Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Heart Failure, Diastolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).CreatinineAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.United StatesAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Rhabdomyolysis: Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Patient Readmission: Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Mice, Inbred C57BLReference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.MyoglobinuriaBiopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Autonomic Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Spironolactone: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)Hemofiltration: Extracorporeal ULTRAFILTRATION technique without HEMODIALYSIS for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.Ventricular Dysfunction, Right: A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Oliguria: Decreased URINE output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0.5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Ventilator Weaning: Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Cheyne-Stokes Respiration: An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by alternating periods of apnea and deep, rapid breathing. The cycle begins with slow, shallow breaths that gradually increase in depth and rate and is then followed by a period of apnea. The period of apnea can last 5 to 30 seconds, then the cycle repeats every 45 seconds to 3 minutes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
"Georgia should expand Medicaid health care for poor". Myajc.com. 2015-11-12. Retrieved 2016-07-19. "Failure to Thrive: The Blog ... how the poor always seem to be left out in health care reform efforts - started to take shape. A Spirit of Charity, published ... and among poor whites in the Appalachian mountain region of Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia.[citation needed] The report ... documented large differences in health care outcomes and death rates among poor blacks in South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and ...
These babies were usually born small for their age and continue to experience failure to thrive, usually with a final short ... Prognosis is poor; many patients die before the age of 5 (mainly from infections or cirrhosis), although most patients nowadays ... Stankler L, Lloyd D, Pollitt RJ, Gray ES, Thom H, Russell G (March 1982). "Unexplained diarrhoea and failure to thrive in 2 ... The associated malabsorption leads to malnutrition and failure to thrive. It is thought to be a genetic disorder with an ...
It can grow in fairly poor-quality soils, but prefers fertile, moist, well-drained soil. It thrives in full sun. It can be ... Another reason for failure to bloom can be excessive fertilizer (particularly nitrogen). Wisteria has nitrogen fixing ...
A common outcome of medical neglect is failure to thrive in infants and children. This problem arises when a child is deprived ... their chances of having overall poor physical health increases by two-fold. Infants can develop poor physical health if neglect ... Block, R.W. and Krebs, N.F. (2005). Failure to Thrive as a Manifestation of Child Neglect. Pediatrics. (116)5, 1234-1237. ... Neglected children displayed poor self-control and a lack of creativity in solving problem. Standardized tests become a ...
Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) results in poor feeding, failure to thrive, hepatic and renal insufficiency, and death. ... The most common signs are failure to thrive, hepatic insufficiency, cataracts and developmental delay. Long term disabilities ... include poor growth, mental retardation, and ovarian failure in females. Galactosemia is caused by mutations in the gene that ... The failure to effectively use these molecules accounts for the majority of the inborn errors of human carbohydrates metabolism ...
... failure to thrive. Later on, children may develop symptoms related to problems with blood flow and an enlarged heart. They may ... Symptoms may be absent with mild narrowings (coarctation). When present, they include: difficulty breathing, poor appetite or ... Bicuspid aortic valve disease is a big contributor to cardiac failure, which in turn makes up roughly 20% of late deaths to ...
These individuals present with hyperammonemia, poor feeding, failure to thrive and increased excretion of orotic acid. OAT ... Clinically, it presents initially with poor night vision, which slowly progresses to total blindness. It is believed to be ...
In the newborn period, findings include severe neurologic abnormalities, poor feeding, failure to thrive, and hypotonia. ...
Poor feeding, failure to thrive, and rapid shallow breathing may also be observed due to poor circulation. Upon examination, ... Heart failure is often a concern because the inferior vena cava is disrupted due to the inappropriate morphology of the left ... Poor positioning of the intestine also makes it more prone to blockage, which can result in numerous chronic health issues. ... Poor systemic circulation also results due to improper positioning of the aorta. Left atrial appendage isomerism, also called ...
Under poor consumption people are unable to spend and markets cannot thrive. Krugman disputes that although it is necessary to ... Failure to stimulate the economy by public or private sectors will just unnecessarily lengthen the current economic depression ... fiscal cuts and austerity measures just deprive the economy of precious funds that can circulate and add to a poor economy. If ...
Symptoms include low birth weight, failure to thrive, hypoglycemia, distinctive head shape, abnormal growth, clinodactyly, and ... Symptoms include hypotonia, feeding difficulties, delayed development, poor growth, hyperphagia, obesity, learning disabilities ... Failure to do so often leads to symptoms such as cognitive abnormalities, if not fatality. PRC2 (Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 ...
Patients can also have generalized poor hair growth, scarring alopecia, contractures of digits, arthralgias, failure to thrive ... This can lead to hypoventilation and respiratory failure. Patients are often dehydrated, as their plated skin is not well ... News24 (Dec 31, 2014). "21-month-old boy defies the odds, thrives living with Harlequin Ichthyosis". News24. Archived from the ...
... poor feeding and failure to thrive in infancy. Patients with smaller defects may be asymptomatic. Four different septal defects ... Some cases may necessitate surgical intervention, i.e. with the following indications: 1. Failure of congestive cardiac failure ... The defect allows oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to mix with oxygen-poor blood in the right ventricle. Most cases do ... An infant with a large VSD will fail to thrive and become sweaty and tachypnoeic (breathe faster) with feeds. The restrictive ...
The physical signs of protein deficiency include edema, failure to thrive in infants and children, poor musculature, dull skin ...
The patients show failure to thrive, poor appetite, growth retardation, enlarged liver and spleen, prominent osteoporosis and ...
Young children, on the other hand, are generally not only thin but may have "failure to thrive", where growth is reduced. Poor ... If it is impossible to say the sound without fogging a nasal mirror, there is an air leak - reasonable evidence of poor palatal ... This can result in a severe form of congestive heart failure known as cor pulmonale. Dyastolic function of the heart also ... or poor adherence to chemical and or speech therapy treatments. Individuals with decreased muscle tone and increased soft ...
The Genesis was not marketed at first in Europe because of Lexus's failure to thrive in Europe. According to a September 2007 ... "The planned launch of Genesis comes at a time when Hyundai is striving to shake off its poor-brand image, known for generous ... Hyundai sedans have been perceived as having a poor image and unreliable durability compared with its rivals." " ...
It concluded that the Indians' societies could not thrive in the conditions forced onto them, and they should be encouraged to ... The Meriam Report described the failures of the Dawes Act, finding that the overwhelming majority of Indian people on ... reservations were extremely poor, in bad health, living in primitive dwellings, and without adequate employment. ...
... and in serious cases associated with poor feeding, failure to thrive and respiratory distress. Other examination findings may ... and signs of right heart failure may be seen on exam. Pulmonary valve regurgitation presents as a diastolic decrescendo murmur ...
Poor tree selection which leads to problems in the future Poor nursery stock and failure of post-care Limited genetic diversity ... These trees grow more slowly and do not thrive in alien soils whilst smaller specimens can adapt more readily to existing ... Poor soil is used when planting specimens. Incorrect and neglected staking leads to bark damage. Larger, more mature trees are ... Poor tree care practices by citizens and untrained arborists. Alliance for Community Trees American Forests Casey Trees Friends ...
... failure to grow and thrive, difficulties with feeding, swelling in the extremities, and a smaller than normal head. Most ... Symptoms vary according to the abnormality, but often feature poor muscle tone and motor function, seizures, developmental ...
... poor feeding, lethargy, intellectual disabilities, apnea, listlessness, failure to thrive, reduced muscle tone, and many more. ...
The signs and symptoms may not appear until later in infancy or childhood and can include poor feeding and growth (failure to ... thrive), a weakened and enlarged heart (dilated cardiomyopathy), seizures, and low numbers of red blood cells (anemia). Another ... As a result, poor growth and reduced energy production may occur. This disorder is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern ...
... baby who has a failure to thrive (FTT) mother has an adopted child and wishes to induce lactation mother has been separated and ... get lot of calories in minimum of time because he is quickly exhausted baby was separated from mother and milk supply is poor ... is used by breastfeeding mothers for different reasons hyperactive or hypertonic baby baby has a weak suck baby has a poor ...
... poor weight gain, slow growth, delayed development and failure to thrive, as well as lack of milk supply in the new mother and ... The Baby Wise program has been associated with infantile failure to thrive, dehydration, malnutrition, problems with milk ... Aney, Matthew (April 1, 1998). "'Babywise' linked to babies' dehydration, failure to thrive". AAP News. American Academy of ... Aney, Matthew (April 1998). "'Babywise' advice linked to dehydration, failure to thrive". AAP News. American Academy of ...
These studies tend to have a variety of problems, such as small samples, various biases, poor research design, lack of controls ... failure to use or delay in using conventional science-based medicine has caused deaths.[171][172] ... "On Fringes of Health Care, Untested Therapies Thrive", The New York Times, retrieved December 22, 2015 ... This is further exacerbated by the tendency to turn to alternative therapies upon the failure of medicine, at which point the ...
Many boys will show "failure to thrive" or growth delay, often falling off their birth centile on their growth chart during the ... This may in part explain the potential to go back into heart failure during adolescence. ... This fall-off may be particularly severe if they are unwell with heart failure or significant bacterial infections. ...
Liver and Nutrition Program cares for children with failure to thrive, poor weight gain and weight loss. ... Our approach to failure to thrive, poor weight gain and weight loss. The Nutrition Care Program at Childrens Hospital of ... Diagnosing and treating failure to thrive, poor weight gain and weight loss. Your childs doctor will consider several factors ... Caring for children with failure to thrive, poor weight gain and weight loss. Learn how our Gastroenterology, Liver and ...
Liver and Nutrition Program cares for children with failure to thrive, poor weight gain and weight loss. ... Caring for children with failure to thrive, poor weight gain and weight loss. About failure to thrive, poor weight gain and ... Why is failure to thrive, poor weight gain and weight loss a concern?. Naturally, we want all children to grow as best as they ... What causes failure to thrive, poor weight gain and weight loss?. In more than 90 percent of cases, the problem is that the ...
To obtain an overall estimate of the long-term cognitive outcome of failure to thrive in infancy, data from controlled studies ... METHODS Studies of cognitive abilities in failure to thrive were located through published bibliographies, supplemented by a ... CONCLUSIONS Evidence from reasonably well-controlled studies indicates that failure to thrive in infancy is associated with ... BACKGROUND Previous empirical studies of the cognitive sequelae of failure to thrive in infancy have led to apparently ...
Failure to thrive refers to children whose current weight or rate of weight gain is much lower than that of other children of ... Poor eating habits, such as eating in front of the television and not having formal meal times ... Failure to thrive refers to children whose current weight or rate of weight gain is much lower than that of other children of ... Failure to thrive may be caused by medical problems or factors in the childs environment, such as abuse or neglect. ...
Children with very low weight for age or height and those who do not maintain an appropriate growth pattern may have failure to ... thrive (FTT), also known as weight faltering. If confirmed by repeated valid measurements, FTT should prompt a search for ... Sleep disorders or problems should be identified and addressed because poor sleep can contribute to poor activity and behavior ... Formula Recipes for Increasing Calories in Infants with Failure to Thrive. Calories (kcal) per oz. Water (oz). Scoops of ...
Growth failure; FTT; Feeding disorder; Poor feeding. Causes. Failure to thrive may be caused by medical problems or factors in ... Failure to thrive. Definition. Failure to thrive refers to children whose current weight or rate of weight gain is much lower ... Regular checkups can help detect failure to thrive in children.. References. McLean HS, Price DT. Failure to thrive. In: ... Children who fail to thrive do not grow and develop normally as compared to children of the same age. They seem to be much ...
Often, these kids also have poor linear (height) growth.. Many things can cause failure to thrive, including illnesses and ... About Failure to Thrive. Although its been recognized for more than a century, failure to thrive lacks a clear definition, in ... Does My Child Have Failure to Thrive?. If youre worried that your child is failing to thrive, remember that many things can ... When this happens, its called "failure to thrive.". Doctors say children "fail to thrive" when they dont gain weight as ...
Failure to thrive (FTT) is both a descriptive term for various entities and a diagnosis. It is defined as a significant ... To what extent is failure to thrive in infancy associated with poorer cognitive development? A review and meta-analysis. J ... encoded search term (Nutritional Considerations in Failure to Thrive) and Nutritional Considerations in Failure to Thrive What ... Nutritional Considerations in Failure to Thrive Workup. Updated: Dec 02, 2016 * Author: Simon S Rabinowitz, MD, PhD, FAAP; ...
Failure to thrive. *Leg cramps with exercise. *Nosebleed. *Poor growth. *Pounding headache ... In severe cases, the infant may develop heart failure and shock.. In milder cases, symptoms may not develop until the child has ... It may be done instead of surgery, but it has a higher rate of failure. ...
Poor nutrition *Failure to thrive Testing for Preschool Language Disorders. Speech-language pathologists, or SLPs, may work on ...
Poor eating. *Vomiting. *Failure to thrive. *Generalized malaise. *Strong-smelling urine. *Abdominal pain ... Fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, and poor oral intake rarely occur with a bladder infection, although they are more common ... or there is a failure to respond to antibiotics (with persistent or worsening symptoms), then radiologic testing (renal ...
Aw poor baby. At least shes gaining weight now. Dont feel bad mama. You couldnt have known if you were producing enough or ...
Poor feeding. Failure to thrive. Abdominal pain. Jaundice. Haematuria. Offensive urine. Infants and children, 3 months or older ...
Failure to thrive. *Poor appetite. *Muscle wasting. Older children may experience:. *Diarrhea ... In children, celiac disease can also lead to failure to thrive, delayed puberty, weight loss, irritability and dental enamel ... poor pancreas function, irritable bowel syndrome or intolerance to disaccharides (lactose and fructose). Or, they may have ...
Poor nutrition. *Failure to thrive. What are the symptoms of language disorders in a child?. Children with receptive language ... Problems in pregnancy or birth, such as poor nutrition, fetal alcohol syndrome, early (premature) birth, or low birth weight ...
a poor appetite. *failure to thrive. *jaundice, which is a yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes ... In severe cases, heart failure is a possibility.. Your doctor can give you more information about your outlook. They will also ...
Poor or no weight gain *Over a period of time that varies according to the age of the child. In general, the younger the child ...
Failure to thrive (FTT) is slow physical development in a baby or child. Its caused by a baby or child not having enough ... Failure to Thrive (FTT) in Children. What is failure to thrive in children?. Failure to thrive (FTT) is slow physical ... What causes failure to thrive in a child?. Failure to thrive has many possible causes. In some cases, more than one thing may ... Key points about failure to thrive in children. *Failure to thrive is slow physical development in a baby or child. Its caused ...
Failure to thrive *Cirrhosis within five to 10 years, with liver failure ... Poor weight gain (due to a lack of bile needed to digest and absorb fat) and poor growth ... Treatment focuses on minimizing growth failure and decreasing discomfort as the child waits for a liver transplant. Survival ... These patients tend to have more severe cholestasis in the first year and progress toward liver failure within the first few ...
Many infants with failure to thrive are not identified unless careful attention is paid to plotting growth parameters at ... All children with failure to thrive need additional calories for catch-up growth (typically 150 percent of the caloric ... Hospitalization is rarely required and is indicated only for severe failure to thrive and for those whose safety is a concern. ... A thorough history is the best guide to establishing the etiology of the failure to thrive and directing further evaluation and ...
... , Failure to Thrive in Children, Pediatric Failure to Thrive, Weight Faltering, FTT. ... Nonorganic Failure to Thrive risks poor outcomes. *Risk of cognitive delay and school difficulty. *Lower Wechsler Intelligence ... Failure to Thrive. search Failure to Thrive, Failure to Thrive in Children, Pediatric Failure to Thrive, Weight Faltering, FTT ... See Failure to Thrive Diagnosis. *Relies on accurately recorded weight and height on growth chart over time. *Weight below 5th ...
... , Failure to Thrive in Children, Pediatric Failure to Thrive, Weight Faltering, FTT. ... Nonorganic Failure to Thrive risks poor outcomes. *Risk of cognitive delay and school difficulty. *Lower Wechsler Intelligence ... Failure to thrive, FTT - Failure to thrive, Failure to thrive (disorder), defective; thrive, thrive; failure, Failure to Thrive ... failure to thrive, Failure to thrive in infant, Failure to thrive in infant (disorder), Failure To Thrive, Failure-to-thrive, ...
Granted, the above stories demonstrate high-profile failures. But look at the high-profile dynasties that continue to thrive. ... Many family-owned businesses fail because of poor planning outside of the business itself. Divorce, competency disputes and ... Another failed family sports team dynasty was lost more to poor planning than family feuds. ... With adequate planning, family-owned businesses can thrive. ...
  • Examples of non-organic FTT include lack of food intake due to an inability to afford an appropriate formula, problems with feeding techniques, improperly prepared formula (over-diluting the formula), or an inadequate supply of breast milk (due to the mother being exhausted, under stress or in a poor nutritional state). (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Often, inadequate nutrition or undernutrition is the cause behind an infant/child that has been labeled as failure to thrive. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • In June 2001, a previously healthy breast-fed infant aged 7 weeks with fever of 105 º F (41 º C), constipation, listlessness, poor feeding, and weak head control for 1 day was admitted to a New Jersey hospital. (cdc.gov)
  • Children who fail to thrive do not grow and develop normally as compared to children of the same age. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The poor transmissibility of these H5N1 viruses among gesting that additional unrecognized human H9N2 infections humans and the elimination of approximately 1.5 million have occurred. (cdc.gov)