Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Crowding: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Contact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Paramecium aurelia: A species of ciliated PARAMECIUM possessing two micronuclei.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Hantavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.HomoserinePredatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Management Audit: Management review designed to evaluate efficiency and to identify areas in need of management improvement within the institution in order to ensure effectiveness in meeting organizational goals.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Acyl-Butyrolactones: Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Certificate of Need: A certificate issued by a governmental body to an individual or organization proposing to construct or modify a health facility, or to offer a new or different service. The process of issuing the certificate is also included.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.BrazilHost-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.VietnamAnopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.ScotlandAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.CaliforniaLipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.EuropeCausality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.United StatesMalaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.GermanyDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.SwedenAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Post-Synaptic Density: Cytoskeleton specialization at the cytoplasmic side of postsynaptic membrane in SYNAPSES. It is involved in neuronal signaling and NEURONAL PLASTICITY and comprised of GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS; scaffolding molecules (e.g., PSD95, PSD93), and other proteins (e.g., CaCMKII).IndiaReceptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Great Britain

Capture-recapture models including covariate effects. (1/3450)

Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries.  (+info)

Estimating the effective number of breeders from heterozygote excess in progeny. (2/3450)

The heterozygote-excess method is a recently published method for estimating the effective population size (Ne). It is based on the following principle: When the effective number of breeders (Neb) in a population is small, the allele frequencies will (by chance) be different in males and females, which causes an excess of heterozygotes in the progeny with respect to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. We evaluate the accuracy and precision of the heterozygote-excess method using empirical and simulated data sets from polygamous, polygynous, and monogamous mating systems and by using realistic sample sizes of individuals (15-120) and loci (5-30) with varying levels of polymorphism. The method gave nearly unbiased estimates of Neb under all three mating systems. However, the confidence intervals on the point estimates of Neb were sufficiently small (and hence the heterozygote-excess method useful) only in polygamous and polygynous populations that were produced by <10 effective breeders, unless samples included > approximately 60 individuals and 20 multiallelic loci.  (+info)

Climatic and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Four Corners region, United States. (3/3450)

To investigate climatic, spatial, temporal, and environmental patterns associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in the Four Corners region, we collected exposure site data for HPS cases that occurred in 1993 to 1995. Cases clustered seasonally and temporally by biome type and geographic location, and exposure sites were most often found in pinyon-juniper woodlands, grasslands, and Great Basin desert scrub lands, at elevations of 1,800 m to 2,500 m. Environmental factors (e.g., the dramatic increase in precipitation associated with the 1992 to 1993 El Nino) may indirectly increase the risk for Sin Nombre virus exposure and therefore may be of value in designing disease prevention campaigns.  (+info)

Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods. (4/3450)

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease.  (+info)

Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona. (5/3450)

For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus.  (+info)

A longitudinal study of Sin Nombre virus prevalence in rodents, southeastern Arizona. (6/3450)

We determined the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in small mammals in southeastern Arizona. Of 1,234 rodents (from 13 species) captured each month from May through December 1995, only mice in the genus Peromyscus were seropositive. Antibody prevalence was 14.3% in 21 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), 13.3% in 98 brush mice (P. boylii), 0.8% in 118 cactus mice (P. eremicus), and 0% in 2 deer mice (P. maniculatus). Most antibody-positive mice were adult male Peromyscus captured close to one another early in the study. Population dynamics of brush mice suggest a correlation between population size and hantavirus-antibody prevalence.  (+info)

Statistical sensitivity for detection of spatial and temporal patterns in rodent population densities. (7/3450)

A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hantavirus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. We assessed the statistical sensitivity of the program's field design and tested for potential biases in population estimates due to unintended deaths of rodents. Analyzing data from two sites in New Mexico from 1994 to 1998, we found that for many species of Peromyscus, Reithrodontomys, Neotoma, Dipodomys, and Perognathus, the monitoring program detected species-specific spatial and temporal differences in rodent densities; trap-related deaths did not significantly affect long-term population estimates. The program also detected a short-term increase in rodent densities in the winter of 1997-98, demonstrating its usefulness in identifying conditions conducive to increased risk for human disease.  (+info)

Natural history of Sin Nombre virus in western Colorado. (8/3450)

A mark-recapture longitudinal study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in rodent populations in western Colorado (1994-results summarized to October 1997) indicates the presence of SNV or a closely related hantavirus at two sites. Most rodents (principally deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, and pinyon mice, P. truei) did not persist on the trapping webs much beyond 1 month after first capture. Some persisted more than 1 year, which suggests that even a few infected deer mice could serve as transseasonal reservoirs and mechanisms for over-winter virus maintenance. A positive association between wounds and SNV antibody in adult animals at both sites suggests that when infected rodents in certain populations fight with uninfected rodents, virus amplification occurs. At both sites, male rodents comprised a larger percentage of seropositive mice than recaptured mice, which suggests that male mice contribute more to the SNV epizootic cycle than female mice. In deer mice, IgG antibody prevalence fluctuations were positively associated with population fluctuations. The rates of seroconversion, which in deer mice at both sites occurred mostly during late summer and midwinter, were higher than the seroprevalence, which suggests that the longer deer mice live, the greater the probability they will become infected with SNV.  (+info)

  • As with most invertebrate species, monarch butterfly population growth rate is affected by environmental stochasticity. (nature.com)
  • Because of complex cumulative culture, human populations are often considered to be divorced from the environment and not be under the same ecological forcing as other species. (pnas.org)
  • However, these questions have rarely been addressed for preindustrial human populations, despite the fact that these populations provide a rare opportunity to investigate drivers of the distribution and abundance of a single species along global environmental gradients. (pnas.org)
  • Population density affects growth rate by determining how likely is it that an organism will interact with a member of its own species compared to an organism of a different species. (yale.edu)
  • We also apply common data collection and analytical techniques in the field and evaluate their ability to estimate density of a globally widespread species. (nature.com)
  • In particular, scale of movement impacted estimators substantially, such that area covered and spacing of detectors (e.g. cameras, traps, etc.) must reflect movement characteristics of the focal species to reduce bias in estimates of movement and thus density. (nature.com)
  • The difficulty to locate mates and overcome predation can hamper species establishment and population maintenance. (mdpi.com)
  • Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. (usgs.gov)
  • However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. (usgs.gov)
  • This was a robust result both for monoecious (i.e. hermaphroditic) and diecious (two-sex) species, and suggests that small (sparse) populations are able to resist further losses of genetic variation. (bibsys.no)
  • Density estimates for individual species show that responses vary among species, and boreal species can maintain high densities in southern habitats even during shifts in the northward edge of distribution. (noaa.gov)
  • A long-term monitoring program begun 1 year after the epidemic of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the U.S. Southwest tracked rodent density changes through time and among sites and related these changes to hanta-virus infection rates in various small-mammal reservoir species and human disease outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • The three web density estimates for each trapping period were then partitioned into "proportional" densities representing each species, on the basis of the relative proportion of each in the total web sample. (cdc.gov)
  • These species-specific densities (in numbers of mice per hectare) were analyzed by a repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) to test for differences between sites and through time and for site and time interactions. (cdc.gov)
  • Understanding spatial connectivity of individuals with non-uniform population density by Wang et al. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The first is to reveal the locality and localization of urban population evolution, which is very important for simulating spatial complexity of cities through computers. (hindawi.com)
  • Conversion of resulting estimates of abundance to density, an inherently spatial metric, requires some knowledge of the scale of animal movement to determine the area to which inference about populations can be applied. (nature.com)
  • To assess the density and population size of leopards ( Panthera pardus ) in the Okonjima Nature Reserve using photographic capture-recapture sampling and provide scientific data on their demography as well as spatial and temporal distribution patterns. (africat.org)
  • Density levels exhibit large differences at a small spatial scale and show large year-to-year fluctuations which make trend assessment difficult. (bioone.org)
  • DNA sampling, camera trapping, mark‐resight and search‐encounter) and suggest that clustered sampling can significantly reduce the effort necessary to provide reliable estimates of population density across large spatial extents that previously would have been infeasible with nonclustered sampling designs. (usgs.gov)
  • Printable 3D mazes offer the opportunity to quickly assess the effects of spatial separation on insect population growth in the laboratory, without the need for large enclosed spaces. (mdpi.com)
  • Marine populations are expected to remain within their preferred thermal conditions, and therefore to shift their spatial distributions to track changes in ocean temperatures (Pinsky et al. (noaa.gov)
  • 2019). Given these rapid physical changes and expected responses of marine populations to changing thermal conditions, the spatial distribution of Arctic and subarctic fish communities will likely be a sensitive indicator for contemporary and ongoing Arctic climate change. (noaa.gov)
  • In many sub-Saharan African countries, spatial mismatch between population density and quality of arable land has negatively impacted rural development by moving high potential lands from food crops to non-food plantation schemes. (africabib.org)
  • We analyzed the statistical capabilities of the long-term rodent monitoring program begun in 1994 to detect spatial and temporal changes in rodent densities and determine if the low death rates at all study sites resulted in biased (underestimated) rodent population density estimates. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods for evaluating and redrawing legislative district maps may be based on geographic compactness, population compactness, and proportional fairness, as well as on other key criteria. (ssrn.com)
  • We propose a proportional population density fairness (PPDF) measure and algorithm for evaluating and developing district plans that would represent voters living in geographic areas with diverse population densities in approximate proportion to their statewide numbers. (ssrn.com)
  • Weighted population density scales each subdivision to have a weight proportional to its population. (skyscraperpage.com)
  • It is generally well known that population density is directly related, associated and proportional to political party affiliation. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
  • This study conducts traffic data of mobile-phone antennas, recorded by a telecommunications company, to develop a real-time monitoring technique of population density in an urban area, given that the intensity of activity in a cell (a covered area around an antenna) is directly proportional to the presence of cell-phone users. (witpress.com)
  • A proportional allocation gridding algorithm, utilizing approximately 13.5 million national and sub-national administrative units, was used to assign UN WPP-adjusted population counts to 30 arc-second grid cells. (columbia.edu)
  • A proportional allocation gridding algorithm, utilizing more than 1,000,000 national and sub-national geographic units, is used to assign population values to grid cells. (ceos.org)
  • Results from the Minnesota DNR 's 2016-2017 wolf population survey suggest Minnesota's wolf population has increased 25 percent since the 2015-2016 survey, the agency said in a news release Monday, Sept. 25. (outdoornews.com)
  • Monitoring changes in population densities provides an opportunity to assess land use in urban, suburban, and rural areas. (wakegov.com)
  • In this study, we simulate biological and observational processes using empirical data to assess effects of animal scale of movement, true population density, and probability of detection on common density estimators. (nature.com)
  • Objective To assess whether higher mortality rates among individuals in motor vehicle crashes in areas with low population density depend on injury type and severity or are related to the performance of emergency medical services (EMS). (bmj.com)
  • The cortical volume, thickness, surface and density were examined using the voxel-based cortical morphometry and corticometry on magnetic resonance image (MRI) in 67 intermediate sPD and 35 controls, the multiple adjusted comparisons analysis of all MRI data were employed to assess the relationships between the cortical morphometric alteration in the specific brain regions and sPD. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Basel Osteoporosis Study (BOS) is a population-based prospective study to assess the performance of QUS devices and DXA in predicting incident vertebral fractures. (bmj.com)
  • The first assumes non-stationarity and tries to investigate whether carrying capacity is declining due to environmental changes (e.g. host plant, pesticides, climate change) or to find other demographic factors than can bring the population close to extinction. (nature.com)
  • Created using the EU's population density data and mapping tool Aerialod by Alasdair Rae , the 3D-rendered maps highlight demographic trends and geographic constraints. (visualcapitalist.com)
  • Each region and country tells its own demographic story, but the largest population clusters are especially illuminating. (visualcapitalist.com)
  • In this paper, we use this long-term and wide-scale survey to portray the demographic status of partridge populations. (bioone.org)
  • This was achieved by modifying models that allow for demographic and environmental stochasticity to also allow for density dependent vital rates and compare the predictions based on these models with simulated data. (bibsys.no)
  • website= (help) Statistical Pocket Book, 2011 (pdf-file) 2011 Population Estimate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall population of the city has been in a constant state of increase since the 1890s, reaching an estimate of 402,500 people in 2013. (worldatlas.com)
  • The objective of this work was to estimate the mating system parameters of a andiroba ( Carapa guianensis ) population using microsatellite markers and the mixed and correlated mating models. (scielo.br)
  • However, the theoretical parameter Ne was originally defined for populations with discrete generations, and most models that aim to estimate Ne for populations with overlapping generations relies on a set of simplifying, often unrealistic assumptions. (bibsys.no)
  • Although neither individually represented a significant change from recent years, collectively they explain the increase in the population estimate and are consistent with a continuing increase in deer numbers observed in many parts of wolf range according to the release. (outdoornews.com)
  • is taken into account, then human population density increases to 50 per km2 (129 per sq. mile). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report how net primary productivity, biodiversity, and pathogen stress affect human population density using global ethnographic hunter-gatherer data. (pnas.org)
  • The linear relationship fitted between S. tenacissima tussock biomass and tussock density in monospecific stands (both logarithmic) indicated a curve close to −1, suggesting that the system is close to the maximum constant yield state. (springer.com)
  • The rates of cell multiplication and thymidine- 3 H incorporation at low pH decreased in the initially sparse cultures before they reached confluent cell densities. (rupress.org)
  • Rous sarcoma cells at high cell density were less sensitive to pH than were normal cells at the same density, but were more sensitive than sparse normal cultures. (rupress.org)
  • Paul Krugman's post from April 16 about population density, where he found a very odd fact buried in a new Census report . (reuters.com)
  • I'm not sure why it took me until yesterday to find Paul Krugman's post from April 16 about population density, where he found a very odd fact buried in a new Census report . (reuters.com)
  • dead link] "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • This problem was identified by the Census Bureau with respect to metropolitan areas in 2012: "Overall densities … can be heavily affected by the size of the geographic units for which they are calculated. (newgeography.com)
  • The US Census Bureau has weighted population density data for metro areas , but no one seems to have calculated such densities for states. (skyscraperpage.com)
  • The predictions approximate the 2012 census density well and are more accurate than other bottom-up studies based on lower-resolution satellite data. (ssrn.com)
  • The predictions are also more accurate than most publicly available population products, which rely on areal interpolation of census data to redistribute population at the local level. (ssrn.com)
  • The methods described in this article facilitate determination of sequencing depth in the context of empirically defined read depth to achieve desired marker density for genetic mapping studies. (genetics.org)
  • The usefulness of genetic maps thus largely depends on their density. (genetics.org)
  • Public awareness and use of direct-to-consumer genetic tests: results from 3 state population-based surveys, 2006," American Journal of Public Health , vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 442-445, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • On the other hand, a substantial portion of hyperalphalipoproteinemic population in Japan is accounted for by genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which is also commonly unique in East Asian populations. (mdpi.com)
  • Knowledge of the effective size of populations, Ne, and the ratio of effective population size to the size of the mature population Ne/N, provide important information of the genetic diversity and fitness of populations. (bibsys.no)
  • When considering genetic drift over longer time periods (5-60 years), the necessity to explicitly account for density dependent vital rates is generally reduced and the rate of genetic drift can be predicted based on harmonic mean of annual effective sizes using the vital rates at carrying capacity. (bibsys.no)
  • High-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are used as highly favored makers to analyze genetic diversity and population structure, to construct high-density genetic maps and provide genotypes for genome-wide association analysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Given the current and extreme political differences being exhibited today (leading up to, and ever since the Nov-2016 election), I found it interesting to visualize yet another additional "line in the sand" from a geographical perspective (population density). (modernsurvivalblog.com)
  • The 2015-2016 survey estimated the number of packs at 439 and the wolf population at 2,278. (outdoornews.com)
  • From spring 2015 to spring 2016, deer density within the wolf range is estimated to have increased 22 percent. (outdoornews.com)
  • They note the examples of high-density cities, including Hong Kong, Seoul and Taipei, where robust and widespread interventions (such as social distancing, mask wearing and contact tracing) successfully limited COVID-19 cases and deaths. (scientificamerican.com)
  • At a social gathering, the human density per square yard may be much greater than in any home, and humidity and temperature may rise to levels uncomfortable for humans but ideal for microbes. (britannica.com)
  • The country's second-largest and least-populated department, Gracias a Dios, had a population density of only 2.5 inhabitants per square kilometer in 1989. (countrystudies.us)
  • In 1989 the department of Cort s, on the west bank of the R o Ul a, had a population density of 188 inhabitants per square kilometer. (countrystudies.us)
  • You can use square feet or meters if you are finding the density of a smallish space. (wikihow.com)
  • The population is equal to 7 billion, and the square miles are 197 million including land and water. (reference.com)
  • New York , which Tokyo displaced in 1955, has fallen to seventh largest and has the lowest population density of any megacity, at 4600 per square mile or 1800 per square kilometer (Note 2). (newgeography.com)
  • In 2010 Cuyahoga County's 1.2 million residents lived at an overall population density of 2,800 per square mile and an urban density of 3,063 per square mile. (newgeography.com)
  • For example, other million-plus counties with under 1,000 per square mile densities include Maricopa (Phoenix), fifth most populous county in the nation, San Diego, Riverside (California) and Palm Beach (Florida). (newgeography.com)
  • There are 955 counties with urban densities below 1,000 per square mile. (newgeography.com)
  • By contrast, 95% of US counties (2,996) have densities below 1,000 per square mile (Figure 1). (newgeography.com)
  • By comparison, using total density, counties with under 1,000 per square mile are estimated to have 204 million residents --- 12 times as many (Figure 2). (newgeography.com)
  • The analysis below describes reallocating more than 185 million US residents from counties with overall densities of less than 1,000 to the urban density categories from 1,000 to 7,499 per square mile. (newgeography.com)
  • I used simulations to evaluate the performance of various detector and cluster spacings, cluster configurations (i.e., number of detectors arranged in a square grid), sampling extents and number of sampling occasions for estimating population density, the relationship between detection rate and distance to a detector from the animal's center of activity ( σ ) and base detection rates, using American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) as a case study. (usgs.gov)
  • Knowledge of population density is essential to the field of wildlife ecology, providing a foundation for effective planning of management and conservation and for basic ecological research. (nature.com)
  • Minimum viable population size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hamidi looked at some of the confounding factors-metropolitan size, socioeconomic status of residents, quality of health care and adoption of social distancing-when analyzing how density affects COVID-19 spread and mortality in more than 900 U.S. counties. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Four factors were considered in our analysis of the determinants of adult female size: annual food conditions, population density, multilocus heterozygosity, and yearling body size. (bioone.org)
  • Density-dependent factors may operate by increasing competition for food, resulting in a decrease in body size. (bioone.org)
  • Andreas Zedrosser , Bjørn Dahle , and Jon E. Swenson "POPULATION DENSITY AND FOOD CONDITIONS DETERMINE ADULT FEMALE BODY SIZE IN BROWN BEARS," Journal of Mammalogy 87(3), 510-518, (1 June 2006). (bioone.org)
  • Here you can see the latest Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood articles that have been published worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We have published hundreds of Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood for you to read. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition to the medical data, news and clinical trials, BioPortfolio also has a large collection of Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood Companies in our database. (bioportfolio.com)
  • You can also find out about relevant Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood Drugs and Medications on this site too. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Influence of population size, density, and proximity to talent clubs on the likelihood of becoming elite youth athlete. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These limitations contribute to an incomplete understanding of how size affects the transfer of energy through individuals, populations, and communities. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The influence of season and host size on the parasite population density and the dispersion pattern of the parasite in the host population were analysed. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We provide a new assessment of the effect of hospital proximity in an emergency situation-road-traffic accidents-exploiting the exogenous variation in the proximity to cities that are legally allowed to have a hospital on the basis of their population size. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The population density of the United States is relatively low compared to many other developed countries due to its size and the advent of modern transportation during its settlement. (wn.com)
  • More specifically, the main goal was to examine effects of density dependent vital rates on the effective population size and the Ne/N ratio in populations having different mating systems. (bibsys.no)
  • Effective population size is also affected by between individual variance in reproductive success, and by sex ratio in two-sex populations. (bibsys.no)
  • Another goal of this thesis was to implement global sensitivity analyses in the framework of effective population size. (bibsys.no)
  • In this context, we used a model that allows for fluctuating population size and age-structure, and only require data on annual survival and reproduction, which are favourable properties from a management or conservation perspective. (bibsys.no)
  • The relative role of density-dependent and density-independent variation in vital rates and population size remains largely unsolved. (csic.es)
  • The data were derived from population records based on political divisions such as states, provinces, and counties. (nasa.gov)
  • Following discussions with the European Environment Agency in October 1998, a project was launched to investigate the feasibility of disaggregating population data, assigning different population densities according to the classes of Corine land cover. (europa.eu)
  • The population data, held at commune level, are available for base years 1981 and 1991 from Eurostat-GISCO. (europa.eu)
  • For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/population-density or scan the QR code. (europa.eu)
  • Ethnographic data provide finer-scale information about preindustrial human populations and their environments, potentially allowing more conclusive analyses. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we use global ethnographic hunter-gatherer data ( 10 , 11 ) to explore the effects of key environmental variables on human population densities. (pnas.org)
  • We updated the data for Population Density and Children out of school. (gapminder.org)
  • Breast density was measured and recorded by two independent radiologists using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). (dovepress.com)
  • This study uses Sri Lankan data to demonstrate the feasibility of a bottom-up method that combines household survey data with contemporaneous satellite imagery to track frequent changes in local population density. (ssrn.com)
  • A Poisson regression model based on indicators derived from satellite data, selected using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, accurately predicts village-level population density. (ssrn.com)
  • The collective evidence suggests that combining surveys with satellite data is a cost-effective method to track local population changes at more frequent intervals. (ssrn.com)
  • We do not know whether higher population densities were a cause or merely correlated with a neighborhood's ability to improve, but we do know, thanks to this data from the Federal Reserve, that the two issues appear to be more connected than what we may have previously thought. (urbancincy.com)
  • To enable faster global processing, and in support of research communities, the 30 arc-second adjusted count data were aggregated to 2.5 arc-minute, 15 arc-minute, 30 arc-minute and 1 degree resolutions to produce density rasters at these resolutions. (columbia.edu)
  • We also examined a short-term subset of the data (mid-1997 to early 1998) to test whether the program design could statistically detect a sudden rodent increase in density that may precede a hantavirus pulmonary syndrome outbreak. (cdc.gov)
  • To provide a time series of raster population density data for data integration. (ceos.org)
  • 2018. Gridded Population of the World, Version 4 (GPWv4): Population Density Adjusted to Match 2015 Revision UN WPP Country Totals, Revision 11. (columbia.edu)
  • The US has some disparate cities declining in numbers, while others are experiencing significant population increases. (worldatlas.com)
  • Tularemia in humans in northwestern Spain is associated with increases in vole populations. (cdc.gov)
  • We obtained samples from live voles periodically collected during population increases (2013-2015) in northwestern Spain. (cdc.gov)
  • This increase in vole numbers was moderate (in terms of peak density) compared with previous increases when tularemia outbreaks among humans were reported (1997-1998 and 2007-2008) by the National Network of Epidemiologic Surveillance of Spain ( 5 , 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Meanwhile some lower-density neighborhoods in Queens and the Bronx have seen higher rates of infection and death. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A city with a port, warehouses, factories, etc., may have a lower density than a city that functions strictly as a bedroom community, but the city, but that doesn't mean it is less crowded or vibrant or whatever other adjective might apply to the things we seek when emphasizing density. (city-data.com)
  • Our results show that productivity has significant effects on population density globally. (pnas.org)
  • In previous work, only the effects of productivity on human population densities have been assessed. (pnas.org)
  • 3981 words - 16 pages The Aging Effects of Canada's Population It was 1947, World War II had finally come to a halt and Canadian soldiers were sent home. (brightkite.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of breast density on breast cancer risk among women screened via a nationwide mammographic screening program. (dovepress.com)
  • We then examined how increasing D. simulans population density might overcome the artificially created effects of increasing the distance between mates and having a predator present. (mdpi.com)
  • 6. The results were attributed to metabolic changes induced by increasing temperature and to perceptual and proximity effects resulting from increasing population density. (brill.com)
  • In fact, higher-density counties were actually associated with lower mortality rates, possibly because residents were more strictly following social-distancing guidelines or had better access to health care. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Results Crude mortality rates following motor vehicle crashes were inversely related to regional population density. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions The inverse relationship between population density and mortality among individuals in motor vehicle crashes is related to pre-crash factors that influence the type and severity of injuries and not to differences in EMS. (bmj.com)