A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.
The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent that is less effective than equal doses of ASPIRIN in relieving pain and reducing fever. However, individuals who are hypersensitive to ASPIRIN may tolerate sodium salicylate. In general, this salicylate produces the same adverse reactions as ASPIRIN, but there is less occult gastrointestinal bleeding. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p120)
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found widely expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons. Defects in the SCN9A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several pain sensation-related disorders.
A class of drugs that stimulate sodium influx through cell membrane channels.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Defects in the SCN1A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with DRAVET SYNDROME, generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 2 (GEFS+2), and familial hemiplegic migraine type 3.
A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of SKELETAL MYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN4A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several MYOTONIC DISORDERS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.
Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid. It is used for both induction and maintenance of ANESTHESIA.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of drugs that inhibit the activation of VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS.
An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in neuronal tissue that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of excitable membranes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A subclass of sodium channel blockers that are specific for EPITHELIAL SODIUM CHANNELS.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in the neurons of the NERVOUS SYSTEM and DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. It may play a role in the generation of heat and mechanical pain hypersensitivity.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
The consumption of liquids.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
A voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit abundantly expressed in SKELETAL MUSCLE; HEART; and BRAIN. It non-covalently associates with voltage-gated alpha subunits. Defects in the SCN1B gene, which codes for this beta subunit, are associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 1, and Brugada syndrome 5.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit subtype that covalently associates with voltage-gated alpha subunits. Defects in the SCN4B gene, which codes for this beta subunit, are associated with long QT syndrome-10.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
In addition to the main pool (near the ruins) there are several smaller rock pools downstream, these range in temperature from ... Mineral content includes boron, calcium, iron, lithium, magnesium, sodium, rubidium, and cesium. List of hot springs in the ... United States List of hot springs in the world Gersh-Young, Marjorie (2010). Hot Springs and Hot Pools of the Southwest. Santa ...
The complex has 11 pools. The water temperatures are 14 ˚C, 36 ˚C, 38 ˚C, and 42 ˚C. Rac Hotel Fact Sheet (PDF) Fact sheet ... The water contains calcium, magnesium, hydrogen-carbonate, sulphate-chloride, sodium and fluoride ions. The water, together ... The windows, reveals, kurnas (marble basins on the walls), pool and floor are still the original ones perfectly renovated to ... and its imperial pools and shower corridor built in the age of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The bath is listed as a UNESCO ...
It was a pool-type liquid-metal fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid sodium. It generated 590 MW of thermal power, and had a ...
The reactor is a pool type LMFBR with 1,750 tonnes of sodium as coolant. Designed to generate 500 MWe of electrical power, with ... The Kalpakkam PFBR is designed to use uranium-238 to breed plutonium in a sodium-cooled fast reactor design. The power island ... Another consideration with the use of sodium as a coolant is the absorption of neutrons to generate the radioactive isotope 24 ... This means that when the reactor overheats (below the boiling point of sodium) the speed of the fission chain reaction ...
Papers and presentations on TerraPower's TWR describe a pool-type reactor cooled by liquid sodium. The reactor is fueled ... Meanwhile, the heat released by fission is absorbed by the molten sodium and subsequently transferred into a closed-cycle ... Arjun Makhijani (September 2013), "Traveling Wave Reactors: Sodium-cooled Gold at the End of a Nuclear Rainbow?", Institute for ...
Studies showed no uptake of lithium if pools with lithium hypochlorite have been used. Sodium hypochlorite Hoberman A. M.; ... It is used as a disinfectant for pools and a reagent for some chemical reactions. Doses of 500 mg/kg cause clinical signs and ...
... as used in swimming pools is easier to handle than chlorine gas. It dissolves slowly in water, but as ... Trichloroisocyanuric acid is prepared from cyanuric acid via a reaction with chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide. The compound is ... It is widely used in civil sanitation for pools and spas, preventing and curing diseases in animal husbandry and fisheries, ... it reacts, cyanuric acid concentration in the pool will build-up. Comet (cleanser) Dichloroisocyanuric acid (Dichlor) Sodium ...
Common examples include sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) and calcium hypochlorite (a component of bleaching powder, ... swimming pool "chlorine"). The Cl-O distance in ClO- is 210 pm. The name can also refer to esters of hypochlorous acid, namely ... This process is widely used for the industrial production of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2). ... Anhydrous lithium hypochlorite is stable at room temperature; however, sodium hypochlorite has not been prepared drier than the ...
9.4 under typical salt-water pool conditions) in pools with salt-water chlorine generators that tend to show upward drift in pH ... One such known formula calls for about a 1 to 10 ratio of H 3BO 3 to NiSO 4, a very small portion of sodium lauryl sulfate and ... It will be around 9.0 in a salt-water pool. No matter which form of soluble boron is added, within the acceptable range of pH ... BWRs use an aqueous solution of boric acid and borax or sodium pentaborate for an emergency shut down system. Boric acid may be ...
PFR was a pool-type fast breeder reactor, cooled by 1,500 tonnes of liquid sodium and fueled with MOX. The design output of PFR ... Leaks in the sodium water steam generators shutdown one and then two of the cooling circuits in 1974 and 1975. By August 1976 ... A 65 metre deep shaft at the plant was packed with radioactive waste and at least 2 kg of sodium and potassium. On 10 May 1977 ... Later use of the shaft as a convenient waste depository had resulted in one hydrogen gas explosion caused by sodium and ...
This is the reason that sodium-cooled reactors have a primary cooling loop embedded within a separate sodium pool. The sodium- ... Sodium is often used as a coolant in fast reactors, because it does not moderate neutron speeds much and has a high heat ... It has caused difficulties in reactors (e.g. USS Seawolf (SSN-575), Monju), although some sodium-cooled fast reactors have ...
In 1988 the sedimentary pool was rebuilt and a treatment plant for the smoke from the bark burning was completed. Bleaching ... with chlorine was replaced with hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite in 1989. This was largely done during a period when ... two external sedimentation pools and two electric boilers. By 1980 the situation in Iddefjorden had improved, but by 1985 the ...
When a player can no longer run, they fall into the pool. The last player running not only wins the challenge for their team, ... So the team braves the hotel buffet, hoping to find low-calorie, low-sodium options. It's a struggle, but they're making it ... At the Challenge, Dolvett, Jessie and Jen sit on diving boards high above a pool. Three members from each team must hold up 15 ... The Red Team is concerned, as their team member Mike has been limited to exercising in the pool after injuring his knee earlier ...
Sodium hypochlorite is used in low (5%) concentration as laundry bleach and in higher concentrations as a swimming pool ... NaOH Sodium nitrate, NaNO3 Sodium chloride (salt), NaCl Aluminium shards, Al After Drano crystals are added to water, the ... The sodium hydroxide (lye) is consumed by further action of the first reaction. Crystal Drano was invented in 1923 by Harry ... Sodium nitrate reacts with hydrogen gas: Na+ + NO3− + 4H2 → NaOH + NH3 + 2H2O. This removes hydrogen, which poses a fire and ...
It still retains many of the key elements of a Turkish bath, exemplified by its Turkish dome and octagonal pool. It is located ... Components of thermal water include sodium, calcium, magnesium bicarbonate, sulphate-chloride and a significant amount of ... The water temperature in the four different pools have some difference, but in between 26 and 40 ℃. The Király Baths are open ...
... available from the chiral pool), boric acid catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. When the sodium counter ion is replaced by a bulky ...
To advance these plans, the Indian FBR-600 is a pool-type sodium-cooled reactor with a rating of 600 MWe.[citation needed][ ... but inside the biological shield due to radioactive sodium-24 in the primary coolant) Pool type, in which the primary heat ... but safety issues are cited as a concern with fast reactors that use a sodium coolant, where a leak could lead to a sodium fire ... Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) based on the existing liquid-metal FBR (LMFBR) and integral fast reactor designs. Lead-cooled ...
The chiral pool consists of many widely available resolving agents. Via the process known as spontaneous resolution, 5-10% of ... Simple deprotonation with sodium hydroxide liberates free (S)-alcohol. In the meanwhile the (R)-alcohol remains in solution ... In 1882 he went on to demonstrate that by seeding a supersaturated solution of sodium ammonium tartrate with a d-crystal on one ... Louis Pasteur exploited this phenomenon by the manual separation of left-handed and right-handed sodium ammonium tartrate ...
Sodium chloride), into chlorine and lye (Sodium hydroxide), on a monthly basis. The construction of the factory began on 25 ... Both chemicals are used in the disinfection of water, for human consumption, animal consumption and in swimming pools. When ... Msufini Tanzania Limited (MTL) is a manufacturer of chlorine and sodium hydroxide in Tanzania. ...
Its water is coming from the depth of 690 m and is used for open hot thermo-mineral pool (water temperature is 37 °C). These ... The results showed slightly base reaction (rN - 7.8), total mineralization of 2.669 g/l; characteristic ions are sodium (0.708 ... A well next to Olympic pool has similar composition and mineralization. ... pools are also used by people from Novi Sad, Žabalj, Kisač, Petrovac and from all other surrounding settlements. This natural ...
The sodium salt of hypochlorous acid is commonly used as pool bleach. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000121053 - Ensembl, ...
It is used as an alternative to chlorine and sodium hypochlorite for disinfection of drinking water and swimming pools. ... "OxyChem Sodium Hypochlorite Handbook" (PDF). oxy.com. OxyChem. "Pamphlet 96, The Sodium Hypochorite Manual". www. ... Specific compounds in this family include sodium hypochlorite, monochloramine, halazone, chlorine dioxide, and sodium ... Sodium thiosulfate is an effective chlorine neutralizer. Rinsing with a 5 mg/L solution, followed by washing with soap and ...
The CFR-600 is a sodium-cooled pool-type fast-neutron nuclear reactor under construction in Xiapu County, Fujian province, ...
The area's natural resources include deposits of sodium sulphate and potassium sulphate, scattered oil pools, coal fields, and ... After the coal mine was closed many people were employed at the sodium sulphate plant outside of town. It was eventually ... Grain elevators were built in Gladmar by Pool in 1929, and by Parish & Heimbecker in 1930. * In 1944 a hospital was constructed ...
The water temperature in the pool is 43 °C (109 °F). Administrative divisions of Tyumen Oblast Russian Federal State Statistics ... According to Balneotherapy the water in the basin contains sodium chloride, bromine, boron, and its chemical composition is ...
In the US, lithium is recovered from brine pools in Nevada. A deposit discovered in 2013 in Wyoming's Rock Springs Uplift is ... This element formed compounds similar to those of sodium and potassium, though its carbonate and hydroxide were less soluble in ... Both countries recover lithium from brine pools. According to USGS, Bolivia's Uyuni Desert has 5.4 million tonnes of lithium. ... When the lithium concentration is sufficient, lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide are precipitated by addition of sodium ...
"Associations of urinary sodium excretion with cardiovascular events in individuals with and without hypertension: a pooled ... Excessive sodium or insufficient potassium in the diet leads to excessive intracellular sodium, which contracts vascular smooth ... DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group". The New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (1): 3-10. doi:10.1056/NEJM200101043440101 ... Dietary changes shown to reduce blood pressure include diets with low sodium, the DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop ...
It is firstly chopped into small pieces and then soaked in a sodium chloride solution overnight. It is then homogenised in a ... Again, the fractions were assayed for toxicity to mice, to which the most toxic fraction was pooled and analysed by Gel ... The different fractions were assayed for toxicity to mice, to which the most toxic fraction was pooled and subsequently applied ... Samples were made containing sodium dodecyl sulphate, and in some cases small amounts of mercapto- ethanol. A molecular weight ...
... usually sodium chloride) occurs naturally on Earth's surface (salt lakes), crust, and within brine pools on ocean bottom. ... The sodium ions from brine replace the calcium and magnesium ions on the beads. In lower temperatures, a brine solution can be ... Sodium chloride brine spray is used on some fishing vessels to freeze fish. The brine temperature is generally −5 °F (−21 °C). ... Most commonly used brines are based on inexpensive calcium chloride and sodium chloride. It is used because the addition of ...
Unlike the fast and transient sodium current, the persistent sodium current (INaP) is activated at very low membrane potentials ... synchronized bursts in inspiratory neurons was affected as well as communication with hypoglossal motor pools that help ... NALCN sodium leak channels appear to give rise to an inward current that may play an important role in the modulation of ... Persistent Sodium Current and Its Role in Epilepsy. Epilepsy Currents. 2007;7(1):15-22. doi:10.1111/j.1535-7511.2007.00156.x.. ...
Tree frogs usually lay their eggs on a leaf in a rainwater pool. Bullfrogs, such as the male American bullfrog and the male ... Evolutionary diversification of TTX-resistant sodium channels in a predator-prey interaction. Nature 434: 759-763. ... Some had developed primitive lungs to help them breathe air when the stagnant pools of the Devonian swamps were low in oxygen. ... Italian pool frog · Lanza's Alpine Salamander · Monte Albo Cave Salamander · Pyrenean brook salamander · Supramonte Cave ...
Tertiary gene pool: L. lamottei and L. tomentosus. Crosses generally fail between members of different gene pools. However, ... According to their inter-crossability Lens species can be divided into three gene pools: *Primary gene pool: L. culinaris (and ... Secondary gene pool: L. ervoides and L. nigricans. * ...
Sodium salts of fatty acids are used as soap.[197] Pure sodium metal also has many applications, including use in sodium-vapour ... Lithium salts have to be extracted from the water of mineral springs, brine pools, and brine deposits. The metal is produced ... Lithium burns in air to form lithium oxide, but sodium reacts with oxygen to form a mixture of sodium oxide and sodium peroxide ... Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ...
Rummy's Beach Club, LLC, Standard Poodle Louie dives underwater in swimming pool for his dog toy chicken - slow mo, retrieved 1 ... Addison's can cause fatal sodium/potassium imbalances, but if caught early and treated with lifelong medication, most dogs can ... "The Old Trainer: Poodles and pools an easy mix, but training needed". mercedsunstar. Retrieved 1 February 2019.. ... or to jump in the swimming pool in summertime to chase after diving rings or to splash with the kids so long as they have been ...
Haines TH (2001). "Do sterols reduce proton and sodium leaks through lipid bilayers?". Prog. Lipid Res. 40 (4): 299-324. doi: ... A 2007 study pooling data on almost 900,000 subjects in 61 cohorts demonstrated that blood total cholesterol levels have an ... It also reduces the permeability of the plasma membrane to protons (positive hydrogen ions) and sodium ions.[6] ...
Pool, Amy (2006). "New Species of Scutellaria (Lamiaceae) from Mesoamerica". Novon. 16 (3): 388-403. doi:10.3417/1055-3177(2006 ... Bromide compounds (e.g., lithium bromide, potassium bromide, sodium bromide). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ...
Its calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium levels were higher than any other lake except Kam, and it had the highest ... Just south of McNiven Beach is a recreational facility with an arena and pool, again close to the water's edge.[11] ...
This can give rise to elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, magnesium and sulfate as well as many other compounds in ...
Sodium-Dependent Active Transport-Sodium-Ascorbate Co-Transporters (SVCTs) and Hexose transporters (GLUTs)-are the two ... to have a body pool of less than 300 mg, with daily turnover of only 2.5 mg/day, implying an instantaneous half-life of 83 days ... E301 sodium ascorbate (approved for use as a food additive in the EU,[88] U.S.[91] and Australia and New Zealand)[90] ... However, taking vitamin C in the form of sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate may minimize this effect.[29] Other symptoms ...
It is very important to realize that partial price discrimination can cause some customers who are inappropriately pooled with ... Vending of common salt (sodium chloride) was historically a natural monopoly. Until recently, a combination of strong sunshine ...
... including preclinical and clinical investigations into the use of an oxygen diffusion-enhancing compound such as trans sodium ...
The majority of the common ostrich's internal solutes are made up of sodium ions (Na+), potassium ions (K+), chloride ions (Cl ... but has not been bred out of their gene pool.[citation needed] ... which leads to rectal absorption of sodium and water.[61] Also ...
Underwater accent lighting is also used for koi ponds, fountains, swimming pools and the like. ... High Pressure Sodium, PC amber LEDs, and low CCT LEDs). ... type of floodlights are metal halide and high pressure sodium ...
Although iron bound to transferrin is less than 0.1% (4 mg) of total body iron, it forms the most vital iron pool with the ...
Sodium Reactor Experiment, Santa Susana Field Laboratory (civilian), California, U.S.A., in 1959 ... and/or sufficiently damage spent fuel pools, such an attack could lead to widespread radioactive contamination. The Federation ...
I-131 has been the most widely used tagging isotope in an aqueous solution of sodium iodide.[57][58][59] It is used to ... The reduction of the iodide pool by perchlorate has dual effects-reduction of excess hormone synthesis and hyperthyroidism, on ...
Sodium concentration[edit]. Main article: Renin-angiotensin system. Further information: Sodium in biology, Tubuloglomerular ... releases free calcium ions into the plasma ionized calcium pool. PTH has a second action on the kidneys. It stimulates the ... These sodium/potassium exchangers pump three sodium ions out of the cell, into the interstitial fluid and two potassium ions ... The kidneys respond by excreting sodium ions into the urine, thereby normalizing the plasma sodium ion concentration. The low ...
Sodium percarbonate (Na. 2H. 3CO. 6), an adduct of hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate ("soda ash" or "washing soda", Na. 2 ... 2). It is used as a disinfectant in water treatment, especially to make drinking water and in large public swimming pools. It ... Sodium dithionite (also known as sodium hydrosulfite) is one of the most important reductive bleaching agents. It is a white ... Sodium perborate (Na. 2H. 4B. 2O. 8). Dissolved in water it forms some hydrogen peroxide, but also the perborate anion (B(OOH)( ...
... creating an ionic pressure which prevents sodium ions from entering the cell. The chloride and sodium ions create a salt-water ... in the Indian subcontinent are believed to have been the result of poor living conditions as well as the presence of pools of ... The formulation of the fluid replacement solution was 4 g of sodium chloride, 25 g of glucose and 1000 ml of water.[113][114] ... This results in constitutive cAMP production, which in turn leads to the secretion of water, sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate ...
1953). 6, 673 The Structure of Sodium Thymonucleate Fibres I. The Influence of Water Content Acta Crystallogr. (1953). 6, 678 ... The Alfred Nobel Peace Pools.' ... The Structure of Sodium Thymonucleate Fibres II. The ... "Molecular configuration in sodium thymonucleate" (PDF reprint). Nature. 171 (4356): 740-1. Bibcode:1953Natur.171..740F. doi ...
They are attracted there by the calling of the first male to find a suitable place, perhaps a pool that forms in the same place ... "Evolutionary diversification of TTX-resistant sodium channels in a predator-prey interaction". Nature. 434 (7034): 759-763. ... When the eggs hatch, the male transports the tadpoles on his back, stuck there by a mucous secretion, to a temporary pool where ... Some fish had developed primitive lungs to help them breathe air when the stagnant pools of the Devonian swamps were low in ...
The spent fuel pool with containment building of the reactor are on the right. ...
Limit sodium intake, the consumption of red meats and the consumption of processed meats. ... Swimmers perform squats prior to entering the pool in a U.S. military base, 2011. ...
This form of inactive hemoglobin is called methemoglobin and can be made by ingesting sodium nitrite[28][unreliable medical ... Moon pool. *Underwater habitat *Aquarius Reef Base. *Continental Shelf Station Two. *Helgoland Habitat ...
Sodium (SFR) *BN-350. *BN-600. *BN-800. *BN-1200. *CFR-600 ...
As the area turned to desert, the water evaporated, leaving an abundance of evaporitic salts, such as common sodium salts and ... a big pool of greenish water stretched most of the way across the valley floor. By May 2005 the valley floor had resumed its ...
... sodium dodecyl sulfate, SLS, or SDS), and the related alkyl-ether sulfates sodium laureth sulfate (sodium lauryl ether sulfate ... Sodium stearate, the most common component of most soap, which comprises about 50% of commercial surfactants ... Most anionic and non-ionic surfactants are nontoxic, having LD50 comparable to sodium chloride. The toxicity of quaternary ... Popular surfactants in the biochemistry laboratory are sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). ...
Sodium hypochlorite Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 ... As a swimming pool chemical, it is blended with other chemicals less often than other forms of chlorine, due to dangerous ... In solution, calcium hypochlorite could be used as a general purpose sanitizer,[3] but due to calcium residue, sodium ... Calcium hypochlorite is commonly used to sanitize public swimming pools and disinfect drinking water. Generally the commercial ...
The initial pool for in vitro evolution can be derived from a narrowed subset of sequence space, such as a certain round of an ... "In vitro selection of a sodium-specific DNAzyme and its application in intracellular sensing". Proceedings of the National ... The pool is synthesized through solid phase synthesis such that each strand has two constant regions (primer binding sites for ... The pool is first subjected to a selection step, during which the catalytic strands are separated from the non-catalytic ...
How to Raise Swimming Pool Alkalinity With Sodium Bicarbonate How to Raise Swimming Pool Alkalinity With Sodium Bicarbonate By ... Add sodium bicarbonate to your pool to raise the alkalinity of your swimming pool. Dump a predetermined amount into the pools ... How to Raise Swimming Pool Alkalinity With Sodium Bicarbonate. Having the right level of alkalinity in a pool is critical. ... How to Use Sodium Carbonate to Raise the PH Level in Swimming Pools ...
Sodium sulfite is used to dechlorinate swimming pools. (Image: swimming pool image by YN from Fotolia.com). Maintaining water ... How to Use Sodium Carbonate to Raise the PH Level in Swimming Pools The pH of water indicates whether it is basic (pH above 7 ... The Uses of Sodium Sulfite in Swimming Pools By Kate Harris eHow ... Swimming Pools & Spas * The Uses of Sodium Sulfite in Swimming ... After decontaminating the pool with these high chlorine levels, adding sodium sulfite will decrease the chlorine concentration ...
Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (SDIC) - Browse fuzing.com to find pool chemical: Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (SDIC) sellers, ... pool chemical: Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (SDIC). You May Also Be Interested In: chemical sodium cotton textile pool chemical ... sdic sodium dichloroisocyanurate Product name: Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate (SDIC) Formula: C3N3O3Cl2Na Characteristic: White ... Usage: It is widely used for sterilization of swimming pool and drinking water, industrial circular water, aquaculture, hotel, ...
Designed for a pool professional, this tester checks the sodium level in salt wat ... The Salt PockeTester measures the Sodium Chloride level in salt water pools with a range from 0 to 9,999 ppm. ... Designed for the pool professional. The testers probe is dipped into a sample of pool water and the results are ready ...
Pool/Pond Sodium Thiosulphate offered by LAKSHMI CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES is available with multiple payment options and easy ... Buy low price Pool/Pond Sodium Thiosulphate in Dist. Bharuch, Ankleshwar. ... The offered range of Pool Sodium Thiosulphate is made utilizing high grade raw material and innovative techniques in strict ... Exporting and Supplying our clients a highly acclaimed and demanded range of Pool Sodium Thiosulphate from Ankleshwar, Gujarat ...
... which protects your pool against bacteria and other harmful organic compounds. These strips are easy to use and let you avoid ... AquaChek Sodium Bromide Test Strips give pool owners a way to check the level of their sodium bromide sanitizer in their pool, ... AquaChek Sodium Bromide Test Strips give pool owners a way to check the level of their sodium bromide sanitizer in their pool, ... non-Chlorine pool and spa Shock, Calcium based pool chlorine, Hydrogen based pool shock (Soft Swim C), some other pool and spa ...
... say 6 with regards to a red-drop ph test when using sodium hypochlorite as the source of... ... Welcome to TFP! For a wealth of pool care information please check out our free Pool School. If you are in need of specific ... or is it more correct that the ph temporarily increases when there is higher concentations of sodium hypochlorite in pool water ... Trouble Free Pool Statistics. Threads. 208,546. Messages. 1,878,072. Members. 239,036. Latest member. ajryan. ...
The major drug binding site of sodium channels is inaccessible from the extracellular side, drug molecules can only access it ... The major drug binding site of sodium channels is inaccessible from the extracellular side, drug molecules can only access it ... Different pH-sensitivity patterns of 30 sodium channel inhibitors suggest chemically different pools along the access pathway. ... Different pH-sensitivity patterns of 30 sodium channel inhibitors suggest chemically different pools along the access pathway. ...
Welcome to TFP! For a wealth of pool care information please check out our free Pool School. If you are in need of specific ... Trouble Free Pool Statistics. Threads. 213,420. Messages. 1,924,713. Members. 245,958. Latest member. HeatherD. ... Btw I also just purchased a Taylor K-2106 since the test kit I have for the pool doesnt measure bromine.. We had a big storm ... Chlorine acts fine as an oxidiser, and if you have a swimming pool, you already have it on hand. The tricky part is knowing how ...
It is, by far, the most popular and easiest form of sanitiser for pool or spa water Swimming Pool & Spa water needs to be ... Bacteria will rapidly multiply in pool & spa water that remains unsanatised Your pool or spa water may look crystal clear but ... water sun tan lotions hair shampoos your filter will remove most of this debris but you will still need to sanatise your pool ... that does not necessarily mean that it is healthy Your pool or spa water is constantly being polluted by the enviroment dirt ...
Sodium Hypochlorite - Bleach, Swimming Pools & Cleaning Products. Its been a little while since the last entry in the Everyday ... As a disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite also finds use in swimming pools. Although you might quite logically assume that ... In swimming pools it is urea rather than uric acid that comes from people peeing in the pool. As "in the uric acid in human ... Sodium Hypochlorite - Bleach, Swimming Pools & Cleaning ... , Zero to Infinity November 1, 2016 at 8:02 pm ...
... order plasma sodium citrate sprague dawley male pooled rat plasm ... pooled rat plasma sodium citrate sprague dawley male pooled , ... Rat (Sprague Dawley) Plasma, EDTA K2 Sodium Fluoride, male_only pooled. Rat (Sprague Dawley) Plasma Sodium Heparin Male Pooled ... Rat (Sprague Dawley) Plasma Sodium Citrate Male Pooled, not Filtered. Rat (Sprague Dawley) Plasma Sodium Citrate Male Pooled, ... Rat (Sprague Dawley) Plasma Sodium Citrate Male Pooled, not Filtered. Rat (Sprague Dawley) Plasma Sodium Citrate Male Pooled, ...
Pool Chemicals. Pool Accessories. Specialty Chemicals. Spa Chemicals. Pool Cleaners. Pool Pumps ... CW Pool Dichlor Granules (sodium dicloroisocyanurate) are 100% soluble, fast dissolving, stabilised granule for use in swimming ... Dichlor is used as a disinfectant, sanitiser, biocide, funficide and algaecide for pools. Best for spa and pool water with a pH ... COPY; 2018 Pool Chemicals Direct Limited. All Rights Reserved.. PO Box 302858, North Harbour, North Shore, Auckland 0751 , Mob ...
Sodium Bromide found in: Zodiac Granula Spa Bromine 1Kg - Spa Chemical, …body fats and oils as well as cosmetics in water. ... Getting the right pool equipment will ensure an enjoyable pool experience with no fuss. Dont be limited by the typical ... Related Categories: Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate , Bromine Cant find what you are searching for? For help finding "Sodium ... Australias #1 Pool Shop. #1 Largest & fastest growing independent retailer of pool supplies & services. ...
Pool Salt 8526, thats 99.3% pure salt and specially formulated for use with most electric chlorinator systems at The Home ... Is this product 100% sodium chloride?. Asked by Mike July 21, 2017 ... My pool is a12x24 in ground inset pool. This salt works fine for my pool. I would assume it would be ok for any salt water ... pool salt. swimming pool salt. salt for water softener. crystal salt. pool supplies. ...
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  • In situations involving certain contaminants, it becomes necessary to raise the chlorine concentration in the pool to levels that are unsafe for swimming. (ehow.com)
  • After decontaminating the pool with these high chlorine levels, adding sodium sulfite will decrease the chlorine concentration to a level safe for swimming. (ehow.com)
  • Sodium sulfite reacts with the chlorine in water, present as hypochlorous acid (HOCl), to produce the salts hydrochloride (HCl) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). (ehow.com)
  • Chlorine levels in swimming pools should fall between 1 ppm and 2 ppm. (ehow.com)
  • When potentially hazardous contaminants enter the pool water, the water will need more chlorine than usual for disinfecting the water. (ehow.com)
  • Swimmers should not use pools that have chlorine levels in excess of 5 ppm. (ehow.com)
  • Once the high chlorine level is maintained for the recommended amount of time to ensure pool decontamination, the chlorine level is quickly lowered using sodium sulfite. (ehow.com)
  • Products that cannot be returned because of US Department of Transportation shipping regulations include: Chlorine sticks and tablets of any kind, pre-filled chlorine packs (Pool Frog), Bromine tablets, non-Chlorine pool and spa Shock, Calcium based pool chlorine, Hydrogen based pool shock (Soft Swim C), some other pool and spa chemicals. (poolgeek.com)
  • What's going on with the chemistry when maintaining fc above, say 6 with regards to a red-drop ph test when using sodium hypochlorite as the source of chlorine? (troublefreepool.com)
  • I'm just trying to understand what's going on chemically when a test is conducted at high fc levels, and also, does this apply only when sodium hypochlorite is the source of chlorine used? (troublefreepool.com)
  • Chlorine acts fine as an oxidiser, and if you have a swimming pool, you already have it on hand. (troublefreepool.com)
  • If these are mixed with bleach, it can react with sodium hypochlorite, and form toxic chlorine gas. (compoundchem.com)
  • Although you might quite logically assume that chlorine is used to chlorinate swimming pools, it's not a very practical choice as it's difficult to handle and toxic. (compoundchem.com)
  • Sodium Hypochlorite is very effective at killing algae but due to its high PH and low chlorine content it requires more regular pool maintenance and PH control. (atpools.co.uk)
  • But a lot of the liquid chlorine you buy for pools contains calcium hypochlorite instead. (poolcareguy.com)
  • Scientifically speaking (and we all love it when I get all science-y), sodium hypochlorites are ions composed of oxygen and chlorine. (poolcareguy.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite only has about 5% available chlorine, so it's not always the most effective pool sanitizer. (poolcareguy.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite, in its liquid chlorine state, is the simplest form of pool sanitizer in that it is already diluted appropriately and can be added straight to your pool water. (poolcareguy.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite, as mentioned, doesn't contain near as much free chlorine, but it's usually quite a bit cheaper to buy. (poolcareguy.com)
  • Chlorine lock means that your pool will test for proper amounts of chlorine. (poolcareguy.com)
  • The way to test for this is to test for both total chlorine and free chlorine using the best pool testing kits . (poolcareguy.com)
  • If these two amounts are out of balance, you probably have chlorine lock and will need to take measures to correct it, usually by shocking your pool ( read how to shock a pool ) with a non-chlorine shock. (poolcareguy.com)
  • It is commonly known that chlorine is an important chemical that ensures your pool water is safe for swimming. (poolity.com)
  • Generally liquid chlorine is sodium hypochlorite (a chlorine compound) dissolved in a solution of water. (eztestpools.com)
  • This chemical is considered to be relatively stable and has greater available chlorine than sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach). (burrillandco.com)
  • Test the pH, alkalinity, and chlorine levels of the pool. (wikihow.com)
  • Low pH and high chlorine levels can also erode the copper heat exchanger in a pool heater. (wikihow.com)
  • of calcium hypochlorite 35%,45%,65%,70% active chlorine calcium process/sodium process If you want to get more detailed information,pls contact Cynthia Chu Tel:0086-18722017602 Calcium hypochlorite (sodium process) Specification Calcium hypochlorite . (burrillandco.com)
  • Calcium Hypochlorite Chemical Formula: Ca(ClO)2 Molecular weight: 143 HS CODE:28281000 Calcium process(UNNO1748) Active Chlorine: 65% Moisture:3% max Granular size: 8 to 30 meshes (0.055mm-2mm) Calcium chlorite: 9%Sodium process(UNNO2880. (burrillandco.com)
  • Chlorine, a chemical in swimming pool cleaners, is more likely than the acids to cause serious poisoning. (northside.com)
  • High doses of chlorine and swimming pool cleaning acids can be very poisonous. (northside.com)
  • Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth's minerals over eons, and thus sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Operation records - The operator of a pool shall keep a daily record of information regarding chlorine residual, pH, and maintenance procedures. (solanocounty.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite solution is sold as liquid pool chlorine. (bloggernews.net)
  • The short term respiratory effects of acute chlorine inhalation during a swimming pool accident were examined. (bmj.com)
  • 7 Due to the common use of chlorine and its compounds for water disinfection, mishaps in the chlorinating of swimming pools represent an important risk of exposure. (bmj.com)
  • However, the health effects of chlorine inhalation after swimming pool accidents have been documented in only few studies, and have concentrated on pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and types of treatment. (bmj.com)
  • It's in a compound with other elements (like lithium or sodium) because 100% chlorine is a gas that could kill you if you don't handle it exactly right. (riverpoolsandspas.com)
  • When you test the pool water's chlorine levels, you're actually testing for the levels of "leftover" hypochlorous acid-how much is still floating around after it's done its job. (riverpoolsandspas.com)
  • We pool people call it free chlorine because it's free in the water, just living its life. (riverpoolsandspas.com)
  • Why are incorrect chlorine levels bad for your pool? (riverpoolsandspas.com)
  • Too much chlorine can fade the pool (especially the liner of a vinyl liner pool) , irritate your skin and eyes, corrode the pool equipment, and lower the water pH. (riverpoolsandspas.com)
  • Cyanuric acid , sometimes called CYA , acts like sunscreen for the pool chlorine. (riverpoolsandspas.com)
  • If your pool water has too little CYA, your chlorine levels will likely be low as well because they are vulnerable to those mean sunrays. (riverpoolsandspas.com)
  • The incident was reportedly caused after the chemical became harmful due to its toxic properties when mixed with the chlorine in the swimming pool. (fark.com)
  • Even if they are using gas chlorine to chlorinate the water (not likely, but I've seen it done at some municipal pools). (fark.com)
  • The Salt PockeTester measures the Sodium Chloride level in salt water pools with a range from 0 to 9,999 ppm. (poolcenter.com)
  • To emphasise that there's little cause for concern, Ars Technica ran an article in which they considered just how much urine would need to be added to a pool in order to produce deadly concentrations of cyanogen chloride. (compoundchem.com)
  • If we could assume a proportional yield of cyanogen chloride just from using more uric acid, we could actually achieve toxic levels of cyanogen chloride for an Olympic pool of 10mg/L chlorinated water… for an equivalent quantity of urine. (compoundchem.com)
  • If you could get at that pool without dying of either suffocation or drowning in other people's urine, you could probably pull off death by cyanogen chloride poisoning or at least a pretty good coma. (compoundchem.com)
  • Is this product 100% sodium chloride? (homedepot.com)
  • Salt (NaCl) is made from sodium and chloride ions. (answers.com)
  • Sodium bisulfate, also known as sodium hydrogen sulfate is an acid that forms when sulfuric acid is combined with a sodium base, like sodium chloride or sodium hydroxide. (manhajka.com)
  • What are the benefits of using sodium-chloride-free shampoo? (reference.com)
  • Using a sodium-chloride-free shampoo decreases scalp irritation, increases moisture and improves the overall appearance and health of the hair. (reference.com)
  • Sodium-chloride-free shampoo produces softer hair, and the ingredients are safer for the body and the environment. (reference.com)
  • Sodium-chloride-free shampoos are also called cleansing conditioners because they do not lather like traditional shampoos, and their benefits closely resemble those of traditional conditioners. (reference.com)
  • Sodium-chloride and other sulfates are used in shampoo and other foaming beauty products to produce the frothy lather associated with cleanliness. (reference.com)
  • Swimming Pool Chemicals, Alkalinity Plus, Water Treatment Chemicals manufacturer / supplier in China, offering High Quality Sodium Bicarbonate for Sale, Calcium Chloride 90% Pellet with Reach, Swimming Pool Chemical Soda Ash pH Plus and so on. (made-in-china.com)
  • What are some reasons for low sodium and low chloride levels? (reference.com)
  • How do you use calcium chloride in a swimming pool? (reference.com)
  • Calcium chloride is added to pool water to bring up the levels of calcium, magnesium and sodium in the pool. (reference.com)
  • Technescan™ PYP™ (Kit for the Preparation of Technetium Tc 99m Pyrophosphate Injection) is a sterile, non-pyrogenic, diagnostic radiopharmaceutical suitable for intravenous administration after reconstitution with sterile sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m injection or sterile 0.9% sodium chloride injection. (rxlist.com)
  • Sodium Fluorozirconate Molecular formula: Na2ZrF6 Molecular weight: 251.19 CAS NO.: 16925-26-1 Property: White powder Assay: ≥98% Impurity index: Item Index chloride (Cl) ≤0.15% sulfate (SO4) ≤0.5% moisture (H2O) ≤0.1% heavy. (ecer.com)
  • Among many other useful sodium compounds, sodium hydroxide ( lye ) is used in soap manufacture , and sodium chloride ( edible salt ) is a de-icing agent and a nutrient for animals including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • 14 years) inhaled hydrogen chloride and sodium hypochlorite during an accident caused by a malfunction of the water chlorinating system in a community pool in Rome in 1998. (bmj.com)
  • Solutions of sodium hypochlorite are commonly referred to as bleach, although household bleach also contains small amounts of several other compounds, including sodium hydroxide and calcium hypochlorite. (compoundchem.com)
  • Therefore, sodium hypochlorite (or calcium hypochlorite) is commonly used instead. (compoundchem.com)
  • Both sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite are disinfectants, but the products are actually a little different. (poolcareguy.com)
  • Because it contains calcium, though, pools in areas with very high calcium hardness levels and calcium scale tend to steer away from this product. (poolcareguy.com)
  • But if you live in a region where calcium deposits are an issue, sodium hypochlorite might be the more effective way to go. (poolcareguy.com)
  • However, you can quickly and easily lower calcium hardness by removing water from the pool and replacing it with freshwater. (wikihow.com)
  • Use a strip or chemical test to check the calcium levels in your pool. (wikihow.com)
  • Purchase a calcium hardness test kit from the home improvement store or pool center. (wikihow.com)
  • If the calcium levels in your pool are regularly above 350 PPM, do a calcium hardness test for your tap water. (wikihow.com)
  • Some areas have very high levels of calcium in the public water supply, which will cause higher calcium levels in your pool. (wikihow.com)
  • For pools with calcium hardness issues, try to keep the alkalinity level as close to 80 as possible. (wikihow.com)
  • Calcium Hypochlorite 65, 70 Granular for Water Disinfection and Swimming Pool Property: Efficient disinfectant and bleaching agent, it can whiten cotton, hemp, fibre, and starch, and also can sterilize drinking water and swimming pools. (burrillandco.com)
  • Swimming Pool Cleaning Chemicals of Water Purification Tablets Granule Calcium Hypochlorite 65% 70% 1. (burrillandco.com)
  • Calcium Hypochlorite 65%~75% (direct factory hot sale) Calcium hypochlorite (sodium process) 1. (burrillandco.com)
  • Resistant to most Alcohols, Sodium & Calcium brines, hypochlorite solutions (i.e. (sme.org)
  • The main groups include sodium channel blockers, calcium current inhibitors, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enhancers, glutamate blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, hormones, and drugs with unknown mechanisms of action (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • For people who are concerned about raising alkalinity in the pool, this article will provide a brief explanation about how you can increase total alkalinity and how much baking soda you should be using to raise alkalinity in the pool. (poolity.com)
  • To increase total alkalinity in your pool, you will need to test and add arm & hammer baking soda in addition to removing corrosion. (poolity.com)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate (or Baking Soda) is used for raising total alkalinity, which is what keeps the pH stable in a pool. (manhajka.com)
  • Complete Walk Through On How To Add Sodium Bicarbonate To Your Pool To Increase The Total Alkalinity.Test your water on our FREE water analysis software! (manhajka.com)
  • The industry standard has always been to use sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to raise total alkalinity and sodium carbonate (soda ash) to raise pH - … Some seminar instructors Super Washing Soda is a brand name for sodium carbonate (not to be confused with sodium bicarbonate, which is baking soda). (manhajka.com)
  • A key factor of prudent pool ownership is to manage your Total Alkalinity (TA) levels, to keep them within safe levels. (wildwestpoolsupplies.com)
  • Why is incorrect total alkalinity bad for your pool? (riverpoolsandspas.com)
  • Concrete pools in particular have issues with pH and total alkalinity because the plaster surface is alkaline itself, and therefore it adds to the total alkalinity. (riverpoolsandspas.com)
  • For comparison, the gelcoat surface of a fiberglass pool doesn't affect the pH or the total alkalinity, making it much easier to maintain. (riverpoolsandspas.com)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish at intervals increasing with caries risk status, as soon as teeth are present. (aappublications.org)
  • Sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate are two types of sodium compounds and salts. (manhajka.com)
  • This is the key difference between sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate. (manhajka.com)
  • Let's have a look at some key differences between sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate. (manhajka.com)
  • He's been putting in Leisure Time Sodium Bromide to establish a reserve, then adding Renew weekly to oxidize. (troublefreepool.com)
  • LTBE1 Leisure Time Sodium Bromide 1lb. (anthonysylvan.com)
  • The cyanuric acid content of the pool shall not exceed 100 ppm. (solanocounty.com)
  • Test kits - Appropriate test kits for measuring the pH, disinfectant concentration, and, when used, concentration of cyanuric acid shall be provided at each pool. (solanocounty.com)
  • Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide . (wikipedia.org)
  • As a disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite also finds use in swimming pools. (compoundchem.com)
  • When buying disinfectant for your pool, you'll probably most commonly see cal-hypo. (poolcareguy.com)
  • What type of disinfectant do you use in your pool? (poolcareguy.com)
  • In the six SENSOR-Pesticides states (California, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, North Carolina, and Texas),* a case of poisoning associated with pool disinfectants was defined as two or more acute adverse health effects resulting from exposure to any pool disinfectant. (cdc.gov)
  • AquaChek Sodium Bromide Test Strips give pool owners a way to check the level of their sodium bromide sanitizer in their pool, which protects your pool against bacteria and other harmful organic compounds. (poolgeek.com)
  • Best of all, Sodium Bromide Test Strips are made right here in the USA to ensure the highest quality, allowing you to buy with confidence. (poolgeek.com)
  • Obtain your sodium bromide concentration: note where top of the white peak fallos on the number scale. (poolgeek.com)
  • Locate the sodium bromide concentration next to that reading in the table below. (poolgeek.com)
  • For help finding "Sodium Bromide" click here. (poolandspawarehouse.com.au)
  • For example, if you wish to raise the alkalinity to 10 ppm, add 1 ½ pounds of sodium bicarbonate if you have 10,000 gallons of water in your pool. (ehow.com)
  • Remember to add only 2.20 pounds of sodium bicarbonate per every 11,000 gallons every four days. (ehow.com)
  • Generally, it is recommended that you add 3-4 pounds of sodium bicarbonate for every 10,000 gallons of water if the pH is 7.2 or lower, and 2 pounds per 10,000 gallons if the pH is 7.2-7.5. (manhajka.com)
  • Sodium bicarbonate, also called Baking soda, is naturally alkaline, with a pH of 8. (poolity.com)
  • If, after following the above tips, the pH is still dropping, you can attempt to raise it by adding sodium bicarbonate, otherwise called baking soda. (amazines.com)
  • Sodium bisulfate is a dry acid that may be harmful if swallowed in large amounts. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How well a person does depends on how rapidly the sodium bisulfate was diluted and neutralized. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sodium Bisulphate ( Sodium Bisulfate) Sodium Bisulfate: Is ISO 9002 certified. (ecer.com)
  • Sodium Bisulfate is white monoclinic crystal. (ecer.com)
  • Benefits of Sodium Bicarbonate for pools: Along with raising the water's alkalinity while hardly impacting pH levels, sodium bicarbonate has other benefits for the swimming pool as well. (manhajka.com)
  • It provides a style look and comfortable grip, Yixin sodium carbonate vs sodium bicarbonate for pools has to go through an extensive array of tests. (manhajka.com)
  • It provides a style look and comfortable grip, With the growing demand of sodium carbonate vs sodium bicarbonate for pools, Yixin now has been more concentrated on the service quality. (manhajka.com)
  • As mentioned earlier, the According to the customer's requirements, The materials used in Yixin sodium carbonate vs sodium bicarbonate for pools are guaranteed high quality. (manhajka.com)
  • It's been a little while since the last entry in the Everyday Compounds series, so today's post takes a look at Sodium Hypochlorite. (compoundchem.com)
  • This chemical is likely to be found in several cleaning products in your kitchen, and additionally is one of the main compounds used to chlorinate the water in swimming pools. (compoundchem.com)
  • Sodium carbonate and sodium percarbonate are important inorganic compounds. (manhajka.com)
  • Sodium silicate is the common name for compounds with the formula (Na 2 SiO 2) n O. A well-known member of this series is sodium metasilicate, Na 2 SiO 3. (developmentportal.eu)
  • As a result, sodium usually forms ionic compounds involving the Na+ cation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium compounds are of immense commercial importance, being particularly central to industries producing glass, paper, soap, and textiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main alternative, sodium carbonate (also known as soda ash), takes far smaller amounts to raise pH, which can be problematic to adjust perfectly for pool usage even though it requires much smaller amounts. (wildwestpoolsupplies.com)
  • Soda ash is recommended for smaller bodies of water than the average residential or commercial pool. (wildwestpoolsupplies.com)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate & Soda Ash There are 5 products. (petandgarden.com.au)
  • Soda Ash has many uses including adjusting the PH in Pools. (petandgarden.com.au)
  • If, even after using suitable testing equipment, you find that an overly low pH is still being registered, you should try adding sodium carbonate, which is also commonly referred to as soda ash. (amazines.com)
  • If applying sodium bicarbonate slowly, you'll drastically lower the chances of raising your TA past the recommended limits. (wildwestpoolsupplies.com)
  • Established in the year 1993, Lakshmi Chemical Industries is a reliable Manufacturer, Supplier & Exporter of the best quality Sodium Thiosulfate, Sodium Thiosulphate Anhydrous etc. (tradeindia.com)
  • Its presence also has some interesting chemical consequences as a result of any swimmers who decide to relieve their bladders in the pool, an action which even Michael Phelps has happily confessed to . (compoundchem.com)
  • Pool chemical measurements are typically based on 10000 gallons of water. (poolity.com)
  • Sodium Bicarbonate, Chemical, Water Treatment manufacturer / supplier in China, offering High-Quality Sodium Bicarbonate for Swimming Pool, Bkc - Benzalkonium - Swimming Pool Algaecide, Muriatic Acid - Hydrochloric Acid - Swimming Pool Acid - 31% 32% Purity and so on. (made-in-china.com)
  • Using simple baking soda or a sodium bicarbonate pool chemical ensures that you and your family will always have a refreshing, crystal clear swimming pool. (manhajka.com)
  • Detailed Product Description Tablet Floating Dispenser Swimming Pool Chemical Dispensers for 3" Tablet s T53 Description: -Dia.9" Deluxe Floating Chemical Dispenser for 3" Tablet s -We make 3, 000, 000pcs annual. (burrillandco.com)
  • Chemical Dispenser for pool Chemical dispenser for 1 1/2" tablets Export price under $0.84 Product Code: 2011301. (burrillandco.com)
  • Detailed Product Description ODM Chemical Feeder Swimming Pool Dispenser for 4lbs 3" Tablets T59 Description: -In Line chemical Feeder for 4lbs 3" Tablets -We make 3, 000, 000pcs annually -Offer both OEM and O. (burrillandco.com)
  • Pool chemical Dispenser Deluxe large chemical dispenser for 3" tablets Export price under $1.58 Product Code: 2011239. (burrillandco.com)
  • A common cause of blue-green copper pool stains is improper chemical maintenance. (wikihow.com)
  • Pool Calculator tells you exactly how much of each chemical to add to keep your water in balance and crystal clear. (appbrain.com)
  • Bring your Android phone or tablet out to the pool and have all the chemical information and calculations you need right at your fingertips. (appbrain.com)
  • All of the chemical balancing recommendations you receive from the Pool Calculator are based on it. (appbrain.com)
  • Ever want to know the impact of adding a given amount of Chemical has on your swimming pool or hot tub chemistry? (appbrain.com)
  • The Effects Calculator calculates the impact adding a specific amount of chemical has on your pool chemistry. (appbrain.com)
  • It does this not only for the primary purpose of the chemical, but also on the other important measurements for your pool. (appbrain.com)
  • Starting with the deep end, distribute this chemical across the entire pool surface. (amazines.com)
  • Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na (from Latin "natrium") and atomic number 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical Safety Recommendations - Care should be taken in the handling and storage of all swimming pool chemicals. (solanocounty.com)
  • In addition to improving stability and clarity, you have to add baking soda to your pool water. (poolity.com)
  • Baking soda is considered the main medicine for raising the alkalinity and water quality in your pool. (poolity.com)
  • You are now ready to add baking soda to your pool. (poolity.com)
  • After applying baking soda to your pool, you now need to wait about 6 hours. (poolity.com)
  • Baking soda is less costly, available almost everywhere, and reliable for maintaining the quality of the water of your pool. (poolity.com)
  • Granular alkalinity increaser can help to prevent these problems by stabilizing the pool pH and ensuring that your pool is safe for swimming. (intheswim.com)
  • Differences Between Sodium Sulfite and Sodium Thiosulfate for. (ehow.com)
  • However, black boxed warning given by FDA due to the hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis, and high fetal risk associated with the use of divalproex sodium tablet and other known adverse reactions such as birth defects, neurobehavioral adverse effects, and suicidal behavior are expected to restrain the divalproex sodium market growth. (openpr.com)
  • We are also one of the largest Sodium Hypochlorite Solution suppliers and Sodium Hypochlorite Solution distributors in the country. (buckmansinc.com)
  • Due to having low atomic mass and large atomic radius, sodium is third-least dense of all elemental metals and is one of only three metals that can float on water, the other two being lithium and potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] The melting (98 °C) and boiling (883 °C) points of sodium are lower than those of lithium but higher than those of the heavier alkali metals potassium, rubidium, and caesium, following periodic trends down the group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metallic sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium metal is highly reducing, with the standard reduction potential for the Na+/Na couple being −2.71 volts, though potassium and lithium have even more negative potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVE Reports of amputations associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been inconsistent. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Objective To investigate the cardiovascular effectiveness of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in routine clinical practice. (bmj.com)
  • We are a top source if your business is in need of a Sodium Bicarbonate supplier and distributor. (buckmansinc.com)
  • Since 2000, with more than 45000 square meters factory, Hotchem-Qingdao Hot Chemicals Co., Ltd. has grown into the leading producer, repackager and supplier of swimming pool and spa chemicals in China. (made-in-china.com)
  • With more than 45000 square meters factory and 110 square meters trading office, Hotchem has grown into the leading producer and supplier of swimming pool and spa chemicals, moisture absorber, ice melter, oil drilling chemicals and packages in China since 2000. (made-in-china.com)
  • Sodium ions are the major cation in the extracellular fluid (ECF) and as such are the major contributor to the ECF osmotic pressure and ECF compartment volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our 4x1 Sodium Hypochlorite offers powerful disinfection in one gallon containers. (buckmansinc.com)
  • Our LC-2 Sodium Hypochlorite offers powerful disinfection in 2.5 gallon containers. (buckmansinc.com)
  • Our LC-5 NSF/ANSI Standard 60 Sodium Hypochlorite offers powerful disinfection in 5 gallon containers and is safe to use in drinking water applications. (buckmansinc.com)
  • High sodium hypochlorite occurrence, good disinfection effect, low electricity. (frbiz.com)
  • Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars , sodalite , and rock salt (NaCl). (wikipedia.org)
  • Borax contains sodium which is salt so Borax can make crystals under heat. (answers.com)
  • Borax , also known as sodium borate , sodium tetraborate , or disodium tetraborate , is an important boron compound , a mineral , and a salt of boric acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] Borax is not used for this purpose in fireworks due to the overwhelming yellow color of sodium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The race to develop analgesic drugs that inhibit sodium channel Na V 1.7 is revealing a complex sensory role for the protein. (the-scientist.com)
  • Use of sodium cumenesulfonate as a detergent and cleaner for household application is growing. (openpr.com)
  • Sodium sulfite, Na2SO3, is an odorless white powder that will sink in water and dissolve slowly over time. (ehow.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is a solid white powder, but is more commonly used dissolved in water. (compoundchem.com)
  • Based on form, the global sodium cumenesulfonate market has been classified into powder form and liquid form. (openpr.com)
  • P-Toluenesulfinic Acid Sodium Salt Hydrate CAS No 824-79-3 Molecular Formula C7H7O2SNa Molecular Structure Packing 25kg woven bag. (ecer.com)
  • Visit our world-class retail premises and shop the most extensive and comprehensive range of pool & spa products on display in Australia from all the major manufacturers at the best prices. (poolandspawarehouse.com.au)
  • The J.T. Products Sodium Bicarbonate 50 lb bag AAA-8604 is one of the top choices for increasing alkalinity in home or commercial pools. (wildwestpoolsupplies.com)
  • This smokin' J.T. Products Sodium Bicarbonate 50 lb bag deal lasts as long as our stock holds up, so get yours as soon as possible! (wildwestpoolsupplies.com)
  • Here at Pool Warehouse, we stock a variety of products for use in testing, including test strips and tablets. (amazines.com)
  • All Verified sodium cyanide purchase suppliers & sodium cyanide purchase manufacturers have passed our Business License Check, they can provide quality sodium cyanide purchase products. (frbiz.com)
  • Having the right collection of pool maintenance products and accessories at your disposal helps cut pool maintenance chores down to size, leaving you more time to enjoy your pool with family and friends. (pentair.com)
  • The vast majority of alkalinity increaser products are made from sodium bicarbonate which is a safe substance. (intheswim.com)
  • All Verified sulfate de laureth de sodium suppliers & sulfate de laureth de sodium manufacturers have passed our Business License Check, they can provide quality sulfate de laureth de sodium products. (ecer.com)
  • However, before you vow never to set foot in a public swimming pool again, it's worth examining the production and concentration of these chemicals in a little more detail. (compoundchem.com)
  • [ citation needed ] Loss of water from the ECF compartment increases the sodium concentration, a condition called hypernatremia . (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various stain colors that commonly appear in pools, and identifying yours will lead you in the right direction for treatment. (wikihow.com)
  • The metals that commonly cause pool stains are iron, manganese & copper. (wikihow.com)
  • Copper-molybdenum and molybdenum separation of selected commonly used are sodium sulfide and sodium cyanide method method. (frbiz.com)
  • For the nutrient commonly called sodium, see salt . (wikipedia.org)
  • 2019. "Compound 1080 (Sodium Monofluoroacetate). (culanth.org)
  • Sodium hypochlorite dissolved in water also forms hypochlorous acid, HOCl, a weak acid but strong oxidising agent which is responsible for bleach's bleaching effect. (compoundchem.com)
  • What mass of sodium acetate, NaCH 3 CO 2 , must he added to 1.00 L of 0.10 M acetic acid to give a solution with a pH of 4.50? (bartleby.com)
  • Mass of sodium acetate that must be added to acetic acid solution such that the resulting solution has pH 4.50 has to be determined. (bartleby.com)
  • Furthermore, increasing awareness regarding diseases and various government initiatives to prevent head migraine is expected to propel growth of divalproex sodium market size. (openpr.com)
  • This factor is expected to propel the demand for sodium cumenesulfonate aids in Middle East & Africa during the forecast period. (openpr.com)
  • Sodium cumenesulfonate is used as a solubilizer and cloud point depressor in wax cleaners, air mist drilling, laundry washing, drilling fluids, stimulation fluids, anti-caking agents, and coupling agents in powdered detergents. (openpr.com)
  • Increasing industrialization and use of household detergents in emerging economies are factors likely to drive the demand for sodium cumenesulfonate during the forecast period. (openpr.com)
  • The AFR's passive safety is based on three key aspects of its materials and design: its liquid sodium coolant, its pool-type cooling system and its metal alloy fuel. (eurekalert.org)
  • By submerging the core in thousands of gallons of liquid sodium, you provide the reactor with an immense heat sink that adds greatly to its safety. (eurekalert.org)
  • The advantage to liquid is that it is quickly available - as soon as you pour it into the pool. (eztestpools.com)
  • Go to a pool store and get a liquid metal remover. (hearth.com)
  • How retarded to you have to be to figure filling a swimming pool with liquid N and letting people party around it as a good idea? (fark.com)
  • Besides which filling a swimming pool with liquid N is cheaper than hiring in some industrial smoke machines. (fark.com)
  • Sodium hypochlorite is the main ingredient in household bleach as well as in some of the pool sanitizers you use. (poolcareguy.com)
  • I mean the pool water is basically a weak bleach (sodium hypochlorite), right? (fark.com)
  • Looking for help with calculations for your swimming pool or hot tub chemistry? (appbrain.com)
  • Sodium cumenesulfonate is also used in metal processing applications, oilfield applications, and hydrogen sulfide scavangers. (openpr.com)
  • Sodium sulfite is used to dechlorinate swimming pools. (ehow.com)
  • Use the manufacturer's instruction to determine how much sodium sulfite to add to the swimming pool. (ehow.com)
  • Sodium sulfite is a moderately toxic compound. (ehow.com)
  • TCCA 90%- Tablets - Buy Swimming Pool Chemicals at best price of Rs 190 /kilogram from Acuro Organics Limited. (2praher.com)
  • NEISS cases † were those involving exposure to swimming pool chemicals (product code 938). (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorophyllin inhibits sodium nitrate induced toxicity in mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Specification: Standard:GB/T10666-2008 Items Specification I. Sodium Process II. (burrillandco.com)