Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The physical measurements of a body.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A species of ciliated PARAMECIUM possessing two micronuclei.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
Activities performed by humans.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Management review designed to evaluate efficiency and to identify areas in need of management improvement within the institution in order to ensure effectiveness in meeting organizational goals.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
A certificate issued by a governmental body to an individual or organization proposing to construct or modify a health facility, or to offer a new or different service. The process of issuing the certificate is also included.
The status of health in urban populations.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Living facilities for humans.
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Sexual activities of animals.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
The number of males per 100 females.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The status of health in rural populations.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
The act of killing oneself.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Diseases of plants.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Cytoskeleton specialization at the cytoplasmic side of postsynaptic membrane in SYNAPSES. It is involved in neuronal signaling and NEURONAL PLASTICITY and comprised of GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS; scaffolding molecules (e.g., PSD95, PSD93), and other proteins (e.g., CaCMKII).
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.

Capture-recapture models including covariate effects. (1/3450)

Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries.  (+info)

Estimating the effective number of breeders from heterozygote excess in progeny. (2/3450)

The heterozygote-excess method is a recently published method for estimating the effective population size (Ne). It is based on the following principle: When the effective number of breeders (Neb) in a population is small, the allele frequencies will (by chance) be different in males and females, which causes an excess of heterozygotes in the progeny with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. We evaluate the accuracy and precision of the heterozygote-excess method using empirical and simulated data sets from polygamous, polygynous, and monogamous mating systems and by using realistic sample sizes of individuals (15-120) and loci (5-30) with varying levels of polymorphism. The method gave nearly unbiased estimates of Neb under all three mating systems. However, the confidence intervals on the point estimates of Neb were sufficiently small (and hence the heterozygote-excess method useful) only in polygamous and polygynous populations that were produced by <10 effective breeders, unless samples included > approximately 60 individuals and 20 multiallelic loci.  (+info)

Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States. (3/3450)

To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Nino) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns.  (+info)

Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods. (4/3450)

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)

Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona. (5/3450)

For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus.  (+info)

A longitudinal study of Sin Nombre virus prevalence in rodents, southeastern Arizona. (6/3450)

We determined the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in small mammals in southeastern Arizona. Of 1,234 rodents (from 13 species) captured each month from May through December 1995, only mice in the genus Peromyscus were seropositive. Antibody prevalence was 14.3% in 21 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 13.3% in 98 brush mice (P. boylii), 0.8% in 118 cactus mice (P. eremicus), and 0% in 2 deer mice (P. maniculatus). Most antibody-positive mice were adult male Peromyscus captured close to one another early in the study. Population dynamics of brush mice suggest a correlation between population size and hantavirus-antibody prevalence.  (+info)

Statistical sensitivity for detection of spatial and temporal patterns in rodent population densities. (7/3450)

A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hantavirus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. Analyzing data from two sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998, we found that for many species of Peromyscus, Reithrodontomys, Neotoma, Dipodomys, and Perognathus, the monitoring program detected species-specific spatial and temporal differences in rodent densities; trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. The program also detected a short-term increase in rodent densities in the winter of 1997-98, demonstrating its usefulness in identifying conditions conducive to increased risk for human disease.  (+info)

Natural history of Sin Nombre virus in western Colorado. (8/3450)

A mark-recapture longitudinal study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in rodent populations in western Colorado (1994-results summarized to October 1997) indicates the presence of SNV or a closely related hantavirus at two sites. Most rodents (principally deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, and pinyon mice, P. truei) did not persist on the trapping webs much beyond 1 month after first capture. Some persisted more than 1 year, which suggests that even a few infected deer mice could serve as transseasonal reservoirs and mechanisms for over-winter virus maintenance. A positive association between wounds and SNV antibody in adult animals at both sites suggests that when infected rodents in certain populations fight with uninfected rodents, virus amplification occurs. At both sites, male rodents comprised a larger percentage of seropositive mice than recaptured mice, which suggests that male mice contribute more to the SNV epizootic cycle than female mice. In deer mice, IgG antibody prevalence fluctuations were positively associated with population fluctuations. The rates of seroconversion, which in deer mice at both sites occurred mostly during late summer and midwinter, were higher than the seroprevalence, which suggests that the longer deer mice live, the greater the probability they will become infected with SNV.  (+info)

BACKGROUND: The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control and the optimal distribution of appropriate interventions require accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk and of the human populations it affects. Low population densities in rural areas and high population densities in urban areas can influence malaria transmission substantially. Here, the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) global database of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys, medical intelligence and contemporary population surfaces are utilized to explore these relationships and other issues involved in combining malaria risk maps with those of human population distribution in order to define populations at risk more accurately. METHODS: First, an existing population surface was examined to determine if it was sufficiently detailed to be used reliably as a mask to identify areas of very low and very high population density as malaria free regions. Second, the potential of
The influence of habitat quality and population density on occupancy dynamics may surpass that of traditional metrics of area and isolation, but often this is not considered explicitly in studies of spatially structured populations. In landscapes that are not easily characterized as binary habitat/non-habitat (e.g. variegated landscapes), this influence may be even more important and occur at both local and landscape levels. It follows that occupancy dynamics may be driven by disparate processes depending on how extinction or colonization relate to habitat quality and population density. We examined the relative influence of area, structural isolation, habitat quality, local population density, and neighborhood population density (i.e. population density in the landscape around a site) on the probability of extinction and colonization of snowshoe hare Lepus americanus across an expansive forest mosaic landscape (encompassing the northern third of Idaho). Habitat quality and population density ...
please write to my Twitter account @ebmpsykiatri if you find a country with worse ratio as I have not counted every country). Sweden: Corona deaths 14396. Population density 23/squarekilometer. Ratio: 626. Italy: Corona deaths 125501. Population density 201/sq.km. Ratio: 624. United Kingdom: Corona deaths 127724. Population density 267/sq.km Ratio: 473. Germany Corona deaths 88054 Population density 230/sq.km Ratio: 383. Hungary: Corona deaths 29581. Population density 106/squarekilometer. Ration: 273. Brazil Corona deaths 450206 Population density 26/sq.km Ration 173. Bosnien-Herzegovina: Corona deaths 9168. Population density 69/sq.km. Ratio: 134. Beligium Corona deaths 24853 Population density 369/sq.km. Ratio: 67. Finland Corona deaths 942 Population density 16/sq.km Ratio: 59. Norway Corona deaths 782 Population density 14/sq.km Ratio: 55. Denmark Corona deaths 2510 Population densitty 135/sq.km Ratio: 18. ...
A population is the number of living things that live together in the same place.[1] A citys population is the number of people living in that city. These people are called inhabitants or residents. The population includes all individuals that live in that certain area.The world population was estimated to have reached 7.5 billion in April 2017. Asia is the most populous continent, with its 4.3 billion inhabitants being 60% of the world population. Population density is the average number of people in a place. Urban areas such as big cities have a high population density. People there live close to each other. In areas with a low population density, people usually live far away from each other, such as in rural areas out in the countryside. Usually population refers to the number of humans in a certain area. The maximum population that can be supported in an area is called the carrying capacity. ...
Clearly, any UHI adjustments to past thermometer data will depend upon how the UHI effect is quantified at these very low population densities. Also, since I didnt mention it earlier, I should clarify that population density is just an accessible index that is presumed to be related to how much the environment around the thermometer site has been modified over time, by replacing vegetation with manmade structures. Population density is not expected to always be a good index of this modification - for instance, population densities at large airports can be expected to be low, but the surrounding runway surfaces and airplane traffic can be expected to cause considerable spurious warming, much more than would be expected for their population density.. UPDATE #2: Clarifications and answers to questions. After sifting through the 212 comments posted in the last 12 hours at Anthony Watts site, I thought I would answer those concerns that seemed most relevant. Many of the questions and objections ...
Oxitecs Director of Research, Luke Alphey, presented a summary of the results to date from their releases of OX513A strain males on GC during 2010. Males of this strain confer a lethal phenotype to their male and female progeny. (Since this is blog is a forum for me to express personal opinions, Id like to suggest that Oxitec consider naming their strains something more friendly that conveys some phenotype information!). First a bit of background is in order. If such technologies are ever implemented more widely, it is anticipated that male releases will be complemented with conventional control methods. The intent of this combination strategy is to pair conventional control measures that are effective at high population densities with sterile male methods which will be most efficient at low population densities.. According to information presented, population suppression of approximately 60% (my guess) was accomplished over an area of 15 hectares by releasing 5,000 males per week per hectare ...
The difficulty to locate mates and overcome predation can hamper species establishment and population maintenance. The effects of sparseness between individuals or the effect of predators on the probability of population growth can be difficult to measure experimentally. For testing hypotheses about population density and predation, we contend that habitat complexity can be simulated using insect mazes of varying mathematical difficulty. To demonstrate the concept, we investigated whether the use of 3D printed mazes of varying complexity could be used to increase spatial separation between sexes of Drosophila simulans, and whether the presence of a generalist predator hampered mate-finding. We then examined how increasing D. simulans population density might overcome the artificially created effects of increasing the distance between mates and having a predator present. As expected, there was an increase in time taken to find a mate and a lower incidence of mating as habitat complexity increased.
In our analysis, population extinctions today seem to be concentrated either where there are high human population densities, or where other human impacts, such as intensive agriculture, grazing, and hunting, have been severe. Larger mammals are often hunted to extinction or have their habitats preempted (13, 14). The mammal faunal sample from Southeast Asia shows one of the highest losses of species ranges and, thus, of mammal population extinctions: 57% of its quadrats have lost between 75 and 100% of their mammals. In Southeast Asia, human population density is extremely high (e.g., Indonesia, 115 persons per km2; China, 130 persons/km2; Pakistan, 190 persons/km2; India, 305 persons/km2). Similarly, in North America, the highest percentage losses are in the heavily populated eastern United States.. In Africa, the areas with the highest levels of mammal population extinction do not coincide as well with high human population densities (e.g., Nigeria has 135 persons/km2), even though there is a ...
Bangladesh is a developing country with a very high population density. The country has 160 million populations with a small area of only 147, 570 km . Currently, the population density is around 1200 persons per km 2 which is 50 times higher than the global average density of population, 3 times that of our neighbor India, 7 times that of China and 35 times that of the United States of America. The density in urban areas, particularly within Dhaka Megacity remains very high. The average density within the 1500 km 2 DMC region was over 10,000 persons per km 2 2 . in 2011 Census. However, within the urban built up area the density mostly varied from 20,000 to 75,000 persons per km . In some parts of the city, mostly at the older part, the density was found as high as over 200,000 inhabitants per km 2 2 . This thesis mainly deals with the population dynamics of Dhaka Megacity (DMC), more particularly the distribution and variation of population density and growth within the DMC region in recent ...
BACKGROUND: Pathogen transmission by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a standard method for estimating such parameters including dispersal, population size and density, survival, blood feeding frequency and blood meal host preferences. METHODS: We assembled a comprehensive database describing adult female MMRR experiments. Bibliographic searches were used to build a digital library of MMRR studies and selected data describing the reported outcomes were extracted. RESULTS: The resulting database contained 774 unique adult female MMRR experiments involving 58 vector mosquito species from the three main genera of importance to human health: Aedes, Anopheles and Culex. Crude examination of these data revealed patterns associated with geography as well as mosquito genus, consistent with bionomics varying by species-specific life history and ecological context. Recapture success varied considerably and was
This paper addresses the complex relationship between geography and macroeconomic growth. We investigate the ways in which geography may matter directly for growth, controlling for economic policies and institutions, as well as the effects of geography on policy choices and institutions. We find that location and climate have large effects on income levels and income growth, through their effects on transport costs, disease burdens, and agricultural productivity, among other channels. Furthermore, geography seems to be a factor in the choice of economic policy itself. When we identify geographical regions that are not conducive to modern economic growth, we find that many of these regions have high population density and rapid population increase. This is especially true of populations that are located far from the coast, and thus face large transport costs for international trade, as well as populations in tropical regions of high disease burden. Furthermore, much of the population increase in the next
Development Relevance: Population estimates are usually based on national population censuses. Estimates for the years before and after the census are interpolations or extrapolations based on demographic models. Errors and undercounting occur even in high-income countries; in developing countries errors may be substantial because of limits in the transport, communications, and other resources required conducting and analyzing a full census. Population density is a measure of the intensity of land-use, and can be calculated for a block, city, county, state, country, continent or the entire world. Considering that over half of the Earths land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human inhabitation, such as deserts and high mountains, and that population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh water sources, a simple number of population density by itself does not give any meaningful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are ...
In contrast, the population in the outer boroughs rose continuously, except for a drop in 1945 caused by general war-time conditions. In 1933, the Tempelhof borough had an even higher average population density than the Kreuzberg borough. A growth in population of up to 300,000 people is expected by 2010. Up to 90 % of the residential space for these inhabitants is to be created by increasing the density of existing structures: putting additional floors on buildings; converting attic and roof spaces into residential units; building on vacant lots; increasing the density of more open construction styles; extending buildings constructed in the post-war period; etc.. Lower population density results not only from high proportions of green and open spaces and lesser degrees of development. Lower density can also be due to a large amount of small business, trade and service use, as well as public facilities, etc.. These property areas are included in calculations of population density. Detailed and ...
Methods that resulted in the most removals included volunteer-assisted shooting, ground shooting by staff, and aerial shooting, which was the most effort-effective method overall. Volunteer-assisted shooting accounted for 62% of all removals over the first 9 yr of the 13-yr effort, when mouflon were at high population density. The program had the benefit of involving the public in protecting NPS resources and facilitated a positive relationship with the public. However, volunteers preferentially targeted rams, which may distort the sex ratio of a population and result in increased population growth rates after density has been reduced in polygynous species such as mouflon (Stephens et al. 2008). Although ground shooting by staff, both with and without the use of dogs, also resulted in large numbers of removals, these methods became less efficient after densities had been reduced.. The effort required to remove the last remaining mouflon increased nearly 15-fold after the fenced unit was enclosed ...
Many common bacterial pathogens use chemical signals to coordinate group behaviors. In the canonical quorum sensing (QS) system of V. fischeri, a synthase, LuxI, produces an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) that is recognized by a receptor, LuxR, at high signal density. LuxR is a transcription factor that regulates bioluminescence and other group behaviors at high population density in an AHL dependent manner. SdiA is a LuxR homolog found in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. SdiA does not have a corresponding synthase, however, and these species do not produce AHL signals. SdiA does not respond to population density, but rather has been shown to respond to AHLs produced by other bacterial species in its environment. SdiA regulates many aspects of pathogenesis including directing the location of the infection, survival in the mammalian digestive system, and the production of virulence factors. Accordingly, modulation of SdiA activity might be a useful anti-virulence ...
We have found that cell-cell signaling is used to regulate horizontal transfer of the integrative and conjugative element ICEBs1, a conjugative transposon found in the B. subtilis genome. These types of elements are widespread in the microbial world and contribute to horizontal gene transfer, evolution, virulence, and the spread of antibiotic resistance. ICEBs1 is regulated by population density and cell-cell signaling in two ways. 1) At high population density, in the presence of potential mating partners, the element is stimulated to excise from the chromosome and can then transfer to potential recipients. 2) However, if the potential recipients already contain a copy of the element, then excision of the element is inhibited and there is little or no transfer to the potential recipients that already contain the element. We found that the secreted pentapeptide, a product of phrI, that regulates this recognition of self is encoded in the element. In the absence of this peptide, as cells grow ...
Background Pathogen transmission by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a standard method for estimating...
If a river or lake is in good condition, we usually find that there is much more nitrogen than phosphorus, and if the growth of algae and aquatic plants is limited it is usually due to a lack of phosphorous, explains Peñuelas. However, the constant dumping of detergents, pesticides, fertilizers, and urban and industrial wastewater in many river basins throughout the world adds huge quantities of phosphorous, which is accumulating much more quickly than nitrogen or other elements such as potassium. With this, the special role of phosphorus has changed from a desirable nutrient to a contaminant in urban areas with high population density and areas with intensive agriculture.. Under natural conditions, algae tissues contain seven times more nitrogen than phosphorous, and in terrestrial plants this proportion can be as high as 15 times greater. Most soils and rocks contain low amounts of phosphorous, an element which has very low solubility in water. For this reason, freshwater species have ...
Ammonia emissions have been increasing as a result of agricultural activities in Canada. Since 1981, emissions from fertilizer have more than doubled (from 63,000 kilotonnes of nitrogen in 1981, up to 130,000 kilotonnes of nitrogen in 2011). Conversely, livestock-related emissions have been decreasing, particularly since 2006. These trends reflect Canadas national trend towards more land under annual crops, and less area given to livestock and associated forage production.. Use the interactive map below to zoom in and explore different regions. Note that some of the highest emissions per hectare (relating to both livestock and fertilizer emissions) occur in the Mixedwood Plains region of southern Ontario and Quebec. The high population density in these regions increases the potential for human health implications. Other areas of relatively high emissions include the Aspen Parkland, Moist Mixed Grassland and Lake Manitoba Plain regions of the Prairies. The Lower Fraser Valley region of British ...
If any of us has seen the places in the developing world that Mike Davis catalogues remorselessly in Planet of Slums, it was probably from an aeroplane. That doesnt always mean 35,000 feet, for as Davis points out, poorer people tend to colonise the marginal land of cities where air terminals were once built at a comfortable distance from prosperous centres of medium or high population density. Prosperity in the newer, informal urban environment - in Caracas or Lagos, say - is reckoned by incomparably different standards. Davis, the urban historian who also excels at apocalyptic geography, sketches the various ways in which its inhabitants can make ends meet. He also lists ways, based mostly on exploitation, in which they might even profit. In the end, the burgeoning pauper conurbations are as wretched as they look from the cabin window.. Daviss books are great evidential engines. Planet of Slums howls with figures. Copious examples drawn from around the globe are stacked up to illustrate a ...
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Each year I vow to publish this analysis in a more timely manner and, it seems, that each year it gets tougher to do. But this is a massive undertaking, so I hope youll cut me some slack. First, a little about my methodology is in order. For each nation, I tallied the imports from…
One of the most important threats to global public health, especially in developing countries is parasitic infections. These infections are very common in children and young people especially those who kept in kindergarten and primary schools. Because of the high population density and sometimes by the lack of adequate hygiene, these places are prone to parasitic infections. Infestation causes by ectoparasites like pediculosis, water-borne protozoan infections like giardiasis and the last but not less important, helminth infection like as Oxyuris are a permanent threat for children in this places.
As a leading global city with a high population density, Singapore is vulnerable to the introduction of biological threats. Initiating an early emergency response to such threats calls for t... Read more ...
It was a hazy and hot day as I sat in my grade school New York City classroom. Suddenly, everyones attention was drawn to my classmates wheezing and labored breathing. Àngel was one of the biggest kids in our class, but he was clearly in distress and the memory of his pain is vivid. I now understand that my friend was having an asthma attack. Thankfully, our teacher knew precisely what to do and she had his inhaler inside her desk and ready.. Our Manhattan public school was located adjacent to a major highway known as the FDR Drive, which snakes up Manhattans eastside near the Williamsburg Bridge. The combination of high population density, cars, trucks and industrial activity was a recipe for dismal air quality.. Àngel and many of my inner-city cohort shared a Puerto Rican ancestry. To this day, I remain puzzled by the disproportionately high asthma rate among Latinos. Latinos are 30 percent more likely to go to the hospital for asthma, as compared to non-Hispanic Whites. For reasons that ...
US census maps - demographics ECPM Département de langues Map United States Population Density , Direct Maps File:US population map.png Wikimedia Commons Map United States Population Density , Direct Maps What is a map? Map skills and higher order thinking The Functional Art: An Introduction to Information Graphics and Map of NFL teams overlaying a US population density map : nfl US census maps - demographics ECPM Département de langues US Population Density Map in 3D , ...
The Gridded Population of the World, Version 4 (GPWv4): Population Density Adjusted to Match 2015 Revision of UN WPP Country Totals, Revision 11 consists of estimates of human population density (number of persons per square kilometer) based on counts consistent with national censuses and population registers with respect to relative spatial distribution, but adjusted to match the 2015 Revision of the United Nations World Population Prospects (UN WPP) country totals, for the years 2000, 2005, 2011, 2015, and 2020. A proportional allocation gridding algorithm, utilizing approximately 13.5 million national and sub-national administrative units, was used to assign UN WPP-adjusted population counts to 30 arc-second grid cells. The density rasters were created by dividing the UN WPP-adjusted population count raster for a given target year by the land area raster. The data files were produced as global rasters at 30 arc-second (~1 km at the equator) resolution. To enable faster global processing, and ...
Knowledge of the effective size of populations, Ne, and the ratio of effective population size to the size of the mature population Ne/N, provide important information of the genetic diversity and fitness of populations. However, the theoretical parameter Ne was originally defined for populations with discrete generations, and most models that aim to estimate Ne for populations with overlapping generations relies on a set of simplifying, often unrealistic assumptions. Whenever these assumptions are violated, the predicted size of Ne may be highly biased and this may potentially lead to erroneous decisions in conservation and management. Hence, there is a need for more knowledge about how different processes occurring in natural populations affect the effective size of populations, and the Ne/N ratio. The main goal of this thesis was to relax one of the most unrealistic assumptions underlying many models: constant population size, or at the very best that fluctuations are only caused by density ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Population density methods for large-scale modelling of neuronal networks with realistic synaptic kinetics. T2 - Cutting the dimension down to size. AU - Haskell, Evan. AU - Nykamp, Duane Q.. AU - Tranchina, Daniel. PY - 2001/5. Y1 - 2001/5. N2 - Population density methods provide promising time-saving alternatives to direct Monte Carlo simulations of neuronal network activity, in which one tracks the state of thousands of individual neurons and synapses. A population density method has been found to be roughly a hundred times faster than direct simulation for various test networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons with instantaneous excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic conductances. In this method, neurons are grouped into large populations of similar neurons. For each population, one calculates the evolution of a probability density function (PDF) which describes the distribution of neurons over state space. The population firing rate is then given by the total flux of ...
THE standard neutral coalescent model (Kingman 1982a,c; Hudson 1983; Tajima 1983) assumes a panmictic species with a constant, large, effective population size over time within which no selective differences exist. While this model is often applied in the analysis of genetic data, its assumptions are probably inappropriate for most organisms. That is, many species are subdivided and/or have changed in size over time and/or are subject to natural selection. The study of genealogical processes in populations subject to these forces has been a major part of the recent effort in population genetics. The key parameter of the coalescent is the effective population size, Ne, because this is what determines the time scale of the process. It is important to note that some biologically interesting characteristics of species are manifest only through this effective size. These include the distribution of offspring number among individuals in the population and the details of the age structure of the ...
An increase in offspring-number variation leads to more variable population dynamics, which on one hand lets successful populations escape even faster from the range of small population sizes than under the Poisson model. On the other hand, a large variation also prevents successful Allee-effect populations from spending much time near or above the critical population size because those that do still have a high risk of going extinct even at such high population sizes. Therefore, an increase in variability reinforces the speed-up effect but mitigates the slow-down effect and thus increases the range of founder population sizes for which the genetic consequences of the Allee effect are positive (see Figure 2 and Figure 4). In that sense, variation in family sizes plays a similar role as variation in founder population size and in the number of introduction events (see Figure 4), two factors that were examined in Wittmann et al. (2014) and, in the case of founder population size, also by Kramer ...
NeEstimator v2 is a completely revised and updated implementation of software that produces estimates of contemporary effective population size, using several different methods and a single input file. NeEstimator v2 includes three single-sample estimators (updated versions of the linkage disequilibrium and heterozygote-excess methods, and a new method based on molecular coancestry), as well as the two-sample (moment-based temporal) method. New features include the following: (i) an improved method for accounting for missing data; (ii) options for screening out rare alleles; (iii) confidence intervals for all methods; (iv) the ability to analyse data sets with large numbers of genetic markers (10000 or more); (v) options for batch processing large numbers of different data sets, which will facilitate cross-method comparisons using simulated data; and (vi) correction for temporal estimates when individuals sampled are not removed from the population (Plan I sampling). The user is given ...
From a microbes point of view the human body is a vast array of surfaces some internal, others external that are continuously colonized by endemic and exotic microbes beginning from the time of our birth and continuing throughout life up until and even beyond the point of death. The surfaces on which these organisms grow and are constantly being sloughed off as new tissues form beneath existing ones resulting in the loss of established biofilms but providing new and uncolonized, or at least less colonized, cell surfaces on which new biofilm communities can be come established. These interconnected ecosystems vary from highly abraded, exceptionally dry habitats on the surface of the skin (e.g. the elbow) to constantly moist, highly nutritious membranous surfaces (the conjunctiva of the eye), from niches of low population density and a pH of 3 (stomach) to habitats with a hydrogen ion concentration a million fold lower and a population density of 1011 cells /gram (gut). Then, within the same ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! This paper investigates nonparametric estimation of density on [0, 1]. The kernel estimator of density on [0, 1] has been found to be sensitive to both bandwidth and kernel. This paper proposes a unified Bayesian framework for choosing both the bandwidth and kernel function. In a simulation study, the Bayesian bandwidth estimator performed better than others, and kernel estimators were sensitive to the choice of the kernel and the shapes of the population densities on [0, 1]. The simulation and empirical results demonstrate that the methods proposed in this paper can improve the way the probability densities on [0, 1] are presently estimated.
Some forms of positive density-dependence can favor species coexistence even if competitive species benefit the most from positive density-dependence.
Learning Goals: Use a quadrat to sample an area of the school lawn and calculate the population density of 4 common weeds.. Key Concepts: density, carrying capacity, biodiversity, quadrat sampling. Download a copy of the Population Density lab Indoor Quadrat Alternate Assignment:. http://www.patriotspointsciencespotlight.com/images-and-data-submission.html. Lab - Introduction to Quadrats. Quadrats - the Point-Intercept Method. ...
As predicted, invasion-front toads were more likely to approach conspecifics and spent more time with them than did toads from long-colonized populations. We also found a sex effect; males were more likely to approach conspecifics and spent more time with them than did females. Because our stimulus toads were female, that sex bias might reflect sexual rather than social attraction. However, the greater sociality of male than female toads was seen in both long-colonized and range-edge populations, suggesting that the effect of invasion history on social attraction was not due to differences in sexual selection among populations. Below, we consider possible explanations for the divergence in social attraction between long-colonized and invasion-front populations.. First, the costs and benefits of social attraction may differ at high versus low population densities, which in turn differ predictably across the invasion range. For example, low densities at the invasion front may reduce ecological ...
The conditions for enterprise differ in some respects between companies in urban and rural areas. The geographical situation in rural areas entails large distances to customer and suppliers. A limited labour market and other functions of significance mean that travel and transports are more expensive and take more time. The possibility of recruiting personnel with the right expertise is affected by a limited local labour market. Long distances make work commutes difficult. Properties and facilities in rural areas often have low second-hand value which makes it difficult for companies to provide collateral for bank loans. Low population density and climate need not necessarily always be competitive disadvantages. For enterprises where the business has a special need for space, natural resources, climate, etc. these characteristics are often an advantage and in some cases a prerequisite. Agriculture, forestry, mineral extraction, some kinds of tourism, testing activities, etc. are examples of ...
Establish transportation services for areas with low population densities using publicly funded buses and vans on a set schedule, dial-a-ride transit, volunteer ridesharing, etc. ...
Figure 1 of Nielsen et al., paper shows multiple (up to 21) synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions in thousands of chimp proteins compared to the related human proteins. In the second paper Behe & Snoke conclude that in order to generate a new function that requires mutations of two amino acids, like forming a disulfide bridge, 108 generations are needed with a population size of at least 109. In the third paper, Lynch countered that much smaller populations could reach this goal in less time. Now, if we take the human population size from the above two studies (Ne about 104) for the population size in Figure 3 of the Lynch article, we can see that it would take 108 generations for the arrival of a new function, even if the two changed amino acid were any 2 of 50 (with a high s = 0.01). For humans, 108 generations mean 2 Billion years: an impossibly long period. Needless to say, a new function requiring 3, 4 … up to 21 amino acid changes would take much longer than 108 generations. And ...
Figure 1 of Nielsen et al., paper shows multiple (up to 21) synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions in thousands of chimp proteins compared to the related human proteins. In the second paper Behe & Snoke conclude that in order to generate a new function that requires mutations of two amino acids, like forming a disulfide bridge, 108 generations are needed with a population size of at least 109. In the third paper, Lynch countered that much smaller populations could reach this goal in less time. Now, if we take the human population size from the above two studies (Ne about 104) for the population size in Figure 3 of the Lynch article, we can see that it would take 108 generations for the arrival of a new function, even if the two changed amino acid were any 2 of 50 (with a high s = 0.01). For humans, 108 generations mean 2 Billion years: an impossibly long period. Needless to say, a new function requiring 3, 4 … up to 21 amino acid changes would take much longer than 108 generations. And ...
Population Density Defined as total population size per unit of area. Population densities depend on: Interactions within the environment Quality of habitat
The twin concepts of zooprophylaxis and the dilution effect originated with vector-borne diseases (malaria), were driven forward by studies on Lyme borreliosis and have now developed into the mantra biodiversity protects against disease. The basic idea is that by diluting the assemblage of transmi …
Background Increasing evidence shows that the cancer microenvironment affects both tumorigenesis and the response of cancer to drug treatment. Therefore in vitro models that selectively reflect characteristics of the in vivo environment are greatly needed. Current methods allow us to screen the effect of extrinsic parameters such as matrix composition and to model the complex and three-dimensional (3D) cancer environment. However, 3D models that reflect characteristics of the in vivo environment are typically too complex and do not allow the separation of discrete extrinsic parameters. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we used a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel-based microwell array to model breast cancer cell behavior in multilayer cell clusters that allows a rigorous control of the environment. The innovative array fabrication enables different matrix proteins to be integrated into the bottom surface of microwells. Thereby, extrinsic parameters including dimensionality, type of matrix
In summary, the spectrum of protein-coding variation is considerably different today compared to what existed as recently as 200 to 400 generations ago. Of the putatively deleterious protein-coding SNVs, 86.4% arose in the last 5,000 to 10,000 years, and they are enriched for mutations of large effect as selection has not had sufficient time to purge them from the population. Thus, it seems likely that rare variants have an important role in heritable phenotypic variation, disease susceptibility and adverse drug responses. In principle, our results provide a framework for developing new methods to prioritize potential disease-causing variants in gene-mapping studies. More generally, the recent dramatic increase in human population size, resulting in a deluge of rare functionally important variation, has important implications for understanding and predicting current and future patterns of human disease and evolution. For example, the increased mutational capacity of recent human populations has ...
When Who What Sept 15 Guy A. Inferring human population size and separation history from multiple genome sequences. Nature Gen. Schiffels and Durbin, 2014. Sept 22 Joe Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method. PNAS 2014 Sept 29 Sonal Comparative population genomics in animals uncovers the determinants of genetic diversity. Nature. Romiguier et…
Recapture the Rapture: Rethinking God, Sex, and Death in a World Thats Lost Its Mind PDF | Recapture the Rapture Pdf Recapture the Rapture Review Recapture the Rapture Course Recapture the Rapture Audible Recapture the Rapture Goodreads Recapture the Rapture Audiobook
Using a relatively simple density-dependent population model and assuming constant young of year survival with no immigration/emigration, reductions in cumulative fecundity have been predicted to yield declines in population size over time (Miller and Ankley 2004). Under real-world environmental conditions, outcomes may vary depending on how well conditions conform with model assumptions. Nonetheless, cumulative fecundity can be considered one vital rate that contributes to overall population trajectories (Kramer et al. 2011).. ...
Access Frankston Heights population density figures plus suburb map, boundaries, population distribution, demographics, in an accurate, easy to use website.
Aim: The recent recovery of large carnivores in Europe has been explained as resulting from a decrease in human persecution driven by widespread rural land abandonment, paralleled by forest cover increase and the consequent increase in availability of shelter and prey. We investigated whether land cover and human population density changes are related to the relative probability of occurrence of three European large carnivores: the grey wolf (Canis lupus), the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and the brown bear (Ursus arctos).Location: Europe, west of 64 degrees longitude.Methods: We fitted multi-temporal species distribution models using ,50,000 occurrence points with time series of land cover, landscape configuration, protected areas, hunting regulations and human population density covering a 24-year period (1992-2015). Within the temporal window considered, we then predicted changes in habitat suitability for large carnivores throughout Europe.Results: Between 1992 and 2015, the habitat suitability ...
We used a simple discrete-time population model to investigate how temporally structured density-dependence influences a populations response to loss due to harvesting. We assumed that reproduction is a relative discrete event in time, followed by density-dependent mortality and then harvesting, or followed by harvesting and then density-dependent mortality. Such an ordering of events in time may have profound influences on the dynamics of the population. The extra mortality due to harvesting may either be additive or compensatory depending on the strength of the density-dependence and the ordering of events. Population stability is also strongly affected by the temporal structure of density-dependence. Moreover, the yield and the (unconstrained) optimal harvest rate will vary depending on when harvesting occurs in the annual cycle. We argue that a correct identification of the temporal structure of density-dependence may be of great importance for understanding population dynamics in general ...
Objective. To assess whether higher mortality rates among individuals in motor vehicle crashes in areas with low population density depend on injury type and severity or are related to the performance of emergency medical services (EMS).. Methods Prehospital and hospital deaths were studied in a population-based cohort of 41 243 motor vehicle crashes that occurred in Sweden between 1998 and 2004. The final multivariable analysis was restricted to 6884 individuals in motor vehicle crashes, to minimise the effects of confounding factors.. Results Crude mortality rates following motor vehicle crashes were inversely related to regional population density. In regions with low population density, the unadjusted rate ratio for prehospital death was 2.2 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.5) and for hospital death 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.9), compared with a high-density population. However, after controlling for regional differences in age, gender and the type/severity of injuries among 6884 individuals in motor vehicle ...
Data & statistics on Population Poverty Rates by Sex of Household Head and Residence: Poverty Indices according to Region of Residence, Gender, Sector of Employment, Education Level, and Mode of Living of Head of Household (1990, 1996), Disaggregates rural poverty rates across Malawis three regions. Poverty rates in the rural south have historically been highest, while those in the north are lowest. The relative disadvantage of southerners relates in part to land constraints in the face of high population density: the 2008 Population Census puts the population density in the south at 184 persons per square kilometer compared to only ..., Descriptive statistics of variables Variable District-level Access to services Distance from Accra Distance from regional capital Agro-ecological zone Forest Coastal Ethnic fractionalization Share of rural population Population density (log) Literacy rate Headcount ratio Poverty gap Per capita total expenditures (log) Per capita capital expenditures (log) Internal
Development Relevance: Population estimates are usually based on national population censuses. Estimates for the years before and after the census are interpolations or extrapolations based on demographic models. Errors and undercounting occur even in high-income countries; in developing countries errors may be substantial because of limits in the transport, communications, and other resources required conducting and analyzing a full census. Population density is a measure of the intensity of land-use, and can be calculated for a block, city, county, state, country, continent or the entire world. Considering that over half of the Earths land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human inhabitation, such as deserts and high mountains, and that population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh water sources, a simple number of population density by itself does not give any meaningful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are ...
A cohort effect is a phenomenon where cohorts of a population differ from each other in some key attribute(s), such body mass. Birth mass, birth dates, rate of growth of juveniles, survival over the first winter, age of first reproduction, and adult survival rates are often related to the influence of the time of birth, which itself is a product of the environmental conditions cohorts face at birth as well as the nutritional condition of their mothers (itself a reflection of environmental conditions faced at or prior to birth). Environmental conditions that can influence birth and early growth attributes include droughts, abnormally high rainfall, late snowfall, and high population density. These and other factors influence birth attributes and early development of juveniles, and these early effects may persist and affect phenotypic quality throughout the lifetime of the cohort. Because many of these cohort effects - body size, body mass, etc. - are tied to survival and reproductive fitness, ...
We analysed the data from the control group in a typhoid vaccine trial in Karachi to assess the differences in individual-, household- and cluster-level characteristics for developing typhoid fever. The annual incidence of typhoid in children aged 2-16 years in the control arm of the vaccine trial was 151/100 000 population. After adjustment, the risk of typhoid was lower with increasing age [risk ratio (RR) 0·89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·83-0·95], was higher with an increase in population density (RR 1·13, 95% CI 1·05-1·21) and was lower in the households using a safe drinking-water source (RR 0·63, 95% CI 0·41-0·99). Typhoid fever affects younger children living in areas of high population density and lack of access to safe water in Pakistan. A combination of environmental and biological interventions is required to prevent the continued epidemiological and economic impact of typhoid fever in high-risk areas of Pakistan.
Interpretive Summary: Social insects defend themselves against parasites and pathogens using behaviour and physiological defenses. This study explores immune defense found in honey bees, two bumble bee species and a solitary pollinator, the alfalfa leafcutting bee. All of these groups show a similar set of immune genes, stressing the importance of immunity across the bees, and indicating additional targets for selection of robust honey bees for agriculture. Technical Abstract: Sociality has many rewards, but it can also be dangerous, as high population density and low genetic diversity, common in many social insects, is ideal for parasite transmission. Social insects may therefore be expected to have evolved a specialised immune arsenal to guard against this threat. Surprisingly, the honeybee genome, which was the first social insect genome sequenced, revealed a dramatic reduction in the number of canonical immune-related genes relative to the genomes of solitary insects. Social protection from ...
The staggering 65 per cent of Japans- a high population density country- terrestrial area under forest cover owes it largely to the forced land reforms in the post world war two period, although the original intention of the occupying Americans was to wither the feudal support base of the king. Nicaraguas land reforms initiated by President Daniel Ortega in the 80s -shelved later with the change in government- were followed by a reduction in forest encroachments. Cubas small holdings were central to shaping its success in expanding agrobiodiversity and reducing the use of agrochemicals in the post Soviet period. On the other hand, apartheids appropriation of farmlands created the twin crises of accelerating rural poverty and biodiversity degradation in southern Africa. The land reform move initiated by the Soviet sponsored government in Afghanistan was at the core of the feudal resistance which was strategically utilized by the US to generate self perpetuating violence of formidable ...
This study aims to assess the determinants of the labor market in the Greater Jakarta Area (Jabodetabek) with a population of 27.9 million (2010 census) and growth rate of 3.6 percent per annum over the period 2000-2010. With a total area of 4,384 square kilometers (1,693 sq mi), the city has a very high population density of 14,464 people per square kilometer (37,460/ sq mi), while the metro area has a density of 4,383 people/sq km (11,353/sq mi). The paper employs the survival regression analysis by incorporating attributes of commuter, namely gender, age, distance, travel time, wages, stress, education level, double income households and home ownership. The area consists of Jakarta as the receiving labor market and eight municipalities and regencies as labor suppliers. The study utilizes a cross-section data from a commuter survey with more than 4,000 respondents participated using different modes of land transport. The results reveal that some determinants have influenced commuters ...
South Korea - Plant and animal life: The long, hot, humid summer is favourable for the development of extensive and varied vegetation. Some 4,500 plant species are known. Forests once covered about two-thirds of the total land area, but, because of fuel needs during the long, cold winter and the countrys high population density, the original forest has almost disappeared. Except for evergreen broad-leaved forests in the narrow subtropical belt along the southern coast and on Cheju Island, most areas contain deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous trees. Typical evergreen broad-leaved species include camellias and camphor trees, while deciduous forests include oaks, maples, alders, zelkovas, and birches. Species of
March 2007. Abstract. Malawi, like other countries in Africa, has a new land policy designed to clarify and formalise customary tenure. The country is poor with a high population density, highly dependent on agriculture, and the research sites are matrilineal-matrilocal, and near urban centres. But the case raises issues relevant to land tenure reform elsewhere: the role of traditional authorities or chiefs vis-à-vis the state and community; variability in types of customary tenure; and deepening inequality within rural populations. Even before it is implemented, the pending land policy in Malawi is intensifying competition over land. We discuss this and the increase in rentals and sales; the effects of public debates about the new land policy; a new discourse about original settlers and strangers; and political manoeuvring by chiefs.. Keywords: land tenure, land reform, land rentals and sales, Malawi. JEL subject codes: Z1. ...
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In most countries in the Asian region, ruminant animals, particularly cattle and buffalo, have an important economic role in village farming systems to provide milk, draught power, manure, meat and hides. Milk is an important constituent in the diet of large populations in countries like India and Pakistan. Its value is being increasingly recognized in other countries in the region too. Increasing incorporation of milk in the diets of the people in the region focuses attention on the value of milk not only as a source of nourishment for the rural small scale producer but also as a source of supplementary income for them. High population densities in the region make it essential that the production systems should ensure the optimum utilization of scarce land resources, whether it be for production of food or other crops. In this context, the vast capacity of cattle and buffalo to convert crop residues and by-products into economically useful products has to be used to the best advantage of the small
Following the increased attention income differences/inequality has gained within the area of economic geography and among policy-planning; this study seeks to explore and analyze the factors affecting income differences in the regions of Ghana. From the use of regional (10 regions) panel data for 1960, 1970, 1984 and 2000; the results show a direct link between socio-demographic factors and regional income differences/inequality and also the impact of ethnic and religious composition on regional income differences. It was identified that ethnicity and religious compositions have different impacts on regional income differences. Christians have positive effect on regional income due to their fairly representation in almost all the regions likewise the Akans, but have negative effect on regional income. And also high population density in a region reduces the mean regional income, similarly high concentration of population aged 60years and over reduces the regional income. Evidence from the ...
How do insurance companies determine your insurance premiums? In addition to your driving record, there are other factors taken into consideration when doing the math to figure out what your insurance premium will be.. Five Factors Used To Determine Car Insurance Premiums:. 1. What type of vehicle do you own? The model, year, and value of your car can have an impact on your insurance premium. Cars that are more expensive to repair will be more expensive to insure.. 2. What is your age, sex and marital status? Statistics show that older drivers, female drivers and married drivers tend to have better driving records. Because of this, these drivers usually have lower premiums.. 3. Is your vehicle used for work or pleasure? Using your vehicle for work will probably increase your premium.. 4. What is your prior insurance coverage? If you are a new driver or if you do not have insurance coverage, you will incur higher rates.. 5. Where do you live? States with high population density tend to have more ...
To defend ourselves we have only general antiviral (that must be administered to adolescents, older adults, children, doctors, nurses, pharmacists, police, firemen, government authorities and special security) and the known epidemiological methods (masks :spreads by coughing and constant sneezing, washing hands, avoiding greet with kisses, avoiding places of high population density: buses, metros, auditoriums, schools, churches, checking travelers at air terminals, isolation of patients, etc). The last allows Keiji Fukuda (WHO), to ensure that there are now more stocks of antiviral drugs to prevent infection by the virus. If someone developed an intentionally biological warfare not need imagine much, just keep a visual inventory of what is currently deployed in the media: fast replication of new viral strains (due to absence of natural immunity), increasing numbers of people affected, weak international sanitary barriers (uncontrollable intrusion of Mexican drug traffickers, with aircraft or ...
With novel developments in sequencing technologies, time-sampled data are becoming more available and accessible. Naturally, there have been efforts in parallel to infer population genetic parameters from these data sets. Here, we compare and analyse four recent approaches based on the Wright-Fisher model for inferring selection coefficients (s) given effective population size (N-e), with simulated temporal data sets. Furthermore, we demonstrate the advantage of a recently proposed approximate Bayesian computation (ABC)-based method that is able to correctly infer genomewide average N-e from time-serial data, which is then set as a prior for inferring per-site selection coefficients accurately and precisely. We implement this ABC method in a new software and apply it to a classical time-serial data set of the medionigra genotype in the moth Panaxia dominula. We show that a recessive lethal model is the best explanation for the observed variation in allele frequency by implementing an estimator ...
Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R
article{9837a013-2002-40ce-93f0-0bf266da9173, abstract = {Within the paradigm of population dynamics a central task is to identify environmental factors affecting population change and to estimate the strength of these effects. We here investigate the impact of observation errors in measurements of population densities on estimates of environmental effects. Adding observation errors may change the autocorrelation of a population time series with potential consequences for estimates of effects of autocorrelated environmental covariates. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compare the performance of maximum likelihood estimates from three stochastic versions of the Gompertz model (log-linear first order autoregressive model), assuming 1) process error only, 2) observation error only, and 3) both process and observation error (the linear state-space model on log-scale). We also simulated population dynamics using the Ricker model, and evaluated the corresponding maximum likelihood estimates for ...
Dear colleagues Thanks a lot for making the paper by Smith (1935) accessible to me, which was in turn requested by a good number of ANNELIDA users. Once I have been able to pin down the concept of density dependence (in fact sensu density-dependent mortality factors), I am now tracking the original definition of the concept of regulation in the context of population dynamics where it refers to population size self-adjustment, where density dependence might [I am not sure yet] represent the otherwise called return tendency, i.e. mortality rates increasing and birth rates decreasing as population size increases. This is much harder a task since regulation is quite a rather general, easy-to-use term. The theory of population regulation seems to be attributed to Alexander John Nicholson (see Turchin 2003, p. 5, and others), and in fact the origin of the (still debated, see White 2008) regulation versus limitation controversy is most commonly associated with the exchange of ideas between Nicholson ...
Now the rate of genetic drift and the efficiency of selection in a population is governed by the effective population size. The effective size of a population (Ne) is often much smaller than the census size of the population, as it is affected by the variance in reproductive success between individuals. The effective population size is very hard to predict as it depends on many demographic factors. Ne can be estimated from patterns of genetic diversity, and the long-term estimated effective population size of humans is ~10,000 (similar to many great apes), reflecting the strong effect of genetic drift in the evolutionary history of humans. Now human populations have recently expanded dramatically in size. All else being equal human effective population sizes will have increased as well, but there is no good way of guessing how much they have increased by. For example rapidly fluctuating population sizes, result in a smaller Ne. If the fluctuations are sufficiently rapid, Ne can be approximated ...
Traditional sociological insights assume that cities are characterized by lower levels of voluntary engagement as it is expected that community size and population density are negatively associated with network and mobilization opportunities. Others, however, argue that cities allow for the formation of different networks that are no longer based on ascribed personal characteristics. We analyze voluntary association membership in Belgium, based on the „Social Cohesion Indicators in Flanders‟ dataset (n=2,080 respondents, sampled in 40 communities). The analysis shows that neither population density nor community size have an effect on scope or intensity of participation in voluntary associations. Only two forms of associations are negatively related to population density. Our results therefore do not support the hypothesis of a rural-urban divide in participation in voluntary associations. We speculate how future research could take into account different sorts of voluntary associations when ...
The Crau Plain grasshopper, Prionotropis rhodanica Uvarov, 1923 (Orthoptera: Pamphagidae: Thrinchinae), is a rare grasshopper species endemic to the Crau Plain, a steppic habitat in France with unique floristic and faunistic communities. During recent decades, the area covered by these steppic grasslands has been highly reduced and fragmented due to the development of irrigation-based agriculture, roads, as well as industrial and military complexes. The restricted distribution, low population density and poor dispersal ability of P. rhodanica, combined with the destruction of its habitat, has led to the classification of this species as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Decreases in habitat quality due to intensive grazing in the remnant grassland patches constitute an additional threat for P. rhodanica that can impact population dynamics at a relatively small-scale. In this work, we focused on a small area of about 3 km2 occupied by one of the largest subpopulations
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantifying invasion risk: the relationship between establishment probability and founding population size. AU - DUNCAN, Richard. AU - Blackburn, Tim M.. AU - Rossinelli, Silvia. AU - Bacher, Sven. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Invasive species usually start out as small colonizing populations that are prone to extinction through demographic stochasticity and Allee effects, leading to a positive relationship between establishment probability and founding population size. However, establishment success also depends on the environment to which species are introduced: for a given species, some locations will be more favourable for establishment than others. We present equations for modelling the expected relationship between establishment probability and founding population size when demographic stochasticity, Allee effects and, for the first time, environmental heterogeneity are operating. We show that heterogeneity in environmental conditions can change the shape of the relationship ...
In this study, the authors extend their previous research by using a multi-patch model to analyze Allee effects within the context of migration between patches. We investigate the combined effect of a fatal disease, Allee effect and migration on different groups of the same species, Yakubu says. In their conclusions, the host population is seen to become extinct whenever the initial host population density on each patch is lower than the smallest Allee threshold. When the initial host population has a high Allee threshold, the population persists on each patch if the disease transmission rates are small and the growth rate is large. Even in the case of high Allee thresholds, the host population goes extinct if the disease transmission rate is high, and growth rate and disease threshold are small. The presence of a strong Allee effect adds the possibility of population extinction even as the disease disappears. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Apparent breeding success drives long-term population dynamics of a migratory swan. AU - Nuijten, Rascha. AU - Vriend, S.J.G.. AU - Wood, Kevin A.. AU - Haitjema, Trinus. AU - Rees, Eileen C.. AU - Jongejans, Eelke. AU - Nolet, B.A.. N1 - 7028, AnE; Data archiving: data archived in Dryad. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - The ability of a species to adapt to environmental change is ultimately reflected in its vital rates - i.e., survival and reproductive success of individuals. Together, vital rates determine trends in numbers, commonly monitored using counts of species abundance. Rapid changes in abundance can give rise to concern, leading to calls for research into the biological mechanisms underlying variations in demography. For the NW European population of Bewicks swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), there have been major changes in the population trends recorded during nearly five decades of monitoring (1970‐2016). The total number of birds increased to a maximum of c. 30,000 ...
It is well known that the effective size of a population (Ne) is one of the major determinants of the amount of genetic variation within the population. However, it is unclear whether the types of genetic variations are also dictated by the effective population size. To examine this, we obtained whole genome data from over 100 populations of the world and investigated the patterns of mutational changes. Our results revealed that for low frequency variants, the ratio of AT→GC to GC→AT variants (β) was similar across populations, suggesting the similarity of the pattern of mutation in various populations. However, for high frequency variants, β showed a positive correlation with the effective population size of the populations. This suggests a much higher proportion of high frequency AT→GC variants in large populations (e.g. Africans) compared to those with small population sizes (e.g. Asians). These results imply that the substitution patterns vary significantly between populations. These
The Brookings Center on Social and Economic Dynamics and the Metropolitan Policy Program jointly hosted an NICHD funded Agent Based Modeling and Spatial Population Dynamics Workshop at the Brookings Institution. Researchers from across the country attended the workshop to discuss current projects, to gain insight into agent-based modeling, and to unearth issues for future research collaboration.
The expert said that the growing number of older people would be living with chronic diseases and disability.. Low population density and accelerated levels of urbanisation have the potential to erode the traditional family care system. Further investment by the government in healthcare infrastructure is required to provide alternatives to the older persons in rural areas, she said.. Mr. Kornfeld said that care could no longer be considered simply a family matter. She called on the government to step up its efforts to revise the Aged Persons Act in order to fully provide for the rights, protection, care and welfare of older people.. The expert, who has been in Namibia for the past three weeks, has a chance to meet with older people and representatives of local authorities as well as civil society representatives.. She was presenting preliminary findings on a report which would come out in September.. Kornfeld commended the government for its political determination and vision to improve the ...
To determine whether the early CAFCs induced by STAT5A(1*6) represent true HSCs, a variety of assays were undertaken. First, transduced CB CD34+ cells were sorted into GFP+/CD38low and GFP+/CD38high populations, which were analyzed for CAFC activity on MS5 under limiting dilution conditions. As indicated in Fig. 4 E, most of the CAFCs at day 10 arose from the CD38low population with a frequency of 13.8%, whereas the CD38high population contained some CAFCs at a frequency of 4.5%. Importantly, only the CAFCs generated by the GFP+/CD38low population gave rise to secondary CAFCs when plated onto fresh MS5 stroma, whereas the CAFCs generated from the GFP+/CD38high population did not (Fig. 4 E). Differentiated progeny from secondary CAFCs from the GFP+/CD38low population was monitored by flow cytometry and cytospins. Secondary CAFCs predominantly gave rise to erythroid cells and some myeloid cells (not depicted; see also Fig. 5). Furthermore, day 10 CAFCs were plated in methylcellulose to determine ...
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Confirming eradication success can be notoriously difficult and costly, especially when the species is still present but remains undetected, due to very low population densities and imperfect detectio
Adjust m1, m2, s1, and s2 to the right:. As m is increased, the rate of migration from one population to the other is increased. As s is increased, selection against migrants and hybrids is greatest. If both m values are set to the maximum value (while s is set at 0), both populations quickly become more similar until they are indistinguishable. If, however, selection against the migrants is increased, the populations maintain some degree of genetic differentiation.. Note: Pink individuals are hybrids (heterozygotes), green individuals are homozygous for the allele that originated in the upper population, and red individuals are homozygous for the allele that originated in the lower population. The selection coefficient for migrants in the lower population is s1, the selection coefficient for migrants in the upper population is s2, and the selection coefficients for the hybrids are 1/2 that of the migrants for each population.. Hint: If you are using a slow computer, begin with the Time ...
Adjust m1, m2, s1, and s2 to the right:. As m is increased, the rate of migration from one population to the other is increased. As s is increased, selection against migrants and hybrids is greatest. If both m values are set to the maximum value (while s is set at 0), both populations quickly become more similar until they are indistinguishable. If, however, selection against the migrants is increased, the populations maintain some degree of genetic differentiation.. Note: Pink individuals are hybrids (heterozygotes), green individuals are homozygous for the allele that originated in the upper population, and red individuals are homozygous for the allele that originated in the lower population. The selection coefficient for migrants in the lower population is s1, the selection coefficient for migrants in the upper population is s2, and the selection coefficients for the hybrids are 1/2 that of the migrants for each population.. Hint: If you are using a slow computer, begin with the Time ...
Author Summary Underdominance is a component of natural evolution: homozygotes - of either wildtypes or mutants - are advantageous. This can play a role in speciation and as a method to establish artificial genetic constructs in wild populations. The polymorphic state of wildtype and mutant alleles is unstable. However, in subdivided populations limited gene flow can counterbalance this effect. The maintenance of polymorphism sensitively depends on the amount of gene flow. In populations of finite size, the polymorphism is ultimately lost due to stochastic fluctuations, but there are long intermediate periods of polymorphism persistence. We analyze a simple population genetic model to characterize and explore the polymorphic phases depending on population size and genotypic fitness values. Even for large fluctuations (small population size), long periods of neither extinction nor fixation are possible. Since underdominance has been proposed as a genetic strategy in the pest management of disease vectors
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This chapter describes the mechanisms by which an Allee effect can arise. For each mechanism, the chapter discusses how it works in theory, and then presents current evidence for, and examples of, the mechanisms in practice. It begins with reproductive mechanisms, including fertilization efficiency in broadcast spawners, pollen limitation, mate finding, sperm limitation, reproductive facilitation by conspecifics, and female choice. It then moves on to mechanisms related to survival: environmental conditioning and particularly predation, both via the dilution effect and via group behaviour, such as flocking, coloniality, and group vigilence. Finally, the chapter discusses Allee effects in social and cooperative species, where group size is important for both reproduction and survival.
Robert A. Stairs; The concept of population density: A suggestion. Demography 1 May 1977; 14 (2): 243-244. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/2060580. Download citation file:. ...
To create our high-resolution maps, we use machine learning techniques to identify buildings from commercially available satellite images. Then we work with our partners at Columbia University to overlay general population estimates based on publicly available census data and other population statistics. The resulting maps are the most detailed and actionable tools available for aid and research organizations. For more information about the methodology used to create our high resolution population density maps and the demographic distributions, please visit: https://dataforgood.fb.com/docs/methodology-high-resolution-population-density-maps-demographic-estimates/. For information about how to use HDX to access these datasets, please visit: https://dataforgood.fb.com/docs/high-resolution-population-density-maps-demographic-estimates-documentation/. Adjustments to match the census population with the UN estimates are applied at the national level. The UN estimate for a given country (or ...
Figure 1: An interaction between a male and female koala. The female vocalizes throughout and the male only in the latter part of this recording (~2:56:20s).},{src:https:\/\/www.wildlifeacoustics.com\/uploads\/customer-stories\/whisson\/_389xAUTO_fit_center-center_none\/fig2.png,retina:https:\/\/www.wildlifeacoustics.com\/uploads\/customer-stories\/whisson\/_778xAUTO_fit_center-center_none\/fig2.png,alt:,url:null,target:,caption:. Figure 2: The relationship between koala bellow frequency and population density at four sites on Cape Otway where Songmeters (SM3) were deployed during the 2015-2016 koala breeding season. (Based on 4 x 6h recordings per ...
Figure 5: Excitation Density Dependence of Optical Oxygen Sensing in Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) Waveguides Showing Amplified Spontaneous Emission
Thanks to new data from the Federal Reserve, we now know that population density and the ability for a neighborhood to improve may be more connected than previously thought.
To evaluate the effect of plant density and detopping on grain yield, protein content biological yield harvest index, growth indices, number of cob in each plant, No. of row per ear, No. of grain in each row, thousand seed weight of corn (Zea mays L. ar. SC 704), an experiment ...
We contrasted body condition, and age-specific reproduction and mortality between a growing population of sea otters (Enhydralutris) at Kodiak Island and a high-density near-equilibrium population at Amchitka Island, Alaska. We obtained data from marked individuals, population surveys, and collections of beach-cast carcasses. Mass:length ratios indicated that females (but not males) captured in 1992 at Amchitka were in poorer condition than those captured at Kodiak in 1986-1987. In 1993, the condition of females at Amchitka improved in apparent response to two factors: (1) an episodic influx of Pacific smooth lumpsuckers, Aptocyclus ventricocus, from the epi-pelagic zone, which otters consumed; and (2) an increase in the otters benthic invertebrate prey resulting from declining otter numbers. Reproductive rates varied with age (0.37 [CI=0.21 to 0.53] births female−1 yr−1 for 2-3-yr-olds, and 0.83 [CI=0.69 to 0.90] for females ≥4 yr old), and were similar at both areas. Weaning success (pups
Figure 4. Effects of quiescence and heterogeneity of LSCs on population sizes during therapy. A, ϕL = 0.007 ,, ϕH = 0.21 and νL = νH = 0.00024 week−1. The coefficient of variation of population size increases as stem cell counts approach very small numbers, with ranges from 0.17 to 1.2 for LSCs, 0.03 to 0.11 for HSCs, 0.04 to 0.44 for quiescent LSCs (qLSCs), and 0.03 to 0.17 for quiescent HSCs (qHSCs). B, ϕL = ϕH = 0.007 and νL = νH = 0.00024 week−1. C, ϕL = ϕH = 0.007, νL = 0.25, and νH = 0.00024 week−1. In A to C, δL = 0.59, δH = 0.08, βL = βH = 0.024, and αL = αH = 0.07 week−1. D, arrow, increasing δH. In all cases, δ4 = 0.52, δ3 = 0.57, δ2 = 0.62, and δ1 = 0.67. Model 1: δH = 0.08 week−1. Model 2: δH = 0.31 week−1. Model 3: δH = 0.48 week−1. ...
It is currently unclear whether the amino acid substitutions that occur during protein evolution are primarily driven by adaptation, or reflect the random accumulation of neutral changes. When estimated from genomic data, the proportion of adaptive amino acid substitutions, called , was found to vary greatly across species, from nearly zero in humans to above 0.5 in Drosophila. These variations have been interpreted as reflecting differences in effective population size, adaptation being supposedly more efficient in large populations. Here, we investigate the influence of effective popu-lation size and other biological parameters on the rate of adaptive evolution by simulating the evolution of a coding sequence under Fishers geometric formalism. We explicitly model recurrent environmental changes and the subsequent adaptive walks, followed by periods of stasis during which purifying selection dominates. We show that, under a variety of conditions, the effective population size has only a ...
Elephants need space. Across Africa however these iconic creatures are being squeezed into smaller marginal areas as the continents human population rapidly expands. In Kenya, Save the Elephants is working closely with communities, local and national government, wildlife organisations and other stakeholders to find solutions for elephant and man to co-exist in harmony.
Home range and population density[edit]. The home range and territorial boundaries of black-tailed prairie dogs are determined ... Population density and growth are influenced by habitat quality [9] and are restricted by topographic barriers, soil structure ... Demography and population dynamics of prairie dogs. In: Uresk, Daniel W.; Schenbeck, Greg L.; Cefkin, Rose, tech coords. 8th ... Burrow entrances without structures around them are usually located on slopes more than 10°.[9] The density of burrow openings ...
Population densities and diversity[edit]. The mortality of seeds in the soil is one of the key factors for the persistence and ... Species of Striga (witchweed) are known to leave some of the highest seed densities in the soil compared to other plant genera ... density fluctuations of plant populations, especially for annual plants. Studies on the genetic structure of Androsace ... The soil seed banks of north west Europe : methodology, density and longevity. New York : Cambridge University Press. 276 p. ...
Population density. 61/km2 (158.0/sq mi). 34.2/km2 (13.2/sq mi). ... Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in ...
Population density:. 52.3/km2 (135/sq mi). 51.0/km2 (132/sq mi). ... Population[edit]. Canada census - Saint John County, New ... Population:. 76,550 (+2.6% from 2006). 74,621 (-2.3% from 2001). Land area:. 1,464.53 km2 (565.46 sq mi). 1,462.03 km2 (564.49 ... Saint John County (2016 population: 74,020) is located in southern New Brunswick, Canada. The city of Saint John dominates the ... There are two municipalities within Saint John County (listed by 2011 population): ...
Population density: 87.3/km2 (226/sq mi) 86.5/km2 (224/sq mi) 84.7/km2 (219/sq mi) ... Total population. 20,500. 100% Education[edit]. Kingsville has three elementary schools, Kingsville Public School, Jack Miner ... Kingsville District High School has a student population of 656.[10] Attractions[edit]. Kingsville is home to the Jack Miner ... The town had a population of 21,552 in the Canada 2016 Census,[1] up from 21,362 in the Canada 2011 Census.[3] ...
Population Density 201/km2 (521/sq mi) 123/km2 (318/sq mi) ... Population 60,317,116 38,383,000 Area 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq ... National Census of Population and Housing 2011] (PDF) (in Polish). Central Statistical Office. 2015. ISBN 978-83-7027-597-6. . ... National Census of Population and Housing 2011] (PDF) (in Polish). Central Statistical Office. 2013. ISBN 978-83-7027-521-1. . ... Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011 [Population. Number and demographical-social structure. ...
Population[106][107] (2018) Population density per km2 HDI[108] Capital/Administrative Center ... with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 ... "Overall total population" - World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via ... "World Population prospects - Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs ...
Population density. 7,819.7/sq mi. 1,315.5/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic). 94.5%. 73.8%. 75.0 ... of the population. Other languages spoken were well below 1% of the population.[4] ... "CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING (1790-2000)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-07-17.. ... As of 2000, the CDP population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 24.1% ...
A key component of the Turkification process was the policy of massive population resettlement, a result of the 1934 Law on ... a policy targeting the region of Dersim as one of its first test cases with disastrous consequences for the local population.[ ... and two for Christian Arabs according to the populations of the respective ethnicities. The assembly was appointed in the ...
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010. +85.4%. +44.2%. +17.6% Population density. 1,444.5/sq mi. 485.7/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi ... "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-08-01.. *^ "Port St. Lucie, FL Metro Area". Data USA. ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.. *^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. *^ Modern Language Association Data Center Results of ...
Population Density. 68.9 /km² (185 /sq mi). 31/km² (80/sq mi). ... It saw large dislocations of populations, economic depression, ... In Spring 1943, the Bulgarian government ordered the deportation of the Jewish population of Bulgaria. The deportation of Jews ... "Every territorial settlement involved in this war must be made in the interest and for the benefit of the population concerned ... where the Ottoman Government had given them permission to preach to the Christian population. One of these missionaries, Elias ...
The building of the estate caused a huge increase in population density, which led to demands on services and reforms of local ... Wythenshawe, in Manchester with an area of approximately 11 square miles (28 km2), is larger but the population density is ... With a population of 115,652, it was the largest public housing development in the world. After the Second World War, between ... Over the 15-year period of the building of the estate, the school-aged population rose rapidly to 25,000 while there were only ...
Population 1938 Population density Pre-1914 Norbury. 11. 218. 867. 19.8 per acre (49/ha) ...
Population density. 6,933.3/sq mi. 1,315.5/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic). 92.1%. 73.8%. 75.0 ... of the population,[7] and the sixth highest percentage of Nicaraguan residents in the US, at 4.59% of its population.[8] It ... "CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING (1790-2000)". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2010-07-08. Retrieved 2010-07- ... In 2000, the CDP the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 31.0% from 25 to 44, 23.0% ...
Population density 232/km² (601/sq mi) 31/km² (80/sq mi) ... Population 82,800,000 329,555,000 Area 357,168 km² (137,847 sq ... By 1890 more than 40 percent of the population of the cities of Cleveland, Milwaukee, Hoboken and Cincinnati were of German ... Conversely, nearly half of the German population can speak English well. A German-American Friendship Garden was built in ... Self-reported ancestry of the population of the United States (by countries, 2001) ...
Population density: 44.9/km2 (116/sq mi) 43.1/km2 (112/sq mi) 42.5/km2 (110/sq mi) ... "2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-03-22.. *^ "Provincial Park Locator". Ontario Parks. Retrieved 22 ... Population: 85,598 (4.2% from 2011) 82,126 (1.4% from 2006) 80,963 (4.5% from 2001) ...
Population density: 869.3/km2 (2,251/sq mi) 827.8/km2 (2,144/sq mi) 814.0/km2 (2,108/sq mi) ... Population: 19,440 (+5.0% from 2011) 18,519 (+1.7% from 2006) 18,210 (+6.0% from 2001) ...
Population[30][31]. (2018) Pop (World rank) Density (rank) Density (/km2) Density (/mi2) ... "Demographic Yearbook-Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations ... "Overall total population" - World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via ... "World Population prospects - Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs ...
Population density. 18.3 people/km2[3][4]. Largest settlement. St Margaret's Hope. ... a b Area and population ranks: there are c. 300 islands over 20 ha in extent and 93 permanently inhabited islands were listed ... Statistical Bulletin: 2011 Census: First Results on Population and Household Estimates for Scotland Release 1C (Part Two) (PDF) ... "Appendix 2: Population and households on Scotland's Inhabited Islands" (PDF) ...
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010. +24.2%. +24.4%. +17.6% Population density. 1,492.6/sq mi. 334.9/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi ... 12.6% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. In 2000, the city the population was spread out with 21.4% under ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. *^ "Lakeland (city) QuickFacts from the US Census ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.. *^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. ...
Population density 2.8/km2 (1.74/sq mi) 34.2/km2 (13.2/sq mi) ... The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily ... "Population clock". Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 15 December 2016.. ... Although the US has a sizable sheep population, American imports of lamb meat from Australia and New Zealand remain stronger ... at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation. ...
Population density. 4,481.5/sq mi. 1,444.9/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic). 37.6%. 63.1%. 75.0 ... of the city's population,[16] and the 137th highest percentage of Cuban residents in the US, at 1.52% of the city's population ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.. *^ a b "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. ...
Population density. 4,464.7/sq mi. 1,444.9/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic). 75.3%. 63.1%. 75.0 ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved March 24, 2018.. *^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. ... It had a population of 55,001 in 2012.[7] It is part of the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL Metropolitan Statistical ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. ...
Population (2016) Land Area Population Density km2 mi2 /km2 /mi2 ... "Évolution de la population de Montréal, 1660 à nos jours". ... It serves a population of approximately 3.7 million people who make more than 750,000 trips daily.[citation needed] ... "Population and dwelling counts, for census metropolitan areas, 2016 and 2011 censuses - 100% data". Statistics Canada. ... The outer ring is composed of low-density municipalities located on the fringe of Metropolitan Montreal. Most of these cities ...
Population. (2018)[6][7] Area Population density Belize Belmopan BZ 1998 383,071 22,966 km2. (8,867 sq mi) 16/km2. (41/sq mi) ... "Overall total population" - World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via ... "World Population prospects - Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs ... website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.. ...
The table below lists population, area, and population density for the largest municipalities of the Greater Helsinki area. ( ... Statistics Finland; Population by sex, area and change of population 31.12.2007; Commuter belts and municipalities 2008[dead ... The smaller Capital Region consists of the central cities of Helsinki, Vantaa, Espoo, and Kauniainen and has a population of ... with a land area of 7,359.80 km2 and a population of 1,431,108 as of 31 December 2007.[3][4] In addition to that, there are ...
Population density:. 4.6/km2 (12/sq mi). 4.9/km2 (13/sq mi). ...
Population density. 8,062.3/sq mi. 1,315.5/sq mi. 350.6/sq mi White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic). 90.7%. 73.8%. 75.0 ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. *^ "MLA Data Center Results of Virginia Gardens, FL". ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.. *^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. ... About 9.5% of families and 11.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.3% of those under age 18 and 6.6% ...
... including areas of high population density such as Stornoway. However, the Education (Scotland) Act 1872 mandated English-only ... "Factfile:Population". Comhairle nan Eilean Siar. Retrieved 20 July 2013.. *^ a b c General Register Office for Scotland (28 ... a b c National Records of Scotland (15 August 2013) (pdf) Statistical Bulletin: 2011 Census: First Results on Population and ... and the archipelago's populations continued to dwindle throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries. By 2001 the population of ...
Population density:. 23.2/km2 (60/sq mi). 22.3/km2 (58/sq mi). ... Malahide (Canada 2006 Census population 8,828) is a municipal ... Population in 2001: 8809 (or 8777 when adjusted to 2006 boundaries). *Population total in 1996: 8891 *Malahide (township): 6255 ... "2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-08-09.. Cite error: Invalid ,ref,. tag; name "cp2011" defined ...
Population. (Jan. 2018)[2]. 40,542. • Density. 760/km2 (2,000/sq mi). ... "Populations légales 2018". INSEE. 28 December 2020.. *^ a b c d Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Compiègne" . Encyclopædia ... Population[edit]. Compiègne is the central commune of an urban unit with 70,699 inhabitants, and a larger commuter zone with ... Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE *^ Moved to Berlin - Steven Budiansky, "The Complete story of Codebreaking during ...
The population density was 2,025.7 people per square mile (785.6/km2). There were 26,203 housing units at an average density of ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.. *^ a b c d Buck A. Young. "Baytown, TX". Handbook of Texas ... As of 2010, Baytown had a population of 71,802,[6] and it had an estimated population of 77,192 in 2019.[7] ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. *^ "Baytown Community Info". Trulia, Inc. Retrieved ...
The population density was 143.6 people per square mile (55.4/km²). There were 342 housing units at an average density of 85.6 ... The 2010 United States Census[Note 1] reported that Independence had a population of 669. The population density was 137.4 ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2016.. *^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. ... 7.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.. There were 272 households out of which 23.2% had children under ...
The population density was 1,965.8 people per square mile (758.6/km²). There were 961 housing units at an average density of ... The 2010 United States Census[13] reported that Calipatria had a population of 7,800. The population density was 2,073.6 people ... "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.. *^ a b c d e Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic ... 57.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.. There were 899 households out of which 50.4% had children under ...
Theoretical population biology. 16: 144-158. doi:10.1016/0040-5809(79)90010-8. PMID 538731. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... These regions of high link density are often referred to as cliques, hubs, compartments, cohesive sub-groups, or modules... ... Monographs in Population Biology. 11. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. xv+1-190. ISBN 978-0-691-08202-8.. ... Population structure, migration rates, and environmental refuge for prey are other possible causes for pyramids with biomass ...
The current population of Chinese water deer at Whipsnade is currently estimated to be more than 600, while the population at ... Density per 100 ha of individuals[13] 0.4 3.7 5.3 6.2 6.6 7.8 8.0 ... A small population existed in France originating from animals which had escaped an enclosure in 1960 in western France (Haute- ... The majority of the current population of Chinese water deer in Britain derives from escapees, with the remainder being ...
The population density was 59.1 inhabitants per square mile (96.6/km2). There were 415 housing units at an average density of ... At the 2010 census Valley Center had a population of 9,277. The population density was 178.3 people per square mile (130.6/km2 ... 27.8% of the population was Hispanic.[6][7] The census reported that 9,243 people (99.6% of the population) lived in households ... "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Valley Center CDP". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 15, ...
Antonov, A.; Atanasova, D. (2002). "Nest-site selection in the magpie Pica pica in a high-density urban population of Sofia ( ... Retrospective investigation of trends in population density and breeding success". Journal of Applied Ecology. 28 (3): 1068- ... Other studies have found that songbird populations increased in places where magpie populations were high and that they do not ... The population trend in Europe has been stable since 1980.[47] There is no evidence of any serious overall decline in numbers, ...
Population 708,398 gikan sa enwiki Density 51 / km2 (132 / sq mi) ...
Human population density was very low, around only one person per square mile.[3] This was most likely due to low body fat, ... resulting in a drop in population. The small populations were then hunted out by Paleolithic humans.[17] The global warming ... The Wrangel Island population became extinct around the same time the island was settled by prehistoric humans.[18] There is no ... The entire population of Europe between 16,000 and 11,000 BP likely averaged some 30,000 individuals, and between 40,000 and ...
Population. *Statistic. *Probability distribution. *Sampling distribution *Order statistic. *Empirical distribution *Density ...
The number of females per herd is variable, generally ranging from 14 to 32,[14] but is highest in the densest populations[2] ... and also increases with forage density.[14] A strong attachment exists among members of the female herd, many of which are ... The natural populations of black wildebeest, endemic to the southern part of Africa, were almost completely exterminated in the ... The population is now trending upward (particularly on private land) and for this reason the International Union for ...
Globally, acne affects approximately 650 million people, or about 9.4% of the population, as of 2010.[173] It affects nearly 90 ... and decreased bone mineral density, make its use for male acne impractical in most cases.[114][115][116] Pregnant and lactating ... Acne appears to be strongly inherited; genetics explain 81% of the variation in the population.[15] Studies performed in ... "Dermatological manifestations of stress in normal and psychiatric populations". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America ( ...
The population density was 2,376.2 people per square mile (915.4/km²). There were 2,304 housing units at an average density of ... "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.. *^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. ... The population was 5,399 at the 2010 census. The village and town are named after orator and statesman Daniel Webster. ... Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.09% of the population. There were 2,231 households out of which 32.1% had children under ...
... out of which the population of Stawiszyn is 1,554 and the rural population is 78,815. ... Population. (2006). • Total. 80,369. • Density. 69/km2 (180/sq mi). • Urban. ... The county covers an area of 1,160.02 square kilometres (447.9 sq mi). As of 2006 its total population is 80,369, ...
This factor is particularly interesting due to the fact that a large population of people listen to music while exercising. ... Differential Impact of Temporary and Permanent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss on Neuronal Cell Density in the Mouse Central ...
high-density lipoprotein particle. • extracellular region. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle. Biological process. • lipid ... "Genome-wide association studies in an isolated founder population from the Pacific Island of Kosrae". PLoS Genet. 5 (2): ... very-low-density lipoprotein particle assembly. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle clearance. ... 2007). "Proteomic analysis of human very low-density lipoprotein by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF". ...
What's the density of steam at 100°C and standard atmospheric pressure? Roger (Dodger67) (talk) 09:33, 30 July 2021 (UTC) ... then extrapolating over the ~ 500 day pandemic would mean about 8% of the population was infected at one time or another. I ...
One benefit of treating this population with levothyroxine therapy is preventing development of hypothyroidism.[10] As such, it ... TSH values below normal values will frequently cause cardiac side-effects and contribute to decreases in bone mineral density ( ...
Population. (2011). • Total. 22,975. • Density. 260/km2 (670/sq mi). Time zone. WET/WEST (UTC+0/+1). ... listen)) is a town in the former-district of Faro, in the Portuguese region of the Algarve.[1] The population in 2011 was ... 22,975,[2] in an area of 88.25 km².[3] Its urban population is 6100 inhabitants. ...
The population density was 1,391.5 people per square mile (533.5/km²). There were 205 housing units at an average density of ... The population was 304 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Cape Coral-Fort Myers, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. ... Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.32% of the population. There were 159 households out of which 5.7% had children under the ... In the CDP, the population was spread out with 6.6% under the age of 18, 2.6% from 18 to 24, 15.5% from 25 to 44, 40.1% from 45 ...
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Retrieved 12 November 2008.. ... which involves building high-density high-rise between the historic divisions. ...
Reasons for this include the region's high population density, poor construction quality, and lack of tornado safety knowledge. ... but in the years since has been surpassed by several others if population changes over time are not considered. When costs are ...
The probability of an observation from population X exceeding an observation from population Y is different (larger, or smaller ... Population. *Statistic. *Probability distribution. *Sampling distribution *Order statistic. *Empirical distribution *Density ... If one is only interested in stochastic ordering of the two populations (i.e., the concordance probability P(Y,X)), the Mann- ... This test can be used to determine whether two independent samples were selected from populations having the same distribution ...
When species do evolve, it is not out of need but rather because their populations contain organisms with variants of traits ... Energy rate density. *Evolutionary trade-offs. *Evolvability. References[edit]. *^ Werner, Andreas; Piatek, Monica J.; Mattick ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ... but the loss may be fixed in the population through mutation accumulation if no disadvantage is incurred by loss of that ...
Population (31 December 2016)[1]. • Total. 344,136. • Density. 190/km2 (490/sq mi). ...
For example, in the U.S., reducing the deer population to levels of 8 to 10 per square mile (from the current levels of 60 or ... "Figure 2: Changes in deer density and cases of Lyme disease in Mumford Cove, Connecticut, 1996-2004 (CT DEP data)" (PDF). ... The winter tick which has affected moose populations in the 21st century is not a carrier of Lyme.[281] ... Lyme and other deer tick-borne diseases can sometimes be reduced by greatly reducing the deer population on which the adult ...
Usually the hip (head of the femur), lower back (lumbar spine), or heel (calcaneum) are imaged, and the bone density (amount of ... the American Society of Radiologic Technologists have launched a similar campaign to address this issue in the adult population ... Since liquid blood and the vessels are not very dense, a contrast with high density (like the large iodine atoms) is used to ... Lead is the most common shield against X-rays because of its high density (11340 kg/m3), stopping power, ease of installation ...
Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011.. *^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population ... Based on the total area, both land and water, the density is therefore 553.8 persons per square mile.) As of the 2000 census, ... population estimate. Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] ... 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.. *^ "1850 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census ...
Overhunting can reduce the local population of game animals by more than half, as well as reducing population density, and may ... Studies on early hunter-gatherers raises questions about the current use of population size or density as a proxy for the ... wildlife populations have declined by 68% since 1970 as a result of overconsumption, population growth and intensive farming, ... "Migratory river fish populations down 76% since 1970: study". Agence France-Presse. July 28, 2020. Retrieved July 28, 2020.. ...
Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing. Timothy M. Beissinger, Candice N. ... Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing. Timothy M. Beissinger, Candice N. ... Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing. Timothy M. Beissinger, Candice N. ... Marker Density and Read Depth for Genotyping Populations Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing ...
The continents urban population has skyrocketed. Nairobi is a prime example of that migration, with its population pushing ... appear to have moderate population density spread over large areas. created by: The National Center for Geographic Information ... Because the resolution of the data from different nations varies, some small areas with high populations (such as Rio de ... The data were derived from population records based on political divisions such as states, provinces, and counties. ...
Optimum population Plant density Population dynamics Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population ... List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List ... by population density List of European Union cities proper by population density List of islands by population density List of ... population density List of states and territories of the United States by population density Matt Rosenberg Population Density ...
Population density [inhabitants/ha] at block and block segment level. More information ...
Thatd put the population density of Trantor at a bit less than what you see in the present-day United Kingdom. The UK is, to ... Continuing with yesterdays post on population density in The Caves of Steel, consider the description of Trantor provided by ... The population, at its height, was well in excess of forty billions." Say well in excess of forty billion means 45 billion. 45 ...
The Map of Population Density is based on the file of mandatorily registered residents who have stated Berlin to be their main ... of the blocks but also to the segment blocks of the ISU and to reach the same detailed presentation of the population density ...
Media in category "Population density". The following 30 files are in this category, out of 30 total. ... Map of population density, South Australia and southern Northern Territory (2018) with railway lines to Alice Springs overlaid. ... Graphic chart of population density in northern Taiwan 1933.jpg 864 × 1,297; 165 KB. ... Population Density by Florida Census Tract - 2020 Census.png 4,000 × 4,000; 1.65 MB. ...
Density of population does not of itself determine the ease with which infection spreads through a population. Problems tend to ... arise primarily when populations become so dense as to cause overcrowding. Overcrowding is often associated with decreases in ... Population density. Density of population does not of itself determine the ease with which infection spreads through a ... At a social gathering, the human density per square yard may be much greater than in any home, and humidity and temperature may ...
Distribution of population using Corine land cover (CLC90) ... Population density Distribution of population using Corine land ... Mapping population density. * Mapping population density (PDF document) 1.36 MB Download file /data-and-maps/data/ga-downloads/ ... 35.91 MB Download file /data-and-maps/data/ga-downloads/DAT-19-en/population-density/pop_density.zip ... assigning different population densities according to the classes of Corine land cover. The population data, held at commune ...
Japans population density was 337.4 people per square mile. It should be noted that 80% of Japan is considered uninhabitable. ... According to the United Nations World Populations Prospects Report, in 2010, ... What is inverse population density?. Inverse population density is when the population density decreases, the population growth ... high areas of population density in japan are generally located in Tokyo, Japans capital. high areas of population density in ...
In the US as a whole, population-weighted population density fell by 16 people per square mile between 2000 and 2010, while in ... Im not sure why it took me until yesterday to find Paul Krugmans post from April 16 about population density, where he found ... Paul Krugmans post from April 16 about population density, where he found a very odd fact buried in a new Census report. ... And yet, if you calculate density the right way, weighting by population rather than by land area, you find something very odd ...
The population density for a geographic area is predicted using a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. A MRF model is defined for ... "geographic population density" or just "population density"). In one embodiment, the density module 118 uses the center points ... This estimate is used to predict the population density for the area. The predicted population density can then be used to ... where the congestion is based in part on the population density. For example, the population density can be used to supplement ...
Population density, or population per square mile (land area), is a by-product of population growth, and indicates where growth ... Urban areas have population densities measuring at least 3,000 people per square mile, and are expected to have a concentrated ... Wake Countys population density ranked 8th among the nations top 10 counties with at least 1 million residents with a growth ... Monitoring changes in population densities provides an opportunity to assess land use in urban, suburban, and rural areas. ...
The list contains islands with densities below 0.1 per km2. Islands portal Lists of islands List of islands by population List ... The following is a list of islands, sorted by population density, and including islands that are connected to other land masses ... Most of the really small islands (< 1 km2) are hard to compare because population as well as size are often only estimates. ... Cite has empty unknown parameters: ,1= and ,2= (help) "Census of Population Region VII (2015)". Philippine Statistics Authority ...
Population-weighted density is the mean of the densities of subareas of a larger area weighted by the populations of those ... Population-weighted density is the mean of the densities of subareas of a larger area weighted by the populations of those ... This paper shows that population-weighted density is equal to conventional density plus the variance in density across the ... Population-weighted density is more strongly related to the size of the urban area, especially size in earlier years, ...
Population density tells you how crowded an area is, on average. It can help you figure out the resources that a certain area ... To calculate the population density, you will divide the population by the size of the area. Thus, Population Density = Number ... Compare population density. Compare data from multiple areas, and use the contrasting population densities to make observations ... If the population density you found differs from the data listed, investigate possible errors or trends in population density ...
A negative density-dependence was also found in the time series of both egg density per host plant and adult density across ... The temporal stability of the density effect indicated that the negative density-dependence and the population decline are ... Here, we showed that the overwintering population exhibited a negative density-dependence (i.e. a negative effect on growth ... rate of the density in the previous year) and that, after accounting for the density effect, the population growth rate tended ...
Listed below are links to weblogs that reference Popular Vote, Population Density :. » Popular Vote, Population Density from ... Population Density Popular Vote, by Population Click for larger graphic Sources: Election Results. New York Times, November 4, ... Popular Vote, Population Density Mad mapping Thursday, final entry:. Compare this map with the Proportional US Electoral Map ; ... When I saw the red and blue map the other day, I couldnt believe the vast red area as I knew as do you where the population ...
Milan and Wuhan as proof that population density was to blame for coronavirus hotspots. But simple density has not adequately ... despite having the highest population density. Meanwhile some lower-density neighborhoods in Queens and the Bronx have seen ... Population Density Does Not Doom Cities to Pandemic Dangers. Crowding, connections among communities and other factors seem to ... For one thing, the population density of a city or county does not capture the finer points of how people actually gather ...
Interesting observations about Geography , Population density. *Macau ranked first for population density amongst Hot countries ... India ranked first for population density amongst Emerging markets in 1999.. *South Korea ranked first for population density ... Hong Kong ranked third for population density globally in 1999.. *Netherlands ranked first for population density amongst NATO ... Monaco ranked first for population density amongst Christian countries in 1999.. *Bahrain ranked first for population density ...
Population density is the measure of the population number per unit area, according to About.com. An example would be people ... The Earths population density is equal to its population divided by total square miles. The population is equal to 7 billion, ... Population density is the measure of the population number per unit area, according to About.com. An example would be people ... Examples include the population density of France, which is Frances population divided by the square number of kilometers, ...
By comparison, the population density of Wales is 135 people... ... The population of density of England, as of mid-2013, is 413 ... What are some examples of population density?. A: Population density is the measure of the population number per unit area, ... What is arithmetic density of population?. A: Arithmetic density of population is the number of all people that live in a "per ... By comparison, the population density of Wales is 135 people per square kilometer, and the population density of Scotland is ...
High-density board population.(FIRST LOOK) by Product Design & Development; Business Engineering and manufacturing ... S.v. High-density board population.." Retrieved Dec 05 2020 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/High-density+board+population.- ... www.thefreelibrary.com/High-density+board+population.-a0290419376 ... APA style: High-density board population.. (n.d.) >The Free ... 2020 https://www.thefreelibrary.com/High-density+board+population.-a0290419376. *Chicago style: The Free Library. ...
the smart set is an online magazine covering culture and ideas, arts and science, global and national affairs- everything from literature to shopping, medicine to sports, philosophy to food. The Smart Set strives to present big ideas on the small, the not-so small, and the everyday. >>. The Smart Set is published and supported by the Pennoni Honors College at Drexel University. Learn more about PHC >>. ...
... the most influential direct drivers of population density are context-dependent. Biodiversity affects population density mostly ... Alternatively, high hunter-gatherer population density itself, resulting in population packing, and reduced options for ... positive effects on hunter-gatherer population density as well as on population home ranges (6⇓⇓-9). Such positive effects are ... we averaged the population density values from both sources. When a hunter-gatherer population was present in only one of the ...
... ARTE map with mean density, population trend, and important ... Map containing mean density, population trend, and important areas based on USFWS Arctic Coastal Plain survey data collected ...
In this context we compared the young reference values and age-related values of bone density of the normal Indian population ... But the T-score and Z-score values are interpreted using the reference value of Asian population provided by the manufacturer ... Hence it may be inappropriate to use the reference value of Asian population provided by the manufacturer to calculate the T- ... Results & Conclusion: Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of distal radius and ulna, proximal radius and ulna, proximal radius of normal ...
Read this full essay on Effects of Population Density. When people are crowded into a small place noise can have an affect on a ... Effect Of Population Density In Sexual Development,. 1362 words - 6 pages Investigating the effect of population density and ... Population Density And Noise. 1653 words - 7 pages The variety of effects on individuals stimulates from population density and ... Population density is the number people in a specific area, for example, a town, or country. Density is the number of ...
Students use quadrat sampling to determine the population density of ... ... students observe a study site to determine population density and biomass. They record organisms present in the study site and ... Carolina EcoKits®: Population Density and Biomass. Item # 187008 Exclusive *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... Grades 9-12. With this kits activities, students observe a study site to determine population density and biomass. They record ...
Population density and energy consumption, selected World ciites This website has limited functionality with javascript off. ... data-and-maps/figures/ga-downloads/60960B4D-4458-4B47-B541-51143231A9A3/population-density-and-energy-consumption-selected- ... www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/population-density-and-energy-consumption-selected-world-ciites or scan the QR code. ...
  • Problems tend to arise primarily when populations become so dense as to cause overcrowding . (britannica.com)
  • Even if you calculate the population density of an area as dense as a large city, the resulting figure will not tell you much about the differences between individual neighborhoods. (wikihow.com)
  • The most dense of populations are generally located in countries in eastern Asia and northern Africa. (reference.com)
  • Breast density varies by age, ethnicity, and geographic area although dense breast tissue has been associated with younger age and premenopausal status. (hindawi.com)
  • Breast parenchymal density was classified according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) from category a (almost entirely fatty) through d (extremely dense). (hindawi.com)
  • As in other populations, age was inversely related to breast density, but the proportion of Emirati women with dense breasts was lower than in other populations. (hindawi.com)
  • Nonparametric estimates of urban density distributions suggest a distinct, steady trend toward less dense cities. (richmondfed.org)
  • Why Are People Grumpy In Dense Population While Rural Is Friendly? (modernsurvivalblog.com)
  • Why is it that people who live rural are (generally) more friendly and helpful than people who live in population dense areas? (modernsurvivalblog.com)
  • 90% of the 100 most population-dense congressional districts …are represented by a Democrat. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
  • Of the 435 congressional districts, if you split them in half by population density, the half with the lowest population-dense districts are represented by 80% Republicans. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
  • The half with the highest population-dense districts are represented by 70% Democrats. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
  • This also does not seem very healthy to me from the perspective of consequential regulating influence of population-dense politics over that of the other. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
  • The effects of pH on growth were correlated with effects on the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose- 3 H. Dense populations of cells inhibited by low pH were stimulated to incorporate thymidine- 3 H by the addition of small amounts of diethylaminoethyl-dextran. (rupress.org)
  • In the US as a whole, population-weighted population density fell by 16 people per square mile between 2000 and 2010, while in metropolitan areas it fell by an enormous 405 people per square mile. (reuters.com)
  • Wake County's population density increased by 175 additional people per square mile of land area between 2000 and 2016. (wakegov.com)
  • We compile a database of American city population densities from 1940 to 2000, which was not previously available publicly in an electronic format. (richmondfed.org)
  • That's after the city's population dipped slightly between 2000 and 2010. (tcbmag.com)
  • To provide estimates of population density for the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020, based on counts consistent with national censuses and population registers with respect to relative spatial distribution, but adjusted to match United Nations country totals. (columbia.edu)
  • At present, the voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a technique based on the delineation of cortex and normalization, can assess the cortical atrophy including the cortical volume, thickness, surface and density ( Ashburner and Friston, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This article is provided from a perspective of COVID-19 death rates by categories of county urban, rather than total county densities, through July 8, 2020, based on data published by USAFacts.org . (newgeography.com)
  • One of the most common conclusions of previous research is that environmental stochasticity is the dominant key compounded driver of population dynamics. (nature.com)
  • We showed that density dependence explained 37-50% of the total variation in growth rate in three independent datasets, indicating that several non-exclusive density-related mechanisms can be important in monarch population dynamics. (nature.com)
  • From a population dynamics perspective the two aims are clearly distinct but complementary. (nature.com)
  • While most previous studies have measured and explained vital rates independent of population size, several processes described above could influence monarch population dynamics operating in a density-dependent manner. (nature.com)
  • Recent archaeological studies have correlated long-term human population dynamics and major dispersal and range shift events with climate changes ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 5 ), but their results are mixed regarding the significance of climate in shaping human population processes. (pnas.org)
  • The method of spectral analysis is employed to research the spatial dynamics of urban population distribution. (hindawi.com)
  • Simulating the spatial dynamics of urban population is an interesting but a difficult project. (hindawi.com)
  • Population is one of the two central variables which can be employed to explore the dynamics of cities [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Clark's law on urban density can provide a window for us to apprehend the dynamics of urban morphology from the angle of view of population. (hindawi.com)
  • Armas C, Pugnaire FI (2005) Plant interactions govern populations dynamics in a semi-arid plant community. (springer.com)
  • And you also need to start getting familiar with this kind of notation, because in population dynamics and ecology it is used pervasively. (yale.edu)
  • In Italy, to study the distribution and bionomics of indigenous anopheline populations and to assess environmental parameters that could influence their dynamics, an entomological study was carried out in 2005-2006 in an at-risk study area. (arctichealth.org)
  • Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. (usgs.gov)
  • However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. (usgs.gov)
  • Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. (usgs.gov)
  • 2015). There are no other specific reports about biomass evaluation or population dynamics that offer information for a sustainable use of the resource. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although other factors such as pack competition, disease and human-caused mortality can influence wolf population dynamics, prey density typically determines the carrying capacity for wolves. (outdoornews.com)
  • As with most invertebrate species, monarch butterfly population growth rate is affected by environmental stochasticity. (nature.com)
  • Because of complex cumulative culture, human populations are often considered to be divorced from the environment and not be under the same ecological forcing as other species. (pnas.org)
  • However, these questions have rarely been addressed for preindustrial human populations, despite the fact that these populations provide a rare opportunity to investigate drivers of the distribution and abundance of a single species along global environmental gradients. (pnas.org)
  • Population density affects growth rate by determining how likely is it that an organism will interact with a member of its own species compared to an organism of a different species. (yale.edu)
  • We also apply common data collection and analytical techniques in the field and evaluate their ability to estimate density of a globally widespread species. (nature.com)
  • In particular, scale of movement impacted estimators substantially, such that area covered and spacing of detectors (e.g. cameras, traps, etc.) must reflect movement characteristics of the focal species to reduce bias in estimates of movement and thus density. (nature.com)
  • The difficulty to locate mates and overcome predation can hamper species establishment and population maintenance. (mdpi.com)
  • Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. (usgs.gov)
  • In fact, there is not enough information about the density, biology, and ecology of the species fished to allow the design of management plans for a sustainable exploitation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In 2007, Rodriguez-Gil (2007) described the potential of the fishery and mentioned the same species distributed along the Yucatan coast, whereas LopezRocha (2011) evaluated the weight-length relationship and assessed population density in Sisal, recently, other studies have been realized in Yucatan coast (Hernandez-Flores et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Therefore, the aims of this study were: 1) to determine sea cucumber density in the fishing area, and 2) to offer information related to the population parameters in order to understand the species biology. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This was a robust result both for monoecious (i.e. hermaphroditic) and diecious (two-sex) species, and suggests that small (sparse) populations are able to resist further losses of genetic variation. (bibsys.no)
  • July 1, 2017 county population estimates will be released in March 2018. (wakegov.com)
  • The value for Population density (people per sq. km of land area) in Germany was 237.37 as of 2018. (indexmundi.com)
  • 2018. Gridded Population of the World, Version 4 (GPWv4): Population Density Adjusted to Match 2015 Revision UN WPP Country Totals, Revision 11. (columbia.edu)
  • Here, we report how net primary productivity, biodiversity, and pathogen stress affect human population density using global ethnographic hunter-gatherer data. (pnas.org)
  • is taken into account, then human population density is 50 per km2 (129 per sq. mi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering that over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human inhabitation, such as deserts and high mountains, and that population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh water sources, a simple number of population density by itself does not give any meaningful measurement of human population density. (indexmundi.com)
  • Results Crude mortality rates following motor vehicle crashes were inversely related to regional population density. (bmj.com)
  • Urban population density can be modeled by two types of functions: one is the exponential function known as Clark's law [ 1 ], the other is the power function proposed by Smeed [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, comparability of population indicators is limited by differences in the concepts, definitions, collection procedures, and estimation methods used by national statistical agencies and other organizations that collect the data. (indexmundi.com)
  • Population density is a simple function of how many people, on average, live in a given area of a country. (infoplease.com)
  • And yet, if you calculate density the right way, weighting by population rather than by land area, you find something very odd: density is actually going down . (reuters.com)
  • The population density for a geographic area is predicted using a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This estimate is used to predict the population density for the area. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Population density, or population per square mile (land area), is a by-product of population growth, and indicates where growth occurs within the county. (wakegov.com)
  • Population density impacts costs of service provision, as government and business investments are made based on the efficiency and expense of marketing, distributing, or serving populations over the expanse of a geographic service area. (wakegov.com)
  • Population-weighted density is the mean of the densities of subareas of a larger area weighted by the populations of those subareas. (ssrn.com)
  • It is an alternative to the conventional density measure, total population divided by total area. (ssrn.com)
  • Comparison of conventional and population-weighted densities show the latter to be more highly skewed and to sometimes rank urban area densities very differently. (ssrn.com)
  • Population-weighted density is more strongly related to the size of the urban area, especially size in earlier years, demonstrating the effect of the timing of urban growth on density. (ssrn.com)
  • Population density tells you how crowded an area is, on average. (wikihow.com)
  • Short of counting the population yourself, you'll need to find an up-to-date record of how many people live in this area. (wikihow.com)
  • If you are calculating the population density for an area that has not already been recorded, you may need to count the population yourself. (wikihow.com)
  • To calculate the population density, you will divide the population by the size of the area. (wikihow.com)
  • Thus, Population Density = Number of People/Land Area . (wikihow.com)
  • The unit of population density is people per unit of area. (wikihow.com)
  • You should know the population and the surface area of the region. (wikihow.com)
  • Divide the population by the area size. (wikihow.com)
  • When I saw the red and blue map the other day, I couldn't believe the vast red area as I knew as do you where the population actually is. (typepad.com)
  • Population density is the measure of the population number per unit area, according to About.com. (reference.com)
  • Population density is often used to estimate the number of people in any given area of a country. (reference.com)
  • Arithmetic density of population is the number of all people that live in a "per unit area" throughout a country, and it can be referred to as the "crude d. (reference.com)
  • The formula for calculating population density requires dividing the area occupied, typically in square miles or square kilometers, by the number of people. (reference.com)
  • In simple terms, population density refers to the number of people living in an area per square kilometre. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population density is population divided by total land area or water volume, as appropriate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of the causes of reduced fertility in low population densities are: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding Population density is the number of people per unit of area, usually quoted per square kilometre or square mile, and which may include or exclude for example areas of water or glaciers. (wikipedia.org)
  • These territories have a relatively small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing also on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • City population and especially area are, however, heavily dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are almost invariably higher for the centre only than when suburban settlements and intervening rural areas are included, as in the agglomeration or metropolitan area (the latter sometimes including neighboring cities). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest cities in the world by land area, population and density Archived May 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population density is the number people in a specific area, for example, a town, or country. (brightkite.com)
  • Density is the number of individuals in area, for example, Individuals who live in urbanized areas has increased but the density has decrease due that the urbanized areas are expanding faster than urban population. (brightkite.com)
  • Increased density brings about other problems in the area such as air and noise pollution, crime, and use of natural resources.Concept of noisePeople depend on the hearing to help communicate with the environment around them. (brightkite.com)
  • Facebook's DigitalGlobe satellite image of Naivasha, Kenya (left) and the results of the population density analysis of the same area (right). (ecommercetimes.com)
  • Surprisingly high is the position of the urban Honolulu metropolitan area in Hawaii, which takes fourth place in the latest demographic statistics on population density. (worldatlas.com)
  • Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. (indexmundi.com)
  • In fact, if we reject Smeed's model, we will be unable to interpret the law of allometric growth on urban area and population in theory. (hindawi.com)
  • The publication includes population estimates, urban land area estimates and urban densities for all nearly 850 identified urban areas in the world with a population of 500,000 or more. (newgeography.com)
  • Jakarta (Jabotabek) has emerged as the world's second largest urban area, with a population of 26 million. (newgeography.com)
  • As was reported last year, new estimates indicate that Delhi has emerged as India's largest urban area, with a population of 22.2 million and a growth rate that should result in its passing Seoul-Inchon in a matter of a few years. (newgeography.com)
  • The intraspecific competition (inferred from the density dependence of green biomass) and rock outcrops were the main factors influencing the ecophysiological status in the study area. (springer.com)
  • Islands portal Lists of islands List of islands by population List of islands by area List of populated islands of the Great Lakes Hashima Island "Is This the Most Crowded Island in the World? (wikipedia.org)
  • San Bernardino's huge rural area drives down the overall density. (newgeography.com)
  • This is a part of the Demographia 1990 US Urbanized Area Density Profile product. (demographia.com)
  • Regarding a shift toward higher population density, Libby Starling, manager of regional policy and research at the Met Council, told Twin Cities Business that her organization is forecasting increased population in both the core cities and suburbs-"and once you have more people in one area, you naturally have more density. (tcbmag.com)
  • Conversion of resulting estimates of abundance to density, an inherently spatial metric, requires some knowledge of the scale of animal movement to determine the area to which inference about populations can be applied. (nature.com)
  • The population is sparse in the West as expected, but California's Los Angeles and Bay Area metros make up for the discrepancy and are just behind New York City's density spikes in height. (visualcapitalist.com)
  • However, this sizable population fits into an area just one-third of China's total land area, with the above map demonstrating what the same amount of people looks like in a smaller region. (visualcapitalist.com)
  • The assessment of leopard ( Panthera pardus ) density and population size via a capture - recapture framework in an island bound conservation area in Namibia. (africat.org)
  • For humans , population density is the number of people per unit of area, usually quoted per square kilometer or square mile (which may include or exclude, for example, areas of water or glaciers). (wn.com)
  • This article includes a sortable table listing the 50 United States by population density , population rank, and land area. (wn.com)
  • It also includes a sortable table of Density by states, divisions, regions and territories by population rank and land area , and a sortable table for Density by states, divisions, regions and territories in square miles and square kilometers . (wn.com)
  • I remember someone on SkyscraperCity mentioning a small area in Fenway that had a density that topped 100,000 ppl/sq mile. (city-data.com)
  • Quality-adjusted population density (QAPD) is population divided by land area that has been adjusted for geographic characteristics. (uio.no)
  • Twelve open‑pollinated progeny arrays of 15 individuals were sampled in an area with C . guianensis estimated density of 25.7 trees per hectare. (scielo.br)
  • In conclusion, this thesis contribute with methods to estimate and examine the effective size of density regulated, iteroparous populations, a research area that has suffered from the lacking of proper theoretical framework. (bibsys.no)
  • This study conducts traffic data of mobile-phone antennas, recorded by a telecommunications company, to develop a real-time monitoring technique of population density in an urban area, given that the intensity of activity in a cell (a covered area around an antenna) is directly proportional to the presence of cell-phone users. (witpress.com)
  • Q fever and pneumonia in an area with a high livestock density: a large population-based study. (nivel.nl)
  • The density rasters were created by dividing the UN WPP-adjusted population count raster for a given target year by the land area raster. (columbia.edu)
  • In many regions, they have been widely exploited for traditional food and medicinal purposes, which has led to a rapid decline of their natural populations, mainly in the Indo-Pacific, the traditional fishing grounds. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Hence, there is a need for more knowledge about how different processes occurring in natural populations affect the effective size of populations, and the Ne/N ratio. (bibsys.no)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the relationship between mammographic breast density and age in UAE women. (hindawi.com)
  • Dietary and lifestyle determinants of mammographic breast density. (nih.gov)
  • High mammographic breast density (H-MBD) has been associated with increased breast cancer (BC) risk, even after adjustment for established BC risk factors. (nih.gov)
  • Density is a quick and reliable way of gauging how urbanized a country is-more and bigger cities tend to equal a higher density. (infoplease.com)
  • The five mountainous departments bordering El Salvador (Ocotepeque, Lempira, Intibuc , La Paz, and Valle) have a much higher population density than the four sparsely populated departments in the east (Col n, Olancho, Gracias a Dios, and El Para so). (countrystudies.us)
  • You can see that the population density of Auburn is far higher than the population density of Boonesville. (wikihow.com)
  • Meanwhile some lower-density neighborhoods in Queens and the Bronx have seen higher rates of infection and death. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In fact, higher-density counties were actually associated with lower mortality rates, possibly because residents were more strictly following social-distancing guidelines or had better access to health care. (scientificamerican.com)
  • City-states, microstates and dependencies tend to have a much higher population density because the areas are very small but are inhabited by a large number of people. (reference.com)
  • Higher breast density is a strong, independent risk factor for breast cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • However, higher breast density has been strongly associated with decreased mammographic sensitivity [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Higher breast density on mammography is strongly and reproducibly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, especially in younger women [ 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Exposure density is far greater in urban areas than in rural areas and strongly associated with higher urban densities, as indicated below. (newgeography.com)
  • Their much higher urban densities are substantially diluted because their rural areas are so large. (newgeography.com)
  • Using urban densities rather than total densities reclassifies counties with overwhelming urban populations to higher density categories. (newgeography.com)
  • Higher marker density was needed to construct a more complete physical map of the rice genome and to clone genes for important traits. (genetics.org)
  • Higher density areas in turn tend to have better healthcare infrastructures when compared to their lower-density counterparts. (ie.edu)
  • It's critical to note however, that while such higher density areas tend to exhibit lower mortality rates, they do not tend to exhibit lower infection rates. (ie.edu)
  • Objective To assess whether higher mortality rates among individuals in motor vehicle crashes in areas with low population density depend on injury type and severity or are related to the performance of emergency medical services (EMS). (bmj.com)
  • Protected areas maintain a higher density of predators than un-protected areas (Stein et al. (africat.org)
  • You will find some cities that are technically higher population density (such as nearby Sommerville) but that do not in fact have as high an actual density per populated square mile. (city-data.com)
  • and third, that higher QAPD in poor countries is primarily due to population growth since 1820. (uio.no)
  • Interestingly, average HDL levels in Japan have increased further in the past two decades, and are markedly higher than in Western populations. (mdpi.com)
  • Even at much higher cell densities, electron microscopy revealed large intercellular gaps partly filled with a fragmentary electron-opaque material suspected to be glycoprotein. (rupress.org)
  • Neighborhoods that received high income growth increased their educational attainment, population and population density at a much higher rate than what the report classifies as no-improvement neighborhoods. (urbancincy.com)
  • While the average income of an MSA in 1980 may not be a good predictor of whether a neighborhood will experience high or low growth, neighborhoods that experienced high income growth were located in regions that experienced higher growth in income, a growing population and increased their population density. (urbancincy.com)
  • We do not know whether higher population densities were a cause or merely correlated with a neighborhood's ability to improve, but we do know, thanks to this data from the Federal Reserve, that the two issues appear to be more connected than what we may have previously thought. (urbancincy.com)
  • New York , which Tokyo displaced in 1955, has fallen to seventh largest and has the lowest population density of any megacity, at 4600 per square mile or 1800 per square kilometer (Note 2). (newgeography.com)
  • In reviewed recordings, bellow frequency is relatively high in the site with the lowest population density. (wildlifeacoustics.com)
  • Wake County's population density ranked 8th among the nation's top 10 counties with at least 1 million residents with a growth rate of at least 10% between 2010 and 2015. (wakegov.com)
  • Here, we showed that the overwintering population exhibited a negative density-dependence (i.e. a negative effect on growth rate of the density in the previous year) and that, after accounting for the density effect, the population growth rate tended to decline over time. (nature.com)
  • The second approach investigates the endogenous and exogenous factors that determine the change in population growth rate from one year to the following irrespective of any general trends in abundance 8 . (nature.com)
  • Surprisingly, we know little about how population growth rate has fluctuated in the last two decades during the observed population decline. (nature.com)
  • England's population growth is partially boosted by a net international migration figure of 158,000 people. (reference.com)
  • However some cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the growth of the population in the world. (brightkite.com)
  • They are more concerns over the rise in population growth with the crowding and congested in specific areas of the world. (brightkite.com)
  • 4104 words - 16 pages The Effects of Population Growth in Brazil The population of the world today is 6,112,911,145 and progressively growing. (brightkite.com)
  • Because of extreme levels of fertility, mortality, and new migration, these developing countries are accountable for most of the world population growth. (brightkite.com)
  • 1951 words - 8 pages Population Growth Of Yeast And Effects Of Various Substrates On This Population Growth Plan: 1. (brightkite.com)
  • The changing trend of the fractal dimension does reflect the localization of urban population growth and diffusion. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the underlying rationale of intraurban population growth and diffusion is still a question pending further discussion. (hindawi.com)
  • Instead urbanization leapfrogged into the exurbs of southeast England, where all of the London area's net population growth has occurred since World War II ( London ranked third as late as 1960 ). (newgeography.com)
  • The growth of populations is held in check by several factors. (yale.edu)
  • Population growth studies rely on the mathematics of logs and exponents. (yale.edu)
  • Population growth is one of those things in ecology that is good to get kind of an intuitive feeling about. (yale.edu)
  • And the main thing that you need to grasp about population growth is that it is multiplicative. (yale.edu)
  • What we'll do today is start by talking about density independent growth, and that is basically compound interest. (yale.edu)
  • So you can jiggle the birthrate a little bit, you can jiggle the death rate a little bit, you'll get a fairly substantial difference in the growth rate, the interest rate on the population, and something like this can happen. (yale.edu)
  • So if you've got N organisms, then you have the simplest differential equation you can write down practically, which is that the rate of change of the population is equal to the growth rate, times the number of organisms that are present. (yale.edu)
  • That means that the slope of population growth is RN. (yale.edu)
  • And I put this in to indicate that for a given change in time unit, the amount of growth you get in the population just keeps on going up and up and up. (yale.edu)
  • So if you write this down and rearrange it a little bit, then you can integrate both sides, and you get that the natural log of the number of organisms in the population is equal to the growth rate times the amount of time that's elapsed since they started growing, plus some constant. (yale.edu)
  • Now, the Metropolitan Council is projecting regional population growth of nearly 900,000 people during the coming three decades, including significant growth in Minneapolis, St. Paul, and nearby suburbs. (tcbmag.com)
  • Overall, the Council anticipates 41 percent growth in the region's number of households to 2040, 37 percent growth in employment, and 31 percent increase in population. (tcbmag.com)
  • The effects of sparseness between individuals or the effect of predators on the probability of population growth can be difficult to measure experimentally. (mdpi.com)
  • Printable 3D mazes offer the opportunity to quickly assess the effects of spatial separation on insect population growth in the laboratory, without the need for large enclosed spaces. (mdpi.com)
  • The results suggest that cell growth is inhibited through the combined effects of both lowered pH and high cell density on cell surface permeability. (rupress.org)
  • But perhaps the most striking evidence, at the local level, is how much population density correlates with a neighborhood's likeliness to achieve high income growth. (urbancincy.com)
  • The book focuses on demography, specifically migrations, population size, density, growth, and the pattern of distribution in rural Palestine before the inception of Jewish settlement (1882). (crcpress.com)
  • What percentage of the world's population has multicolored eyes? (reference.com)
  • With more than 7.1 billion people living across the globe, cities house more than 50% of the world's population. (plos.org)
  • In fact, 95% of the world's population is concentrated on just 10% of the world's land. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison, based on a world population of 7 billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up almost 1 m2 (10 sq. ft) per person (cf. (wikipedia.org)
  • These urban areas account for approximately 48% of the world's urban population. (newgeography.com)
  • Overall, data is provided for approximately 1500 urban areas, comprising approximately 1.9 billion people, or 52% of the world's urban population. (newgeography.com)
  • Though the above maps cover the five most populated countries on Earth, accounting for nearly half of the world's population, they only show a small part of the global picture. (visualcapitalist.com)
  • The first assumes non-stationarity and tries to investigate whether carrying capacity is declining due to environmental changes (e.g. host plant, pesticides, climate change) or to find other demographic factors than can bring the population close to extinction. (nature.com)
  • Population estimates are from demographic modeling and so are susceptible to biases and errors from shortcomings in the model and in the data. (indexmundi.com)
  • Created using the EU's population density data and mapping tool Aerialod by Alasdair Rae , the 3D-rendered maps highlight demographic trends and geographic constraints. (visualcapitalist.com)
  • Each region and country tells its own demographic story, but the largest population clusters are especially illuminating. (visualcapitalist.com)
  • This was achieved by modifying models that allow for demographic and environmental stochasticity to also allow for density dependent vital rates and compare the predictions based on these models with simulated data. (bibsys.no)
  • The United States Census Bureau publishes official population estimates and population estimate revisions for prior years annually. (wakegov.com)
  • The overall population of the city has been in a constant state of increase since the 1890s, reaching an estimate of 402,500 people in 2013. (worldatlas.com)
  • The objective of this work was to estimate the mating system parameters of a andiroba ( Carapa guianensis ) population using microsatellite markers and the mixed and correlated mating models. (scielo.br)
  • However, the theoretical parameter Ne was originally defined for populations with discrete generations, and most models that aim to estimate Ne for populations with overlapping generations relies on a set of simplifying, often unrealistic assumptions. (bibsys.no)
  • Although neither individually represented a significant change from recent years, collectively they explain the increase in the population estimate and are consistent with a continuing increase in deer numbers observed in many parts of wolf range according to the release. (outdoornews.com)
  • This study found a correlation between the frequency of female but not male vocalisations and a visual estimate of koala population density at four sites during the koala breeding season (Figure 1). (wildlifeacoustics.com)
  • Results from the Minnesota DNR 's 2016-2017 wolf population survey suggest Minnesota's wolf population has increased 25 percent since the 2015-2016 survey, the agency said in a news release Monday, Sept. 25. (outdoornews.com)
  • A negative density-dependence was also found in the time series of both egg density per host plant and adult density across North America suggesting the importance of a bottom-up, resource-driven regulation such as host plant limitation and/or of a top-down regulation through generalist natural enemies or diseases. (nature.com)
  • The temporal stability of the density effect indicated that the negative density-dependence and the population decline are likely independent phenomena. (nature.com)
  • However, even for hunter-gatherers, ethnographic studies about the ecological determinants of population patterns are relatively few ( 6 ⇓ ⇓ - 9 ), despite hunter-gatherers' close dependence on their immediate environment and wild resources. (pnas.org)
  • For short term (i.e. annual) estimates, we found a substantial effect of density dependence, where it caused the value of Ne/N to decrease with increasing population size and -density. (bibsys.no)
  • We found that both impact how density dependence affected the relationship between Ne/N and N. Also, when the between individual variance in reproductive success was very large in two-sex populations the models overestimated the actual rate of drift. (bibsys.no)
  • However, this particular finding may depend on the strength of density dependence, as weak dependency increases the return-time to equilibrium, and may cause the population to reach, and spend more time at sizes further away from the carrying capacity. (bibsys.no)
  • Understanding spatial connectivity of individuals with non-uniform population density by Wang et al. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The first is to reveal the locality and localization of urban population evolution, which is very important for simulating spatial complexity of cities through computers. (hindawi.com)
  • To assess the density and population size of leopards ( Panthera pardus ) in the Okonjima Nature Reserve using photographic capture-recapture sampling and provide scientific data on their demography as well as spatial and temporal distribution patterns. (africat.org)
  • DNA sampling, camera trapping, mark‐resight and search‐encounter) and suggest that clustered sampling can significantly reduce the effort necessary to provide reliable estimates of population density across large spatial extents that previously would have been infeasible with nonclustered sampling designs. (usgs.gov)
  • Although Honduras, with forty-six inhabitants per square kilometer, has a relatively low population density, especially when compared to its neighbors to the west, uneven distribution has contributed to overpopulation in certain areas. (countrystudies.us)
  • Overall county densities differ markedly from their urban densities. (newgeography.com)
  • In these studies, however, patient populations were small and invariably selected through lipid clinics. (ahajournals.org)
  • The rates of cell multiplication and thymidine- 3 H incorporation at low pH decreased in the initially sparse cultures before they reached confluent cell densities. (rupress.org)
  • Rous sarcoma cells at high cell density were less sensitive to pH than were normal cells at the same density, but were more sensitive than sparse normal cultures. (rupress.org)
  • Monitoring changes in population densities provides an opportunity to assess land use in urban, suburban, and rural areas. (wakegov.com)
  • In this study, we simulate biological and observational processes using empirical data to assess effects of animal scale of movement, true population density, and probability of detection on common density estimators. (nature.com)
  • The cortical volume, thickness, surface and density were examined using the voxel-based cortical morphometry and corticometry on magnetic resonance image (MRI) in 67 intermediate sPD and 35 controls, the multiple adjusted comparisons analysis of all MRI data were employed to assess the relationships between the cortical morphometric alteration in the specific brain regions and sPD. (frontiersin.org)
  • This density alternative is very dependent on the size and configuration of the subareas, an issue that has not been adequately addressed by most users. (ssrn.com)
  • Hamidi looked at some of the confounding factors-metropolitan size, socioeconomic status of residents, quality of health care and adoption of social distancing-when analyzing how density affects COVID-19 spread and mortality in more than 900 U.S. counties. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The physical size of Greater London, England, is 607 square miles, and the population is approximately 8.3 million people. (reference.com)
  • Minimum viable population size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four factors were considered in our analysis of the determinants of adult female size: annual food conditions, population density, multilocus heterozygosity, and yearling body size. (bioone.org)
  • Our results suggest that individual body size variation of female brown bears is negatively related to density-dependent factors and positively correlated to density-independent fluctuations in the environment. (bioone.org)
  • Density-dependent factors may operate by increasing competition for food, resulting in a decrease in body size. (bioone.org)
  • Andreas Zedrosser , Bjørn Dahle , and Jon E. Swenson "POPULATION DENSITY AND FOOD CONDITIONS DETERMINE ADULT FEMALE BODY SIZE IN BROWN BEARS," Journal of Mammalogy 87(3), 510-518, (1 June 2006). (bioone.org)
  • This problem was identified by the Census Bureau with respect to metropolitan areas in 2012: "Overall densities … can be heavily affected by the size of the geographic units for which they are calculated. (newgeography.com)
  • Patterns of burrow size, tortoise size, home range size and overlap, movement distances, and mating rates were compared among six sites that differed in density of Gopher Tortoises. (bioone.org)
  • Home range sizes were greatest for densities of approximately 0.4 tortoises/ha and decreased in size above and below this density. (bioone.org)
  • Here you can see the latest Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood articles that have been published worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We have published hundreds of Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood for you to read. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition to the medical data, news and clinical trials, BioPortfolio also has a large collection of Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood Companies in our database. (bioportfolio.com)
  • You can also find out about relevant Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood Drugs and Medications on this site too. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Influence of population size, density, and proximity to talent clubs on the likelihood of becoming elite youth athlete. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These limitations contribute to an incomplete understanding of how size affects the transfer of energy through individuals, populations, and communities. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The influence of season and host size on the parasite population density and the dispersion pattern of the parasite in the host population were analysed. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We provide a new assessment of the effect of hospital proximity in an emergency situation-road-traffic accidents-exploiting the exogenous variation in the proximity to cities that are legally allowed to have a hospital on the basis of their population size. (bioportfolio.com)
  • At 1.38 billion people, India's population is just behind China's in terms of size. (visualcapitalist.com)
  • The population density of the United States is relatively low compared to many other developed countries due to its size and the advent of modern transportation during its settlement. (wn.com)
  • Knowledge of the effective size of populations, Ne, and the ratio of effective population size to the size of the mature population Ne/N, provide important information of the genetic diversity and fitness of populations. (bibsys.no)
  • The main goal of this thesis was to relax one of the most unrealistic assumptions underlying many models: constant population size, or at the very best that fluctuations are only caused by density independent factors. (bibsys.no)
  • More specifically, the main goal was to examine effects of density dependent vital rates on the effective population size and the Ne/N ratio in populations having different mating systems. (bibsys.no)
  • Effective population size is also affected by between individual variance in reproductive success, and by sex ratio in two-sex populations. (bibsys.no)
  • Over time, the expected size of a density dependent population will be at carrying capacity, which likely explains why the survival probabilities as well as expected and variance in reproduction success operating at this size predict the effective population size. (bibsys.no)
  • Another goal of this thesis was to implement global sensitivity analyses in the framework of effective population size. (bibsys.no)
  • In this context, we used a model that allows for fluctuating population size and age-structure, and only require data on annual survival and reproduction, which are favourable properties from a management or conservation perspective. (bibsys.no)
  • Metropolitan areas are particularly well-known for their diverse populations. (worldatlas.com)
  • There is a definite continuing increase in the population of many US states and metropolitan areas. (worldatlas.com)
  • Urban areas have population densities measuring at least 3,000 people per square mile, and are expected to have a concentrated mix of housing, retail, education, medical, recreation, and transportation options. (wakegov.com)
  • San Bernardino's urban density was about 3,000% more (30 times more) than its overall density. (newgeography.com)
  • The cohort component method - a standard method for estimating and projecting population - requires fertility, mortality, and net migration data, often collected from sample surveys, which can be small or limited in coverage. (indexmundi.com)
  • However, after controlling for regional differences in age, gender and the type/severity of injuries among 6884 individuals in motor vehicle crashes, low population density was no longer associated with increased mortality. (bmj.com)
  • At 25 years of age, predicted prehospital mortality was 9% lower (95% CI 5% to 12%) in regions with low population density compared with high population density. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions The inverse relationship between population density and mortality among individuals in motor vehicle crashes is related to pre-crash factors that influence the type and severity of injuries and not to differences in EMS. (bmj.com)
  • At a social gathering, the human density per square yard may be much greater than in any home, and humidity and temperature may rise to levels uncomfortable for humans but ideal for microbes. (britannica.com)
  • The country's second-largest and least-populated department, Gracias a Dios, had a population density of only 2.5 inhabitants per square kilometer in 1989. (countrystudies.us)
  • In 1989 the department of Cort s, on the west bank of the R o Ul a, had a population density of 188 inhabitants per square kilometer. (countrystudies.us)
  • According to the United Nations World Populations Prospects Report, in 2010, Japan 's population density was 337.4 people per square mile. (answers.com)
  • As a result, urban density - the number of people per square mile - has to be going up. (reuters.com)
  • You can use square feet or meters if you are finding the density of a smallish space. (wikihow.com)
  • In our example, 145,000 divided by 9 would show that the population density is 16,111 people/square mile. (wikihow.com)
  • For example: if the city of Boonesville includes 60,000 people overs its 8 square miles, then its population density is 7,500/square mile. (wikihow.com)
  • Examples include the population density of France, which is France's population divided by the square number of kilometers, which is approximately 109.8 people per square kilometer. (reference.com)
  • The Earth's population density is equal to its population divided by total square miles. (reference.com)
  • The population is equal to 7 billion, and the square miles are 197 million including land and water. (reference.com)
  • These two figures can be divided to come up with the population density of 35 people per square mile. (reference.com)
  • The population of density of England, as of mid-2013, is 413 people per square kilometer, according to the Office for National Statistics. (reference.com)
  • By comparison, the population density of Wales is 135 people per square kilometer, and the population density of Scotland is only 68 people per square kilometer. (reference.com)
  • In 1960, about 96 million people lived in urbanized areas at an average density of 3,800 people per square mile. (brightkite.com)
  • Such areas boast levels of density above 500 or even topping 1,000 people per square kilometer, making these areas the most crowded in the country. (worldatlas.com)
  • In 2010 Cuyahoga County's 1.2 million residents lived at an overall population density of 2,800 per square mile and an urban density of 3,063 per square mile. (newgeography.com)
  • For example, other million-plus counties with under 1,000 per square mile densities include Maricopa (Phoenix), fifth most populous county in the nation, San Diego, Riverside (California) and Palm Beach (Florida). (newgeography.com)
  • There are 955 counties with urban densities below 1,000 per square mile. (newgeography.com)
  • By contrast, 95% of US counties (2,996) have densities below 1,000 per square mile (Figure 1). (newgeography.com)
  • Counties with urban densities under 1,000 per square mile (including counties without urban areas) are estimated to have 17 million residents. (newgeography.com)
  • By comparison, using total density, counties with under 1,000 per square mile are estimated to have 204 million residents --- 12 times as many (Figure 2). (newgeography.com)
  • The analysis below describes reallocating more than 185 million US residents from counties with overall densities of less than 1,000 to the urban density categories from 1,000 to 7,499 per square mile. (newgeography.com)
  • The Real Population Density of the Netherlands - how many people there are per square km. (gwynnedyer.com)
  • So although China looks bigger on the map, India has a significantly lower Real Population Density: 753 people per square km of farmland compared to 943 for China. (gwynnedyer.com)
  • I used simulations to evaluate the performance of various detector and cluster spacings, cluster configurations (i.e., number of detectors arranged in a square grid), sampling extents and number of sampling occasions for estimating population density, the relationship between detection rate and distance to a detector from the animal's center of activity ( σ ) and base detection rates, using American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) as a case study. (usgs.gov)
  • Neighborhoods that had no improvement had, on average, a density of 12,028 people per square mile in 1980, while neighborhoods with high improvement had an average density more than double that of 30,399 people per square mile. (urbancincy.com)
  • The City of Cincinnati, by comparison, has a population density around 3,810 people per square mile. (urbancincy.com)
  • They note the examples of high-density cities, including Hong Kong, Seoul and Taipei, where robust and widespread interventions (such as social distancing, mask wearing and contact tracing) successfully limited COVID-19 cases and deaths. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Most people are familiar with the large density centers around Hong Kong , Guangzhou , and Shanghai , but the concentration in central China is surprising. (visualcapitalist.com)
  • However, over half[citation needed] of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, and population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear relationship fitted between S. tenacissima tussock biomass and tussock density in monospecific stands (both logarithmic) indicated a curve close to −1, suggesting that the system is close to the maximum constant yield state. (springer.com)
  • Knowledge of population density is essential to the field of wildlife ecology, providing a foundation for effective planning of management and conservation and for basic ecological research. (nature.com)
  • Because the resolution of the data from different nations varies, some small areas with high populations (such as Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) appear to have moderate population density spread over large areas. (nasa.gov)
  • By the beginning of the twenty-first century, Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula are projected to account for nearly 73 percent of the population living in urban areas. (countrystudies.us)
  • Compare data from multiple areas, and use the contrasting population densities to make observations about those areas. (wikihow.com)
  • But simple density has not adequately predicted the disease's course in the U.S., where the new coronavirus has spread well beyond urban areas to ravage rural communities and suburbs during the country's long summer. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Map containing mean density, population trend, and important areas based on USFWS Arctic Coastal Plain survey data collected from 1992 to 2016. (usgs.gov)
  • The effects that population density has on these areas and look at two strategies that will help with reducing noise pollution in the environment and the workplace.Concept of Population densityHuman population is rising in the world. (brightkite.com)
  • By 1970, 118 million people lived in urbanized areas, but the density of urban areas had dropped to 3,400" (Center for Research on Population and Security, n.d. (brightkite.com)
  • We propose a proportional population density fairness (PPDF) measure and algorithm for evaluating and developing district plans that would represent voters living in geographic areas with diverse population densities in approximate proportion to their statewide numbers. (ssrn.com)
  • Serious questions include tat of preserving smaller towns and rural areas, which seem to be losing their population quite rapidly in the face of mass American urbanization. (worldatlas.com)
  • In 2012, 26 urban areas qualify as megacities ( Rental Car Tours for 24 of the megacities are available ), with populations of greater than 10 million people (Table). (newgeography.com)
  • However, many counties have very large rural areas that drive down overall densities and can mask significant urban densities. (newgeography.com)
  • Other highly urbanized counties with smaller rural land areas remain in the same density categories, such as Cuyahoga County, Dallas County, Texas, Harris (Houston), Hennepin County (Minneapolis) Cook County (Chicago), Mecklenburg County (Charlotte) and Franklin County, Ohio (Columbus). (newgeography.com)
  • This suggests that animals moved to visit close neighbors in areas of high density, expanded movements to maintain contact with neighbors that became more widely dispersed as density decreased, and then restricted movements to a few close neighbors as density reached extremely low levels. (bioone.org)
  • The US Census Bureau has weighted population density data for metro areas , but no one seems to have calculated such densities for states. (skyscraperpage.com)
  • Though they appear topographical and even resemble urban areas, the maps visualize population density in squares. (visualcapitalist.com)
  • The necessity for the development and expansion of protected areas as well as the implementation and execution of improved livestock farming techniques on farmland are therefore of utmost importance to secure the survival of the Namibian leopard population. (africat.org)
  • The other thing that can distort density figures is industrial areas. (city-data.com)
  • Mathematically, WPD = Sum(Population Density * Proportion of state's population). (skyscraperpage.com)
  • Even in hard-hit New York City, Manhattan has maintained the lowest COVID-19 rates among the city's five boroughs, despite having the highest population density. (scientificamerican.com)
  • India's population is more densely focused in the North before fading into the Himalayas. (visualcapitalist.com)
  • Paul Krugman's post from April 16 about population density, where he found a very odd fact buried in a new Census report . (reuters.com)
  • I'm not sure why it took me until yesterday to find Paul Krugman's post from April 16 about population density, where he found a very odd fact buried in a new Census report . (reuters.com)
  • For most recent year, US Census Bureau Annual Estimates of Resident Population as of July 1. (wakegov.com)
  • Current population estimates for developing countries that lack recent census data and pre- and post-census estimates for countries with census data are provided by the United Nations Population Division and other agencies. (indexmundi.com)
  • Resident population is from the United States Census Bureau estimates for July 1, 2013, for the 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico and from the 2010 Census for the other four U.S. territories (which is the latest data available as of April 24, 2014. (wn.com)
  • Urban sprawl is associated with lower densities, and the choice of the appropriate density measure is dependent upon the negative consequences of sprawl being considered. (ssrn.com)
  • Although postmenopausal changes in glandular breast tissue reduce breast density in an age-dependent manner. (hindawi.com)
  • When considering genetic drift over longer time periods (5-60 years), the necessity to explicitly account for density dependent vital rates is generally reduced and the rate of genetic drift can be predicted based on harmonic mean of annual effective sizes using the vital rates at carrying capacity. (bibsys.no)
  • Lack of a relationship between spontaneous male vocalisations and population density may indicate either a density dependent relationship (i.e. more frequent vocalisations where densities are lower) or poor performance of a single visual survey in estimating population density. (wildlifeacoustics.com)
  • The methods described in this article facilitate determination of sequencing depth in the context of empirically defined read depth to achieve desired marker density for genetic mapping studies. (genetics.org)
  • The usefulness of genetic maps thus largely depends on their density. (genetics.org)
  • On the other hand, a substantial portion of hyperalphalipoproteinemic population in Japan is accounted for by genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which is also commonly unique in East Asian populations. (mdpi.com)
  • High-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are used as highly favored makers to analyze genetic diversity and population structure, to construct high-density genetic maps and provide genotypes for genome-wide association analysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • There was no microscope evidence of direct contact between plasma membranes of cells at these densities although the parallel orientation indicated that the cells were influencing locally each other's behavior. (rupress.org)
  • This paper shows that population-weighted density is equal to conventional density plus the variance in density across the subareas divided by the conventional density. (ssrn.com)
  • The data were derived from population records based on political divisions such as states, provinces, and counties. (nasa.gov)
  • By these means it was possible to aggregate the inhabitants data not only to the level of the blocks but also to the segment blocks of the ISU and to reach the same detailed presentation of the population density as in the edition 2010. (berlin.de)
  • Following discussions with the European Environment Agency in October 1998, a project was launched to investigate the feasibility of disaggregating population data, assigning different population densities according to the classes of Corine land cover. (europa.eu)
  • The population data, held at commune level, are available for base years 1981 and 1991 from Eurostat-GISCO. (europa.eu)
  • For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/population-density or scan the QR code. (europa.eu)
  • Ethnographic data provide finer-scale information about preindustrial human populations and their environments, potentially allowing more conclusive analyses. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we use global ethnographic hunter-gatherer data ( 10 , 11 ) to explore the effects of key environmental variables on human population densities. (pnas.org)
  • Using this data set, we investigate trends in urban density patterns. (richmondfed.org)
  • This ratio can be calculated for any territorial unit for any point in time, depending on the source of the population data. (indexmundi.com)
  • We updated the data for Population Density and Children out of school. (gapminder.org)
  • Breast density was measured and recorded by two independent radiologists using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). (dovepress.com)
  • To enable faster global processing, and in support of research communities, the 30 arc-second adjusted count data were aggregated to 2.5 arc-minute, 15 arc-minute, 30 arc-minute and 1 degree resolutions to produce density rasters at these resolutions. (columbia.edu)
  • Home range overlap increased linearly with increasing density, suggesting that opportunities for social interactions decreased with decreasing density. (bioone.org)
  • Low densities may cause an extinction vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • While sub-populations in North Africa and Asia are on the verge of extinction, Namibia's population maintains stable numbers (Stein, Andreas & Aschenborn, 2011). (africat.org)
  • Methods for evaluating and redrawing legislative district maps may be based on geographic compactness, population compactness, and proportional fairness, as well as on other key criteria. (ssrn.com)
  • Geographic constraints have always been the biggest deciding factor when it comes to population density, and nowhere is this more apparent than Southeast Asia. (visualcapitalist.com)
  • We derive weights on these geographic characteristics from a global regression of population density at the quarter-degree level with country fixed effects. (uio.no)
  • A city with a port, warehouses, factories, etc., may have a lower density than a city that functions strictly as a bedroom community, but the city, but that doesn't mean it is less crowded or vibrant or whatever other adjective might apply to the things we seek when emphasizing density. (city-data.com)
  • This would be explained by a pattern of territorial behaviour which shows itself only at relatively high population densities. (biologists.org)
  • The relationship between breast density and age in women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has not been determined. (hindawi.com)
  • This study evaluated breast density in the UAE population and its relationship with age. (hindawi.com)
  • Subjects were divided into six age groups, and the association between age and breast density was evaluated. (hindawi.com)
  • Of the 4911 women included, 1604 (32.7%), 2149 (43.8%), 1055 (21.5%), and 103 (2.1%) were classified as having categories a-d breast density, respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • Women of mean age 44 ± 7 years had the highest breast density, whereas those of mean age 56 ± 14 years had the lowest breast density. (hindawi.com)
  • Comparisons of Emirati women with Lebanese and Western women showed that breast density was lower in Emirati women than in the other populations. (hindawi.com)
  • Breast density is measured by determining the ratio of radiodense epithelium and stroma to radiolucent fatty tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to being related to breast density, age, as well as race, was reported to be associated with changes in mammographic parenchymal patterns [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Does breast density measured through population-based screening independently increase breast cancer risk in Asian females? (dovepress.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of breast density on breast cancer risk among women screened via a nationwide mammographic screening program. (dovepress.com)
  • This study confirmed an increased risk of breast cancer with greater breast density in Korean women which was consistent regardless of BI-RADS assessment category, time interval after initially non-recall results, and menopausal status. (dovepress.com)
  • Changing food habits among the general population also affect the environment for humans and microbes. (britannica.com)
  • These findings document that environmental factors play a key role in shaping global population density patterns of preagricultural humans. (pnas.org)
  • She and her collaborators at the University of Utah found that county density had no significant relationship with infection rate. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A linear relationship between tortoise density and burrow density was documented from the six sites, suggesting that tortoises, on average, created 2.5 burrows per site or that the burrow-to-tortoise conversion factor for our sites was 0.40. (bioone.org)
  • Figure 2: The relationship between koala bellow frequency and population density at four sites on Cape Otway where Songmeters (SM3) were deployed during the 2015-2016 koala breeding season. (wildlifeacoustics.com)
  • Figure 1: The relationship between vocalisation frequency and koala population density during the breeding season at four sites on Cape Otway. (wildlifeacoustics.com)
  • labranchiae, occurs at different densities related to the kind of environment, climatic parameters, and anthropic activities. (arctichealth.org)
  • A winter count also excludes the population spike that occurs each spring when the number of wolves typically doubles immediately following the birth of pups, many of which do not survive to the following winter. (outdoornews.com)
  • Then an approximate scaling relation between wave number and spectral density is derived by Fourier transform of the negative exponential model. (hindawi.com)
  • The likelihood function is then approximated up to a constant by fitting a density to the posterior samples and dividing the approximate posterior density by the prior. (bioportfolio.com)
  • What are some interesting facts about state population rank? (reference.com)
  • The high population density of the region presents another challenge to health workers. (cfr.org)
  • An investigation was undertaken on the population biology of the mazocraeid monogenean Paramazocreas thrissocles occurring on the gills of the engraulid fish Thryssa mystax at Visakhapatnam coast , Bay of Bengal. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These rich and powerful have two important effects on urban density. (reuters.com)
  • Our results show that productivity has significant effects on population density globally. (pnas.org)
  • In previous work, only the effects of productivity on human population densities have been assessed. (pnas.org)
  • 3981 words - 16 pages The Aging Effects of Canada's Population It was 1947, World War II had finally come to a halt and Canadian soldiers were sent home. (brightkite.com)
  • Knowledge of population density is necessary for effective management and conservation of wildlife, yet rarely are estimators compared in their robustness to effects of ecological and observational processes, which can greatly influence accuracy and precision of density estimates. (nature.com)
  • We then examined how increasing D. simulans population density might overcome the artificially created effects of increasing the distance between mates and having a predator present. (mdpi.com)
  • Given the current and extreme political differences being exhibited today (leading up to, and ever since the Nov-2016 election), I found it interesting to visualize yet another additional "line in the sand" from a geographical perspective (population density). (modernsurvivalblog.com)
  • The 2015-2016 survey estimated the number of packs at 439 and the wolf population at 2,278. (outdoornews.com)
  • From spring 2015 to spring 2016, deer density within the wolf range is estimated to have increased 22 percent. (outdoornews.com)