game animals by more than half, as well as reducing population density, and may ... Studies on early hunter-gatherers raises questions about the current use of population size or density as a proxy for the ... wildlife populations have declined by 68% since 1970 as a result of overconsumption, population growth and intensive farming, ... "Migratory river fish populations down 76% since 1970: study". Agence France-Presse. July 28, 2020. Retrieved July 28, 2020.. ...
Barbados-United States relations
The plant densities for lentils vary between genotypes, seed size, planting time and growing conditions and also from region to ... The focus lies on high yielding and stable cultivars for diverse environments to match the demand of a growing population. ... A combination of gravity, screens and air flow is used to clean and sort lentils based on shape and density. After destoning, ...
Shawangunk, New York
The population density was 225 people per square mile . There were 3,754 housing units at an average density of 66.8 per square ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. *^ Onboard Informatics. (n.d.). Shawangunk, new york. ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.. *^ Town of Shawangunk, (n.d.). About shawangunk . Retrieved ... The population was 14,332 at the 2010 census. Like the neighboring mountain range, for which it is named, it is pronounced ...
Winter Park, Florida
The population density was 3,281.6 inhabitants per square mile (1,267.2/km²). There were 11,431 housing units at an average ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. *^ Florida Department of Agriculture (1906). Census of ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.. *^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological ... The population was 27,852 at the 2010 United States Census. It is part of the Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, Florida ...
Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing | Genetics
Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing. Timothy M. Beissinger, Candice N. ... Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing. Timothy M. Beissinger, Candice N. ... Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing. Timothy M. Beissinger, Candice N. ... Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing ...
The continents urban population has skyrocketed. Nairobi is a prime example of that migration, with its population pushing ... appear to have moderate population density spread over large areas. created by: The National Center for Geographic Information ... Because the resolution of the data from different nations varies, some small areas with high populations (such as Rio de ... The data were derived from population records based on political divisions such as states, provinces, and counties. ...
Trantor's Population Density - The Atlantic
Thatd put the population density of Trantor at a bit less than what you see in the present-day United Kingdom. The UK is, to ... Continuing with yesterdays post on population density in The Caves of Steel, consider the description of Trantor provided by ... The population, at its height, was well in excess of forty billions." Say well in excess of forty billion means 45 billion. 45 ...
Infectious disease - Population density | Britannica.com
Density of population does not of itself determine the ease with which infection spreads through a population. Problems tend to ... arise primarily when populations become so dense as to cause overcrowding. Overcrowding is often associated with decreases in ... Population density. Density of population does not of itself determine the ease with which infection spreads through a ... At a social gathering, the human density per square yard may be much greater than in any home, and humidity and temperature may ...
Population density - European Environment Agency
Distribution of population using Corine land cover (CLC90) ... Population density Distribution of population using Corine land ... Mapping population density. * Mapping population density (PDF document) 1.36 MB Download file /data-and-maps/data/ga-downloads/ ... 35.91 MB Download file /data-and-maps/data/ga-downloads/DAT-19-en/population-density/pop_density.zip ... assigning different population densities according to the classes of Corine land cover. The population data, held at commune ...
Why America's population density is falling
In the US as a whole, population-weighted population density fell by 16 people per square mile between 2000 and 2010, while in ... Im not sure why it took me until yesterday to find Paul Krugmans post from April 16 about population density, where he found ... Paul Krugmans post from April 16 about population density, where he found a very odd fact buried in a new Census report. ... And yet, if you calculate density the right way, weighting by population rather than by land area, you find something very odd ...
Predicting geographic population density - Google Inc.
The population density for a geographic area is predicted using a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. A MRF model is defined for ... "geographic population density" or just "population density"). In one embodiment, the density module 118 uses the center points ... This estimate is used to predict the population density for the area. The predicted population density can then be used to ... where the congestion is based in part on the population density. For example, the population density can be used to supplement ...
Data Dashboard - Population Density
Population density, or population per square mile (land area), is a by-product of population growth, and indicates where growth ... Urban areas have population densities measuring at least 3,000 people per square mile, and are expected to have a concentrated ... Wake Countys population density ranked 8th among the nations top 10 counties with at least 1 million residents with a growth ... Monitoring changes in population densities provides an opportunity to assess land use in urban, suburban, and rural areas. ...
How to Calculate Population Density: 10 Steps (with Pictures)
Population density tells you how crowded an area is, on average. It can help you figure out the resources that a certain area ... To calculate the population density, you will divide the population by the size of the area. Thus, Population Density = Number ... Compare population density. Compare data from multiple areas, and use the contrasting population densities to make observations ... If the population density you found differs from the data listed, investigate possible errors or trends in population density ...
Population density - Wikipedia
... states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Matt Rosenberg Population Density. Geography. ... cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density ... of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of countries by population density ... Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population ...
Density-dependence in the declining population of the monarch butterfly | Scientific Reports
A negative density-dependence was also found in the time series of both egg density per host plant and adult density across ... The temporal stability of the density effect indicated that the negative density-dependence and the population decline are ... Here, we showed that the overwintering population exhibited a negative density-dependence (i.e. a negative effect on growth ... rate of the density in the previous year) and that, after accounting for the density effect, the population growth rate tended ...
Population Density Does Not Doom Cities to Pandemic Dangers - Scientific American
Milan and Wuhan as proof that population density was to blame for coronavirus hotspots. But simple density has not adequately ... despite having the highest population density. Meanwhile some lower-density neighborhoods in Queens and the Bronx have seen ... Population Density Does Not Doom Cities to Pandemic Dangers. Crowding, connections among communities and other factors seem to ... For one thing, the population density of a city or county does not capture the finer points of how people actually gather ...
European Union Compared by Geography | Population density: NationMaster.com
Interesting observations about Geography , Population density. *Macau ranked first for population density amongst Hot countries ... India ranked first for population density amongst Emerging markets in 1999.. *South Korea ranked first for population density ... Hong Kong ranked third for population density globally in 1999.. *Netherlands ranked first for population density amongst NATO ... Monaco ranked first for population density amongst Christian countries in 1999.. *Bahrain ranked first for population density ...
What Are Some Examples of Population Density? | Reference.com
Population density is the measure of the population number per unit area, according to About.com. An example would be people ... The Earths population density is equal to its population divided by total square miles. The population is equal to 7 billion, ... Population density is the measure of the population number per unit area, according to About.com. An example would be people ... Examples include the population density of France, which is Frances population divided by the square number of kilometers, ...
What is the population density of England? | Reference.com
By comparison, the population density of Wales is 135 people... ... The population of density of England, as of mid-2013, is 413 ... What are some examples of population density?. A: Population density is the measure of the population number per unit area, ... What is arithmetic density of population?. A: Arithmetic density of population is the number of all people that live in a "per ... By comparison, the population density of Wales is 135 people per square kilometer, and the population density of Scotland is ...
High-density board population. - Free Online Library
High-density board population.(FIRST LOOK) by Product Design & Development; Business Engineering and manufacturing ... S.v. High-density board population.." Retrieved Dec 05 2020 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/High-density+board+population.- ... www.thefreelibrary.com/High-density+board+population.-a0290419376 ... APA style: High-density board population.. (n.d.) >The Free ... 2020 https://www.thefreelibrary.com/High-density+board+population.-a0290419376. *Chicago style: The Free Library. ...
population density | The Smart Set
the smart set is an online magazine covering culture and ideas, arts and science, global and national affairs- everything from literature to shopping, medicine to sports, philosophy to food. The Smart Set strives to present big ideas on the small, the not-so small, and the everyday. >>. The Smart Set is published and supported by the Pennoni Honors College at Drexel University. Learn more about PHC >>. ...
Productivity, biodiversity, and pathogens influence the global hunter-gatherer population density | PNAS
... the most influential direct drivers of population density are context-dependent. Biodiversity affects population density mostly ... Alternatively, high hunter-gatherer population density itself, resulting in population packing, and reduced options for ... positive effects on hunter-gatherer population density as well as on population home ranges (6⇓⇓-9). Such positive effects are ... we averaged the population density values from both sources. When a hunter-gatherer population was present in only one of the ...
ARTE map with mean density, population trend, and important areas
Forearm Bone Mineral Density of Normal Indian Population
In this context we compared the young reference values and age-related values of bone density of the normal Indian population ... But the T-score and Z-score values are interpreted using the reference value of Asian population provided by the manufacturer ... Hence it may be inappropriate to use the reference value of Asian population provided by the manufacturer to calculate the T- ... Results & Conclusion: Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of distal radius and ulna, proximal radius and ulna, proximal radius of normal ...
Effects Of Population Density Essay - 1683 Words - BrightKite
Read this full essay on Effects of Population Density. When people are crowded into a small place noise can have an affect on a ... Effect Of Population Density In Sexual Development,. 1362 words - 6 pages Investigating the effect of population density and ... Population Density And Noise. 1653 words - 7 pages The variety of effects on individuals stimulates from population density and ... Population density is the number people in a specific area, for example, a town, or country. Density is the number of ...
Carolina EcoKits®: Population Density and Biomass | Carolina.com
Students use quadrat sampling to determine the population density of ... ... students observe a study site to determine population density and biomass. They record organisms present in the study site and ... Carolina EcoKits®: Population Density and Biomass. Item # 187008 Exclusive *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... Grades 9-12. With this kits activities, students observe a study site to determine population density and biomass. They record ...
Population density and energy consumption, selected World ciites - European Environment Agency
Population Density Archives | PolicyMap
List of cities by population density - Wikipedia
This is a list of the cities worldwide that have the highest population density. The population, population density and land ... by population density List of European Union cities proper by population density List of city districts by population density ... "Area, Population and density of population in the district of Howrah". Howrah District Government. Archived from the original ... This list does not refer to the population, population density or land area of the greater metropolitan area or urban area, nor ...
Legislative Redistricting - Compactness and Population Density Fairness by Kathy Anne Dopp, Neil Godfrey :: SSRN
Keywords: area compactness, population compactness, population density variance, proportional fairness, urban versus rural, ... We propose a proportional population density fairness (PPDF) measure and algorithm for evaluating and developing district plans ... Dopp, Kathy Anne and Godfrey, Neil, Legislative Redistricting - Compactness and Population Density Fairness (December 23, 2012 ... Population compactness may increase districts convenience for voters and politicians. However, compactness does not ensure ...
Facebook Uses AI to Map Population Density | Social Networks | E-Commerce Times
Facebook Uses AI to Map Population Density. By Quinten Plummer. Feb 23, 2016 4:40 PM PT. ... Facebooks DigitalGlobe satellite image of Naivasha, Kenya (left) and the results of the population density analysis of the ... Still, the extension of the Internet to all populations is sure to have a positive impact on world peace, said Susan Eustis, ...
Highest Population Densities by US Metropolitan Areas - WorldAtlas.com
Which Australian States/Territories Have The Highest Density Of Population?. * Liberia Population - What Is The Population Of ... which takes fourth place in the latest demographic statistics on population density. The overall population of the city has ... Population density is an interesting criterion to examine. The US has some disparate cities declining in numbers, while others ... Highest Population Densities by US Metropolitan Areas. America has been transformed from a predominantly rural, agricultural ...
Population Density and Conflict Drive Ebola Outbreak in Eastern Congo
... Medical team wear protective suits as they prepare to ... The high population density of the region presents another challenge to health workers. In the past, Ebola outbreaks have been ... for the World Health Organization and Congolese Ministry of Health is the threat that the disease will spread to population ...
Population density (people per sq. km) in Guam
Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. Population is based on the de facto ... an economic calendar and news for Population density (people per sq. km) in Guam. ... who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. Land area is a countrys total area, excluding ... Population density (people per sq. km) in Guam was last measured at 314.60 in 2015, according to the World Bank. ...
SpeciesDynamics2020SpatialDenseProportionalEstimatesBone MineralPatterns20002017World'sDependenceNatural populationsHighest Population DensityOccursAssessOverpopulationAreaPpsmDemographicGrowthEstimateHuman population densityHigher population densityBiomassMarkedlyInvariablySparseLipoprotein cholesterolFluctuationsCity'sPeopleCensusAreas3,000PredictGeneticDensely2016Hong KongEmpiricallyEarth'sSquareUrban densityApproximateDenserEcologySizeDataHigh population density2018ExtinctionIncreasesLower-densityRelatively highEffectsHumansMortality
- As with most invertebrate species, monarch butterfly population growth rate is affected by environmental stochasticity. (nature.com)
- Because of complex cumulative culture, human populations are often considered to be divorced from the environment and not be under the same ecological forcing as other species. (pnas.org)
- However, these questions have rarely been addressed for preindustrial human populations, despite the fact that these populations provide a rare opportunity to investigate drivers of the distribution and abundance of a single species along global environmental gradients. (pnas.org)
- Population density affects growth rate by determining how likely is it that an organism will interact with a member of its own species compared to an organism of a different species. (yale.edu)
- We also apply common data collection and analytical techniques in the field and evaluate their ability to estimate density of a globally widespread species. (nature.com)
- In particular, scale of movement impacted estimators substantially, such that area covered and spacing of detectors (e.g. cameras, traps, etc.) must reflect movement characteristics of the focal species to reduce bias in estimates of movement and thus density. (nature.com)
- The difficulty to locate mates and overcome predation can hamper species establishment and population maintenance. (mdpi.com)
- Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. (usgs.gov)
- However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. (usgs.gov)
- This was a robust result both for monoecious (i.e. hermaphroditic) and diecious (two-sex) species, and suggests that small (sparse) populations are able to resist further losses of genetic variation. (bibsys.no)
- Density estimates for individual species show that responses vary among species, and boreal species can maintain high densities in southern habitats even during shifts in the northward edge of distribution. (noaa.gov)
- A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hanta-virus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
- The three web density estimates for each trapping period were then partitioned into "proportional" densities representing each species, on the basis of the relative proportion of each in the total web sample. (cdc.gov)
- These species-specific densities (in numbers of mice per hectare) were analyzed by a repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) to test for differences between sites and through time and for site and time interactions. (cdc.gov)
- One of the most common conclusions of previous research is that environmental stochasticity is the dominant key compounded driver of population dynamics. (nature.com)
- We showed that density dependence explained 37-50% of the total variation in growth rate in three independent datasets, indicating that several non-exclusive density-related mechanisms can be important in monarch population dynamics. (nature.com)
- From a population dynamics perspective the two aims are clearly distinct but complementary. (nature.com)
- While most previous studies have measured and explained vital rates independent of population size, several processes described above could influence monarch population dynamics operating in a density-dependent manner. (nature.com)
- Recent archaeological studies have correlated long-term human population dynamics and major dispersal and range shift events with climate changes ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 5 ), but their results are mixed regarding the significance of climate in shaping human population processes. (pnas.org)
- The method of spectral analysis is employed to research the spatial dynamics of urban population distribution. (hindawi.com)
- Simulating the spatial dynamics of urban population is an interesting but a difficult project. (hindawi.com)
- Population is one of the two central variables which can be employed to explore the dynamics of cities [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Clark's law on urban density can provide a window for us to apprehend the dynamics of urban morphology from the angle of view of population. (hindawi.com)
- Armas C, Pugnaire FI (2005) Plant interactions govern populations dynamics in a semi-arid plant community. (springer.com)
- Altered atmospheric composition, associated with climate change, can modify herbivore population dynamics through CO 2 and/or O 3 -mediated changes in plant quality. (ingentaconnect.com)
- And you also need to start getting familiar with this kind of notation, because in population dynamics and ecology it is used pervasively. (yale.edu)
- In Italy, to study the distribution and bionomics of indigenous anopheline populations and to assess environmental parameters that could influence their dynamics, an entomological study was carried out in 2005-2006 in an at-risk study area. (arctichealth.org)
- Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. (usgs.gov)
- Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. (usgs.gov)
- Although other factors such as pack competition, disease and human-caused mortality can influence wolf population dynamics, prey density typically determines the carrying capacity for wolves. (outdoornews.com)
- However, even more interesting is the dynamics of the population. (mapstor.com)
- This article is provided from a perspective of COVID-19 death rates by categories of county urban, rather than total county densities, through July 8, 2020, based on data published by USAFacts.org . (newgeography.com)
- To provide estimates of population density for the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020, based on counts consistent with national censuses and population registers with respect to relative spatial distribution, but adjusted to match United Nations country totals. (columbia.edu)
- SEDAC assessed and gave a forecast of the population size and density in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020. (mapstor.com)
- Understanding spatial connectivity of individuals with non-uniform population density by Wang et al. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The first is to reveal the locality and localization of urban population evolution, which is very important for simulating spatial complexity of cities through computers. (hindawi.com)
- Conversion of resulting estimates of abundance to density, an inherently spatial metric, requires some knowledge of the scale of animal movement to determine the area to which inference about populations can be applied. (nature.com)
- To assess the density and population size of leopards ( Panthera pardus ) in the Okonjima Nature Reserve using photographic capture-recapture sampling and provide scientific data on their demography as well as spatial and temporal distribution patterns. (africat.org)
- Density levels exhibit large differences at a small spatial scale and show large year-to-year fluctuations which make trend assessment difficult. (bioone.org)
- DNA sampling, camera trapping, mark‐resight and search‐encounter) and suggest that clustered sampling can significantly reduce the effort necessary to provide reliable estimates of population density across large spatial extents that previously would have been infeasible with nonclustered sampling designs. (usgs.gov)
- Printable 3D mazes offer the opportunity to quickly assess the effects of spatial separation on insect population growth in the laboratory, without the need for large enclosed spaces. (mdpi.com)
- Marine populations are expected to remain within their preferred thermal conditions, and therefore to shift their spatial distributions to track changes in ocean temperatures (Pinsky et al. (noaa.gov)
- 2019). Given these rapid physical changes and expected responses of marine populations to changing thermal conditions, the spatial distribution of Arctic and subarctic fish communities will likely be a sensitive indicator for contemporary and ongoing Arctic climate change. (noaa.gov)
- In many sub-Saharan African countries, spatial mismatch between population density and quality of arable land has negatively impacted rural development by moving high potential lands from food crops to non-food plantation schemes. (africabib.org)
- We analyzed the statistical capabilities of the long-term rodent monitoring program begun in 1994 to detect spatial and temporal changes in rodent densities and determine if the low death rates at all study sites resulted in biased (underestimated) rodent population density estimates. (cdc.gov)
- Problems tend to arise primarily when populations become so dense as to cause overcrowding . (britannica.com)
- Even if you calculate the population density of an area as dense as a large city, the resulting figure will not tell you much about the differences between individual neighborhoods. (wikihow.com)
- The most dense of populations are generally located in countries in eastern Asia and northern Africa. (reference.com)
- Why Are People Grumpy In Dense Population While Rural Is Friendly? (modernsurvivalblog.com)
- Why is it that people who live rural are (generally) more friendly and helpful than people who live in population dense areas? (modernsurvivalblog.com)
- 90% of the 100 most population-dense congressional districts …are represented by a Democrat. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
- Of the 435 congressional districts, if you split them in half by population density, the half with the lowest population-dense districts are represented by 80% Republicans. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
- The half with the highest population-dense districts are represented by 70% Democrats. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
- This also does not seem very healthy to me from the perspective of consequential regulating influence of population-dense politics over that of the other. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
- The effects of pH on growth were correlated with effects on the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose- 3 H. Dense populations of cells inhibited by low pH were stimulated to incorporate thymidine- 3 H by the addition of small amounts of diethylaminoethyl-dextran. (rupress.org)
- Methods for evaluating and redrawing legislative district maps may be based on geographic compactness, population compactness, and proportional fairness, as well as on other key criteria. (ssrn.com)
- We propose a proportional population density fairness (PPDF) measure and algorithm for evaluating and developing district plans that would represent voters living in geographic areas with diverse population densities in approximate proportion to their statewide numbers. (ssrn.com)
- Weighted population density scales each subdivision to have a weight proportional to its population. (skyscraperpage.com)
- It is generally well known that population density is directly related, associated and proportional to political party affiliation. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
- This study conducts traffic data of mobile-phone antennas, recorded by a telecommunications company, to develop a real-time monitoring technique of population density in an urban area, given that the intensity of activity in a cell (a covered area around an antenna) is directly proportional to the presence of cell-phone users. (witpress.com)
- A proportional allocation gridding algorithm, utilizing approximately 13.5 million national and sub-national administrative units, was used to assign UN WPP-adjusted population counts to 30 arc-second grid cells. (columbia.edu)
- A proportional allocation gridding algorithm, utilizing more than 1,000,000 national and sub-national geographic units, is used to assign population values to grid cells. (ceos.org)
- For most recent year, US Census Bureau Annual Estimates of Resident Population as of July 1. (wakegov.com)
- Population estimates for prior years are revised annually. (wakegov.com)
- July 1, 2017 county population estimates will be released in March 2018. (wakegov.com)
- The United States Census Bureau publishes official population estimates and population estimate revisions for prior years annually. (wakegov.com)
- Retrieved 17 July 2009 Combination of the islands of Malé, Villingilli, Hulhumalé, and Hulhule (Capital District) PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - 2014 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. (wikipedia.org)
- The publication includes population estimates, urban land area estimates and urban densities for all nearly 850 identified urban areas in the world with a population of 500,000 or more. (newgeography.com)
- This is a larger population than reported by the United Nations, since its estimates include little more than DKI Jakarta, the national capital district and beyond which urbanization stretches for a considerable distance. (newgeography.com)
- As was reported last year, new estimates indicate that Delhi has emerged as India's largest urban area, with a population of 22.2 million and a growth rate that should result in its passing Seoul-Inchon in a matter of a few years. (newgeography.com)
- Knowledge of population density is necessary for effective management and conservation of wildlife, yet rarely are estimators compared in their robustness to effects of ecological and observational processes, which can greatly influence accuracy and precision of density estimates. (nature.com)
- The general scale of movement for a population may greatly affect abundance estimates through changes in the availability of an animal to be sampled (i.e. an animal that is only present on a sampling grid for a short duration of the sampling period may not be detected as readily or frequently as one that is present on the sampling grid at all times 9 ). (nature.com)
- Resident population is from the United States Census Bureau estimates for July 1, 2013, for the 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico and from the 2010 Census for the other four U.S. territories (which is the latest data available as of April 24, 2014. (wn.com)
- The accuracies are similar when estimated using a random forest model, and when density estimates are expressed in terms of population counts. (ssrn.com)
- For short term (i.e. annual) estimates, we found a substantial effect of density dependence, where it caused the value of Ne/N to decrease with increasing population size and -density. (bibsys.no)
- We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. (cdc.gov)
- trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. (cdc.gov)
- The rodent density estimates we analyzed were based on mark-recapture trapping data from three permanently marked trapping webs at each site ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Population Density Grid estimates population per square km for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid cells and associated data sets dated circa 2000. (ceos.org)
- Results & Conclusion: Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of distal radius and ulna, proximal radius and ulna, proximal radius of normal Indian female and BMD of proximal radius and ulna of male population are found to be less considering the reference value of Asian population provided by the manufacturer. (scirp.org)
- Rajan, R. and Subramanian, K. (2014) Forearm Bone Mineral Density of Normal Indian Population. (scirp.org)
- The association between bone mineral density, metacarpal morphometry, and upper limb fractures in children: a population-based case-control study. (nih.gov)
- Areal bone mineral density and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) were measured by both dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) and metacarpal index (MI) by hand radiograph. (nih.gov)
- Background - We lack consensus on the clinical value, frequency, and timing of bone mineral density (BMD) testing in kidney transplant recipients. (ices.on.ca)
- The aim of this study was to determine if the mandible (MD) experiences reductions in bone mineral density (BMD) similar to the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) in a postmenopausal population. (ovid.com)
- The relative risks (RRs) for vertebral fracture, adjusted for age, were 2.3 for the Stiffness Index (SI) and 2.8 for the Quantitative Ultrasound Index (QUI) at the calcaneus and 2.0 for bone mineral density at the lumbar spine. (bmj.com)
- QUS of the calcaneus and bone mineral density measurements were shown to be significant predictors of incident vertebral fracture. (bmj.com)
- These findings document that environmental factors play a key role in shaping global population density patterns of preagricultural humans. (pnas.org)
- However, even for hunter-gatherers, ethnographic studies about the ecological determinants of population patterns are relatively few ( 6 ⇓ ⇓ - 9 ), despite hunter-gatherers' close dependence on their immediate environment and wild resources. (pnas.org)
- In the US as a whole, population-weighted population density fell by 16 people per square mile between 2000 and 2010, while in metropolitan areas it fell by an enormous 405 people per square mile. (reuters.com)
- Wake County's population density increased by 175 additional people per square mile of land area between 2000 and 2016. (wakegov.com)
- At present, the voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a technique based on the delineation of cortex and normalization, can assess the cortical atrophy including the cortical volume, thickness, surface and density ( Ashburner and Friston, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet (one square metre) per person (Jacobs Method), would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area. (wikipedia.org)
- What percentage of the world's population has multicolored eyes? (reference.com)
- With more than 7.1 billion people living across the globe, cities house more than 50% of the world's population. (plos.org)
- Geography portal World's largest municipalities by population List of cities proper by population List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density List of European Union cities proper by population density List of city districts by population density List of United States cities by population density "2010 Census of Population and Housing: National Capital Region" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
- These urban areas account for approximately 48% of the world's urban population. (newgeography.com)
- Overall, data is provided for approximately 1500 urban areas, comprising approximately 1.9 billion people, or 52% of the world's urban population. (newgeography.com)
- Jakarta (Jabotabek) has emerged as the world's second largest urban area, with a population of 26 million. (newgeography.com)
- Though the above maps cover the five most populated countries on Earth, accounting for nearly half of the world's population, they only show a small part of the global picture. (visualcapitalist.com)
- Here, we showed that the overwintering population exhibited a negative density-dependence (i.e. a negative effect on growth rate of the density in the previous year) and that, after accounting for the density effect, the population growth rate tended to decline over time. (nature.com)
- A negative density-dependence was also found in the time series of both egg density per host plant and adult density across North America suggesting the importance of a bottom-up, resource-driven regulation such as host plant limitation and/or of a top-down regulation through generalist natural enemies or diseases. (nature.com)
- The temporal stability of the density effect indicated that the negative density-dependence and the population decline are likely independent phenomena. (nature.com)
- The intraspecific competition (inferred from the density dependence of green biomass) and rock outcrops were the main factors influencing the ecophysiological status in the study area. (springer.com)
- We found that both impact how density dependence affected the relationship between Ne/N and N. Also, when the between individual variance in reproductive success was very large in two-sex populations the models overestimated the actual rate of drift. (bibsys.no)
- However, this particular finding may depend on the strength of density dependence, as weak dependency increases the return-time to equilibrium, and may cause the population to reach, and spend more time at sizes further away from the carrying capacity. (bibsys.no)
- Despite its importance to the theory and application of population ecology, and to conservation biology, quantifying the role and strength of density dependence is particularly challenging. (csic.es)
- We present a hierarchical formulation of the temporal symmetry approach, also known as the Pradel model, that permits estimation of the strength of density dependence from capture-mark-reencounter data. (csic.es)
- A measure of relative population size is built in the model and serves to detect density dependence directly on population growth rate. (csic.es)
- The model is also extended to account for temporal random variability in demographic rates, allowing estimation of the temporal variance of population growth rate unexplained by density dependence. (csic.es)
- Hence, there is a need for more knowledge about how different processes occurring in natural populations affect the effective size of populations, and the Ne/N ratio. (bibsys.no)
- Thus, it is crucial to empirically evaluate whether such a density-dependent pattern occurs in natural populations. (cdc.gov)
Highest Population Density2
- Population density, or population per square mile (land area), is a by-product of population growth, and indicates where growth occurs within the county. (wakegov.com)
- The largest population of western Europe occurs in France. (bioone.org)
- labranchiae, occurs at different densities related to the kind of environment, climatic parameters, and anthropic activities. (arctichealth.org)
- A winter count also excludes the population spike that occurs each spring when the number of wolves typically doubles immediately following the birth of pups, many of which do not survive to the following winter. (outdoornews.com)
- Monitoring changes in population densities provides an opportunity to assess land use in urban, suburban, and rural areas. (wakegov.com)
- In this study, we simulate biological and observational processes using empirical data to assess effects of animal scale of movement, true population density, and probability of detection on common density estimators. (nature.com)
- Objective To assess whether higher mortality rates among individuals in motor vehicle crashes in areas with low population density depend on injury type and severity or are related to the performance of emergency medical services (EMS). (bmj.com)
- The cortical volume, thickness, surface and density were examined using the voxel-based cortical morphometry and corticometry on magnetic resonance image (MRI) in 67 intermediate sPD and 35 controls, the multiple adjusted comparisons analysis of all MRI data were employed to assess the relationships between the cortical morphometric alteration in the specific brain regions and sPD. (frontiersin.org)
- The Basel Osteoporosis Study (BOS) is a population-based prospective study to assess the performance of QUS devices and DXA in predicting incident vertebral fractures. (bmj.com)
- Although Honduras, with forty-six inhabitants per square kilometer, has a relatively low population density, especially when compared to its neighbors to the west, uneven distribution has contributed to overpopulation in certain areas. (countrystudies.us)
- These territories have a relatively small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing also on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation. (wikipedia.org)
- Population density is a simple function of how many people, on average, live in a given area of a country. (infoplease.com)
- And yet, if you calculate density the right way, weighting by population rather than by land area, you find something very odd: density is actually going down . (reuters.com)
- The population density for a geographic area is predicted using a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. (freepatentsonline.com)
- This estimate is used to predict the population density for the area. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Population density impacts costs of service provision, as government and business investments are made based on the efficiency and expense of marketing, distributing, or serving populations over the expanse of a geographic service area. (wakegov.com)
- Population density tells you how crowded an area is, on average. (wikihow.com)
- Short of counting the population yourself, you'll need to find an up-to-date record of how many people live in this area. (wikihow.com)
- If you are calculating the population density for an area that has not already been recorded, you may need to count the population yourself. (wikihow.com)
- To calculate the population density, you will divide the population by the size of the area. (wikihow.com)
- Thus, Population Density = Number of People/Land Area . (wikihow.com)
- The unit of population density is people per unit of area. (wikihow.com)
- You should know the population and the surface area of the region. (wikihow.com)
- Divide the population by the area size. (wikihow.com)
- Population density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate. (wikipedia.org)
- Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area, usually quoted per square kilometer or square mile (which may include or exclude, for example, areas of water or glaciers). (wikipedia.org)
- City population and especially area are, however, heavily dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are almost invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. (wikipedia.org)
- The Monaco government uses a smaller surface area figure resulting in a population density of 18,078 per km2 Human Population. (wikipedia.org)
- The largest cities in the world by land area, population and density. (wikipedia.org)
- Population density is the measure of the population number per unit area, according to About.com. (reference.com)
- Population density is often used to estimate the number of people in any given area of a country. (reference.com)
- Arithmetic density of population is the number of all people that live in a "per unit area" throughout a country, and it can be referred to as the "crude d. (reference.com)
- The formula for calculating population density requires dividing the area occupied, typically in square miles or square kilometers, by the number of people. (reference.com)
- Population density is the number people in a specific area, for example, a town, or country. (brightkite.com)
- Density is the number of individuals in area, for example, Individuals who live in urbanized areas has increased but the density has decrease due that the urbanized areas are expanding faster than urban population. (brightkite.com)
- Increased density brings about other problems in the area such as air and noise pollution, crime, and use of natural resources.Concept of noisePeople depend on the hearing to help communicate with the environment around them. (brightkite.com)
- The population, population density and land area for the cities listed are based on the entire city proper, the defined boundary or border of a city or the city limits of the city. (wikipedia.org)
- This list does not refer to the population, population density or land area of the greater metropolitan area or urban area, nor particular districts in any of the cities listed. (wikipedia.org)
- Population and area at the 2011-05-24 Census. (wikipedia.org)
- Facebook's DigitalGlobe satellite image of Naivasha, Kenya (left) and the results of the population density analysis of the same area (right). (ecommercetimes.com)
- Surprisingly high is the position of the urban Honolulu metropolitan area in Hawaii, which takes fourth place in the latest demographic statistics on population density. (worldatlas.com)
- Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. (tradingeconomics.com)
- In fact, if we reject Smeed's model, we will be unable to interpret the law of allometric growth on urban area and population in theory. (hindawi.com)
- San Bernardino's huge rural area drives down the overall density. (newgeography.com)
- This is a part of the Demographia 1990 US Urbanized Area Density Profile product. (demographia.com)
- The population is sparse in the West as expected, but California's Los Angeles and Bay Area metros make up for the discrepancy and are just behind New York City's density spikes in height. (visualcapitalist.com)
- However, this sizable population fits into an area just one-third of China's total land area, with the above map demonstrating what the same amount of people looks like in a smaller region. (visualcapitalist.com)
- The assessment of leopard ( Panthera pardus ) density and population size via a capture - recapture framework in an island bound conservation area in Namibia. (africat.org)
- For humans , population density is the number of people per unit of area, usually quoted per square kilometer or square mile (which may include or exclude, for example, areas of water or glaciers). (wn.com)
- This article includes a sortable table listing the 50 United States by population density , population rank, and land area. (wn.com)
- It also includes a sortable table of Density by states, divisions, regions and territories by population rank and land area , and a sortable table for Density by states, divisions, regions and territories in square miles and square kilometers . (wn.com)
- I remember someone on SkyscraperCity mentioning a small area in Fenway that had a density that topped 100,000 ppl/sq mile. (city-data.com)
- Twelve open‑pollinated progeny arrays of 15 individuals were sampled in an area with C . guianensis estimated density of 25.7 trees per hectare. (scielo.br)
- In conclusion, this thesis contribute with methods to estimate and examine the effective size of density regulated, iteroparous populations, a research area that has suffered from the lacking of proper theoretical framework. (bibsys.no)
- The density rasters were created by dividing the UN WPP-adjusted population count raster for a given target year by the land area raster. (columbia.edu)
- The population count grids are divided by the land area grid to produce population density grids. (ceos.org)
- The first assumes non-stationarity and tries to investigate whether carrying capacity is declining due to environmental changes (e.g. host plant, pesticides, climate change) or to find other demographic factors than can bring the population close to extinction. (nature.com)
- Created using the EU's population density data and mapping tool Aerialod by Alasdair Rae , the 3D-rendered maps highlight demographic trends and geographic constraints. (visualcapitalist.com)
- Each region and country tells its own demographic story, but the largest population clusters are especially illuminating. (visualcapitalist.com)
- In this paper, we use this long-term and wide-scale survey to portray the demographic status of partridge populations. (bioone.org)
- This was achieved by modifying models that allow for demographic and environmental stochasticity to also allow for density dependent vital rates and compare the predictions based on these models with simulated data. (bibsys.no)
- Wake County's population density ranked 8th among the nation's top 10 counties with at least 1 million residents with a growth rate of at least 10% between 2010 and 2015. (wakegov.com)
- The second approach investigates the endogenous and exogenous factors that determine the change in population growth rate from one year to the following irrespective of any general trends in abundance 8 . (nature.com)
- Surprisingly, we know little about how population growth rate has fluctuated in the last two decades during the observed population decline. (nature.com)
- England's population growth is partially boosted by a net international migration figure of 158,000 people. (reference.com)
- With the growth of the population in the world. (brightkite.com)
- They are more concerns over the rise in population growth with the crowding and congested in specific areas of the world. (brightkite.com)
- 4104 words - 16 pages The Effects of Population Growth in Brazil The population of the world today is 6,112,911,145 and progressively growing. (brightkite.com)
- Because of extreme levels of fertility, mortality, and new migration, these developing countries are accountable for most of the world population growth. (brightkite.com)
- 1951 words - 8 pages Population Growth Of Yeast And Effects Of Various Substrates On This Population Growth Plan: 1. (brightkite.com)
- The changing trend of the fractal dimension does reflect the localization of urban population growth and diffusion. (hindawi.com)
- However, the underlying rationale of intraurban population growth and diffusion is still a question pending further discussion. (hindawi.com)
- Instead urbanization leapfrogged into the exurbs of southeast England, where all of the London area's net population growth has occurred since World War II ( London ranked third as late as 1960 ). (newgeography.com)
- Individual growth rates do not predict aphid population densities. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Although pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum genotypes exhibit intraspecific variation in population growth in response to atmospheric composition, the proximate mechanisms underlying this variation are largely unknown. (ingentaconnect.com)
- By rearing single (green, pink) and mixed (green + pink) pea aphid genotypes on red clover Trifolium pratense at the Aspen Free Air CO 2 and O 3 Enrichment (Aspen FACE) site, we assessed whether: (i) elevated CO 2 and/or O 3 concentrations alter aphid growth and development and (ii) individual aphid growth rates predict aphid population densities. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Individual growth rates, however, did not predict population densities. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Herbivore population sizes may not readily be predicted from growth rates of individual organisms under atmospheric conditions associated with global climate change. (ingentaconnect.com)
- The growth of populations is held in check by several factors. (yale.edu)
- Population growth studies rely on the mathematics of logs and exponents. (yale.edu)
- Population growth is one of those things in ecology that is good to get kind of an intuitive feeling about. (yale.edu)
- And the main thing that you need to grasp about population growth is that it is multiplicative. (yale.edu)
- What we'll do today is start by talking about density independent growth, and that is basically compound interest. (yale.edu)
- So you can jiggle the birthrate a little bit, you can jiggle the death rate a little bit, you'll get a fairly substantial difference in the growth rate, the interest rate on the population, and something like this can happen. (yale.edu)
- So if you've got N organisms, then you have the simplest differential equation you can write down practically, which is that the rate of change of the population is equal to the growth rate, times the number of organisms that are present. (yale.edu)
- That means that the slope of population growth is RN. (yale.edu)
- And I put this in to indicate that for a given change in time unit, the amount of growth you get in the population just keeps on going up and up and up. (yale.edu)
- So if you write this down and rearrange it a little bit, then you can integrate both sides, and you get that the natural log of the number of organisms in the population is equal to the growth rate times the amount of time that's elapsed since they started growing, plus some constant. (yale.edu)
- The effects of sparseness between individuals or the effect of predators on the probability of population growth can be difficult to measure experimentally. (mdpi.com)
- The results suggest that cell growth is inhibited through the combined effects of both lowered pH and high cell density on cell surface permeability. (rupress.org)
- But perhaps the most striking evidence, at the local level, is how much population density correlates with a neighborhood's likeliness to achieve high income growth. (urbancincy.com)
- Neighborhoods that received high income growth increased their educational attainment, population and population density at a much higher rate than what the report classifies as no-improvement neighborhoods. (urbancincy.com)
- While the average income of an MSA in 1980 may not be a good predictor of whether a neighborhood will experience high or low growth, neighborhoods that experienced high income growth were located in regions that experienced higher growth in income, a growing population and increased their population density. (urbancincy.com)
- The book focuses on demography, specifically migrations, population size, density, growth, and the pattern of distribution in rural Palestine before the inception of Jewish settlement (1882). (crcpress.com)
- This map allows you to understand why population growth in Africa is a cause for concern. (mapstor.com)
- website= (help) Statistical Pocket Book, 2011 (pdf-file) 2011 Population Estimate. (wikipedia.org)
- The overall population of the city has been in a constant state of increase since the 1890s, reaching an estimate of 402,500 people in 2013. (worldatlas.com)
- The objective of this work was to estimate the mating system parameters of a andiroba ( Carapa guianensis ) population using microsatellite markers and the mixed and correlated mating models. (scielo.br)
- However, the theoretical parameter Ne was originally defined for populations with discrete generations, and most models that aim to estimate Ne for populations with overlapping generations relies on a set of simplifying, often unrealistic assumptions. (bibsys.no)
- Although neither individually represented a significant change from recent years, collectively they explain the increase in the population estimate and are consistent with a continuing increase in deer numbers observed in many parts of wolf range according to the release. (outdoornews.com)
Human population density3
- is taken into account, then human population density increases to 50 per km2 (129 per sq. mile). (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. (wikipedia.org)
- Here, we report how net primary productivity, biodiversity, and pathogen stress affect human population density using global ethnographic hunter-gatherer data. (pnas.org)
Higher population density3
- The five mountainous departments bordering El Salvador (Ocotepeque, Lempira, Intibuc , La Paz, and Valle) have a much higher population density than the four sparsely populated departments in the east (Col n, Olancho, Gracias a Dios, and El Para so). (countrystudies.us)
- City-states, microstates and dependencies tend to have a much higher population density because the areas are very small but are inhabited by a large number of people. (reference.com)
- You will find some cities that are technically higher population density (such as nearby Sommerville) but that do not in fact have as high an actual density per populated square mile. (city-data.com)
- The rates of cell multiplication and thymidine- 3 H incorporation at low pH decreased in the initially sparse cultures before they reached confluent cell densities. (rupress.org)
- Rous sarcoma cells at high cell density were less sensitive to pH than were normal cells at the same density, but were more sensitive than sparse normal cultures. (rupress.org)
- Simulation for the efficacy of raising HDL cholesterol predicts a decrease in CHD of 70% in Japan, greater than the extent by reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol predicted by simulation or achieved in a statin trial. (mdpi.com)
- Factors associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol in a population with high high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. (ahajournals.org)
- Our results suggest that individual body size variation of female brown bears is negatively related to density-dependent factors and positively correlated to density-independent fluctuations in the environment. (bioone.org)
- The main goal of this thesis was to relax one of the most unrealistic assumptions underlying many models: constant population size, or at the very best that fluctuations are only caused by density independent factors. (bibsys.no)
- We thus present a model-based approach that enable to test and quantify the effect of density-dependent and density-independent factors affecting population fluctuations in a single modeling framework. (csic.es)
- As a result, urban density - the number of people per square mile - has to be going up. (reuters.com)
- Urban areas have population densities measuring at least 3,000 people per square mile, and are expected to have a concentrated mix of housing, retail, education, medical, recreation, and transportation options. (wakegov.com)
- In our example, 145,000 divided by 9 would show that the population density is 16,111 people/square mile. (wikihow.com)
- For example: if the city of Boonesville includes 60,000 people overs its 8 square miles, then its population density is 7,500/square mile. (wikihow.com)
- If Antarctica is also excluded, then population density rises to over 55 people per km2 (over 142 per sq. mile). (wikipedia.org)
- For one thing, the population density of a city or county does not capture the finer points of how people actually gather within smaller spaces, such as those on college campuses or in individual residential buildings. (scientificamerican.com)
- Most often when people talk about density and COVID-19, they're really talking about crowding," says Shima Hamidi, an assistant professor of environmental health and engineering at Johns Hopkins University. (scientificamerican.com)
- Examples include the population density of France, which is France's population divided by the square number of kilometers, which is approximately 109.8 people per square kilometer. (reference.com)
- These two figures can be divided to come up with the population density of 35 people per square mile. (reference.com)
- The population of density of England, as of mid-2013, is 413 people per square kilometer, according to the Office for National Statistics. (reference.com)
- By comparison, the population density of Wales is 135 people per square kilometer, and the population density of Scotland is only 68 people per square kilometer. (reference.com)
- England's population in mid-2013 was approximately 53.9 million people. (reference.com)
- The physical size of Greater London, England, is 607 square miles, and the population is approximately 8.3 million people. (reference.com)
- In 1960, about 96 million people lived in urbanized areas at an average density of 3,800 people per square mile. (brightkite.com)
- By 1970, 118 million people lived in urbanized areas, but the density of urban areas had dropped to 3,400" (Center for Research on Population and Security, n.d. (brightkite.com)
- The population density of the cities listed is based on the average number of people living per square mile or per square kilometre. (wikipedia.org)
- title= (help)[permanent dead link] https://www.theyeshivaworld.com/news/israel-news/1410351/bnei-brak-population-surpasses-200000-people.html http://www.bnei-brak.muni.il/Pages/default.aspx. (wikipedia.org)
- Such areas boast levels of density above 500 or even topping 1,000 people per square kilometer, making these areas the most crowded in the country. (worldatlas.com)
- In 2012, 26 urban areas qualify as megacities ( Rental Car Tours for 24 of the megacities are available ), with populations of greater than 10 million people (Table). (newgeography.com)
- I first encountered the concept of Real Population Density (note the "Real") when I was interviewing people in the Netherlands last year about how the country would fare as the temperature rose. (gwynnedyer.com)
- The Real Population Density of the Netherlands - how many people there are per square km. (gwynnedyer.com)
- So although China looks bigger on the map, India has a significantly lower Real Population Density: 753 people per square km of farmland compared to 943 for China. (gwynnedyer.com)
- As the population density thickens, it seems as though more and more people have 'drawn in' to themselves and are less friendly. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
- It can be difficult to comprehend the true sizes of megacities, or the global spread of nearly 7.8 billion people, but this series of population density maps makes the picture abundantly clear. (visualcapitalist.com)
- Most people are familiar with the large density centers around Hong Kong , Guangzhou , and Shanghai , but the concentration in central China is surprising. (visualcapitalist.com)
- At 1.38 billion people, India's population is just behind China's in terms of size. (visualcapitalist.com)
- On the other, there is a finite amount of room for a massive amount of people, so those density "spikes" are more like density "peaks" with the entire country covered in high density bars. (visualcapitalist.com)
- Neighborhoods that had no improvement had, on average, a density of 12,028 people per square mile in 1980, while neighborhoods with high improvement had an average density more than double that of 30,399 people per square mile. (urbancincy.com)
- The City of Cincinnati, by comparison, has a population density around 3,810 people per square mile. (urbancincy.com)
- On the 1st of January 2016 the Earth's population reached 7,295,889,256 people, at the same time it is very unevenly distributed. (mapstor.com)
- Paul Krugman's post from April 16 about population density, where he found a very odd fact buried in a new Census report . (reuters.com)
- I'm not sure why it took me until yesterday to find Paul Krugman's post from April 16 about population density, where he found a very odd fact buried in a new Census report . (reuters.com)
- dead link] "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
- This problem was identified by the Census Bureau with respect to metropolitan areas in 2012: "Overall densities … can be heavily affected by the size of the geographic units for which they are calculated. (newgeography.com)
- The US Census Bureau has weighted population density data for metro areas , but no one seems to have calculated such densities for states. (skyscraperpage.com)
- The predictions approximate the 2012 census density well and are more accurate than other bottom-up studies based on lower-resolution satellite data. (ssrn.com)
- The predictions are also more accurate than most publicly available population products, which rely on areal interpolation of census data to redistribute population at the local level. (ssrn.com)
- Because the resolution of the data from different nations varies, some small areas with high populations (such as Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) appear to have moderate population density spread over large areas. (nasa.gov)
- By the beginning of the twenty-first century, Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula are projected to account for nearly 73 percent of the population living in urban areas. (countrystudies.us)
- Compare data from multiple areas, and use the contrasting population densities to make observations about those areas. (wikihow.com)
- But simple density has not adequately predicted the disease's course in the U.S., where the new coronavirus has spread well beyond urban areas to ravage rural communities and suburbs during the country's long summer. (scientificamerican.com)
- Map containing mean density, population trend, and important areas based on USFWS Arctic Coastal Plain survey data collected from 1992 to 2016. (usgs.gov)
- The effects that population density has on these areas and look at two strategies that will help with reducing noise pollution in the environment and the workplace.Concept of Population densityHuman population is rising in the world. (brightkite.com)
- Metropolitan areas are particularly well-known for their diverse populations. (worldatlas.com)
- There is a definite continuing increase in the population of many US states and metropolitan areas. (worldatlas.com)
- Serious questions include tat of preserving smaller towns and rural areas, which seem to be losing their population quite rapidly in the face of mass American urbanization. (worldatlas.com)
- Exposure density is far greater in urban areas than in rural areas and strongly associated with higher urban densities, as indicated below. (newgeography.com)
- Their much higher urban densities are substantially diluted because their rural areas are so large. (newgeography.com)
- Counties with urban densities under 1,000 per square mile (including counties without urban areas) are estimated to have 17 million residents. (newgeography.com)
- Other highly urbanized counties with smaller rural land areas remain in the same density categories, such as Cuyahoga County, Dallas County, Texas, Harris (Houston), Hennepin County (Minneapolis) Cook County (Chicago), Mecklenburg County (Charlotte) and Franklin County, Ohio (Columbus). (newgeography.com)
- Higher density areas in turn tend to have better healthcare infrastructures when compared to their lower-density counterparts. (ie.edu)
- Though they appear topographical and even resemble urban areas, the maps visualize population density in squares. (visualcapitalist.com)
- The necessity for the development and expansion of protected areas as well as the implementation and execution of improved livestock farming techniques on farmland are therefore of utmost importance to secure the survival of the Namibian leopard population. (africat.org)
- Protected areas maintain a higher density of predators than un-protected areas (Stein et al. (africat.org)
- The other thing that can distort density figures is industrial areas. (city-data.com)
- Fish populations in both the Bering and Barents Seas are expected to expand into new areas in a warming climate if certain pre-conditions are met, including suitable bottom topography, water temperatures, salinities and distance to spawning grounds (Hollowed et al. (noaa.gov)
- Voles periodically fluctuate in density and can reach high numbers during specific periods in farming areas ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
- During 2013-2015, a common vole population fluctuation, which peaked in 2014, was observed in agricultural areas of Castilla and León, Spain ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
- Does population density and neighborhood deprivation predict schizophrenia? (nih.gov)
- Over time, the expected size of a density dependent population will be at carrying capacity, which likely explains why the survival probabilities as well as expected and variance in reproduction success operating at this size predict the effective population size. (bibsys.no)
- The methods described in this article facilitate determination of sequencing depth in the context of empirically defined read depth to achieve desired marker density for genetic mapping studies. (genetics.org)
- The usefulness of genetic maps thus largely depends on their density. (genetics.org)
- Public awareness and use of direct-to-consumer genetic tests: results from 3 state population-based surveys, 2006," American Journal of Public Health , vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 442-445, 2009. (hindawi.com)
- On the other hand, a substantial portion of hyperalphalipoproteinemic population in Japan is accounted for by genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which is also commonly unique in East Asian populations. (mdpi.com)
- Knowledge of the effective size of populations, Ne, and the ratio of effective population size to the size of the mature population Ne/N, provide important information of the genetic diversity and fitness of populations. (bibsys.no)
- When considering genetic drift over longer time periods (5-60 years), the necessity to explicitly account for density dependent vital rates is generally reduced and the rate of genetic drift can be predicted based on harmonic mean of annual effective sizes using the vital rates at carrying capacity. (bibsys.no)
- High-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are used as highly favored makers to analyze genetic diversity and population structure, to construct high-density genetic maps and provide genotypes for genome-wide association analysis. (frontiersin.org)
- Given the current and extreme political differences being exhibited today (leading up to, and ever since the Nov-2016 election), I found it interesting to visualize yet another additional "line in the sand" from a geographical perspective (population density). (modernsurvivalblog.com)
- The 2015-2016 survey estimated the number of packs at 439 and the wolf population at 2,278. (outdoornews.com)
- From spring 2015 to spring 2016, deer density within the wolf range is estimated to have increased 22 percent. (outdoornews.com)
- At a social gathering, the human density per square yard may be much greater than in any home, and humidity and temperature may rise to levels uncomfortable for humans but ideal for microbes. (britannica.com)
- The country's second-largest and least-populated department, Gracias a Dios, had a population density of only 2.5 inhabitants per square kilometer in 1989. (countrystudies.us)
- In 1989 the department of Cort s, on the west bank of the R o Ul a, had a population density of 188 inhabitants per square kilometer. (countrystudies.us)
- You can use square feet or meters if you are finding the density of a smallish space. (wikihow.com)
- The population is equal to 7 billion, and the square miles are 197 million including land and water. (reference.com)
- New York , which Tokyo displaced in 1955, has fallen to seventh largest and has the lowest population density of any megacity, at 4600 per square mile or 1800 per square kilometer (Note 2). (newgeography.com)
- In 2010 Cuyahoga County's 1.2 million residents lived at an overall population density of 2,800 per square mile and an urban density of 3,063 per square mile. (newgeography.com)
- For example, other million-plus counties with under 1,000 per square mile densities include Maricopa (Phoenix), fifth most populous county in the nation, San Diego, Riverside (California) and Palm Beach (Florida). (newgeography.com)
- There are 955 counties with urban densities below 1,000 per square mile. (newgeography.com)
- By contrast, 95% of US counties (2,996) have densities below 1,000 per square mile (Figure 1). (newgeography.com)
- By comparison, using total density, counties with under 1,000 per square mile are estimated to have 204 million residents --- 12 times as many (Figure 2). (newgeography.com)
- The analysis below describes reallocating more than 185 million US residents from counties with overall densities of less than 1,000 to the urban density categories from 1,000 to 7,499 per square mile. (newgeography.com)
- I used simulations to evaluate the performance of various detector and cluster spacings, cluster configurations (i.e., number of detectors arranged in a square grid), sampling extents and number of sampling occasions for estimating population density, the relationship between detection rate and distance to a detector from the animal's center of activity ( σ ) and base detection rates, using American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) as a case study. (usgs.gov)
- These rich and powerful have two important effects on urban density. (reuters.com)
- In this paper, the exponential model of urban density will be explored by using the wave-spectral analysis. (hindawi.com)
- In other words, Cuyahoga's urban density was about 9% denser than its overall density. (newgeography.com)
- For the purposes of COVID-19 analysis, the urban density is more appropriate than the total density, because the urban density is a better surrogate for the proximities that can are associated with infection. (newgeography.com)
- Then an approximate scaling relation between wave number and spectral density is derived by Fourier transform of the negative exponential model. (hindawi.com)
- The likelihood function is then approximated up to a constant by fitting a density to the posterior samples and dividing the approximate posterior density by the prior. (bioportfolio.com)
- Minimum viable population size. (wikipedia.org)
- Hamidi looked at some of the confounding factors-metropolitan size, socioeconomic status of residents, quality of health care and adoption of social distancing-when analyzing how density affects COVID-19 spread and mortality in more than 900 U.S. counties. (scientificamerican.com)
- Four factors were considered in our analysis of the determinants of adult female size: annual food conditions, population density, multilocus heterozygosity, and yearling body size. (bioone.org)
- Density-dependent factors may operate by increasing competition for food, resulting in a decrease in body size. (bioone.org)
- Andreas Zedrosser , Bjørn Dahle , and Jon E. Swenson "POPULATION DENSITY AND FOOD CONDITIONS DETERMINE ADULT FEMALE BODY SIZE IN BROWN BEARS," Journal of Mammalogy 87(3), 510-518, (1 June 2006). (bioone.org)
- Here you can see the latest Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood articles that have been published worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
- We have published hundreds of Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood for you to read. (bioportfolio.com)
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- Influence of population size, density, and proximity to talent clubs on the likelihood of becoming elite youth athlete. (bioportfolio.com)
- These limitations contribute to an incomplete understanding of how size affects the transfer of energy through individuals, populations, and communities. (bioportfolio.com)
- The influence of season and host size on the parasite population density and the dispersion pattern of the parasite in the host population were analysed. (bioportfolio.com)
- We provide a new assessment of the effect of hospital proximity in an emergency situation-road-traffic accidents-exploiting the exogenous variation in the proximity to cities that are legally allowed to have a hospital on the basis of their population size. (bioportfolio.com)
- The population density of the United States is relatively low compared to many other developed countries due to its size and the advent of modern transportation during its settlement. (wn.com)
- More specifically, the main goal was to examine effects of density dependent vital rates on the effective population size and the Ne/N ratio in populations having different mating systems. (bibsys.no)
- Effective population size is also affected by between individual variance in reproductive success, and by sex ratio in two-sex populations. (bibsys.no)
- Another goal of this thesis was to implement global sensitivity analyses in the framework of effective population size. (bibsys.no)
- In this context, we used a model that allows for fluctuating population size and age-structure, and only require data on annual survival and reproduction, which are favourable properties from a management or conservation perspective. (bibsys.no)
- The relative role of density-dependent and density-independent variation in vital rates and population size remains largely unsolved. (csic.es)
- The data were derived from population records based on political divisions such as states, provinces, and counties. (nasa.gov)
- Following discussions with the European Environment Agency in October 1998, a project was launched to investigate the feasibility of disaggregating population data, assigning different population densities according to the classes of Corine land cover. (europa.eu)
- The population data, held at commune level, are available for base years 1981 and 1991 from Eurostat-GISCO. (europa.eu)
- For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/population-density or scan the QR code. (europa.eu)
- Ethnographic data provide finer-scale information about preindustrial human populations and their environments, potentially allowing more conclusive analyses. (pnas.org)
- Here, we use global ethnographic hunter-gatherer data ( 10 , 11 ) to explore the effects of key environmental variables on human population densities. (pnas.org)
- We updated the data for Population Density and Children out of school. (gapminder.org)
- Breast density was measured and recorded by two independent radiologists using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). (dovepress.com)
- This study uses Sri Lankan data to demonstrate the feasibility of a bottom-up method that combines household survey data with contemporaneous satellite imagery to track frequent changes in local population density. (ssrn.com)
- A Poisson regression model based on indicators derived from satellite data, selected using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, accurately predicts village-level population density. (ssrn.com)
- The collective evidence suggests that combining surveys with satellite data is a cost-effective method to track local population changes at more frequent intervals. (ssrn.com)
- We do not know whether higher population densities were a cause or merely correlated with a neighborhood's ability to improve, but we do know, thanks to this data from the Federal Reserve, that the two issues appear to be more connected than what we may have previously thought. (urbancincy.com)
- To enable faster global processing, and in support of research communities, the 30 arc-second adjusted count data were aggregated to 2.5 arc-minute, 15 arc-minute, 30 arc-minute and 1 degree resolutions to produce density rasters at these resolutions. (columbia.edu)
- We also examined a short-term subset of the data (mid-1997 to early 1998) to test whether the program design could statistically detect a sudden rodent increase in density that may precede a hantavirus pulmonary syndrome outbreak. (cdc.gov)
- To provide a time series of raster population density data for data integration. (ceos.org)
High population density2
- The US has some disparate cities declining in numbers, while others are experiencing significant population increases. (worldatlas.com)
- Tularemia in humans in northwestern Spain is associated with increases in vole populations. (cdc.gov)
- We obtained samples from live voles periodically collected during population increases (2013-2015) in northwestern Spain. (cdc.gov)
- This increase in vole numbers was moderate (in terms of peak density) compared with previous increases when tularemia outbreaks among humans were reported (1997-1998 and 2007-2008) by the National Network of Epidemiologic Surveillance of Spain ( 5 , 8 ). (cdc.gov)
- Meanwhile some lower-density neighborhoods in Queens and the Bronx have seen higher rates of infection and death. (scientificamerican.com)
- A city with a port, warehouses, factories, etc., may have a lower density than a city that functions strictly as a bedroom community, but the city, but that doesn't mean it is less crowded or vibrant or whatever other adjective might apply to the things we seek when emphasizing density. (city-data.com)
- Our results show that productivity has significant effects on population density globally. (pnas.org)
- In previous work, only the effects of productivity on human population densities have been assessed. (pnas.org)
- 3981 words - 16 pages The Aging Effects of Canada's Population It was 1947, World War II had finally come to a halt and Canadian soldiers were sent home. (brightkite.com)
- The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of breast density on breast cancer risk among women screened via a nationwide mammographic screening program. (dovepress.com)
- We then examined how increasing D. simulans population density might overcome the artificially created effects of increasing the distance between mates and having a predator present. (mdpi.com)
- 6. The results were attributed to metabolic changes induced by increasing temperature and to perceptual and proximity effects resulting from increasing population density. (brill.com)
- In fact, higher-density counties were actually associated with lower mortality rates, possibly because residents were more strictly following social-distancing guidelines or had better access to health care. (scientificamerican.com)
- Results Crude mortality rates following motor vehicle crashes were inversely related to regional population density. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions The inverse relationship between population density and mortality among individuals in motor vehicle crashes is related to pre-crash factors that influence the type and severity of injuries and not to differences in EMS. (bmj.com)