The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
A SYNOVIAL CYST located in the back of the knee, in the popliteal space arising from the semimembranous bursa or the knee joint.
The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A condition that is caused by recurring atheroembolism in the lower extremities. It is characterized by cyanotic discoloration of the toes, usually the first, fourth, and fifth toes. Discoloration may extend to the lateral aspect of the foot. Despite the gangrene-like appearance, blue toes may respond to conservative therapy without amputation.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone. It is probably a developmental malformation rather than a true neoplasm and is usually found in the metaphysis of the distal femur, proximal tibia, or proximal humerus. Osteochondroma is the most common of benign bone tumors.
Slippage of the FEMUR off the TIBIA.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.
Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the BLOOD CIRCULATION and function of tissue within that space. Some of the causes of increased pressure are TRAUMA, tight dressings, HEMORRHAGE, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression (NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES); PARALYSIS; and ISCHEMIC CONTRACTURE.
A photoelectric method of recording an X-ray image on a coated metal plate, using low-energy photon beams, long exposure time and dry chemical developers.
The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Common occlusive arterial disease which is caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS. It is characterized by lesions in the innermost layer (ARTERIAL INTIMA) of arteries including the AORTA and its branches to the extremities. Risk factors include smoking, HYPERLIPIDEMIA, and HYPERTENSION.
The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.
Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any one of the iliac arteries including the common, the internal, or the external ILIAC ARTERY.
The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Utah" is a proper noun and refers to a state in the United States, it does not have a medical definition. If you have any medical questions or need information on specific medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help!
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.

Prevalence of true vein graft aneurysms: implications for aneurysm pathogenesis. (1/723)

BACKGROUND: Circumstantial evidence suggests that arterial aneurysms have a different cause than atherosclerosis and may form part of a generalized dilating diathesis. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of spontaneous aneurysm formation in vein grafts performed either for popliteal aneurysms or for occlusive disease. The hypothesis was that if arterial aneurysms form a part of a systemic process, then the rates of vein graft aneurysms should be higher for patients with popliteal aneurysms than for patients with lower limb ischemia caused by atherosclerosis. METHODS: Infrainguinal vein grafting procedures performed from 1990 to 1995 were entered into a prospective audit and graft surveillance program. Aneurysmal change was defined as a focal increase in the graft diameter of 1.5 cm or greater, excluding false aneurysms and dilatations after graft angioplasty. RESULTS: During the study period, 221 grafting procedures were performed in 200 patients with occlusive disease and 24 grafting procedures were performed in 21 patients with popliteal aneurysms. Graft surveillance revealed spontaneous aneurysm formation in 10 of the 24 bypass grafts (42%) for popliteal aneurysms but in only 4 of the 221 grafting procedures (2%) that were performed for chronic lower limb ischemia. CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence that aneurysmal disease is a systemic process, and this finding has clinical implications for the treatment of popliteal aneurysms.  (+info)

Isolated femoropopliteal bypass graft for limb salvage after failed tibial reconstruction: a viable alternative to amputation. (2/723)

PURPOSE: Femoropopliteal bypass grafting procedures performed to isolated popliteal arteries after failure of a previous tibial reconstruction were studied. The results were compared with those of a study of primary isolated femoropopliteal bypass grafts (IFPBs). METHODS: IFPBs were only constructed if the uninvolved or patent popliteal segment measured at least 7 cm in length and had at least one major collateral supplying the calf. When IFPB was performed for ischemic lesions, these lesions were usually limited to the digits or small portions of the foot. Forty-seven polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and three autogenous reversed saphenous vein grafts were used. RESULTS: Ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) increased after bypass grafting by a mean of 0.46. Three-year primary life table patency and limb-salvage rates for primary IFPBs were 73% and 86%, respectively. All eight IFPBs performed after failed tibial bypass grafts remained patent for 2 to 44 months, with patients having viable, healed feet. CONCLUSION: In the presence of a suitable popliteal artery and limited tissue necrosis, IFPB can have acceptable patency and limb-salvage rates, even when a polytetrafluoroethylene graft is used. Secondary IFPB can be used to achieve limb salvage after failed tibial bypass grafting.  (+info)

Superficial femoral eversion endarterectomy combined with a vein segment as a composite artery-vein bypass graft for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction. (3/723)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the results of composite artery-vein bypass grafting for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective case series in two tertiary referral centers. Forty-eight of 51 patients underwent the procedure of interest for the treatment of ischemic skin lesions (n = 42), rest pain (n = 3), disabling claudication (n = 1), and infected prosthesis (n = 2). The intervention used was infrainguinal composite artery-vein bypass grafting to popliteal (n = 18) and infrapopliteal (n = 30) arteries, with an occluded segment of the superficial femoral artery prepared with eversion endarterectomy and an autogenous vein conduit harvested from greater saphenous veins (n = 43), arm veins (n = 3), and lesser saphenous veins (n = 2). The main outcome measures, primary graft patency rates, foot salvage rates, and patient survival rates, were described by means of the life-table method for a mean follow-up time of 15.5 months. RESULTS: The cumulative loss during the follow-up period was 6% and 24% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The primary graft patency rates, the foot salvage rates, and the patient survival rates for patients with popliteal grafts were 60.0% +/- 9.07%, 75.7% +/- 9.18%, and 93.5% +/- 6.03%, respectively, at 1 month; 53.7% +/- 11.85%, 68.9% +/- 12.47%, and 85. 0% +/- 9.92% at 1 year; and 46.7% +/- 18.19%, 68.9% +/- 20.54%, and 53.1% +/- 17.15% at 5 years. For infrapopliteal grafts, the corresponding estimates were 72.4% +/- 7.06%, 72.9% +/- 6.99%, and 92.7% +/- 4.79% at 1 month; 55.6% +/- 10.70%, 55.4% +/- 10.07%, and 77.9% +/- 9.02% at 1 year; and 33.6% +/- 22.36%, 55.4% +/- 30.20%, and 20.8% +/- 9.89% at 5 years. CONCLUSION: The composite artery-vein bypass graft is a useful autogenous alternative for infrainguinal arterial reconstruction when a vein of the required quality is not available or when the procedure needs to be confined to the affected limb.  (+info)

Plaque area increase and vascular remodeling contribute to lumen area change after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the femoropopliteal artery: an intravascular ultrasound study. (4/723)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the change in lumen area (LA), plaque area (PLA), and vessel area (VA) after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the femoropopliteal artery. METHODS: This was a prospective study. Twenty patients were studied with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) immediately after PTA and at follow-up examination. Multiple corresponding IVUS cross-sections were analyzed at the segments that were dilated by PTA (ie, treated sites; n = 168), including the most stenotic site (n = 20) and the nondilated segments (ie, reference sites; n = 77). RESULTS: At follow-up examination, both the PLA increase (13%) and the VA decrease (9%) resulted in a significant LA decrease (43%) at the most stenotic sites (P =.001). At the treated sites, the LA decrease (15%) was smaller and was caused by the PLA increase (15%). At the reference sites, the PLA increase (15%) and the VA increase (6%) resulted in a slight LA decrease (3%). An analysis of the IVUS cross-sections that were grouped according to LA change (difference >/=10%) revealed a similar PLA increase in all the groups: the type of vascular remodeling (VA decrease, no change, or increase) determined the LA change. At the treated sites, the LA change and the VA change correlated closely (r = 0.77, P <.001). At the treated sites, significantly more PLA increase was seen in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture (P <.05). No relationship was found between the presence of dissection and the quantitative changes. CONCLUSION: At the most stenotic sites, lumen narrowing was caused by plaque increase and vessel shrinkage. Both the treated sites and the reference sites showed a significant PLA increase: the type of vascular remodeling determined the LA change at follow-up examination. The extent of the PLA increase was significantly larger in the IVUS cross-sections that showed hard lesion or media rupture.  (+info)

Popliteal artery occlusion as a late complication of liquid acrylate embolization for cerebral vascular malformation. (5/723)

Occlusion of arteriovenous malformations of the brain (BAVMs) by means of an endovascular approach with liquid acrylate glue is an established treatment modality. The specific hazards of this procedure are related to the central nervous system. In the case of unexpectedly rapid polymerization of the cyanoacrylate glue and adhesion of the delivering microcatheter to the BAVM, severing the catheter at the site of vascular access is considered an acceptable and safe management. We present a unique complication related to this technique that has not been described yet. Fragmentation and migration of the microcatheter, originally left in place, had caused popliteal artery occlusion, which required saphenous vein interposition, in a 25-year-old man. Suggestions for avoiding this complication are discussed.  (+info)

Disruption of skin perfusion following longitudinal groin incision for infrainguinal bypass surgery. (6/723)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate whether such an incision results in a reduction in blood flow, and therefore haemoglobin oxygen saturation, across the wound. DESIGN: Microvascular oxygenation was measured with lightguide spectrophotometry in 21 patients undergoing femoropopliteal or femorodistal bypass procedures. A series of measurements were made in the groin, medial and lateral to the surface marking of the femoral artery. The mean oxygen saturation on each side was calculated, and the contra-lateral groin was used as a control. The measurements were repeated at 2 and 7 days postop. RESULTS: Oxygen saturation in the skin of the operated groins was increased significantly from baseline at 2 days postop (f = 25.80, p < 0.001) and had begun to return to normal by day 7. The rise was more marked on the lateral side of the wound than on the medial (f = 12.32, p < 0.001). There was no such difference in the control groins. All wounds healed at 10 days. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a significant difference in skin oxygenation between the lateral and medial sides of the groin following longitudinal incision. This may contribute to the relatively high incidence of postoperative infection in these wounds.  (+info)

Outcome of the first 100 femoropopliteal angioplasties performed in the operating theatre. (7/723)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the factors influencing outcome and restenosis in an initial series of 100 infrainguinal angioplasties. DESIGN: Prospective study of angioplasties of the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries performed over a 42-month period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive angioplasties in 96 patients performed in the operating theatre between January 1993 and June 1996 were followed prospectively with clinical, ABI, and duplex assessment. Forty-four procedures were for disabling claudication and 56 for critical ischaemia. Stents were deployed in 30 limbs. RESULTS: Angioplasty was successful in 84 of 100 limbs. Cumulative patency of the entire group at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months was 78%, 60%, 53%, and 49% respectively, while excluding initial failures, gave patencies of 95%, 69%, 63%, and 58%, respectively. Claudicants with a 1-year patency of 64% did significantly better than patients with critical ischaemia (44% p < 0.05). Angioplasties performed during the initial 21 months had a 1-year patency of 42%, while those performed in the final 21 months had a 74% patency (p = N.S.). The patency for stented arteries was 66% vs. 49% for angioplasty alone (p = N.S.). The 2-year limb salvage rate was 91% in patents with critical ischaemia. Forty-six per cent of restenoses were asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that while angioplasty is useful in treating infrainguinal arterial disease, there is a learning curve, resulting in a high restenosis rate for occlusive and multilevel disease, while concomitant placement of stents may be beneficial.  (+info)

Prospective randomised trial of distal arteriovenous fistula as an adjunct to femoro-infrapopliteal PTFE bypass. (8/723)

OBJECTIVES: To compare graft patency and limb salvage rate following femoro-infrapopliteal bypass using ePTFE grafts with and without the addition of adjuvant arterio-venous fistula. DESIGN: A prospectively randomised controlled trial. MATERIALS: Patients referred to two teaching hospital vascular surgery units in the U.K. for the treatment of critical limb ischaemia. METHODS: Eighty-seven patients (M:F; 2.3:1) undergoing 89 femoro-intrapopliteal bypass operations with ePTFE grafts for critical limb ischaemia were randomly allocated to have AVF included in the operative procedure (n = 48) or to a control group without AVF (n = 41). An interposition vein-cuff was incorporated at the distal anastomosis in all patients. RESULTS: The cumulative rates of primary patency and limb salvage at 1-year after operation for patients with AVF were 55.2% and 54.1% compared to 53.4% and 43.2%, respectively, for the control group. The differences between the AVF and control groups did not reach statistical significance, in terms of either graft patency or limb salvage, at any stage after operation (Log-Rank test). CONCLUSIONS: AVF confers no additional significant clinical advantage over interposition vein cuff in patients having femoro-infrapopliteal bypass with ePTFE grants for critical limb ischaemia.  (+info)

The popliteal artery is the continuation of the femoral artery that passes through the popliteal fossa, which is the area behind the knee. It is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg and foot. The popliteal artery divides into the anterior tibial artery and the tibioperoneal trunk at the lower border of the popliteus muscle. Any damage or blockage to this artery can result in serious health complications, including reduced blood flow to the leg and foot, which may lead to pain, cramping, numbness, or even tissue death (gangrene) if left untreated.

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. It occurs when the pressure inside the vessel causes a weakened area to swell and become enlarged. Aneurysms can develop in any blood vessel, but they are most common in arteries at the base of the brain (cerebral aneurysm) and the main artery carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body (aortic aneurysm).

Aneurysms can be classified as saccular or fusiform, depending on their shape. A saccular aneurysm is a round or oval bulge that projects from the side of a blood vessel, while a fusiform aneurysm is a dilated segment of a blood vessel that is uniform in width and involves all three layers of the arterial wall.

The size and location of an aneurysm can affect its risk of rupture. Generally, larger aneurysms are more likely to rupture than smaller ones. Aneurysms located in areas with high blood pressure or where the vessel branches are also at higher risk of rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms can cause life-threatening bleeding and require immediate medical attention. Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden severe headache, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, or loss of consciousness. Unruptured aneurysms may not cause any symptoms and are often discovered during routine imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for aneurysms depend on their size, location, and risk of rupture. Small, unruptured aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests to check for growth or changes. Larger or symptomatic aneurysms may require surgical intervention, such as clipping or coiling, to prevent rupture and reduce the risk of complications.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

Arterial occlusive diseases are medical conditions characterized by the blockage or narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow to various parts of the body. This reduction in blood flow can cause tissue damage and may result in serious complications such as tissue death (gangrene), organ dysfunction, or even death.

The most common cause of arterial occlusive diseases is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, restricting blood flow. Other causes of arterial occlusive diseases include blood clots, emboli (tiny particles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), inflammation, trauma, and certain inherited conditions.

Symptoms of arterial occlusive diseases depend on the location and severity of the blockage. Common symptoms include:

* Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the affected limb, often triggered by exercise and relieved by rest (claudication)
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb
* Coldness or discoloration of the skin in the affected area
* Slow-healing sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs
* Erectile dysfunction in men

Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Medications to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, prevent blood clots, or manage pain may also be prescribed. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow.

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that can withstand the high pressure of blood being pumped out of the heart. Arteries branch off into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into a vast network of tiny capillaries where the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste occurs between the blood and the body's cells. After passing through the capillary network, deoxygenated blood collects in venules, then merges into veins, which return the blood back to the heart.

Intermittent claudication is a medical condition characterized by pain or cramping in the legs, usually in the calf muscles, that occurs during exercise or walking and is relieved by rest. This symptom is caused by insufficient blood flow to the working muscles due to peripheral artery disease (PAD), a narrowing or blockage of the arteries in the limbs. As the individual walks, the muscle demands for oxygen and nutrients increase, but the restricted blood supply cannot meet these demands, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen) and pain. The pain typically subsides after a few minutes of rest, as the muscle's demand for oxygen decreases, allowing the limited blood flow to compensate. Regular exercise and medications may help improve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications associated with PAD.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

A Popliteal cyst, also known as Baker's cyst, is a fluid-filled sac that develops behind the knee, in the popliteal fossa. It forms when synovial fluid from the knee joint extends through a tear in the joint capsule, creating a visible bulge. The cyst may cause discomfort, swelling, or pain, especially when fully extended or flexed. In some cases, it can rupture and cause further complications, such as increased pain and inflammation in the calf region. Treatment options for Popliteal cysts include physical therapy, corticosteroid injections, and, in severe cases, surgical intervention to repair the underlying joint issue and remove the cyst.

The tibial arteries are three major arteries that supply blood to the lower leg and foot. They are branches of the popliteal artery, which is a continuation of the femoral artery. The three tibial arteries are:

1. Anterior tibial artery: This artery runs down the front of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg, as well as to the foot. It becomes the dorsalis pedis artery as it approaches the ankle.
2. Posterior tibial artery: This artery runs down the back of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg. It then branches into the fibular (peroneal) artery and the medial and lateral plantar arteries, which supply blood to the foot.
3. Fibular (peroneal) artery: This artery runs down the outside of the leg and supplies blood to the muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg. It also provides branches that anastomose with the anterior and posterior tibial arteries, forming a network of vessels that helps ensure adequate blood flow to the foot.

Together, these arteries play a critical role in providing oxygenated blood and nutrients to the lower leg and foot, helping to maintain their health and function.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

In medical terms, the leg refers to the lower portion of the human body that extends from the knee down to the foot. It includes the thigh (femur), lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot, and ankle. The leg is primarily responsible for supporting the body's weight and enabling movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping.

The leg contains several important structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves, and joints. These structures work together to provide stability, support, and mobility to the lower extremity. Common medical conditions that can affect the leg include fractures, sprains, strains, infections, peripheral artery disease, and neurological disorders.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, and Duplex are diagnostic medical techniques that use sound waves to create images of internal body structures and assess their function. Here are the definitions for each:

1. Ultrasonography: Also known as ultrasound, this is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of internal organs and tissues. A small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the skin surface, which emits and receives sound waves. The returning echoes are then processed to create real-time visual images of the internal structures.
2. Doppler: This is a type of ultrasound that measures the velocity and direction of blood flow in the body by analyzing the frequency shift of the reflected sound waves. It can be used to assess blood flow in various parts of the body, such as the heart, arteries, and veins.
3. Duplex: Duplex ultrasonography is a combination of both gray-scale ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound. It provides detailed images of internal structures, as well as information about blood flow velocity and direction. This technique is often used to evaluate conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, and peripheral arterial disease.

In summary, ultrasonography is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of internal structures, Doppler is a type of ultrasound that measures blood flow velocity and direction, and duplex is a combination of both techniques that provides detailed images and information about blood flow.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

The pulmonary artery is a large blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. It divides into two main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, and then into a vast network of capillaries in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The thin walls of these capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out, making the blood oxygen-rich before it is pumped back to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. This process is crucial for maintaining proper oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

Angioplasty, balloon refers to a medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed blood vessels, particularly the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This procedure is typically performed using a catheter-based technique, where a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into an artery, usually through the groin or wrist, and guided to the site of the narrowing or obstruction in the coronary artery.

Once the catheter reaches the affected area, a small balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is inflated, which compresses the plaque against the artery wall and stretches the artery, thereby restoring blood flow. The balloon is then deflated and removed, along with the catheter.

Balloon angioplasty is often combined with the placement of a stent, a small metal mesh tube that helps to keep the artery open and prevent it from narrowing again. This procedure is known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary angioplasty and stenting.

Overall, balloon angioplasty is a relatively safe and effective treatment for coronary artery disease, although complications such as bleeding, infection, or re-narrowing of the artery can occur in some cases.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is not inherently a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with significant uses in the medical field. Medically, PTFE is often referred to by its brand name, Teflon. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in various medical applications due to its unique properties such as high resistance to heat, electrical and chemical interaction, and exceptional non-reactivity with body tissues.

PTFE can be found in medical devices like catheters, where it reduces friction, making insertion easier and minimizing trauma. It is also used in orthopedic and dental implants, drug delivery systems, and sutures due to its biocompatibility and non-adhesive nature.

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

Peripheral Vascular Diseases (PVD) refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels outside of the heart and brain. These diseases are characterized by a narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries, which can lead to reduced blood flow to the limbs, particularly the legs.

The primary cause of PVD is atherosclerosis, a buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the walls of the arteries, forming plaques that restrict blood flow. Other risk factors include smoking, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol levels, and a family history of vascular disease.

Symptoms of PVD can vary depending on the severity of the condition but may include leg pain or cramping during exercise (claudication), numbness or tingling in the legs, coldness or discoloration of the feet, sores or wounds that heal slowly or not at all, and in severe cases, gangrene.

PVD can increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, so it is essential to diagnose and treat the condition as early as possible. Treatment options include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet, medications to control symptoms and reduce the risk of complications, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to restore blood flow.

Amputation is defined as the surgical removal of all or part of a limb or extremity such as an arm, leg, foot, hand, toe, or finger. This procedure is typically performed to remove damaged or dead tissue due to various reasons like severe injury, infection, tumors, or chronic conditions that impair circulation, such as diabetes or peripheral arterial disease. The goal of amputation is to alleviate pain, prevent further complications, and improve the patient's quality of life. Following the surgery, patients may require rehabilitation and prosthetic devices to help them adapt to their new physical condition.

The term "lower extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the human body that includes the structures below the hip joint. This includes the thigh, lower leg, ankle, and foot. The lower extremities are responsible for weight-bearing and locomotion, allowing individuals to stand, walk, run, and jump. They contain many important structures such as bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels.

The iliac arteries are major branches of the abdominal aorta, the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The iliac arteries divide into two branches, the common iliac arteries, which further bifurcate into the internal and external iliac arteries.

The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the lower abdomen, pelvis, and the reproductive organs, while the external iliac artery provides blood to the lower extremities, including the legs and feet. Together, the iliac arteries play a crucial role in circulating blood throughout the body, ensuring that all tissues and organs receive the oxygen and nutrients they need to function properly.

The carotid arteries are a pair of vital blood vessels in the human body that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Each person has two common carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck, which branch off from the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

The right common carotid artery originates from the brachiocephalic trunk, while the left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. As they ascend through the neck, they split into two main branches: the internal and external carotid arteries.

The internal carotid artery supplies oxygenated blood to the brain, eyes, and other structures within the skull, while the external carotid artery provides blood to the face, scalp, and various regions of the neck.

Maintaining healthy carotid arteries is crucial for overall cardiovascular health and preventing serious conditions like stroke, which can occur when the arteries become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque or fatty deposits (atherosclerosis). Regular check-ups with healthcare professionals may include monitoring carotid artery health through ultrasound or other imaging techniques.

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels and blood flow within the body. It combines the use of X-ray technology with digital image processing to produce detailed images of the vascular system.

In DSA, a contrast agent is injected into the patient's bloodstream through a catheter, which is typically inserted into an artery in the leg and guided to the area of interest using fluoroscopy. As the contrast agent flows through the blood vessels, X-ray images are taken at multiple time points.

The digital subtraction process involves taking a baseline image without contrast and then subtracting it from subsequent images taken with contrast. This allows for the removal of background structures and noise, resulting in clearer images of the blood vessels. DSA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various vascular conditions, such as aneurysms, stenosis, and tumors, and can also guide interventional procedures such as angioplasty and stenting.

A false aneurysm, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is a type of aneurysm that occurs when there is a leakage or rupture of blood from a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, creating a pulsating hematoma or collection of blood. Unlike true aneurysms, which involve a localized dilation or bulging of the blood vessel wall, false aneurysms do not have a complete covering of all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media, and adventitia). Instead, they are typically covered by only one or two layers, such as the intima and adventitia, or by surrounding tissues like connective tissue or fascia.

False aneurysms can result from various factors, including trauma, infection, iatrogenic causes (such as medical procedures), or degenerative changes in the blood vessel wall. They are more common in arteries than veins and can occur in any part of the body. If left untreated, false aneurysms can lead to serious complications such as rupture, thrombosis, distal embolization, or infection. Treatment options for false aneurysms include surgical repair, endovascular procedures, or observation with regular follow-up imaging.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

Limb salvage is a medical term used to describe the surgical procedures and treatments aimed at preserving and restoring the functionality of a severely injured or diseased limb, rather than amputating it. The goal of limb salvage is to improve the patient's quality of life by maintaining their mobility, independence, and overall well-being.

Limb salvage may involve various surgical techniques such as vascular reconstruction, bone realignment, muscle flap coverage, and external fixation. These procedures aim to restore blood flow, stabilize bones, cover exposed tissues, and prevent infection. Additionally, adjuvant therapies like hyperbaric oxygen treatment, physical therapy, and pain management may be employed to support the healing process and improve functional outcomes.

Limb salvage is typically considered when a limb is threatened by conditions such as severe trauma, tumors, infections, or peripheral arterial disease. The decision to pursue limb salvage over amputation depends on factors like the patient's overall health, age, and personal preferences, as well as the extent of the injury or disease, potential for recovery, and likelihood of successful rehabilitation.

Cerebral arteries refer to the blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the brain. These arteries branch off from the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, which combine to form the basilar artery. The major cerebral arteries include:

1. Anterior cerebral artery (ACA): This artery supplies blood to the frontal lobes of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortices responsible for movement and sensation in the lower limbs.
2. Middle cerebral artery (MCA): The MCA is the largest of the cerebral arteries and supplies blood to the lateral surface of the brain, including the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. It is responsible for providing blood to areas involved in motor function, sensory perception, speech, memory, and vision.
3. Posterior cerebral artery (PCA): The PCA supplies blood to the occipital lobe, which is responsible for visual processing, as well as parts of the temporal and parietal lobes.
4. Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and posterior communicating arteries (PComAs): These are small arteries that connect the major cerebral arteries, forming an important circulatory network called the Circle of Willis. The ACoA connects the two ACAs, while the PComAs connect the ICA with the PCA and the basilar artery.

These cerebral arteries play a crucial role in maintaining proper brain function by delivering oxygenated blood to various regions of the brain. Any damage or obstruction to these arteries can lead to serious neurological conditions, such as strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).

The renal artery is a pair of blood vessels that originate from the abdominal aorta and supply oxygenated blood to each kidney. These arteries branch into several smaller vessels that provide blood to the various parts of the kidneys, including the renal cortex and medulla. The renal arteries also carry nutrients and other essential components needed for the normal functioning of the kidneys. Any damage or blockage to the renal artery can lead to serious consequences, such as reduced kidney function or even kidney failure.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Blue toe syndrome, also known as acrocyanosis or digital ischemia, is a medical condition characterized by the bluish discoloration of the toes due to insufficient blood supply. This can occur due to various reasons such as chilblains, vasospasms, blood clots in the small arteries of the feet, or certain medications that affect blood flow. Prolonged exposure to cold temperatures, smoking, and underlying health conditions like Raynaud's disease, Buerger's disease, or autoimmune disorders can increase the risk of developing blue toe syndrome. Severe cases may require medical intervention such as medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes to improve blood flow and prevent tissue damage.

The mesenteric arteries are the arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the intestines. There are three main mesenteric arteries: the superior mesenteric artery, which supplies blood to the small intestine (duodenum to two-thirds of the transverse colon) and large intestine (cecum, ascending colon, and the first part of the transverse colon); the inferior mesenteric artery, which supplies blood to the distal third of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum; and the middle colic artery, which is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that supplies blood to the transverse colon. These arteries are important in maintaining adequate blood flow to the intestines to support digestion and absorption of nutrients.

A ruptured aneurysm is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of an artery or a blood vessel weakens and bulges out, forming an aneurysm, which then bursts, causing bleeding into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to internal hemorrhage, organ damage, and even death, depending on the location and severity of the rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms are often caused by factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, aging, and genetic predisposition. They can occur in any part of the body but are most common in the aorta (the largest artery in the body) and the cerebral arteries (in the brain).

Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden and severe pain, weakness or paralysis, difficulty breathing, confusion, loss of consciousness, and shock. Immediate medical attention is required to prevent further complications and increase the chances of survival. Treatment options for a ruptured aneurysm may include surgery, endovascular repair, or medication to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding.

The basilar artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. It is formed by the union of two vertebral arteries at the lower part of the brainstem, near the junction of the medulla oblongata and pons.

The basilar artery runs upward through the center of the brainstem and divides into two posterior cerebral arteries at the upper part of the brainstem, near the midbrain. The basilar artery gives off several branches that supply blood to various parts of the brainstem, including the pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain, as well as to the cerebellum.

The basilar artery is an important part of the circle of Willis, a network of arteries at the base of the brain that ensures continuous blood flow to the brain even if one of the arteries becomes blocked or narrowed.

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is a medical condition characterized by the narrowing or blockage of arteries that supply blood to the extremities, most commonly the legs. This results in reduced blood flow, leading to symptoms such as leg pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness during physical activity, and in severe cases, tissue damage or gangrene. PAD is often indicative of widespread atherosclerosis, which is the hardening and narrowing of arteries due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. It's important to note that early detection and management can help prevent serious complications.

The brachial artery is a major blood vessel in the upper arm. It supplies oxygenated blood to the muscles and tissues of the arm, forearm, and hand. The brachial artery originates from the axillary artery at the level of the shoulder joint and runs down the medial (inner) aspect of the arm, passing through the cubital fossa (the depression on the anterior side of the elbow) where it can be palpated during a routine blood pressure measurement. At the lower end of the forearm, the brachial artery bifurcates into the radial and ulnar arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply the hand and fingers.

Osteochondroma is a benign (noncancerous) bone tumor that typically develops during childhood or adolescent growth years. It usually forms near the end of long bones, such as those in the arms and legs, but can also occur in other bones. An osteochondroma may have a cartilage cap covering its surface.

This type of tumor often grows slowly and typically stops growing once the person has stopped growing. In many cases, an osteochondroma doesn't cause any symptoms and doesn't require treatment. However, if it continues to grow or causes problems such as pain, restricted movement, or bone deformity, surgical removal may be necessary.

Most osteochondromas are solitary (occurring singly), but some people can develop multiple tumors, a condition known as multiple hereditary exostoses or diaphyseal aclasis. This genetic disorder is associated with a higher risk of developing sarcoma, a type of cancerous tumor that can arise from osteochondromas.

It's essential to have regular follow-ups with your healthcare provider if you have an osteochondroma to monitor its growth and any potential complications.

Knee dislocation is a serious and uncommon orthopedic injury that occurs when the bones that form the knee joint (femur, tibia, and patella) are forced out of their normal position due to extreme trauma or force. This injury often requires immediate medical attention and reduction (repositioning) by a healthcare professional. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as compartment syndrome, nerve damage, and long-term joint instability. It's important to note that knee dislocation is different from a kneecap (patellar) dislocation, which involves the patella sliding out of its groove in the femur.

Vascular grafting is a surgical procedure where a vascular graft, which can be either a natural or synthetic tube, is used to replace or bypass a damaged or diseased portion of a blood vessel. The goal of this procedure is to restore normal blood flow to the affected area, thereby preventing tissue damage or necrosis due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply.

The vascular graft can be sourced from various locations in the body, such as the saphenous vein in the leg, or it can be made of synthetic materials like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. The choice of graft depends on several factors, including the size and location of the damaged vessel, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's preference.

Vascular grafting is commonly performed to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, aneurysms, and vasculitis. This procedure carries risks such as bleeding, infection, graft failure, and potential complications related to anesthesia. However, with proper postoperative care and follow-up, vascular grafting can significantly improve the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the blood vessels or arteries within the body. It is a type of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that focuses specifically on the circulatory system.

MRA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions related to the blood vessels, such as aneurysms, stenosis (narrowing of the vessel), or the presence of plaques or tumors. It can also be used to plan for surgeries or other treatments related to the vascular system. The procedure does not use radiation and is generally considered safe, although people with certain implants like pacemakers may not be able to have an MRA due to safety concerns.

A fascia is a band or sheet of connective tissue, primarily collagen, that covers, connects, and separates muscles, organs, and other structures in the body. It provides support and stability, allows for smooth movement between structures, and has the ability to transmit forces throughout the body. Fascia is found throughout the body, and there are several layers of it, including superficial fascia, deep fascia, and visceral fascia. Injury, inflammation, or strain to the fascia can cause pain and restriction of movement.

Compartment syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by increased pressure within a confined anatomical space (compartment), leading to impaired circulation and nerve function. These compartments are composed of bones, muscles, tendons, blood vessels, and nerves, surrounded by a tough fibrous fascial covering that does not expand easily.

There are two main types of compartment syndromes: acute and chronic.

1. Acute Compartment Syndrome (ACS): This is a medical emergency that typically occurs after trauma, fractures, or prolonged compression of the affected limb. The increased pressure within the compartment reduces blood flow to the muscles and nerves, causing ischemia, pain, and potential muscle and nerve damage if not promptly treated with fasciotomy (surgical release of the fascial covering). Symptoms include severe pain disproportionate to the injury, pallor, paresthesia (abnormal sensation), pulselessness, and paralysis.
2. Chronic Compartment Syndrome (CCS) or Exertional Compartment Syndrome: This condition is caused by repetitive physical activities that lead to increased compartment pressure over time. The symptoms are usually reversible with rest and may include aching, cramping, tightness, or swelling in the affected limb during exercise. CCS rarely leads to permanent muscle or nerve damage if managed appropriately with activity modification, physical therapy, and occasionally surgical intervention (fasciotomy or fasciectomy).

Early recognition and appropriate management of compartment syndromes are crucial for preventing long-term complications such as muscle necrosis, contractures, and nerve damage.

Xeroradiography is not a commonly used medical imaging modality today, but it was once widely used in the past. It's a form of diagnostic radiography that uses x-rays to produce images on a special type of electrically charged, light-sensitive paper, similar to a photocopier or xerographic machine.

The xeroradiography process involves several steps:

1. The patient is positioned between the x-ray source and an imaging plate, which is coated with a layer of selenium.
2. X-rays pass through the patient and strike the selenium layer, causing it to release electrons that are attracted to and collected by a positively charged wire grid on the backside of the plate.
3. The charged areas of the plate are then dusted with a fine powder called "toner," which adheres to the charged areas.
4. A high-voltage electrical charge is applied to the plate, causing the toner to become electrically attracted to and fused to a sheet of paper that is pressed against the plate.
5. The resulting image on the paper shows areas of increased x-ray absorption (such as bones) as white or light gray, while areas of lower x-ray absorption (such as soft tissues) appear darker.

Xeroradiography was known for its high-resolution images and ability to detect subtle differences in tissue density. However, it has largely been replaced by digital radiography and other imaging modalities that offer similar or better image quality with lower radiation doses and greater convenience.

The popliteal vein is the continuation of the tibial and fibular (or anterior and posterior tibial) veins, forming in the lower leg's back portion or popliteal fossa. It carries blood from the leg towards the heart. The popliteal vein is located deep within the body and is accompanied by the popliteal artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg. This venous structure is a crucial part of the venous system in the lower extremities and is often assessed during physical examinations for signs of venous insufficiency or deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

The vertebral artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain and upper spinal cord. It arises from the subclavian artery, then ascends through the transverse processes of several cervical vertebrae before entering the skull through the foramen magnum. Inside the skull, it joins with the opposite vertebral artery to form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. The vertebral artery also gives off several important branches that supply blood to various regions of the brainstem and upper spinal cord.

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure used to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with severe coronary artery disease. This condition occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques.

During CABG surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted, or attached, to the coronary artery, creating a new pathway for oxygen-rich blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the artery and reach the heart muscle. This bypass helps to restore normal blood flow and reduce the risk of angina (chest pain), shortness of breath, and other symptoms associated with coronary artery disease.

There are different types of CABG surgery, including traditional on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and minimally invasive CABG. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's overall health, the number and location of blocked arteries, and the presence of other medical conditions.

It is important to note that while CABG surgery can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with severe coronary artery disease, it does not cure the underlying condition. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and medication therapy, are essential for long-term management and prevention of further progression of the disease.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Angioplasty is a medical procedure used to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels, often referred to as coronary angioplasty when it involves the heart's blood vessels (coronary arteries). The term "angio" refers to an angiogram, which is a type of X-ray image that reveals the inside of blood vessels.

The procedure typically involves the following steps:

1. A thin, flexible catheter (tube) is inserted into a blood vessel, usually through a small incision in the groin or arm.
2. The catheter is guided to the narrowed or blocked area using real-time X-ray imaging.
3. Once in place, a tiny balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is inflated to widen the blood vessel and compress any plaque buildup against the artery walls.
4. A stent (a small mesh tube) may be inserted to help keep the blood vessel open and prevent it from narrowing again.
5. The balloon is deflated, and the catheter is removed.

Angioplasty helps improve blood flow, reduce symptoms such as chest pain or shortness of breath, and lower the risk of heart attack in patients with blocked arteries. It's important to note that angioplasty is not a permanent solution for coronary artery disease, and lifestyle changes, medications, and follow-up care are necessary to maintain long-term cardiovascular health.

A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division between the sac and its surrounding tissue, that contains fluid, air, or semisolid material. Cysts can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, internal organs, and bones. They can be caused by various factors, such as infection, genetic predisposition, or blockage of a duct or gland. Some cysts may cause symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, while others may not cause any symptoms at all. Treatment for cysts depends on the type and location of the cyst, as well as whether it is causing any problems. Some cysts may go away on their own, while others may need to be drained or removed through a surgical procedure.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The radial artery is a key blood vessel in the human body, specifically a part of the peripheral arterial system. Originating from the brachial artery in the upper arm, the radial artery travels down the arm and crosses over the wrist, where it can be palpated easily. It then continues into the hand, dividing into several branches to supply blood to the hand's tissues and digits.

The radial artery is often used for taking pulse readings due to its easy accessibility at the wrist. Additionally, in medical procedures such as coronary angiography or bypass surgery, the radial artery can be utilized as a site for catheter insertion. This allows healthcare professionals to examine the heart's blood vessels and assess cardiovascular health.

Ultrasonography, Doppler refers to a non-invasive diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create real-time images of the movement of blood flow through vessels, tissues, or heart valves. The Doppler effect is used to measure the frequency shift of the ultrasound waves as they bounce off moving red blood cells, which allows for the calculation of the speed and direction of blood flow. This technique is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, heart valve abnormalities, and fetal heart development during pregnancy. It does not use radiation or contrast agents and is considered safe with minimal risks.

The mammary arteries are a set of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the mammary glands, which are the structures in female breasts responsible for milk production during lactation. The largest mammary artery, also known as the internal thoracic or internal mammary artery, originates from the subclavian artery and descends along the inner side of the chest wall. It then branches into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the breast tissue. These include the anterior and posterior intercostal arteries, lateral thoracic artery, and pectoral branches. The mammary arteries are crucial in maintaining the health and function of the breast tissue, and any damage or blockage to these vessels can lead to various breast-related conditions or diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene Terephthalates" is not a medical term. It is a type of polymer used in the manufacturing of various products, such as plastic bottles and textile fibers. Medically, you might encounter the abbreviation "PET" or "PET scan," which stands for "Positron Emission Tomography." A PET scan is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of the body's interior. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Graft occlusion in the context of vascular surgery refers to the complete or partial blockage of a blood vessel that has been surgically replaced or repaired with a graft. The graft can be made from either synthetic materials or autologous tissue (taken from another part of the patient's body).

Graft occlusion can occur due to various reasons, including:

1. Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot within the graft, which can obstruct blood flow.
2. Intimal hyperplasia: Overgrowth of the inner lining (intima) of the graft or the adjacent native vessel, causing narrowing of the lumen and reducing blood flow.
3. Atherosclerosis: Deposition of cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the graft, leading to hardening and narrowing of the vessel.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infection of the graft can cause inflammation, weakening, and ultimately occlusion of the graft.
5. Mechanical factors: Kinking, twisting, or compression of the graft can lead to obstruction of blood flow.

Graft occlusion is a significant complication following vascular surgery, as it can result in reduced perfusion to downstream tissues and organs, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen supply) and potential tissue damage or loss.

The internal carotid artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery and passes through the neck, entering the skull via the carotid canal in the temporal bone. Once inside the skull, it branches into several smaller vessels that supply different parts of the brain with blood.

The internal carotid artery is divided into several segments: cervical, petrous, cavernous, clinoid, and supraclinoid. Each segment has distinct clinical significance in terms of potential injury or disease. The most common conditions affecting the internal carotid artery include atherosclerosis, which can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and dissection, which can cause severe headache, neck pain, and neurological symptoms.

It's important to note that any blockage or damage to the internal carotid artery can have serious consequences, as it can significantly reduce blood flow to the brain and lead to permanent neurological damage or even death. Therefore, regular check-ups and screening tests are recommended for individuals at high risk of developing vascular diseases.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

The subclavian artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the upper limb and important structures in the neck and head. It arises from the brachiocephalic trunk (in the case of the right subclavian artery) or directly from the aortic arch (in the case of the left subclavian artery).

The subclavian artery has several branches, including:

1. The vertebral artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum.
2. The internal thoracic artery (also known as the mammary artery), which supplies blood to the chest wall, breast, and anterior mediastinum.
3. The thyrocervical trunk, which gives rise to several branches that supply the neck, including the inferior thyroid artery, the suprascapular artery, and the transverse cervical artery.
4. The costocervical trunk, which supplies blood to the neck and upper back, including the posterior chest wall and the lower neck muscles.

The subclavian artery is a critical vessel in maintaining adequate blood flow to the upper limb, and any blockage or damage to this vessel can lead to significant morbidity, including arm pain, numbness, weakness, or even loss of function.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Life tables are statistical tools used in actuarial science, demography, and public health to estimate the mortality rate and survival rates of a population. They provide a data-driven representation of the probability that individuals of a certain age will die before their next birthday (the death rate) or live to a particular age (the survival rate).

Life tables are constructed using data on the number of deaths and the size of the population in specific age groups over a given period. These tables typically include several columns representing different variables, such as:

1. Age group or interval: The age range for which the data is being presented (e.g., 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, etc.).
2. Number of people in the population: The size of the population within each age group.
3. Number of deaths: The number of individuals who died during the study period within each age group.
4. Death rate: The probability that an individual in a given age group will die before their next birthday. It is calculated as the number of deaths divided by the size of the population for that age group.
5. Survival rate: The probability that an individual in a given age group will survive to a specific age or older. It is calculated using the death rates from earlier age groups.
6. Life expectancy: The average number of years a person is expected to live, based on their current age and mortality rates for each subsequent age group.

Life tables are essential in various fields, including insurance, pension planning, social security administration, and healthcare policy development. They help researchers and policymakers understand the health status and demographic trends of populations, allowing them to make informed decisions about resource allocation, program development, and public health interventions.

An infected aneurysm, also known as a mycotic aneurysm, is a localized dilation or bulging of the wall of a blood vessel that has been invaded and damaged by infectious organisms. This type of aneurysm can occur in any blood vessel, but they are most commonly found in the aorta and cerebral arteries.

Infected aneurysms are usually caused by bacterial or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream from another part of the body, such as endocarditis (infection of the heart valves), pneumonia, or skin infections. The infection weakens the vessel wall, causing it to bulge and potentially rupture, which can lead to serious complications such as hemorrhage, stroke, or even death.

Symptoms of infected aneurysm may include fever, chills, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, and localized pain or tenderness in the area of the aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as CT angiography, MRI, or ultrasound, along with blood cultures to identify the causative organism. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics to eliminate the infection and surgical intervention to repair or remove the aneurysm.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

In medical terms, the foot is the part of the lower limb that is distal to the leg and below the ankle, extending from the tarsus to the toes. It is primarily responsible for supporting body weight and facilitating movement through push-off during walking or running. The foot is a complex structure made up of 26 bones, 33 joints, and numerous muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves that work together to provide stability, balance, and flexibility. It can be divided into three main parts: the hindfoot, which contains the talus and calcaneus (heel) bones; the midfoot, which includes the navicular, cuboid, and cuneiform bones; and the forefoot, which consists of the metatarsals and phalanges that form the toes.

Carotid artery diseases refer to conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the head and neck. The most common type of carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which occurs when fatty deposits called plaques build up in the inner lining of the arteries.

These plaques can cause the arteries to narrow or become blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other carotid artery diseases include carotid artery dissection, which occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the artery, and fibromuscular dysplasia, which is a condition that affects the muscle and tissue in the walls of the artery.

Symptoms of carotid artery disease may include neck pain or pulsations, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or "mini-strokes," and strokes. Treatment options for carotid artery disease depend on the severity and type of the condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, endarterectomy (a surgical procedure to remove plaque from the artery), or angioplasty and stenting (procedures to open blocked arteries using a balloon and stent).

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

An embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a substance, such as a blood clot or an air bubble, blocks a blood vessel. This can happen in any part of the body, but it is particularly dangerous when it affects the brain (causing a stroke) or the lungs (causing a pulmonary embolism). Embolisms can cause serious harm by preventing oxygen and nutrients from reaching the tissues and organs that need them. They are often the result of underlying medical conditions, such as heart disease or deep vein thrombosis, and may require immediate medical attention to prevent further complications.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

The splenic artery is the largest branch of the celiac trunk, which arises from the abdominal aorta. It supplies blood to the spleen and several other organs in the upper left part of the abdomen. The splenic artery divides into several branches that ultimately form a network of capillaries within the spleen. These capillaries converge to form the main venous outflow, the splenic vein, which drains into the hepatic portal vein.

The splenic artery is a vital structure in the human body, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious complications, including splenic infarction (reduced blood flow to the spleen) or splenic rupture (a surgical emergency that can be life-threatening).

Arteritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the arteries. It is also known as vasculitis of the arteries. The inflammation can cause the walls of the arteries to thicken and narrow, reducing blood flow to affected organs or tissues. There are several types of arteritis, including:

1. Giant cell arteritis (GCA): Also known as temporal arteritis, it is a condition that mainly affects the large and medium-sized arteries in the head and neck. The inflammation can cause headaches, jaw pain, scalp tenderness, and vision problems.
2. Takayasu's arteritis: This type of arteritis affects the aorta and its major branches, mainly affecting young women. Symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, and decreased pulse in the arms or legs.
3. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN): PAN is a rare systemic vasculitis that can affect medium-sized arteries throughout the body. It can cause a wide range of symptoms, including fever, rash, abdominal pain, and muscle weakness.
4. Kawasaki disease: This is a type of arteritis that mainly affects children under the age of 5. It causes inflammation in the blood vessels throughout the body, leading to fever, rash, swollen lymph nodes, and red eyes.

The exact cause of arteritis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues. Treatment for arteritis typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

A thrombectomy is a medical procedure that involves the removal of a blood clot (thrombus) from a blood vessel. This is typically performed to restore blood flow in cases where the clot is causing significant blockage, which can lead to serious complications such as tissue damage or organ dysfunction.

During a thrombectomy, a surgeon makes an incision and accesses the affected blood vessel, often with the help of imaging guidance. Specialized tools are then used to extract the clot, after which the blood vessel is usually repaired. Thrombectomies can be performed on various blood vessels throughout the body, including those in the brain, heart, lungs, and limbs.

This procedure may be recommended for patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), or certain types of stroke, depending on the specific circumstances and the patient's overall health. It is generally considered when anticoagulation therapy or clot-dissolving medications are not sufficient or appropriate to treat the blood clot.

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

The common carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the head and neck. It originates from the brachiocephalic trunk or the aortic arch and divides into the internal and external carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage. The common carotid artery is an important structure in the circulatory system, and any damage or blockage to it can have serious consequences, including stroke.

Endovascular procedures are minimally invasive medical treatments that involve accessing and repairing blood vessels or other interior parts of the body through small incisions or punctures. These procedures typically use specialized catheters, wires, and other tools that are inserted into the body through an artery or vein, usually in the leg or arm.

Endovascular procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including aneurysms, atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, and other vascular disorders. Some common endovascular procedures include angioplasty, stenting, embolization, and thrombectomy.

The benefits of endovascular procedures over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, reduced trauma to surrounding tissues, faster recovery times, and lower risks of complications such as infection and bleeding. However, endovascular procedures may not be appropriate for all patients or conditions, and careful evaluation and consideration are necessary to determine the best treatment approach.

Vasodilation is the widening or increase in diameter of blood vessels, particularly the involuntary relaxation of the smooth muscle in the tunica media (middle layer) of the arteriole walls. This results in an increase in blood flow and a decrease in vascular resistance. Vasodilation can occur due to various physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, such as local metabolic demands, neural signals, or pharmacological agents. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure, tissue perfusion, and thermoregulation.

Coronary vessels refer to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. The two main coronary arteries are the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery.

The left main coronary artery branches off into the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCx). The LAD supplies blood to the front of the heart, while the LCx supplies blood to the side and back of the heart.

The right coronary artery supplies blood to the right lower part of the heart, including the right atrium and ventricle, as well as the back of the heart.

Coronary vessel disease (CVD) occurs when these vessels become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque, leading to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. This can result in chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) is a specific type of arteriosclerosis, which is a hardening and narrowing of the arteries. ASO is also known as peripheral artery disease (PAD). It mainly affects the arteries that supply blood to the legs, but it can also affect the arms, head, and stomach.

In ASO, fatty deposits called plaques build up in the inner lining of the arterial walls, causing them to become thickened and less flexible. This leads to a decrease in blood flow, which can cause symptoms such as leg pain or cramping when walking (claudication), numbness, weakness, and coldness in the legs or feet. In severe cases, ASO can lead to tissue damage, gangrene, and even amputation if left untreated.

ASO is typically caused by risk factors such as smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, and a family history of the disease. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery to improve blood flow.

The celiac artery, also known as the anterior abdominal aortic trunk, is a major artery that originates from the abdominal aorta and supplies oxygenated blood to the foregut, which includes the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, and upper part of the duodenum. It branches into three main branches: the left gastric artery, the splenic artery, and the common hepatic artery. The celiac artery plays a crucial role in providing blood to these vital organs, and any disruption or damage to it can lead to serious health consequences.

The ophthalmic artery is the first branch of the internal carotid artery, which supplies blood to the eye and its adnexa. It divides into several branches that provide oxygenated blood to various structures within the eye, including the retina, optic nerve, choroid, iris, ciliary body, and cornea. Any blockage or damage to the ophthalmic artery can lead to serious vision problems or even blindness.

The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a major artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the intestines, specifically the lower part of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, and the first and second parts of the transverse colon. It originates from the abdominal aorta, located just inferior to the pancreas, and passes behind the neck of the pancreas before dividing into several branches to supply the intestines. The SMA is an essential vessel in the digestive system, providing blood flow for nutrient absorption and overall gut function.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

The umbilical arteries are a pair of vessels that develop within the umbilical cord during fetal development. They carry oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the developing fetus through the placenta. These arteries arise from the internal iliac arteries in the fetus and pass through the umbilical cord to connect with the two umbilical veins within the placenta. After birth, the umbilical arteries become ligaments (the medial umbilical ligaments) that run along the inner abdominal wall.

The Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is one of the main blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It arises from the internal carotid artery and divides into several branches, which supply the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, including the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.

The MCA is responsible for providing blood flow to critical areas of the brain, such as the primary motor and sensory cortices, Broca's area (associated with speech production), Wernicke's area (associated with language comprehension), and the visual association cortex.

Damage to the MCA or its branches can result in a variety of neurological deficits, depending on the specific location and extent of the injury. These may include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, sensory loss, language impairment, and visual field cuts.

Renal artery obstruction is a medical condition that refers to the blockage or restriction of blood flow in the renal artery, which is the main vessel that supplies oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood to the kidneys. This obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as blood clots, atherosclerosis (the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls), emboli (tiny particles or air bubbles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), or compressive masses like tumors.

The obstruction can lead to reduced kidney function, hypertension, and even kidney failure in severe cases. Symptoms may include high blood pressure, proteinuria (the presence of protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), and a decrease in kidney function as measured by serum creatinine levels. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies like Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography to visualize the renal artery and assess the extent of the obstruction. Treatment options may include medications to control blood pressure and reduce kidney damage, as well as invasive procedures like angioplasty and stenting or surgical intervention to remove the obstruction and restore normal blood flow to the kidneys.

The Thoracic Arteries are branches of the aorta that supply oxygenated blood to the thoracic region of the body. The pair of arteries originate from the descending aorta and divide into several smaller branches, including intercostal arteries that supply blood to the muscles between the ribs, and posterior intercostal arteries that supply blood to the back and chest wall. Other branches of the thoracic arteries include the superior phrenic arteries, which supply blood to the diaphragm, and the bronchial arteries, which supply blood to the lungs. These arteries play a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of the chest and respiratory system.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Temporal arteries are the paired set of arteries that run along the temples on either side of the head. They are branches of the external carotid artery and play a crucial role in supplying oxygenated blood to the scalp and surrounding muscles. One of the most common conditions associated with temporal arteries is Temporal Arteritis (also known as Giant Cell Arteritis), which is an inflammation of these arteries that can lead to serious complications like vision loss if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The bronchial arteries are a pair of arteries that originate from the descending thoracic aorta and supply oxygenated blood to the bronchi, bronchioles, and connected tissues within the lungs. They play a crucial role in providing nutrients and maintaining the health of the airways in the respiratory system. The bronchial arteries also help in the defense mechanism of the lungs by delivering immune cells and participating in the process of angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) during lung injury or repair.

An iliac aneurysm is a localized dilation or bulging of the iliac artery, which are the main blood vessels that supply blood to the lower extremities. The iliac arteries branch off from the abdominal aorta and divide into the internal and external iliac arteries. An aneurysm occurs when the wall of the artery becomes weakened and balloons out, leading to an increased risk of rupture and serious complications such as bleeding and organ damage. Iliac aneurysms are often asymptomatic but can cause symptoms such as abdominal or back pain, leg pain, or a pulsating mass in the abdomen or groin. They are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI and may require surgical intervention to prevent rupture and other complications.

The Ulnar Artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the forearm, hand, and fingers with oxygenated blood. It originates from the brachial artery in the upper arm and travels down the medial (towards the body's midline) side of the forearm, passing through the Guyon's canal at the wrist before branching out to supply the hand and fingers.

The ulnar artery provides blood to the palmar aspect of the hand and the ulnar side of the little finger and half of the ring finger. It also contributes to the formation of the deep palmar arch, which supplies blood to the deep structures of the hand. The ulnar artery is an important structure in the circulatory system, providing critical blood flow to the upper limb.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

The uterine artery is a paired branch of the internal iliac (hip) artery that supplies blood to the uterus and vagina. It anastomoses (joins) with the ovarian artery to form a rich vascular network that nourishes the female reproductive organs. The right and left uterine arteries run along the sides of the uterus, where they divide into several branches to supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the myometrium (uterine muscle), endometrium (lining), and cervix. These arteries undergo significant changes in size and structure during pregnancy to accommodate the growing fetus and placenta, making them crucial for maintaining a healthy pregnancy.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Utah" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, being the 45th state admitted to the United States of America. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure that uses X-ray imaging to visualize the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. During the procedure, a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or groin and threaded through the blood vessels to the heart. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken as the dye flows through the coronary arteries. These images can help doctors diagnose and treat various heart conditions, such as blockages or narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to chest pain or heart attacks. It is also known as coronary arteriography or cardiac catheterization.

The external carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the structures of the head and neck, excluding the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, then divides into several branches that supply various regions of the head and neck, including the face, scalp, ears, and neck muscles.

The external carotid artery has eight branches:

1. Superior thyroid artery: Supplies blood to the thyroid gland, larynx, and surrounding muscles.
2. Ascending pharyngeal artery: Supplies blood to the pharynx, palate, and meninges of the brain.
3. Lingual artery: Supplies blood to the tongue and floor of the mouth.
4. Facial artery: Supplies blood to the face, nose, lips, and palate.
5. Occipital artery: Supplies blood to the scalp and muscles of the neck.
6. Posterior auricular artery: Supplies blood to the ear and surrounding muscles.
7. Maxillary artery: Supplies blood to the lower face, nasal cavity, palate, and meninges of the brain.
8. Superficial temporal artery: Supplies blood to the scalp, face, and temporomandibular joint.

The external carotid artery is an essential structure for maintaining adequate blood flow to the head and neck, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious medical conditions such as stroke or tissue necrosis.

Autologous transplantation is a medical procedure where cells, tissues, or organs are removed from a person, stored and then returned back to the same individual at a later time. This is different from allogeneic transplantation where the tissue or organ is obtained from another donor. The term "autologous" is derived from the Greek words "auto" meaning self and "logos" meaning study.

In autologous transplantation, the patient's own cells or tissues are used to replace or repair damaged or diseased ones. This reduces the risk of rejection and eliminates the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are required in allogeneic transplants to prevent the body from attacking the foreign tissue.

Examples of autologous transplantation include:

* Autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, where stem cells are removed from the patient's blood or bone marrow, stored and then reinfused back into the same individual after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to treat cancer.
* Autologous skin grafting, where a piece of skin is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another area on the same person.
* Autologous chondrocyte implantation, where cartilage cells are harvested from the patient's own knee, cultured in a laboratory and then implanted back into the knee to repair damaged cartilage.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

Equipment failure is a term used in the medical field to describe the malfunction or breakdown of medical equipment, devices, or systems that are essential for patient care. This can include simple devices like syringes and thermometers, as well as complex machines such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and imaging equipment.

Equipment failure can have serious consequences for patients, including delayed or inappropriate treatment, injury, or even death. It is therefore essential that medical equipment is properly maintained, tested, and repaired to ensure its safe and effective operation.

There are many potential causes of equipment failure, including:

* Wear and tear from frequent use
* Inadequate cleaning or disinfection
* Improper handling or storage
* Power supply issues
* Software glitches or bugs
* Mechanical failures or defects
* Human error or misuse

To prevent equipment failure, healthcare facilities should have established policies and procedures for the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of medical equipment. Staff should be trained in the proper use and handling of equipment, and regular inspections and testing should be performed to identify and address any potential issues before they lead to failure.

Thromboembolism is a medical condition that refers to the obstruction of a blood vessel by a thrombus (blood clot) that has formed elsewhere in the body and then been transported by the bloodstream to a narrower vessel, where it becomes lodged. This process can occur in various parts of the body, leading to different types of thromboembolisms:

1. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A thrombus forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs or pelvis, and then breaks off and travels to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
2. Pulmonary Embolism (PE): A thrombus formed elsewhere, often in the deep veins of the legs, dislodges and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and potentially life-threatening complications if not treated promptly.
3. Cerebral Embolism: A thrombus formed in another part of the body, such as the heart or carotid artery, dislodges and travels to the brain, causing a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Arterial Thromboembolism: A thrombus forms in an artery and breaks off, traveling to another part of the body and blocking blood flow to an organ or tissue, leading to potential damage or loss of function. Examples include mesenteric ischemia (intestinal damage due to blocked blood flow) and retinal artery occlusion (vision loss due to blocked blood flow in the eye).

Prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing thromboembolism and reducing the risk of severe complications.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

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A popliteal artery aneurysm is a bulging (aneurysm) of the popliteal artery. A PAA is diagnosed when a focal dilation greater ... "Popliteal Artery Aneurysm". Vasculardoc.com. Retrieved 5 October 2014. Kassem, Mohammed M.; Gonzalez, Lorena (2020), "Popliteal ... The popliteal fossa is to be examined bilaterally with the knee in a semi-flexed position. In some 60% of cases, the popliteal ... the normal diameter of a popliteal artery is 0.7-1.1 cm). PAAs are the most common aneurysm of peripheral vasculature, ...
The popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is an uncommon pathology that occurs when the popliteal artery is compressed by ... Popliteal artery thrombosis. Popliteal artery stenosis. Limbs amputation. Nonetheless, the course of PAES is often slow and ... Flow velocities in the popliteal artery will increase, as the popliteal artery is compressed, which is reflected on the DU. If ... "Evaluation of popliteal arteries with CT angiography in popliteal artery entrapment syndrome". Hippokratia. 13 (1): 32-37. ISSN ...
Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome; Chronic venous insufficiency. Poor diet or malabsorption disease resulting in ... and coronary artery disease (8.3%). They may have a pseudoathletic appearance of muscle hypertrophy, particularly of the legs, ...
Those vessels become the popliteal vessels (popliteal artery and popliteal vein) immediately after they leave the hiatus, where ... relationship between the adductor hiatus and the popliteal artery can also contribute to a condition called popliteal artery ... Popliteal artery can also be damaged by the fracture of distal femur. Abnormality in the ... Schema of the arteries arising from the external iliac and femoral arteries. Adductor hiatus is seen as hole in the adductor ...
Day C, Orme R (2006). "Popliteal artery branching patterns -- an angiographic study". Clin Radiol. 61 (8): 696-9. doi:10.1016/j ... So the artery that runs near the smaller leg bone had two names: the peroneal artery and the fibular artery. The term fibula ... The fibular artery arises from the bifurcation of tibial-fibular trunk into the fibular and posterior tibial arteries in the ... In anatomy, the fibular artery, also known as the peroneal artery, supplies blood to the lateral compartment of the leg. It ...
It travels on the medial side of the popliteal artery. It is superficial to the popliteal artery. As it ascends through the ... Veins that correspond to branches given off by the popliteal artery (see popliteal artery). the small saphenous vein, which ... The popliteal vein may be doubled in up to 35% of people. The popliteal vein drains blood from the leg. The popliteal vein is ... It travels medial to the popliteal artery, and becomes the femoral vein. It drains blood from the leg. It can be assessed using ...
... and enters the popliteal fossa; it then descends upon the popliteal artery, as far as the back part of the knee-joint, where it ... It gives filaments to the popliteal artery. Chung, Kyung Won (2012). Gross anatomy. Harold M. Chung (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA ... or passes through the opening which transmits the femoral artery, ... perforates the oblique popliteal ligament, and is distributed to the synovial membrane. ...
"A new diagnostic approach to popliteal artery entrapment syndrome". Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences. 62 (3): 226-229. doi ... Mesenteric artery dissection may limit the blood supply to the intestines. Renal artery dissections can decrease blood flow to ... Arterial diseases can affect one or multiple layers of the artery wall. The aorta is the largest artery in the body, and the ... Coronary artery disease involves the arteries supplying blood to heart muscle. Coronary ischemia results in myocardial ...
The most commonly affected vessel is the popliteal artery. The cause is unknown. The definitive diagnosis comes from ... "Clinical evaluation and MR imaging features of popliteal artery entrapment and cystic adventitial disease". AJR. American ... Kim, SH; Lee, CE; Park, HO; Kim, JW; Choi, JY; Lee, JH (April 2013). "Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral artery: ... is a rare type of non-atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease. It can present as claudication, critical limb ischemia or ...
The oblique popliteal ligament forms part of the floor of the popliteal fossa;[citation needed] the popliteal artery lies upon ... the middle genicular artery, and the middle genicular vein.[citation needed] The oblique popliteal ligament may be damaged, ... The oblique popliteal ligament is formed as a lateral expansion of the tendon of the semimembranosus muscle and represents one ... The oblique popliteal ligament (posterior ligament) is a broad, flat, fibrous ligament on the posterior knee. It is an ...
The legs, including the popliteal arteries. The kidney, including renal artery aneurysms and intraparenchymal aneurysms. ... It consists of passing a catheter into the femoral artery in the groin, through the aorta, into the brain arteries, and finally ... Once the dye is injected into a vein, it travels to the cerebral arteries, and images are created using a CT scan. These images ... A person with a mycotic aneurysm has a bacterial infection in the wall of an artery, resulting in the formation of an aneurysm ...
... popliteal vein popliteal artery, a continuation of the femoral artery small saphenous vein (termination) Popliteal lymph nodes ... The popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries. Nerves of the right lower extremity Posterior view. Muscles of thigh. ... the popliteal fascia. The floor is formed by: the popliteal surface of the femur. the capsule of the knee joint and the oblique ... The popliteal fossa (also referred to as hough,[1] or kneepit in analogy to the cubital fossa) is a shallow depression located ...
The popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries. Back of left lower extremity. Semitendinosus muscle Semitendinosus ... and ends a little below the middle of the thigh in a long round tendon which lies along the medial side of the popliteal fossa ...
... the perforating branches of the profunda femoris artery, the inferior gluteal artery, and the popliteal artery. Both heads of ... The popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries. Nerves of the right lower extremity Posterior view. Back of left lower ... The muscle's vascular supply is derived from the anastomoses of several arteries: ...
The popliteal, posterior tibial, and fibular arteries. Back of left lower extremity. Fibularis brevis muscle Muscles of the ...
The popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries. Knee and tibiofibular joint.Deep dissection. Anterior view. Knee and ...
The popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries. Muscles of the back of the leg. Deep layer. Muscles of the back of the ... Blood is supplied to the muscle by the posterior tibial artery. The tibialis posterior muscle is supplied by the tibial nerve. ...
The popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries. Back of left lower extremity. Semimembranosus muscle Semimembranosus ... forming part of the oblique popliteal ligament of the knee-joint; a second is continued downward to the fascia which covers the ... The muscle overlaps the upper part of the popliteal vessels. The semimembranosus muscle originates by a thick tendon from the ... "Muscles that form the superficial boundaries of the popliteal fossa." knee/surface/surface4 at the Dartmouth Medical School's ...
The posterior tibial artery arises from the popliteal artery in the popliteal fossa. It is accompanied by a deep vein, the ... The posterior tibial artery gives rise to: medial plantar artery. lateral plantar artery. fibular artery, which is said to rise ... The posterior tibial artery of the lower limb is an artery that carries blood to the posterior compartment of the leg and ... Major arteries of the leg (posterior view). The plantar arteries. Deep view. Jacob, S. (2008-01-01), Jacob, S. (ed.), "Chapter ...
... from the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery is a branch of the popliteal artery. It originates at the distal end of ... Anterior tibial artery is labeled at the bottom. Anterior tibial artery Anterior tibial artery Anterior tibial artery Jacob, S ... artery muscular branches anterior medial malleolar artery anterior lateral malleolar artery dorsalis pedis artery As the artery ... The anterior tibial artery is an artery of the leg. It carries blood to the anterior compartment of the leg and dorsal surface ...
The femoral artery runs along the thigh and extends to become the popliteal artery which runs posteriorly to the knee and femur ... Smaller arteries carry blood supply from the popliteal artery to the calf and into the foot. Blockages caused by plaque build- ... Standard popliteal bypass surgery involves the bypass of the popliteal artery. During surgery, incisions are made depending on ... Popliteal bypass surgery is a common type of peripheral bypass surgery which carries blood from the femoral artery of the thigh ...
The medial superior genicular artery is a branch of the popliteal artery. It runs deep to the semimembranosus, semitendinosus, ... and anastomosing with the lateral superior genicular artery. The medial superior genicular artery is frequently of small size, ... "Medial superior genicular artery". Yahoo! Health. Retrieved 21 October 2012. Sinnatamby, Chummy (2011). Last's Anatomy (12th ed ... anastomosing with the highest genicular and medial inferior genicular arteries; the other ramifies close to the surface of the ...
Nair, R.; Abdool-Carrim, A. T.; Robbs, J. V. (2000). "Gunshot injuries of the popliteal artery - Nair - 2000 - BJS - Wiley ... The neck contains the larynx, trachea, pharynx, esophagus, vasculature (carotid, subclavian, and vertebral arteries; jugular, ... especially arteries. The degree of tissue disruption caused by a projectile is related to the cavitation the projectile creates ...
Asked if he was wounded, Johnston replied "Yes, and I fear seriously." Johnston bled to death from a torn popliteal artery in ...
The middle genicular artery (azygos articular artery) is a small branch of the popliteal artery. It supplies parts of the knee ... The middle genicular artery (MGA) arises from the anterolateral surface of the popliteal artery. This point of origin is distal ... The angle at which the middle genicular artery leaves the popliteal artery varies with flexion and extension of the knee. It ... the MGA may emerge from the popliteal artery at a common point of origin shared with the superior lateral genicular artery, or ...
Another is between the popliteal artery and the posterior surface of the knee-joint. It receives afferents from the knee-joint ... The popliteal lymph nodes, small in size and some six or seven in number, are embedded in the fat contained in the popliteal ... together with those that accompany the genicular arteries. The others lie at the sides of the popliteal vessels, and receive, ... The efferents of the popliteal lymph nodes pass almost entirely alongside the femoral vessels to the deep inguinal lymph nodes ...
"Efficacious use of nitinol stents in the femoral and popliteal arteries". Journal of Vascular Surgery. 38 (6): 1178-1184. doi: ... February 2016). "Hemodynamics in Idealized Stented Coronary Arteries: Important Stent Design Considerations". Annals of ... Bioresorbable stent Bronchoscopy Colonoscopy Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Grommet Interventional radiology Multi-artery Center ... "A multi-artery fractional flow reserve (FFR) approach for handling coronary stenosis-stenosis interaction in the multi-vessel ...
The femoral artery itself crosses the adductor hiatus to enter the posterior compartment at the level of the popliteal fossa, ... This crossing marks the point in which the vessel changes its name to popliteal artery. As with any other fascial compartment, ... giving the cited terminal branches close to the superior angle of the popliteal fossa. The arteries that supply the posterior ... The depression at the back of the knee, or kneepit is the popliteal fossa, colloquially called the ham. The tendons of the ...
Anatomical abnormalities involving the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle result in popliteal artery entrapment syndrome. In a ... Animation Nerves, arteries and veins surrounding the gastrocnemius and soleus. Muscle layer under the gastrocnemius Cross ...
... which may kink the popliteal artery. The popliteal artery is the continuation of the femoral artery. It exits the popliteal ... Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome Popliteal artery Muscles of thigh. Lateral view. Popliteal fossa Anastamosis Moore K.L. ... The branches of the popliteal artery are: anterior tibial artery. posterior tibial artery. sural artery. medial superior ... Popliteal pulse: Because the popliteal artery is deep, it may be difficult to feel the popliteal pulse. Palpation of this pulse ...
Popliteal artery occlusive disease is a common occurrence, especially in elderly patients, smokers, and those with diabetes ... Popliteal artery aneurysm. The exact cause of popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) is not known. [6] Molecular studies suggest that ... The popliteal artery sits on the posterior aspect of the leg, in the popliteal fossa. The superficial femoral artery becomes ... encoded search term (Popliteal Artery Occlusive Disease) and Popliteal Artery Occlusive Disease What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Popliteal artery aneurysm Articles Case Reports Symptoms Treatment, United States. ...
Contemporary Treatment of Popliteal Artery Aneurysms in 14 Countries: A Vascunet Report. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › ... Contemporary Treatment of Popliteal Artery Aneurysms in 14 Countries: A Vascunet Report Forlagets udgivne version, 941 KB, PDF- ... Objective: Popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) is the second most common arterial aneurysm. Vascunet is an international ...
release popliteal artery entrapment. Not sure what code to use; basically the surgeon resects the gastrocnemius muscle to ... decompress popliteal artery. Not sure of what CPT® code to use. I looked at 27601, but unsure. Any help greatly appreciated. ...
Normal pedal pulses in a popliteal artery thrombosis after a trampoline-associated knee dislocation: a case report ... A limb-threatening complication of popliteal artery thrombosis occurring in association with a palpable dorsalis pedis pulse ... Normal pedal pulses in a popliteal artery thrombosis after a trampoline-associated knee dislocation: a case report ... after a traumatic knee dislocation is absolutely mandatory for the early recognition and management of popliteal artery ...
... angioplasty of a stenosis of the popliteal artery was performed after two years. However, occlusion of the artery occurred two ... angioplasty of a stenosis of the popliteal artery was performed after two years. However, occlusion of the artery occurred two ... The popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES), a rare cause for leg ischemia, is usually treated by surgical removal of the ... The popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES), a rare cause for leg ischemia, is usually treated by surgical removal of the ...
March 3, 2022 10:50 am Published by Kinepict ...
... or infrapopliteal arteries. Because chronic atherosclerotic disease may result in acute circulatory compromise, acute arterial ... Chronic total occlusions of common femoral artery or superficial femoral artery (,20 cm, involving the popliteal artery) ... Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome. Intermittent claudication occurring in younger persons (from the teens to approximately ... Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery. Report of 1 case and review of the literature. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). ...
The popliteal artery is the direct continuation of the superficial femoral artery in the popliteal fossa as the vessel courses ... Course of Popliteal Artery. Femoral artery, a continuation of the external iliac artery is the main artery of the lower limb. ... Branches of Popliteal Artery. The branches of the popliteal artery are. Apart from main divisions of the anterior tibial artery ... The popliteal artery is the deepest or anteriormost structure in the popliteal fossa and the artery runs in close proximity to ...
... is a rare vascular condition that occurs when the popliteal artery - the main source of blood below the knee - becomes ... Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare vascular condition that affects the legs. It occurs when the popliteal ... During this surgery, an incision is made behind the knee to access the popliteal artery, and the muscle, tendon or band causing ... For more details on popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, refer to her publications:. *Campbell D, Andraska E, Rectenwald J, ...
... and popliteal artery conductance (1/popliteal artery resistance) was calculated from MAP and popliteal artery blood flow. Means ... than UT and that FMD would be related to popliteal artery blood flow variability. Resting, prone popliteal artery blood flow ( ... Mean resting popliteal artery blood flow was similar between groups (43.9 ml/min TR vs. 56.8 ml/min UT; p = 0.15). Popliteal ... Resting popliteal artery blood flow variability was not related to maximum FMD, but was moderately correlated to resting ...
Remote suturing for percutaneous closure of popliteal artery access. Creators Name:. Hoffmann, K. and Schott, U. and Erb, M. ...
Kulkarni, Swapnali Shamkuwar Vasudha, "Anatomical Study of Genicular Branches of Popliteal Artery" (2023). KCACON 2023. 27. ...
A popliteal aneurysm was suspected and an urgent CT Scan was carried out which showed a ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm of ... The popliteal artery accounts for more than two-thirds of all peripheral aneurysms. They are more common in men over 65 years ... Popliteal artery aneurysms are asymptomatic in almost half the cases. They usually present as a result of complication, ... Rupture Saccular Aneurysm of the Popliteal Artery. A Nisar, J Shabbir, M Tubassum, E Kavanagh, J Crotty, P Grace, P Burke ...
Proximity of the Popliteal Artery to the PCL During Simulated Knee Arthroscopy. Journal of Knee Surgery. 2006 Jan 1;19(3):181- ... Proximity of the Popliteal Artery to the PCL During Simulated Knee Arthroscopy. In: Journal of Knee Surgery. 2006 ; Vol. 19, No ... Kramer, D. E., Bahk, M. S., Totty, W. G., Matava, M. J., & Cosgarea, A. J. (2006). Proximity of the Popliteal Artery to the PCL ... Proximity of the Popliteal Artery to the PCL During Simulated Knee Arthroscopy. / Kramer, Dennis E.; Bahk, Michael S.; Totty, ...
Fatty deposits can build up inside the arteries and block blood flow. ... Fatty deposits can build up inside the arteries and block blood flow. ... peripheral arteries; Iliac artery - angioplasty; Femoral artery - angioplasty; Popliteal artery - angioplasty; Tibial artery - ... Angioplasty uses a medical "balloon" to widen blocked arteries. The balloon presses against the inside wall of the artery to ...
Surgeon-performed duplex ultrasound facilitates diagnosis and management of blunt popliteal artery injury. / Gelbard, Rondi B. ... Surgeon-performed duplex ultrasound facilitates diagnosis and management of blunt popliteal artery injury. In: American Surgeon ... Surgeon-performed duplex ultrasound facilitates diagnosis and management of blunt popliteal artery injury. American Surgeon. ... title = "Surgeon-performed duplex ultrasound facilitates diagnosis and management of blunt popliteal artery injury", ...
Popliteal vein displacement by popliteal artery aneurysms: Report of two cases. / Sprayregen, S. In: American Journal of ... Popliteal vein displacement by popliteal artery aneurysms: Report of two cases. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1979;132(5): ... Sprayregen, S. / Popliteal vein displacement by popliteal artery aneurysms : Report of two cases. In: American Journal of ... Sprayregen, S. (1979). Popliteal vein displacement by popliteal artery aneurysms: Report of two cases. American Journal of ...
Lumped Parameter Modelling in Femoral Popliteal Artery for Normal and Severe Conditions Authors. * Asrizan Kaha ... femoral popliteal artery, lumped parameter, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, 0-dimensional model, electrical analog model Abstract. ... Lumped Parameter Modelling in Femoral Popliteal Artery for Normal and Severe Conditions. International Journal of Integrated ... Thus, this study aims to develop numerical modelling in femoropopliteal artery by constructing an electric analog models to the ...
The feasibility of using a compressed interwoven Supera stent as a flow diverting device for popliteal aneurysms was recently ... In reality, the popliteal artery is subject to motion which could reform the stent configuration and thereby alter the ... Endovascular treatment of popliteal artery aneurysms: results of a prospective cohort study. J Vasc Surg. 2005;41(4):561. ... The pulsatile flow in the popliteal artery generated distinct flow features in the straight and bent models. In the straight ...
... assigned patients with claudication or ischemic lower-extremity pain at rest and superficial femoral or popliteal artery ... Drug-Eluting Resorbable Scaffold Beats Angioplasty for Infrapopliteal Artery Disease * AF Tied to 45% Increase in Mild ... Diseases & Conditions Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Guidelines * 2001/viewarticle/defining-difficult-treat-inflammatory-bowel ... The international Chocolate Touch Study, which compared the two devices in 313 patients with symptomatic peripheral artery ...
The brachial artery continues from the axillary artery at the shoulder and travels down the underside of the arm. ... The brachial artery is a major blood vessel located in the upper arm and is the main supplier of blood to the arm and hand. ... Popliteal artery. Medically reviewed by the Healthline Medical Network. The popliteal artery branches off from the femoral ... superior ulnar arteries. The brachial arterys pulse can be felt on the elbows front side. This is why blood pressure is ...
Common Iliac Artery to Below-Knee Popliteal Artery Bypass via Obturator Foramen in a Third-Time Reoperative Groin for Limb ... "Common Iliac Artery to Below-Knee Popliteal Artery Bypass via Obturator Foramen in a Third-Time Reoperative Groin for Limb ...
Femoral Artery, Popliteal Artery, Anatomy, Varus Alignment, Valgus Alignment, Knee Abstract. Objectives: This study aimed to ... Femoral and Popliteal Artery Pathway in Varus and valgus aligned lower limb; a CT Angiographic study Authors. * Seyed Morteza ... Olewnik Ł, Łabętowicz P, Podgórski M, Polguj M, Ruzik K, Topol M. Variations in terminal branches of the popliteal artery: ... Distance of the femoral and popliteal artery to specific bony landmarks in thigh and knee was measured. ...
patency in femoro-popliteal segment of the artery using remote endarterectomy.. Material and methods. The group of 16 patients ... patency in femoro-popliteal segment of the artery using remote endarterectomy.. Material and methods. The group of 16 patients ... the full femoro-popliteal patency rate.. Conclusions. The procedure of patency restoration in the superficial femoral artery, ... the full femoro-popliteal patency rate.. Conclusions. The procedure of patency restoration in the superficial femoral artery, ...
Popliteal artery stenting in the peripheral arterial disease of the lower extremity treatment - assessment of the effectiveness ... 9. Goltz JP, Ritter CO, Kellersmann R et al.: Endovascular treatment of popliteal artery segments P1 and P2 in patients with ... Material and methods. Between March 2012 and October 2015, 24 patients with popliteal artery lesions underwent angioplasty with ... Before the advent of the new devices, the results of the popliteal artery stent implantation were unfavorable. Tigris® Vascular ...
The pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to PVD are similar to those of coronary artery disease (CAD). ... Lower extremities are evaluated over the femoral, popliteal, dorsalis pedis, and posterior tibial arteries. ... Renal Artery Stenoses. Atherosclerotic disease that causes stenosis of more than 50% in at least 1 renal artery is encountered ... Carotid artery disease. A diagnosis of carotid artery disease by means of physical examination alone is probably inaccurate. ...
Our algorithmic approach helps differentiate popliteal cysts from aggressive mimics. Learn more in our case series. ... Identifying and managing cystic lesions in the popliteal fossa: ... 5. Thrombosed Popliteal Artery Aneurysm. Popliteal artery is ... popliteal artery and vein thrombosis) [4] [5] .. In this article, we review the chief US and MR characteristics of popliteal ... Thrombosed popliteal artery aneurysm. (a) T2 axial; (b) T2 fat sat axial sequences. ...
FDA-approved for the SFA and full popliteal artery. * Longest lesion length indication (up to 240 mm)¹ ...
  • Popliteal aneurysm and hemorrhage: A popliteal aneurysm (abnormal dilation of all or part of the popliteal artery) usually causes edema and pain in the popliteal fossa. (wikipedia.org)
  • A popliteal aneurysm may be distinguished from other masses by palpable pulsations (thrills) and abnormal arterial sounds (bruits) detectable with a stethoscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the artery lies deep to the tibial nerve, an aneurysm may stretch the nerve or compress its blood supply (see vasa vasorum). (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective: Popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) is the second most common arterial aneurysm. (ku.dk)
  • One patient had an uneventful follow-up of 11 years while the second patient developed a popliteal aneurysm four months after the index procedure. (uzh.ch)
  • However, occlusion of the artery occurred two years later due to a small popliteal aneurysm. (uzh.ch)
  • However, careful follow-up by duplex ultrasound is mandatory because of the high risk of reocclusion or development of a popliteal aneurysm. (uzh.ch)
  • A ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm was discovered on CT scan and an emergency femoropopliteal bypass was performed. (ispub.com)
  • A popliteal aneurysm was suspected and an urgent CT Scan was carried out which showed a ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm of 4cm size involving the proximal popliteal artery (Fig.1&2). (ispub.com)
  • At operation, after evacuation of haematoma a ruptured saccular aneurysm of the proximal popliteal artery was found. (ispub.com)
  • Figure 1: CT image through the adductor canal and proximal popliteal fossa showing active extravasation of contrast-enhanced blood with surrounding aneurysm (PA). (ispub.com)
  • Figure 2: Lateral projection MIP image shows saccular popliteal aneurysm (arrow). (ispub.com)
  • CT is a reliable tool for diagnosis of ruptured popliteal aneurysm 4 and angiography can be time consuming, but is useful in assessing distal run off. (ispub.com)
  • Ligation with or without excision of the aneurysm and bypass grafting has been the gold standard for the treatment of ruptured popliteal aneurysms. (ispub.com)
  • Successful percutaneous endovascular treatment of ruptured popliteal aneurysm. (ispub.com)
  • To assess this flow diverting strategy for popliteal aneurysms, flow profiles and thrombus formation likelihood were investigated in popliteal aneurysm models. (springer.com)
  • Six popliteal aneurysm models were created and integrated into a pulsatile flow set-up. (springer.com)
  • A compressed Supera stent was successfully able to divert flow in a popliteal aneurysm phantom. (springer.com)
  • Clinical case example of a treated popliteal aneurysm. (springer.com)
  • A posterior view of CTA showing bilateral popliteal aneurysm with curved inlet. (springer.com)
  • B and C DSA of right popliteal aneurysm before ( B ) and after ( C ) treatment. (springer.com)
  • Thrombosed Popliteal Aneurysm: Lamellated appearance-high/low signal intensity on T2. (scirp.org)
  • An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a part of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel. (mountsinai.org)
  • An aneurysm is a sac-like protrusion of an artery caused by a weakened area within the vessel wall. (mountsinai.org)
  • The practice also sees patients with comorbidities linked to a high risk of complex vascular and vein disease including those with diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions as a specialist to aid in preventive care, and conducts regular peripheral artery disease, carotid artery disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm screenings for early detection. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • None of the 83 diabetic patients had a popliteal artery aneurysm, compared to 25 (7.9%) of the 316 patients without DM (p = 0.008). (springer.com)
  • It courses through the popliteal fossa and ends at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, where it branches into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deepest (most anterior) structure in the fossa, the popliteal artery runs close to the joint capsule of the knee as it spans the intercondylar fossa. (wikipedia.org)
  • It exits the popliteal fossa under the fibrous arch of the soleus muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pulsations are best felt in the inferior part of the fossa where the popliteal artery is related to the tibia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, because of their proximity and confinement within the fossa, an injury of the artery and vein may result in an arteriovenous fistula (communication between an artery and a vein). (wikipedia.org)
  • The popliteal artery sits on the posterior aspect of the leg, in the popliteal fossa. (medscape.com)
  • The popliteal artery is the direct continuation of the superficial femoral artery in the popliteal fossa as the vessel courses posteriorly behind the knee. (boneandspine.com)
  • In the lower part of the popliteal fossa, it is sandwiched between the gastrocnemius and popliteus muscles. (boneandspine.com)
  • 4. Rizzo RJ, Flinn WR, et al: Computer tomography for evaluation of arterial disease in popliteal fossa. (ispub.com)
  • Below the cubital fossa, the brachial artery divides into two arteries running down the forearm: the ulnar and radial. (healthline.com)
  • Background: Popliteal cysts are common and present as asymptomatic lumps in the medial popliteal fossa. (scirp.org)
  • Conclusion: The cystic lesions in the medial aspect of the popliteal fossa can be misdiagnosed. (scirp.org)
  • Diagnostic imaging approach to posteromedial knee (medial popliteal fossa) masses. (scirp.org)
  • Gently flex the knee and feel for the popliteal pulse by deep palpation in midline in popliteal fossa. (onteenstoday.com)
  • It arises below the popliteal fossa, in the posterior (flexor) compartment of the leg. (onteenstoday.com)
  • The popliteal fossa has the semitendinosus and semimembranosus medially and the biceps femoris laterally. (medscape.com)
  • The tibial nerve is the larger of the 2 divisions and runs in the middle of popliteal fossa passing inferiorly through the 2 heads of the gastrocnemius. (medscape.com)
  • The common peroneal nerve follows the tendon of the bicep femoris along the lateral margin of the popliteal fossa. (medscape.com)
  • The goal of this technique is to spread the local anesthetic inside the sciatic nerve sheath and the popliteal fossa. (nysora.com)
  • But, you really should make your selection not based on what you do best, but what the anatomical configuration of the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa is. (nysora.com)
  • Most of the time the popliteal nerve, the two nerves, the tibial and common peroneal are very superficial in the popliteal fossa. (nysora.com)
  • Dr. Hadzic showing the popliteal fossa crease and anatomic surface points where you will be able to see the sciatic nerve. (nysora.com)
  • all you need to do is to place the transducer at about 2-3 centimeters proximal to the popliteal fossa crease, in between these tendons, usually a little closer to the biceps femoris tendon. (nysora.com)
  • Dr. Hadzic using NYSORA's 3D Anatomy cognitive aids to show the popliteal fossa space where we can see the two nerves, the tibial nerve, and common peroneal nerve, to inject the local anesthetic. (nysora.com)
  • Now, the sweet spot for this nerve block is when you start acquiring images just above the popliteal fossa crease, and then you move your transducer more proximally. (nysora.com)
  • Fullness in the popliteal fossa suggests hematoma or popliteal artery injury. (msdmanuals.com)
  • place ultrasound probe in the popliteal fossa in the crease. (medscape.com)
  • Landmarks for the prone approach are the popliteal fossa, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. (medscape.com)
  • Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome Popliteal artery Muscles of thigh. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to atherosclerosis , popliteal artery occlusive disease can be caused by emboli, popliteal entrapment syndrome, cystic adventitial disease, and trauma. (medscape.com)
  • The anatomic proximity of the popliteal artery to the distal femur and gastrocnemius makes this artery susceptible to injury during femoral fracture or knee dislocation and entrapment syndrome, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • The popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES), a rare cause for leg ischemia, is usually treated by surgical removal of the compressing structure and either venous bypass or interposition graft. (uzh.ch)
  • Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare vascular condition that affects the legs. (umcvc.org)
  • Michigan Medicine's multidisciplinary vascular team includes vascular surgeons, nurse practitioners and sports medicine specialists with expertise in diagnosis and treatment of patients with popliteal artery entrapment syndrome. (umcvc.org)
  • Intravascular ultrasound as a novel tool for the diagnosis and targeted treatment of functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome. (umcvc.org)
  • Posteriorly: The popliteal vein and the tibial nerve, fascia, and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medially: The semimembranosus and the medial condyle of femur in upper part, and tibial nerve, popliteal vein, medial head of gastrocnemius in lower part. (wikipedia.org)
  • It lies posterior to the distal femur and anterior to the popliteal vein. (medscape.com)
  • Below, the tibial nerve, the popliteal vein, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius. (boneandspine.com)
  • For these patients, bypass surgery is performed using either a vein or synthetic graft to bypass the blocked section of the artery to create a new pathway for blood to reach the lower leg. (umcvc.org)
  • Sprayregen, S 1979, ' Popliteal vein displacement by popliteal artery aneurysms: Report of two cases ', American Journal of Roentgenology , vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 838-839. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The artery supplies oxygen-rich blood to the front and middle areas of the thigh while the lateral circumflex femoral vein drains the oxygen-depleted blood and then returns it to the lungs and heart for recirculation through the body. (healthline.com)
  • Dr. Garrido is a vascular surgeon with Advanced Vascular and Vein Associates , a private practice outside of Jackson, Miss. He treats all types of vein and artery conditions - from deep vein thrombosis and peripheral artery disease to chronic venous insufficiency and diabetic vascular disease, including diabetic wounds. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • They are lateral and superficial to the popliteal artery and vein in a separate sheath. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Hadzic showing the tibial nerve, the common peroneal nerve, and the popliteal artery in the popliteal vein and how the injection will take place in this space. (nysora.com)
  • In another perspective, we can see the tibial nerve, the common peroneal nerve, and the popliteal artery in the popliteal vein. (nysora.com)
  • This study aimed to compare the femoral and popliteal arteries pathway in varus and valgus- aligned lower limbs. (jocms.org)
  • As the only commercially available bare metal stent FDA-approved for the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries, the LifeStent™ Vascular Stent has a history of proven performance. (bd.com)
  • The translumbar aortography demonstrated a typical picture of ergotism with bilateral and segmental vasospasm affecting the deep and superficial femoral and popliteal arteries. (erowid.org)
  • Five genicular branches of the popliteal artery supply the capsule and ligaments of the knee joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • They participate in the formation of the periarticular genicular anastomosis, a network of vessels surrounding the knee that provides collateral circulation capable of maintaining blood supply to the leg during full knee flexion, which may kink the popliteal artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anteriorly: The popliteal surface of the femur, the knee joint, and the popliteus muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The middle genicular artery supplies the cruciate ligaments and the synovial membrane of knee joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palpation of this pulse is commonly performed with the person in the prone position with the knee flexed to relax the popliteal fascia and hamstrings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the artery is closely applied to the popliteal surface of the femur and the joint capsule, fractures of the distal femur or dislocations of the knee may rupture the artery, resulting in hemorrhage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with the superficial femoral artery, the popliteal artery is not located within the muscular compartment and is subjected to significant biomechanical torsional forces related to the repetitive knee flexion and extension. (medscape.com)
  • At the level of the knee, the popliteal artery gives off genicular and sural branches. (medscape.com)
  • Above the knee joint, it gives off the superior lateral and superior medial genicular arteries. (medscape.com)
  • Below the knee, it gives off the inferior lateral and the inferior medial genicular arteries. (medscape.com)
  • The frequent observation of the distal pulses at regular intervals after a traumatic knee dislocation is absolutely mandatory for the early recognition and management of popliteal artery thrombosis. (bmj.com)
  • A limb-threatening complication of popliteal artery thrombosis occurring in association with a palpable dorsalis pedis pulse after a trampoline-related knee dislocation is reported here to emphasise some important teaching points. (bmj.com)
  • Also called inferior muscular arteries, these are two large branches, which arise opposite the knee joint and supply to the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris. (boneandspine.com)
  • Superior genicular arteries , two in number, arise one on either side of the popliteal, and wind around the femur immediately above its condyles to the front of the knee joint. (boneandspine.com)
  • Middle genicular artery is a small branch, arising opposite the back of the knee joint. (boneandspine.com)
  • Genicular arteries , apart from supplying structures around the knee, create anastomosis around the knee called circumpatellar anastomosis. (boneandspine.com)
  • It occurs when the popliteal artery - the dominant source of blood supply to the leg below the knee - becomes compressed by a muscle, tendon or band behind the knee. (umcvc.org)
  • Computed tomographic angiography (CTA), which uses dye to identify areas around the knee with poor blood flow or narrowed arteries. (umcvc.org)
  • During this surgery, an incision is made behind the knee to access the popliteal artery, and the muscle, tendon or band causing the compression is relieved. (umcvc.org)
  • The results of this study provide the arthroscopist working in the posterior compartments of the knee with a more detailed knowledge of the anatomic relationship between the PCL and popliteal artery. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Common Iliac Artery to Below-Knee Popliteal Artery Bypass via Obturato" by Brittaney Pratt, Jamie Thompson et al. (gwu.edu)
  • Distance of the femoral and popliteal artery to specific bony landmarks in thigh and knee was measured. (jocms.org)
  • Case-Presentation: Popliteal Cyst: On ultrasound: characteristic neck communicating with knee joint. (scirp.org)
  • The differential diagnosis of posterior knee lesions is broad and includes cystic lesions (other bursae, meniscal cysts, ganglion cysts and popliteal cysts). (scirp.org)
  • Arising from the popliteal artery behind the knee, the posterior tibial artery (PTA) delivers oxygenated blood to the posterior compartment of the lower leg as well as the plantar surface of the foot (the flat portion between the heel and the ball of the foot). (onteenstoday.com)
  • Popliteal aneurysms rarely rupture but can be associated with high limb amputation rates1. (ispub.com)
  • The popliteal artery accounts for more than two-thirds of all peripheral aneurysms. (ispub.com)
  • Popliteal artery aneurysms are asymptomatic in almost half the cases. (ispub.com)
  • Rupture of popliteal aneurysms is a rare presentation with a reported incidence of 2.5% in the largest reported series 1 . (ispub.com)
  • Downing et al showed that only 26% of symptomatic popliteal aneurysms were diagnosed by general practitioners, although 94% of these were easily palpable 3 . (ispub.com)
  • In a selected series of 3046 popliteal aneurysms, a rupture rate of 2.5% and limb amputation rate of 27.5% has been reported 1 . (ispub.com)
  • 2. Vermillon BD, Dimmins SA, Pace WG, et al: A review of one-hundred fourty seven popliteal aneurysms with long-term follow up. (ispub.com)
  • 3. Downing R, Grimley R et al: Problems in diagnosis of popliteal aneurysms. (ispub.com)
  • The feasibility of using a compressed interwoven Supera stent as a flow diverting device for popliteal aneurysms was recently demonstrated in patients. (springer.com)
  • It is unclear, however, what the optimal flow diverting strategy is, because of the fusiform shape of popliteal aneurysms and their exposure to triphasic flow. (springer.com)
  • It travels vertically downward to the lower border of the popliteus muscle, where it divides into anterior and posterior tibial arteries. (boneandspine.com)
  • Lower extremities are evaluated over the femoral, popliteal, dorsalis pedis, and posterior tibial arteries. (medscape.com)
  • Olewnik Ł, Łabętowicz P, Podgórski M, Polguj M, Ruzik K, Topol M. Variations in terminal branches of the popliteal artery: cadaveric study. (jocms.org)
  • Kim Bengochea, Regis University, Denver The anterior tibial artery is one of the terminal branches of the popliteal artery. (onteenstoday.com)
  • It separates into its terminal branches about 6 cm proximal to the popliteal crease into the tibial nerve and the common peroneal nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Superficial and lateral to the artery is the tibial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • PA=Popliteal artery, PN=Common Peroneal nerve, TN=Tibial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The popliteal artery is a deeply placed continuation of the femoral artery opening in the distal portion of the adductor magnus muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the femoral artery must be ligated, blood can bypass the occlusion through the genicular anastomosis and reach the popliteal artery distal to the ligation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endovascular revascularization followed by surgical release of the artery may be a viable alternative in the treatment of PAES especially in cases with distal embolization. (uzh.ch)
  • Because of the poor quality of the distal arteries, vascular surgery is rarely possible. (medscape.com)
  • A popliteal nerve block is indicated for pain control perioperatively or postoperatively below the patella, the distal two thirds of the lower extremity especially for the ankle or foot but works well for the calf and Achilles tendon. (medscape.com)
  • Distally, there was a tight stenosis in the distal dorsalis pedis artery (Fig. 2). (terumo-europe.com)
  • Popliteal artery injury may initially affect only the intima and thus does not cause distal limb ischemia until the artery later becomes occluded. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Clinical evaluation of the distal pulses cannot completely rule out a popliteal artery injury, even if the pulses are normal over a period of time. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Muscular branches of the popliteal artery supply the hamstring, gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The popliteal artery is located between the two heads of the gastrocnemius. (medscape.com)
  • basically the surgeon resects the gastrocnemius muscle to decompress popliteal artery. (codapedia.com)
  • The inferior genicular arteries (two in number, arise from the popliteal beneath the Gastrocnemius. (boneandspine.com)
  • The communicating neck of the popliteal cyst is along the line of least resistance―between heads of medial gastrocnemius and semimembranosus and is the chief identifying feature of a popliteal cyst. (scirp.org)
  • The cutaneous branches arise either directly by the popliteal artery or indirectly by the muscular branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), in general, have a markedly increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease and mortality. (medscape.com)
  • Our preliminary data suggested there was variability in peripheral blood flow as well and it was predicted that aerobically trained women (TR) would demonstrate greater popliteal artery blood flow variability compared to untrained (UT). (ecu.edu)
  • Symptoms of a blocked peripheral artery are pain, achiness, or heaviness in your leg that starts or gets worse when you walk. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The LifeStent™ Vascular Stent is a peripheral stent intended to improve luminal diameter in the treatment of symptomatic de-novo or restenotic lesions up to 240mm in length in the native superficial femoral artery (SFA) and popliteal artery with reference vessel diameters ranging from 4.0 - 6.5mm. (bd.com)
  • Additionally, improvements in endothelial cell function (ECF) have been associated with exercise training and it was predicted that TR would show greater ECF through flow-mediated dilation (FMD) than UT and that FMD would be related to popliteal artery blood flow variability. (ecu.edu)
  • A 5 min occlusion of the calf was used to induce a hyperemic response in the popliteal artery and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured using Doppler Ultrasound during and following the occlusion period. (ecu.edu)
  • Doppler ultrasound-measured popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation and associated measures (e.g., shear rate, blood velocity) were measured immediately before and immediately after each intervention (sit, stand, and desk pedaling). (cdc.gov)
  • Which artery continues as the dorsalis pedis artery? (onteenstoday.com)
  • Most often, the anterior tibial artery continues as the dorsalis pedis artery. (onteenstoday.com)
  • The anterior tibial artery pulse can be palpated near the origin of the dorsalis pedis artery on the dorsum of the foot lateral to the extensor hallucis longus tendon….Anterior tibial artery. (onteenstoday.com)
  • Between March 2012 and October 2015, 24 patients with popliteal artery lesions underwent angioplasty with a stent implantation. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • We report the follow-up of three patients with PAES and thrombotic occlusion of the popliteal and calf arteries treated by local lysis, percutaneous thrombembolectomy and angioplasty followed by musculotendinous dissection. (uzh.ch)
  • Total occlusion of the popliteal artery was observed in 9 patients. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • A stent is a small, metal mesh tube that keeps the artery open. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A metal stent is often placed across the artery wall to keep the artery from narrowing again. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The stent is left in place to help keep the artery open. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Assessment of the effectiveness and durability of the endovascular treatment with the stent implantation of the popliteal artery lesions. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • Gore ® Tigris ® Vascular Stent is an effective and safe option in the endovascular management of the atherosclerotic lesions in popliteal artery with a satisfactory durability of the treatment. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • The LifeStent™ Vascular Stent is the only FDA-approved stent for the SFA and full popliteal artery. (bd.com)
  • Nitinol Stent Implantation vs. Balloon Angioplasty for Lesions in the Superficial Femoral and Proximal Popliteal Arteries of Patients With Claudication: Three-Year Follow-up From the RESILIENT Randomized Trial. (bd.com)
  • Boston Scientific received FDA approval to introduce its Innova vascular stent in the United States for treating narrowing or occlusions within the superficial femoral or proximal popliteal arteries. (medgadget.com)
  • The nitinol self-expanding bare stent is the foundation of the Eluvia drug-eluting stent designed specifically for the superficial femoral artery. (medgadget.com)
  • In the first year after stenting, approximately 22% of patients experience in-stent restenosis, increasing the risk of artery thrombosis and related complications, and 50% experience liver failure. (bvsalud.org)
  • The branches of the popliteal artery are: anterior tibial artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The superior muscular branches of the popliteal artery have clinically important anastomoses with the terminal part of the deep femoral and gluteal arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • These branches provide a rich network between the superficial femoral artery, the deep femoral (profunda femoris) artery, and the tibial arteries. (medscape.com)
  • The superior muscular branches, two or three in number, arise from the upper part of the artery and are distributed to the lower parts of the adductor magnus and hamstring muscles, anastomosing with the terminal part of the profunda femoris, a branch of the femoral artery. (boneandspine.com)
  • One of the branches of medial superior genicular artery supplies vastus medialis also. (boneandspine.com)
  • Kulkarni, Swapnali Shamkuwar Vasudha, "Anatomical Study of Genicular Branches of Popliteal Artery" (2023). (manipal.edu)
  • These are the two main branches of the brachial artery. (healthline.com)
  • The popliteal artery branches off from the femoral artery. (healthline.com)
  • The sciatic nerve divides into the tibial and common peroneal nerve about 5-12 cm proximal to the popliteal crease. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, the posterior tibial artery proximal to the fibular artery origin is sometimes called the tibial-peroneal trunk or tibial-fibular trunk and it could be said that the popliteal artery bifurcates into the tibial-fibular trunk and anterior tibial artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The superficial femoral artery becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus, and it proceeds until it bifurcates into the anterior tibial artery and the tibioperoneal trunk. (medscape.com)
  • It gives the main branch as the anterior tibial artery and continues as the tibioperoneal or tibiofibular trunk or posterior tibial artery. (boneandspine.com)
  • The anterior tibial artery, passes anteriorly between the tibia and fibula, through a gap in the interosseous membrane. (boneandspine.com)
  • The artery sometimes divides into the anterior tibial and peroneal, the posterior tibial being wanting, or very small. (boneandspine.com)
  • A disadvantage of this approach is the difficulty of bridging a large diameter mismatch between landing zones, as well as overstenting sidebranches, in particular the anterior tibial artery. (springer.com)
  • The lateral femoral circumflex artery supplies oxygenated blood to the anterior (front) and middle portions of the thigh muscles. (healthline.com)
  • The anterior circumflex humeral artery is located near the armpit. (healthline.com)
  • The anterior tibial artery is the smaller terminating branch of the popliteal artery that arises from the lower border of the popliteus muscle. (onteenstoday.com)
  • The anterior tibial artery enters the foot under the inferior extensor retinaculum and runs distally towards the inter-space be- tween the first and second toes. (onteenstoday.com)
  • Can the pulse of the anterior tibial artery be felt in the posterior ankle? (onteenstoday.com)
  • What nerve travels with anterior tibial artery? (onteenstoday.com)
  • Anterior tibial artery travels inferiorly on the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane with the deep fibular nerve. (onteenstoday.com)
  • Anterior tibial artery primarily provides blood to the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg. (onteenstoday.com)
  • Where does the anterior tibial artery carry blood? (onteenstoday.com)
  • Anterior tibial artery From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The anterior tibial artery is an artery of the leg. (onteenstoday.com)
  • It carries blood to the anterior compartment of the leg and dorsal surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery. (onteenstoday.com)
  • The anterior tibial artery is one of the most critical arteries of the lower leg. (onteenstoday.com)
  • Where does the anterior tibial artery supply the dorsalis pedis? (onteenstoday.com)
  • The anterior tibial artery serves as the primary source artery for the dorsalis pedis angiosome in addition to supplying the tissue of the anterior leg from the anterior crest of the tibia to the fibula. (onteenstoday.com)
  • In the third patient, angioplasty of a stenosis of the popliteal artery was performed after two years. (uzh.ch)
  • Superficial femoral artery stenosis causing claudication. (medscape.com)
  • Left subclavian artery stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • Left renal artery stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of superficial femoral artery stenosis, performed with a long balloon via a contralateral femoral approach. (medscape.com)
  • Ultrasound Doppler of the right lower limb identified a mild popliteal artery stenosis. (terumo-europe.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting represent an effective treatment for hepatic artery stenosis after liver transplantation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although angiography is an important tool for diagnosis and the planning of therapeutic interventions, it may raise doubts, especially in small-diameter arteries, and it provides low resolution rates compared with newer intravascular imaging methods, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT). CASE SUMMARY: A 64-year-old male developed hepatic artery stenosis one year after orthotropic liver transplantation and was successfully treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting. (bvsalud.org)
  • Brachial artery systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured simultaneously with blood flow, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was estimated, and popliteal artery conductance (1/popliteal artery resistance) was calculated from MAP and popliteal artery blood flow. (ecu.edu)
  • The brachial artery is a major blood vessel located in the upper arm and is the main supplier of blood to the arm and hand. (healthline.com)
  • The brachial artery continues from the axillary artery at the shoulder and travels down the underside of the arm. (healthline.com)
  • Angioplasty uses a medical "balloon" to widen blocked arteries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The popliteal cysts lack Doppler flow unless they are infected or are inflammatory. (scirp.org)
  • It pierces the oblique popliteal ligament and supplies the ligaments and synovial membrane in the interior of the articulation. (boneandspine.com)
  • The extracapsular ligaments or external ligaments are the patellar ligament, medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral collateral ligament (LCLs), oblique popliteal ligament, and arcuate popliteal ligament. (medscape.com)
  • Near its commencement the artery gives off the peroneal artery which supplies the deep muscles of the calf and the muscles in the lateral compartment and descends along the medial border of the fibula. (onteenstoday.com)
  • The posterior tibial artery supplies oxygenated blood to the posterior compartment of the leg and the plantar surface of the foot. (onteenstoday.com)
  • Popliteal artery occlusive disease is a common occurrence, especially in elderly patients, smokers, and those with diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular diseases. (medscape.com)
  • This collateral circulation is very important in the presence of chronic occlusive disease of the popliteal artery. (medscape.com)
  • However, endovascular revascularization followed by surgery to release the artery has been reported as a feasible alternative. (uzh.ch)
  • The distinctive anatomical features of the popliteal artery, makes this segment particularly challenging for the endovascular treatment. (czytelniamedyczna.pl)
  • Carrick MM, Morrison CA, Pham HQ, Norman MA, Marvin B, Lee J, Wall MJ, Mattox KL " Modern management of traumatic subclavian artery injuries: a single institution's experience in the evolution of endovascular repair. . (bcm.edu)
  • Femoral artery, a continuation of the external iliac artery is the main artery of the lower limb. (boneandspine.com)
  • Popliteal artery injury should be suspected regardless of whether ischemia is evident. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We performed ultrasonography of arterial vessels, which showed atheromatosis of the popliteal artery with very low flow. (cdc.gov)
  • Popliteal artery occlusion and the disease processes leading up to it cause morbidity and mortality by decreasing or completely blocking blood supply through the popliteal artery and into the lower leg and foot. (medscape.com)
  • This compression restricts blood flow to the lower leg and can cause damage to the artery over time. (umcvc.org)
  • Which is the most critical artery in the lower leg? (onteenstoday.com)
  • Karmakar MK, Reina MA, Sivakumar RK, Areeruk P, Pakpirom J, Sala-Blanch X. Ultrasound-guided subparaneural popliteal sciatic nerve block: there is more to it than meets the eyes. (medscape.com)
  • At the popliteal crease, the nerves are midway between skin and bone. (medscape.com)
  • Insert the needle 7-10 cm above the popliteal crease, 1 cm lateral to the point midway between the tendons of the semitendinosus and the biceps femoris. (medscape.com)
  • The popliteal artery is characterized by distinct embryologic and anatomic features as compared with the femoral vessels. (medscape.com)
  • In this article, we review the chief US and MR characteristics of popliteal cysts and some biopsy proven cases of mimics of popliteal cysts in each of the broad categories of cystic tumors, vascular lesions and synovial based cystic lesions. (scirp.org)
  • The tibioperoneal trunk divides into the posterior tibial and peroneal arteries. (medscape.com)
  • Surgeons can use the tourniquet on the calf which would be preferable, but if unable they will have to use the tourniquet on the thigh, and they can combine the long-acting anesthetic for the popliteal sciatic block with a short-acting anesthetic, such as Lidocaine, for the femoral nerve block, which would basically also eliminate tourniquet pain. (nysora.com)
  • In 62.5% of patients (10 people) the procedure was performed without any difficulties in restoring the full femoro-popliteal patency rate. (viamedica.pl)
  • The pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to PVD are similar to those of coronary artery disease (CAD). (medscape.com)
  • Patients do experience moderate discomfort during a popliteal block because the needle traverses through the biceps femoris. (medscape.com)
  • Regardless of the reason for popliteal artery occlusion, intervention is indicated in patients with severe claudication that alters lifestyle and does not respond to medical treatment and in patients with CLI. (medscape.com)
  • The trial, conducted at 34 centers in the United States, Europe, and New Zealand, randomly assigned patients with claudication or ischemic lower-extremity pain at rest and superficial femoral or popliteal artery stenoses of at least 70% severity to DCB intervention with the Chocolate Touch or Lutonix. (medscape.com)
  • After it comes out of adductor hiatus, it is called popliteal artery. (boneandspine.com)