A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.
Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.
A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.
Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.
Creation of an artificial external opening into the stomach for nutritional support or gastrointestinal compression.
Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Either of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.
Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.

Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyurethane condom: results from a randomized, controlled clinical trial. (1/523)

CONTEXT: Condoms made of latex are not comfortable or appropriate for all consumers. Polyurethane condoms may provide a needed alternative. METHODS: In a double-masked study, 805 monogamous couples were randomized to use either the polyurethane condom or the latex condom for six months. Couples recorded the frequency of intercourse, of condom use and of breakage and slippage throughout the trial in coital diaries and in detailed reports on the first five uses. Breakage and slippage rates were determined, and typical-use and consistent-use pregnancy rates were calculated using life-table analysis, adjusted for use of emergency contraception. RESULTS: The six-month pregnancy rate during typical use (adjusted for use of emergency contraception) was 4.8% for the polyurethane condom and 6.3% for the latex condom. Similarly adjusted pregnancy rates during consistent use over six completed menstrual cycles--2.4% for the polyurethane condom and 1.1% for the latex condom--did not differ significantly. Clinical failure rates (including breakage and slippage occurring during either intercourse or withdrawal) were 8.5% for the polyurethane condom and 1.6% for the latex condom. In general, male participants were more satisfied with the latex condom, and users of latex were significantly less likely to drop out of the study for condom-related reasons than were users of polyurethane. CONCLUSIONS: Although polyurethane and latex condoms provide equivalent levels of contraceptive protection, the polyurethane condom's higher frequency of breakage and slippage suggests that this condom may confer less protection from sexually transmitted infections than does the latex condom.  (+info)

Toxicity of combustion products from burning polymers: development and evaluation of methods. (2/523)

Laboratory and room-scale experiments were conducted with natural and synthetic polymers: cotton, paper, wood, wool, acetate, acrylic, nylon, and urethane. Smoke and off-gases from single materials were generated in a dual-compartment 110-liter exposure chamber. Multicomponent, composite fuel loads were burned within a 100 m(3) facility subdivided into rooms. In chamber experiments, mortality depended on the amount of material burned, i.e., fuel consumption (FC). Conventional dose (FC)/mortality curves were obtained, and the amount of fuel required to produce 50% mortality (FC(50)) was calculated. With simple flame ignition, cotton was the only material that produced smoke concentrations lethal to rats; FC(50) values for cotton ranged from 2 g to 9 g, depending on the configuration of the cotton sample burned. When supplemental conductive heat was added to flame ignition, the following FC(50) values were obtained; nylon, 7 g; acrylic, 8 g; newsprint, 9 g; cotton, 10 g; and wood, 11 g. Mortality resulting from any given material depended upon the specific conditions employed for its thermal decomposition. Toxicity of off-gasses from pyrolysis of phosphorus-containing trimethylol propane-polyurethane foams was markedly decreased by addition of a flame ignition source. Further studies are needed to determine the possible relevance of single-material laboratory scale smoke toxicity experiments. Room-scale burns were conducted to assess the relative contributions of single materials to toxicity of smoke produced by a multicomponent self-perpetuating fire. Preliminary results suggest that this approach permits a realistic evaluation of the contribution of single materials to the toxicity of smoke from residential fires.  (+info)

Neutrophil chemotaxis on silicone and polyurethane surfaces. (3/523)

Silicone vascular catheters have a greater risk of infection and produce greater inflammation in vivo and greater complement activation in vitro than other vascular catheter polymer materials. This study investigated whether polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) chemotaxis under agarose on silicone surfaces is different than on polyurethane (PU). Glass slides were coated with silicone and PU by use of a constant-speed dipping apparatus. Chemotaxis (3 h) in response to (10-7 mL) FMLP, zymosan-activated serum, and fresh serum (100%) was greater on silicone than on PU (P<.05). Polyclonal antibody to C5a blocked >50% of the movement toward serum (P<.05). Serum in the PMNL well significantly decreased chemotaxis toward FMLP on silicone (P<.05) but not on PU. These findings suggest that excessive complement activation by silicone may interfere with chemotaxis, but further work is necessary to determine whether this is relevant to an increased risk of catheter-related infection.  (+info)

Neutrophil adhesion on polyurethanes preadsorbed with high molecular weight kininogen. (4/523)

Interaction of biomaterials with blood components including neutrophils is responsible for some of the clinical complications that have occurred in cardiopulmonary bypass, hemodialysis, and ventricular assist procedures. The possibility of inhibiting the initial adhesion of neutrophils to biomaterials has been studied extensively, but the problem remains unsolved. In this study, we investigated the effect of HK adsorption on polyurethane, a widely used component of extracorporeal and intracorporeal devices. HK and HKa were allowed to adsorb on 4 different charged polyurethanes: noncharged (PU), cationic (NR(4)), anionic (SO(3)), and zwitterionic (GPC) polyurethanes. The effect of kininogen adsorption on neutrophil adhesion, the surface density of the adsorbed kininogen, and the exposure of HK domains 3 and 5 (D(3) and D(5H)), which are responsible for the binding of HK to the neutrophil integrin alpha(m)beta(2) or Mac-1, were examined. On PU, NR(4), and SO(3), kininogen adsorption reached 80% of monolayer coverage when 100 pmol/mL or higher concentration of protein solutions were used. The NR(4) surface adsorbed the most kininogen along with a high exposure of D(3) and D(5H). The availability of D(3) and D(5H) allowed neutrophils to bind to the surface via the Mac-1 receptor; thus, on the NR(4) surface, adsorbed kininogens lost their antiadhesive property, which resulted in a high degree of neutrophil adhesion. Increasing Mac-1 expression by exposure to fMLP increased the neutrophil adhesion on this surface. In contrast, exposure of D(3) and D(5H) on SO(3) was significantly less, because HK binds to anionic surfaces with similar protein sequences used for cell binding. This low binding site exposure preserved the antiadhesive property of HK. GPC was resistant to neutrophil adhesion even in the absence of adsorbed kininogens because of its phosphorylcholine moiety. Thus, both SO(3) coupled with kininogen (or kininogen peptides) and GPC have the potential to markedly reduce neutrophil adhesion to biomaterial devices.  (+info)

Exposure to MDI during the process of insulating buildings with sprayed polyurethane foam. (5/523)

Buildings are often insulated with sprayed-in-place polyurethane foam in spite of the fact that few studies have been carried out on exposure levels to isocyanates during the spraying process. This paper is meant to provide new data on personal exposure to methylene-bis (4-phenylisocyanate) (MDI) while dwellings and office buildings are being insulated with polyurethane foam. An impinger using a 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine toluene solution as absorbent was used to take personal samples for the sprayer and helper during indoor and outdoor applications. The analytical results show that the levels of exposure were significant, especially for the sprayer, with values of up to 0.077 mg m-3 and 0.400 mg m-3 during outdoor and indoor applications, respectively. The helper's exposure was always lower.  (+info)

In vitro cytotoxicity of textile paint components linked to the "Ardystil syndrome". (6/523)

The spraying of a paint formula (Acramin F system) had led to severe pulmonary disease in textile printing sprayers in Spain and Algeria (Ardystil syndrome). In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the toxicity of this paint and its main polymeric components, Acramin FWR, Acramin FWN, Acrafix FHN, and Acramoll W, we have undertaken studies using a battery of different cell-types and assessing in vitro cytotoxicity by measuring LDH leakage. This study shows that, as in in vivo studies, the three polycationic paint components, Acramin FWR (a polyurea), Acramin FWN (a polyamide-amine), and Acrafix FHN (a polyamine) exhibited considerable cytotoxicity (LC50 generally below 100 microg/ml for an incubation of 20-24 h) in vitro, while Acramoll W, which is not a polycation, was almost non-toxic (in the concentration range tested). The cytotoxicity was comparable in primary cultures of rat and human type II pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages as well as in the pulmonary cell line A549 and the hepatic cell line HepG2. In human erythrocytes, the toxicity was less pronounced. We speculate that the multiple positive charges play an important role in the toxic mechanism. It is concluded that Acramin FWR and Acramin FWN have similar intrinsic toxicity and that these polymeric compounds, which have no irritant properties or systemic toxicity when given orally, exert a high, unexpected, degree of cytotoxicity.  (+info)

In vivo analysis of dynamic tensile stresses at arterial end-to-end anastomoses. Influence of suture-line and graft on anastomotic biomechanics. (7/523)

OBJECTIVE: to determine the influence of an anastomotic suture line and a graft on dynamic tensile stresses of vascular end-to-end anastomoses in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: the abdominal aorta of twelve 35-kg pigs was used as an experimental model. Simultaneous recordings of internal arterial diameter and pressure were performed on each pig at 3 successive stages: (1) The genuine artery (REF), (2) artery-artery (A-A) and (3) graft-artery (G-A) anastomosis at 1-mm increments in the immediate perianastomotic area. Thereby, RD (relative distension), CC (compliance coefficient), E(p)(dynamic pressure-strain elastic modulus) and hysteresis loop areas could be calculated for every measuring point. RESULTS: the graft was significantly stiffer than REF. A-A and G-A anastomoses were significantly less compliant than REF. Maximum E(p), minimum CC and hysteresis loop areas were found at the anastomotic line due to minimum anastomotic RD. Downstream of the G-A anastomosis, the RD, CC, E(p)and loop areas were significantly different from REF, but significantly different from A-A. CONCLUSION: an animal model for acute studies of mechanical properties of vascular end-to-end anastomoses was developed. The main determinant for anastomotic biomechanics was the suture-line itself.  (+info)

Prenatal toxicity of inhaled polymeric methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) aerosols in pregnant wistar rats. (8/523)

Mated Wistar rats, 25/group, were exposed to polymeric methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) aerosol of respirable size for 6 h/day, on gestational days (gd) 6 through 15, at 0, 1, 4, and 12 mg/m3. Maternal clinical signs, body weights, and feed and water consumption were measured throughout gestation. At scheduled sacrifice on gd 20, maternal body, gravid uterine, liver, and paired lung weights were documented. Corpora lutea were counted, implantation sites were identified: resorptions, dead and live fetuses, and placentas were weighed. All live fetuses were counted, sexed, weighed, and examined for external alterations; approximately 50% of the live fetuses/litter were preserved in Bouin's fixative and examined for visceral alterations, and the remaining live fetuses/ litter were cleared and stained with alizarin red S and examined for ossified skeletal alterations. Maternal toxicity was observed at 12 mg/m3, including mortality (2 of 24 pregnant), damage to the respiratory tract, reduced body weights and weight gain, reduced liver and increased lung weights, and reduced gravid uterine weight (the last not statistically significantly different from the control value). Developmental toxicity was also observed at 12 mg/m3, including reduced placental and fetal body weights and an increased incidence of fetal skeletal variations and skeletal retardations. There was no evidence of maternal or developmental toxicity at 1 or 4 mg/m3. The no observed adverse effect concentration for maternal and developmental toxicity was therefore 4 mg/m3. There were no treatment-related teratogenic effects at any concentrations evaluated.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyurethanes" are not a medical term. They are a type of polymer that is used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including foam cushions, insulation, and packaging materials. Polyurethanes are created through a chemical reaction between diisocyanates and polyols. While they have many applications in the medical field, such as in the production of medical devices and equipment, they are not a medical term themselves.

Isocyanates are a group of highly reactive chemicals that are widely used in the production of flexible and rigid foams, fibers, coatings, and adhesives. The most common isocyanates are toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Exposure to isocyanates can cause a range of health effects, including irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, as well as respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Long-term exposure has been linked to the development of asthma and other respiratory diseases. Isocyanates are also known to be potential sensitizers, meaning that they can cause an allergic response in some individuals. It is important for workers who handle isocyanates to use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and follow proper safety protocols to minimize exposure.

Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate (TDI) is not a medical term itself, but it is an important chemical in the industrial field, particularly in the production of polyurethane products. Therefore, I will provide a general definition of this compound.

Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate (TDI) is an organic chemical compound with the formula (CH3C6H3NCO)2. It is a colorless to light yellow liquid with a pungent odor and is highly reactive due to the presence of two isocyanate functional groups (-N=C=O). TDI is primarily used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams, coatings, and adhesives. Exposure to TDI can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract and may pose potential health hazards if not handled properly.

Castor oil is a colorless or pale yellow vegetable oil that is derived from the seeds of the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis). It has a wide range of uses, including as a laxative, a moisturizer in skin and hair products, and a component in industrial lubricants and biodiesel.

Medically, castor oil is often used as a stimulant laxative to relieve constipation. It works by increasing the movement of the intestines, which helps to promote bowel movements. Castor oil is typically taken orally, and its effects usually begin to be felt within 2-6 hours after ingestion.

It's important to note that castor oil should not be used in large amounts or for prolonged periods of time, as it can lead to electrolyte imbalances and other serious side effects. It is also not recommended for use during pregnancy, as it may stimulate uterine contractions. As with any medication or supplement, it's always best to consult with a healthcare provider before using castor oil.

Silicones are not a medical term, but they are commonly used in the medical field, particularly in medical devices and healthcare products. Silicones are synthetic polymers made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms. They can exist in various forms such as oils, gels, rubbers, and resins.

In the medical context, silicones are often used for their unique properties, including:

1. Biocompatibility - Silicones have a low risk of causing an adverse reaction when they come into contact with living tissue.
2. Inertness - They do not react chemically with other substances, making them suitable for use in medical devices that need to remain stable over time.
3. Temperature resistance - Silicones can maintain their flexibility and elasticity even under extreme temperature conditions.
4. Gas permeability - Some silicone materials allow gases like oxygen and water vapor to pass through, which is useful in applications where maintaining a moist environment is essential.
5. Durability - Silicones have excellent resistance to aging, weathering, and environmental factors, ensuring long-lasting performance.

Examples of medical applications for silicones include:

1. Breast implants
2. Contact lenses
3. Catheters
4. Artificial joints and tendons
5. Bandages and wound dressings
6. Drug delivery systems
7. Medical adhesives
8. Infant care products (nipples, pacifiers)

Cyanates are a class of chemical compounds that contain the functional group -O-C≡N, which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom and double-bonded to an oxygen atom. In medical terms, cyanates are not commonly used, but potassium cyanate has been studied in the past as a possible treatment for certain conditions such as angina and cyanide poisoning. However, its use is limited due to potential side effects and the availability of safer and more effective treatments. It's important to note that cyanides are highly toxic substances, and exposure to them can be life-threatening.

Elastomers are a type of polymeric material that exhibit elastic behavior when subjected to deforming forces. They have the ability to return to their original shape and size after being stretched or compressed, making them ideal for use in applications where flexibility, resilience, and durability are required.

Elastomers are composed of long chains of repeating molecular units called monomers, which are cross-linked together to form a three-dimensional network. This cross-linking gives elastomers their unique properties, such as high elasticity, low compression set, and resistance to heat, chemicals, and weathering.

Some common examples of elastomers include natural rubber, silicone rubber, neoprene, nitrile rubber, and polyurethane. These materials are used in a wide range of applications, from automotive parts and medical devices to footwear and clothing.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Experimental implants refer to medical devices that are not yet approved by regulatory authorities for general use in medical practice. These are typically being tested in clinical trials to evaluate their safety and efficacy. The purpose of experimental implants is to determine whether they can be used as a viable treatment option for various medical conditions. They may include, but are not limited to, devices such as artificial joints, heart valves, or spinal cord stimulators that are still in the developmental or testing stage. Participation in clinical trials involving experimental implants is voluntary and usually requires informed consent from the patient.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyl Chloride" (PVC) is not a medical term. It is a type of synthetic plastic polymer material. PVC is commonly used in various industrial, commercial, and consumer products, such as pipes, cable insulation, clothing, and inflatable items.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, please provide them, and I would be happy to help you find a relevant answer.

Equipment failure is a term used in the medical field to describe the malfunction or breakdown of medical equipment, devices, or systems that are essential for patient care. This can include simple devices like syringes and thermometers, as well as complex machines such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and imaging equipment.

Equipment failure can have serious consequences for patients, including delayed or inappropriate treatment, injury, or even death. It is therefore essential that medical equipment is properly maintained, tested, and repaired to ensure its safe and effective operation.

There are many potential causes of equipment failure, including:

* Wear and tear from frequent use
* Inadequate cleaning or disinfection
* Improper handling or storage
* Power supply issues
* Software glitches or bugs
* Mechanical failures or defects
* Human error or misuse

To prevent equipment failure, healthcare facilities should have established policies and procedures for the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of medical equipment. Staff should be trained in the proper use and handling of equipment, and regular inspections and testing should be performed to identify and address any potential issues before they lead to failure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyesters" is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and textile industry to describe a type of synthetic fiber made from polymers characterized by the presence of ester groups in their main chain. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

The chemical industry is a broad term that refers to the companies and organizations involved in the production or transformation of raw materials or intermediates into various chemical products. These products can be used for a wide range of applications, including manufacturing, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and consumer goods. The chemical industry includes businesses that produce basic chemicals, such as petrochemicals, agrochemicals, polymers, and industrial gases, as well as those that manufacture specialty chemicals, such as dyestuffs, flavors, fragrances, and advanced materials. Additionally, the chemical industry encompasses companies that provide services related to the research, development, testing, and distribution of chemical products.

Occupational air pollutants refer to harmful substances present in the air in workplaces or occupational settings. These pollutants can include dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, or mists that are produced by industrial processes, chemical reactions, or other sources. Examples of occupational air pollutants include:

1. Respirable crystalline silica: A common mineral found in sand, stone, and concrete that can cause lung disease and cancer when inhaled in high concentrations.
2. Asbestos: A naturally occurring mineral fiber that was widely used in construction materials and industrial applications until the 1970s. Exposure to asbestos fibers can cause lung diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
3. Welding fumes: Fumes generated during welding processes can contain harmful metals such as manganese, chromium, and nickel that can cause neurological damage and respiratory problems.
4. Isocyanates: Chemicals used in the production of foam insulation, spray-on coatings, and other industrial applications that can cause asthma and other respiratory symptoms.
5. Coal dust: Fine particles generated during coal mining, transportation, and handling that can cause lung disease and other health problems.
6. Diesel exhaust: Emissions from diesel engines that contain harmful particulates and gases that can cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems.

Occupational air pollutants are regulated by various government agencies, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States, to protect workers from exposure and minimize health risks.

Adhesives are substances that are used to bind two surfaces together. They can be composed of a variety of materials, including natural substances like tree sap or animal glue, or synthetic substances like cyanoacrylates (super glues) or epoxies. Adhesives can be classified based on their chemical composition, how they cure (set), and their properties such as strength, flexibility, and resistance to environmental factors. In a medical context, adhesives may be used in a variety of applications, such as wound closure, securing medical devices, or attaching bandages or dressings. It's important to choose the right type of adhesive for each application to ensure proper adhesion, safety, and effectiveness.

Silicone elastomers are a type of synthetic rubber made from silicone, which is a polymer composed primarily of silicon-oxygen bonds. They are known for their durability, flexibility, and resistance to heat, cold, and moisture. Silicone elastomers can be manufactured in various forms, including liquids, gels, and solids, and they are used in a wide range of medical applications such as:

1. Breast implants: Silicone elastomer shells filled with silicone gel are commonly used for breast augmentation and reconstruction.
2. Contact lenses: Some contact lenses are made from silicone elastomers due to their high oxygen permeability, which allows for better eye health.
3. Catheters: Silicone elastomer catheters are flexible and resistant to kinking, making them suitable for long-term use in various medical procedures.
4. Implantable drug delivery systems: Silicone elastomers can be used as a matrix for controlled release of drugs, allowing for sustained and targeted medication administration.
5. Medical adhesives: Silicone elastomer adhesives are biocompatible and can be used to attach medical devices to the skin or other tissues.
6. Sealants and coatings: Silicone elastomers can be used as sealants and coatings in medical devices to prevent leakage, improve durability, and reduce infection risk.

It is important to note that while silicone elastomers are generally considered safe for medical use, there have been concerns about the potential health risks associated with breast implants, such as capsular contracture, breast pain, and immune system reactions. However, these risks vary depending on the individual's health status and the specific type of silicone elastomer used.

Gastrostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an opening through the abdominal wall into the stomach. This opening, called a stoma or gastrostomy tract, allows for the passage of a tube (gastrostomy tube) that can be used to provide enteral nutrition and hydration directly into the stomach when a person is unable to consume food or fluids by mouth due to various medical conditions such as dysphagia, neurological disorders, or head and neck cancers.

Gastrostomy tubes come in different types and sizes, including percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes, laparoscopic gastrostomy tubes, and open surgical gastrostomy tubes. The choice of the procedure depends on various factors such as the patient's medical condition, anatomy, and overall health status.

The primary purpose of a gastrostomy is to ensure adequate nutrition and hydration for individuals who have difficulty swallowing or are unable to consume enough food or fluids by mouth to meet their nutritional needs. It can also help prevent complications associated with prolonged fasting, such as malnutrition, dehydration, and weight loss.

Polycarboxylate cement is not a medical term, but rather refers to a type of hydraulic cement used in construction and engineering. It's a specialized kind of cement that contains polycarboxylate-based high-range water-reducing admixtures (HRWRAs). These admixtures improve the workability and durability of concrete by reducing the amount of water needed for mixing while maintaining or even enhancing the strength of the final product.

The use of polycarboxylate cement is not directly related to medical practice or patient care, but it may have indirect implications in medical fields such as construction safety, environmental health, and industrial medicine.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Tissue scaffolds, also known as bioactive scaffolds or synthetic extracellular matrices, refer to three-dimensional structures that serve as templates for the growth and organization of cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These scaffolds are designed to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) found in biological tissues, providing a supportive environment for cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Tissue scaffolds can be made from various materials, including naturally derived biopolymers (e.g., collagen, alginate, chitosan, hyaluronic acid), synthetic polymers (e.g., polycaprolactone, polylactic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)), or a combination of both. The choice of material depends on the specific application and desired properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical strength, and porosity.

The primary functions of tissue scaffolds include:

1. Cell attachment: Providing surfaces for cells to adhere, spread, and form stable focal adhesions.
2. Mechanical support: Offering a structural framework that maintains the desired shape and mechanical properties of the engineered tissue.
3. Nutrient diffusion: Ensuring adequate transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the scaffold to support cell survival and function.
4. Guided tissue growth: Directing the organization and differentiation of cells through spatial cues and biochemical signals.
5. Biodegradation: Gradually degrading at a rate that matches tissue regeneration, allowing for the replacement of the scaffold with native ECM produced by the cells.

Tissue scaffolds have been used in various applications, such as wound healing, bone and cartilage repair, cardiovascular tissue engineering, and neural tissue regeneration. The design and fabrication of tissue scaffolds are critical aspects of tissue engineering, aiming to create functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs.

Scleral diseases refer to conditions that affect the sclera, which is the tough, white outer coating of the eye. The sclera helps to maintain the shape of the eye and provides protection for the internal structures. Scleral diseases can cause inflammation, degeneration, or thinning of the sclera, leading to potential vision loss or other complications. Some examples of scleral diseases include:

1. Scleritis: an inflammatory condition that causes pain, redness, and sensitivity in the affected area of the sclera. It can be associated with autoimmune disorders, infections, or trauma.
2. Episcleritis: a less severe form of inflammation that affects only the episclera, a thin layer of tissue overlying the sclera. Symptoms include redness and mild discomfort but typically no pain.
3. Pinguecula: a yellowish, raised deposit of protein and fat that forms on the conjunctiva, the clear membrane covering the sclera. While not a disease itself, a pinguecula can cause irritation or discomfort and may progress to a more severe condition called a pterygium.
4. Pterygium: a fleshy growth that extends from the conjunctiva onto the cornea, potentially obstructing vision. It is often associated with prolonged sun exposure and can be removed surgically if it becomes problematic.
5. Scleral thinning or melting: a rare but serious condition where the sclera degenerates or liquefies, leading to potential perforation of the eye. This can occur due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or as a complication of certain surgical procedures.
6. Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS): a condition caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus, which can lead to scarring and vision loss if it involves the macula, the central part of the retina responsible for sharp, detailed vision.

It is essential to consult an ophthalmologist or eye care professional if you experience any symptoms related to scleral diseases to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

Indwelling catheters, also known as Foley catheters, are medical devices that are inserted into the bladder to drain urine. They have a small balloon at the tip that is inflated with water once the catheter is in the correct position in the bladder, allowing it to remain in place and continuously drain urine. Indwelling catheters are typically used for patients who are unable to empty their bladders on their own, such as those who are bedridden or have nerve damage that affects bladder function. They are also used during and after certain surgical procedures. Prolonged use of indwelling catheters can increase the risk of urinary tract infections and other complications.

In a medical context, "latex" refers to the natural rubber milk-like substance that is tapped from the incisions made in the bark of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). This sap is then processed to create various products such as gloves, catheters, and balloons. It's important to note that some people may have a latex allergy, which can cause mild to severe reactions when they come into contact with latex products.

Electroplating is not a medical term, but rather a process used in the industrial field. It refers to the process of coating an electrically conductive object with a thin layer of metal through the use of an electrical current. This process involves immersing the object in a solution containing dissolved ions of the metal to be deposited, and then passing an electric current through the solution. The object serves as the cathode, and the metal ions are reduced at its surface, forming a thin layer of pure metal.

While electroplating is not directly related to medicine, it does have some medical applications. For example, medical devices such as pacemakers or implantable defibrillators may be coated with gold or other metals through electroplating to improve their biocompatibility and reduce the risk of corrosion or rejection by the body. Similarly, dental restorations may be electroplated with precious metals to enhance their strength and durability.

Biocompatible coated materials refer to surfaces or substances that are treated or engineered with a layer or film designed to interact safely and effectively with living tissues or biological systems, without causing harm or adverse reactions. The coating material is typically composed of biomaterials that can withstand the conditions of the specific application while promoting a positive response from the body.

The purpose of these coatings may vary depending on the medical device or application. For example, they might be used to enhance the lubricity and wear resistance of implantable devices, reduce the risk of infection, promote integration with surrounding tissues, control drug release, or prevent the formation of biofilms.

Biocompatible coated materials must undergo rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure their safety and efficacy in various clinical settings. This includes assessing potential cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, sensitization, hemocompatibility, carcinogenicity, and other factors that could impact the body's response to the material.

Examples of biocompatible coating materials include:

1. Hydrogels: Cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers that can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, or as lubricious coatings on medical devices.
2. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs): Organosilane or thiol-based molecules that form a stable, well-ordered film on surfaces, which can be further functionalized to promote specific biological interactions.
3. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG): A biocompatible polymer often used as a coating material due to its ability to reduce protein adsorption and cell attachment, making it useful for preventing biofouling or thrombosis on medical devices.
4. Bioactive glass: A type of biomaterial composed of silica-based glasses that can stimulate bone growth and healing when used as a coating material in orthopedic or dental applications.
5. Drug-eluting coatings: Biocompatible polymers impregnated with therapeutic agents, designed to release the drug over time to promote healing, prevent infection, or inhibit restenosis in various medical devices.

Occlusive dressings are specialized bandages or coverings that form a barrier over the skin, preventing air and moisture from passing through. They are designed to create a moist environment that promotes healing by increasing local blood flow, reducing wound desiccation, and encouraging the growth of new tissue. Occlusive dressings can also help to minimize pain, scarring, and the risk of infection in wounds. These dressings are often used for dry, necrotic, or hard-to-heal wounds, such as pressure ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, and burns. It is important to monitor the wound closely while using occlusive dressings, as they can sometimes lead to skin irritation or maceration if left in place for too long.

The zygoma is the scientific name for the cheekbone. It is a part of the facial skeleton that forms the prominence of the cheek and houses the maxillary sinus, one of the pairs of paranasal sinuses. The zygomatic bone, also known as the malar bone, contributes to the formation of the zygoma.

A foreign-body reaction is an immune response that occurs when a non-native substance, or "foreign body," is introduced into the human body. This can include things like splinters, surgical implants, or even injected medications. The immune system recognizes these substances as foreign and mounts a response to try to eliminate them.

The initial response to a foreign body is often an acute inflammatory reaction, characterized by the release of chemical mediators that cause vasodilation, increased blood flow, and the migration of white blood cells to the site. This can result in symptoms such as redness, swelling, warmth, and pain.

If the foreign body is not eliminated, a chronic inflammatory response may develop, which can lead to the formation of granulation tissue, fibrosis, and encapsulation of the foreign body. In some cases, this reaction can cause significant tissue damage or impede proper healing.

It's worth noting that not all foreign bodies necessarily elicit a strong immune response. The nature and size of the foreign body, as well as its location in the body, can all influence the severity of the reaction.

Center for the Polyurethanes Industry: information for EH&S issues related to polyurethanes developments Polyurethane synthesis ... A polyurethane is typically produced by reacting an isocyanate with a polyol. Since a polyurethane contains two types of ... Polyaspartic Polyurethane dispersion Thermoplastic polyurethanes Thermoset polymer matrix "polyurethane". Dictionary.com ... Polyurethane is a commodity plastic. Otto Bayer and his coworkers at IG Farben in Leverkusen, Germany, first made polyurethanes ...
"What Is Flexible Polyurethane Foam?". Polyurethane Foam Association. Retrieved 1 February 2023. McIntyre, A.; Anderton, G. E. ( ... It is a solid polymeric foam based on polyurethane chemistry. The so-called flexible polyurethane foam (FPF) is produced from ... Polyurethane foam has been widely used to insulate fuel tanks on Space Shuttles. However, it requires a perfect application, as ... Rigid polyurethane foam has many desirable properties which has enabled increased use in various applications, some of which ...
... , or PUD, is understood to be a polyurethane polymer resin dispersed in water, rather than a solvent, ... Howarth, GA (2003). "Polyurethanes, polyurethane dispersions and polyureas: Past, present and future". Surface Coatings ... Howarth, GA (2003-06-01). "Polyurethanes, polyurethane dispersions and polyureas: Past, present and future". Surface Coatings ... "NON-Ionic Polyurethane Dispersions having side-chains of polyoxyethylene" (PDF). "GEO Specialties Use of DMPA for PUDs" (PDF). ...
"How Does Rainwear Work?". "FAQ: Acrylic, Polyurethane and Silicone Proofing Techniques". "Backpack Polyurethane (PU) Coatings ... is a compound fabric made by laminating a cloth fabric to one or both sides of a thin film of polyurethane. Polyurethane ... If the polyurethane starts delaminating from the fabric, it may be possible to relaminate it with care and a hot iron. If the ... Most PUL fabric is made by laminating lightweight polyester interlock knit fabric to a 1mm thick film of polyurethane. There ...
... (TPU) is any of a class of polyurethane plastics with many properties, including elasticity, ... "Thermoplastic Polyurethane". American Chemical Council. Retrieved 2012-02-26. Michael, John. "TPU Cases". Cellz. Retrieved 13 ... ISBN 978-0-12-525050-4.[page needed] "Texin® thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) resin". Bayer Material Science. Retrieved 2012-02 ...
Moisture-cure polyurethanes -- or polyurethane prepolymer -- are isocyanate-terminated prepolymers that are formulated to cure ... Moisture cure polyurethanes have been widely used in the adhesive and coating industries. Thermal, mechanical, and surface ... The prepolymers were cured under atmospheric moisture to make polyurethane-urea free films. Ren, Dakai; Frazier, Charles E. ( ... Rath, S. K.; Patri, M.; Khakhar, D. V. (2012). "Structure-thermomechanical property correlation of moisture cured poly(urethane ...
The polyurethane urea elastomer (PUU), or poly(urethane urea) elastomer, is a flexible polymeric material that is composed of ... PU Polyurethane Open Belts (Military technology, Polyurethanes, Plastics, Elastomers, Body armor). ... Hsieh, Alex; Orlicki, Joshua; Beyer, Rick (March 2009). "Molecular Design of Novel Poly(urethane-urea) Hybrids as Helmet Pads ... Hsieh, Alex; Sarva, Sai; Rice, Norman (September 2009). "Improved Dynamic Strain Hardening in Poly(Urethane Urea) Elastomers ...
Polyurethane foam as a wall insulation Xanadu House with polyurethane foam walls and ceiling Polyurethane foam used as joist ... Polyurethane products have many uses. Over three quarters of the global consumption of polyurethane products is in the form of ... Polyurethane sponges have been shown to reduce the risk of spreading certain bacteria. Rigid polyurethane foam is used in ... Flexible polyurethane foam is a recyclable product. Flexible and semi-flexible polyurethane foams are used extensively for ...
Polyurethanes contain multiple carbamate groups as part of their structure. The "urethane" in the name "polyurethane" refers to ... This further suggests that polyurethanes are not simply polycarbamate-esters because polyurethanes are not typically ... Typically, polyurethane polymers are made by combining diisocyanates, e.g. toluene diisocyanate, and diols, where the carbamate ... Methyl carbamate Ethyl carbamate Polyurethane Cholinesterase inhibitor Jäger, Peter; Rentzea, Costin N.; Kieczka, Heinz (2000 ...
Its major application is its use for the production of polyether polyols for use in making polyurethane plastics. It is a ... "Polyurethanes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a21_665.pub2. "Usage ... These polyols are building blocks in the production of polyurethane plastics. About 20% of propylene oxide is hydrolyzed into ...
PPG is used in many polyurethane formulations. Synthesis of waterborne polymers has been a feature with this substance. As the ... "Polyurethanes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a21_665.pub2. Peretti ... 2020-06-15). "Biodegradable polyurethanes foam and foam fullerenes nanocomposite strips by one-shot moulding: Physicochemical ... based polyurethane prepolymer by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)-mass spectrometry". ...
"Jeffcat Amine Catalysts for the Polyurethane Industry" (PDF). 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-29. Retrieved ... Van Maris, Roger; Tamano, Yutaka; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki; Gay, Kenneth M. (July 2005). "Polyurethane Catalysis by Tertiary Amines ... Muuronen, Mikko; Deglmann, Peter; Tomović, Željko (2019-06-21). "Design Principles for Rational Polyurethane Catalyst ... It has two tertiary amines in the same molecule meaning it is ideal for use as a polyurethane catalyst. It has the CAS Registry ...
Isocyanate Polyurethane Polyurethane dispersion Wicks, Zeno W. (1975-03-01). "Blocked isocyanates". Progress in Organic ... It may also be a polyurethane prepolymer that is NCO terminated but this functionality has also been chemically reacted with a ... They are usually used in polyurethane applications but not always. They are extensively used in industrial applications such as ... Subramani, S.; Park, Young-Jun; Cheong, In-Woo; Kim, Jung-Hyun (2004). "Polyurethane ionomer dispersions from a blocked ...
Randall, David; Lee, Steve (2002). The polyurethanes book. [Everberg, Belgium]: [Huntsman Polyurethanes]. ISBN 0470850418. OCLC ...
"Classic PU Patent of the Month: Polyurethane-Polyurea RIM Elastomers (Bayer 1976)". Innovation in Polyurethanes. 2014-12-22. ... DETDA is one such amine and is used extensively in reaction injection molding (RIM) and in polyurethane and polyurea elastomer ... It is also used extensively in polyurethanes and in both spray polyureas and elastomers. When used in elastomer production ... US 4581433, Potter, Terry A.; Markusch, Peter H. & Prepelka, David J., "Elastomer polyurethane-polyurea coatings based On bis(4 ...
The major application of 4,4′-MDI is the production of rigid polyurethane. These rigid polyurethane foams are good thermal ... US patent 6884904, Smith, A. K.; Goddard, R. J.; Paulsen, E. J. L., "MDI-based polyurethane prepolymer with low monomeric MDI ... MDI reacts with polyols in the manufacture of polyurethane. It is the most produced diisocyanate, accounting for 61.3% of the ... Boustead, I. (2005). "Polyurethane rigid foam" (PDF). Eco-Profiles of the European Plastics Industry. Brussels: PlasticsEurope ...
Howarth, GA (July 2003). "Polyurethanes, polyurethane dispersions and polyureas: Past, present and future". Surface Coatings ... Randall, David; Lee, Steve (2002). The Polyurethanes Book. New York: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-85041-1. Jeffries, Michael; Gambino ...
It is used in the production of rigid polyurethane foams with a high temperature stability. The LD50 for TDI is 5800 mg/kg for ... The Polyurethanes Book. New York: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-85041-1. Six, C.; Richter, F. "Isocyanates, Organic". Ullmann's ...
This reaction is exploited in tandem with the production of polyurethane to give polyurethane foams. The carbon dioxide ... Polyurethanes have variable curing times, and the presence of free isocyanates in foams vary accordingly. Both the US National ... Polyurethane foam boards are used in construction for insulation. TDI is commonly used in applications where flexible foams are ... ISBN 978-0-470-85041-1. US EPA, OCSPP (2015-08-14). "Chemicals and Production of Spray Polyurethane Foam - Why It Matters". US ...
Aliphatic diisocyanates are used, not in the production of polyurethane foam, but in special applications, such as enamel ... 0356". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Randall, David; Lee, Steve (2002). The Polyurethanes Book ...
"Polyurethanes in Polyurethanes timeline". Polyurethanes. Archived from the original on 2016-08-26. Retrieved 2016-08-03. " ... Polyurethane and polyisocyanurate are two types of foam used in this application. Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation can ... Otto Bayer (1902-1982) is credited with the invention of polyurethane in 1937. He succeeded in synthesizing polyurethane foam ... Spray polyurethane foam comes in a range of densities and cell structure. Low density foams are referred to as open cell SPF ...
... s are often applied to polyurethanes. Johannes Karl Fink, ed. (2013). Reactive Polymers Fundamentals and ...
"Why Use Durlast Polyurethanes?". Durlast. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011. See Getty ... The 1974 model's "Durlast" polyurethane coating provided waterproofing as well as protection from damage such as scuffs and ...
Polyurethane. The first polyurethane condoms, designed for people with latex allergies, were produced in 1994. Some people are ...
"Artificial Heart , PDF , Polyurethane , Polymers". Scribd. Retrieved 2022-05-16. Wong, Joyce Y.; Bronzino, Joseph D.; Peterson ...
polystyrene and polyurethane due to its gas-filled closed-cell foam structure. Denser and more rigid than polystyrene panels, ... Polyurethane. White or yellow. Produced through mixing of isocyanate and polyether in presence of catalyst and blowing agent. ... Rigid panel insulation, also referred to as continuous insulation, can be made from foam plastics such as polyurethane (PUR), ... Polyisocyanurate (also known as polyiso). More stable at high temperatures and less flammable than polyurethane. Higher R-value ...
Polyurethane (PU) foams are highly versatile engineering materials used for a wide range of applications such as mattresses, ... "NIPU-EJD - Non-Isocyanate Polyurethanes". Retrieved 2022-06-09. Denissen, Wim; Winne, Johan M.; Prez, Filip E. Du (2015-12-17 ... Sonnenschein, Mark F. (2021). Polyurethanes: Science, Technology, Markets, and Trends, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978 ... Typical thermosetting materials include epoxy resins, polyester resins, polyurethanes, etc. In the framework of sustainability ...
Waterborne polyurethanes are also available in 2 component versions. As a 2 component polyurethane consists of polyol(s) and an ... Polyurethanes resins are available waterborne. The single component versions are usually referred to as Polyurethane ... Howarth, GA (2003). "Polyurethanes, polyurethane dispersions and polyureas: Past, present and future". Surface Coatings ... "Newly UV-curable polyurethane coatings prepared by multifunctional thiol- and ene-terminated polyurethane aqueous dispersions: ...
"PORON® Industrial Polyurethanes - Rogers Corporation". www.rogerscorp.com. Retrieved 2022-11-29. "Rogers Corporation and ... Rogers manufactures PORON® brand industrial microcellular polyurethane. In March 2020 Rogers filed a complaint against ... polyurethane foams, BISCO® performance silicones, ARLON® custom silicones, DeWAL™ PTFE and UHMW films and tapes and XRD® ...
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Polyurethane (PU) foam is used for many automotive applications with the benefits of being lightweight, durable, and resistant ... Polyurethane (PU) foam is used for many automotive applications with the benefits of being lightweight, durable, and resistant ... Citation: Miller, L., Sawyer-Beaulieu, S., and Tam, E., "Impacts of Non-Traditional Uses of Polyurethane Foam in Automotive ... Impacts of Non-Traditional Uses of Polyurethane Foam in Automotive Applications at End of Life 2014-01-9099. ...
  • These include rigid and flexible foams, and coatings, adhesives, electrical potting compounds, and fibers such as spandex and polyurethane laminate (PUL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Foams are the largest application accounting for 67% of all polyurethane produced in 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1960 more than 45,000 metric tons of flexible polyurethane foams were produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The availability of chlorofluoroalkane blowing agents, inexpensive polyether polyols, and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) allowed polyurethane rigid foams to be used as high-performance insulation materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyurethane foams are used in many automotive applications including seating, head and arm rests, and headliners. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membership in the Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) is open to all segments of the polyurethanes industry, including raw material producers, systems suppliers, processing machinery and equipment manufacturers, as well as users and distributors of polyurethane materials who manufacture flexible or rigid foams, coatings, adhesives, sealants or elastomers. (americanchemistry.com)
  • Provides immediate bonding and handling strength bonds flexible polyurethane and latex foams, plastic laminate, wood, plywood, without forced drying equipment. (globalspec.com)
  • Bond plastics, glass and painted metals with 3M™ Scotch-Weld™ Polyurethane Adhesive DP610 to give a clear, structural bond. (3m.com)
  • 3M™ Scotch-Weld™ Polyurethane Adhesive DP610 is a clear and flexible structural adhesive. (3m.com)
  • Whether you're looking for Self Adhesive PU Foam Tape, Self Adhesive Polyurethane Foam Tape, CLS FoaNeoprene Foam Tape m Tape etc, you can explore and find the best products from Tradeindia. (tradeindia.com)
  • Description: ZT-TAPE® is a fire retardant Polyurethane film electrical tape with a special pressure sensitive acrylic adhesive backing, an easy-to-remove paper release liner and is UL 510 recognized. (globalspec.com)
  • Description: Sika Sikaflex 291 Polyurethane Marine Sealant White is a one component, moisture curing, elastic adhesive and sealant that is used for bonding boat building materials such as fiberglass, wood, metal, and gel coat. (globalspec.com)
  • Description: Sika Sikaflex 291 Polyurethane Marine Sealant Black is a one component, moisture curing, elastic adhesive and sealant that is used for bonding boat building materials such as fiberglass, wood, metal, and gel coat. (globalspec.com)
  • Description: Dap off-white 2146 contact adhesive is compatible with fiberboard, gypsum, laminate, paper, plywood, polyurethane and wood materials with a 72 hr cure time. (globalspec.com)
  • Jeffrey F. Dormish, Ph.D., holds the position of Research Fellow and is responsible for the development of new polyurethane adhesive applications, with a focus on waterborne raw materials. (adhesivesmag.com)
  • The range includes IRS 3223-B Point-One Structural Polyurethane Adhesive, which is black and has a working time of 3.5 minutes, and IRS 3221-W Point-One Structural Polyurethane Adhesive, which is white, has a working life of 1.5 minutes, and features excellent UV stability for outdoor use. (dpaonthenet.net)
  • Araldite Polyurethane Adhesives are formulated for easy handling and are generally excellent for bonding a wide variety of plastic materials and are good for some metal applications. (freemansupply.com)
  • Find out how waterborne polyurethanes can be used to formulate high-performance adhesives. (adhesivesmag.com)
  • Next, general information regarding the type of hydrophilic groups used to stabilize polyurethane dispersions will be discussed, as well as the factors that can impact the stability of the final dispersion and formulated adhesives. (adhesivesmag.com)
  • Polyurethane dispersions are the base polymer for adhesives used in a wide range of applications, including those in the footwear, furniture and flexible packaging industries. (adhesivesmag.com)
  • The bond strength, heat and water resistance of adhesives based on polyurethane dispersions can be improved by reaction with crosslinkers in two component systems. (adhesivesmag.com)
  • To help manufacturers using polyurethane adhesives adapt, Intertronics has launched Point-One Structural Polyurethane Adhesives , based on micro emission technology. (dpaonthenet.net)
  • Point-One Structural Polyurethane Adhesives are fast-curing two-part adhesives that form strong, durable bonds in as little as 10 minutes. (dpaonthenet.net)
  • Polyurethane adhesives are made by reacting diisocyanates and polyols," explained Ben Swanson, Chief Commercial Officer at Intertronics. (dpaonthenet.net)
  • Open the water-based polyurethane can and gently mix it with a paint stirrer. (ehow.com)
  • Water-based polyurethane shares many properties with its chief ingredient so expect it to drip as you move your brush from the can to the wood. (ehow.com)
  • Water-based polyurethane generally dries relatively quickly. (ehow.com)
  • Satin VOC Water Based Polyurethane, Ultra Fast Drying, Low Odor, Easy Water Clean-Up, Maximum VOC 275 G/L. (truevalue.com)
  • Water-based polyurethane is great for busy homes since it dries out in just a few hours. (thefrisky.com)
  • There are many ways to preserve and protect wood, but a clear coat of polyurethane will accomplish the task without hiding the natural elegance and intricacy of the wood itself. (ehow.com)
  • However, a polyurethane coat is sometimes necessary for walls and doors you must treat on-site. (ehow.com)
  • An ordinary coat of oil-based primer will enhance the appearance of your hull by filling low spots that you can neither see nor feel until it's accentuated by the intense gloss of the polyurethane paint. (clcboats.com)
  • BAD: it does not self-level, any small drip from the brush or small heavier coat of this polyurethane left from the brush along the edge will not level, and will leave water marks that have to be sanded and the whole piece coated again. (truevalue.com)
  • Also, polyurethane extends the lifespan of the flooring and increases the period between two coat sessions. (thefrisky.com)
  • We suggest hiring professionals, so they can inspect the hardwood floor and decide if they need to remove the current coat, polish the tiles, and then put water- or oil-based polyurethane. (thefrisky.com)
  • Protect your wood projects and get more done, faster, with Minwax One Coat Polyurethane Protective Finish. (minwax.com)
  • The advanced formulation in this clear top coat provides the same level of durability in one coat the is comparable to three coats of a conventional polyurethane. (minwax.com)
  • Wait at least 24 hours before applying Minwax® One Coat Polyurethane over Minwax Wood Finish Stain. (minwax.com)
  • Apply a coat of Minwax® One Coat Polyurethane with a high-quality synthetic bristle brush. (minwax.com)
  • Special Instructions: Minwax® One Coat Polyurethane should not be applied over red mahogany stains. (minwax.com)
  • Special Instructions: Minwax® One Coat Polyurethane is not recommended for use on floors because it would require more frequent recoating in high traffic areas. (minwax.com)
  • I've been working with your Oil Polyurethane, and also the Water based Acrylic for several years. (truevalue.com)
  • Description: Acrolon™ 218 HS acrylic polyurethane is a low VOC, polyester modified, aliphatic, acrylic polyurethane formulated specifically for in-shop applications. (globalspec.com)
  • Description: A high-performance, high-gloss, two-component acrylic polyurethane enamel with excellent gloss retention, exterior durability and fast-dry characteristics. (globalspec.com)
  • Description: An industrial-grade, two-component acrylic polyurethane designed to provide added chemical and resistance with a satin gloss and textured appearance. (globalspec.com)
  • Description: Hi-Solids Polyurethane 250 is a two-component, aliphatic, acrylic polyurethane performance topcoat designed to provide good exterior gloss and color retention. (globalspec.com)
  • Description: HI-SOLIDS POLYURETHANE 100 is a two-component, less than 100 g/l VOC, aliphatic, acrylic polyurethane enamel. (globalspec.com)
  • Description: HI-SOLIDS POLYURETHANE HS is a two-component, low VOC, aliphatic, acrylic polyurethane resin coating. (globalspec.com)
  • A polyurethane is typically produced by reacting an isocyanate with a polyol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyurethanes are formed by reacting a polyol with a diisocyanate or a polymeric isocyanate in the presence of suitable catalysts and additives. (americanchemistry.com)
  • Spray-on bedliners have gained popularity in the two-component system, polyurethane (isocyanate and polyol) or polyurea (isocyanate and amine). (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast to other common polymers such as polyethylene and polystyrene, polyurethane is produced from a wide range of starting materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000), "Polyurethane coatings protecting waste water treatment plants", Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials , Vol. 47 No. 2. (emerald.com)
  • The MDI, TDI & polyurethane market also witnessed several new product launches between January 2012 and November 2016. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The company launched various products such as a new synthetic leather made with thermoplastic polyurethane: Elastollan, a new polyamide product, Ultramid EQ, Cellasto polyurethane elastomers, and many others, between 2012 and 2016. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Both the isocyanates and polyols used to make a polyurethane contain two or more functional groups per molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proper mix ratio - Modern meter mix machinery assures the proper ratio of isocyanates to the curing agent, which is critical to achieving peak performance in the formulation of polyurethane. (casterconcepts.com)
  • Constructed of heavy-duty 600D TPU (Thermoplastic polyurethane). (shopzilla.com)
  • Polyisocyanates became commercially available in 1952, and production of flexible polyurethane foam began in 1954 by combining toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and polyester polyols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Title : Exposures To Toluene Diisocyanate (Tdi) In Polyurethane Foam Plants Personal Author(s) : Rakow, A. B.;Baier, E. J. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1972 a total of 112 workers exposed to toluene- diisocyanate (1321386) (TDI) in polyurethane cushion manufacturing were examined for acute pulmonary function changes during a work shift on the first day of the working week. (cdc.gov)
  • The lining is available in both polyurethane and polyurea formulations to help expand the window of application in order for lining projects to proceed more quickly and efficiently. (emerald.com)
  • Due to its polyurethane/polyurea chemistry, the product can be used on a variety of substrates and in a variety of environmental conditions", he added. (emerald.com)
  • The products are available as 100 per cent solids, zero VOC polyurea/polyurethane elastomeric membranes for primary and secondary containment applications. (emerald.com)
  • 1Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, MIFACE, Michigan State (polyurethane) or amine (polyurea) component. (cdc.gov)
  • Two-part marine polyurethanes, such as Interlux Perfection , have a deep, rich gloss and abrasion resistance that exceeds fiberglass gelcoat. (clcboats.com)
  • Are polyurethane condoms as good as latex-free alternatives? (greatist.com)
  • Polyurethane vs. latex condoms: Are they as effective? (greatist.com)
  • The main benefit of polyurethane condoms is that they can be a superb, safe alternative for people with a latex allergy . (greatist.com)
  • Latex condoms are more elasticated than polyurethane ones, so they stay on better. (greatist.com)
  • Whether you want to try polyurethane condoms for the buzz or are allergic to latex, it's not all roses. (greatist.com)
  • Condoms may be made of latex, polyurethane, or lambskin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Polyurethane (PU) is a synthetic foam material used in a number of Vitra products. (vitra.com)
  • The journey from base chemicals such as propylene or benzene to end-use polyurethanes involves multiple steps and chemical products. (argusmedia.com)
  • The advent of polyurethane roughly 50 years ago revolutionized many industries and products, including heavy-duty industrial casters and wheels. (casterconcepts.com)
  • When the process is done right, polyurethane wheels are excellent, long-lasting products. (casterconcepts.com)
  • Discover 32 products from Polyurethane Foam Tape manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, and dealers across India. (tradeindia.com)
  • We have operators working on both long & short production runs so whether you require mass production of a certain PU product or whether you need a one off cast as long as we know what quantity of products you need for your polyurethane production we will make the necessary arrangements and set up the polyurethane manufacturing process for your exact polyurethane specification. (hillhead.com)
  • The increased savings & efficiencies that can be achieved with polyurethane based products make it an extremely good option for many business operations. (hillhead.com)
  • Polyurethanes are very versatile , allowing them to solve challenging problems, be molded into unusual shapes and enhance industrial and consumer products. (americanchemistry.com)
  • Manufacturers of mattresses, furniture, automotive applications, packaging products and any other industry that rely on polyurethane foam. (carpenter.com)
  • Profile for Toluene Di socyanate and with uncured polyurethane products. (cdc.gov)
  • TDI is a clear, colorless to pale yellow uncured polyurethane products. (cdc.gov)
  • Use A Foam Roller And Foam Brush - Marine polyurethane paints must be applied thinly and evenly or they will 'sag. (clcboats.com)
  • Load your brush by dipping it an inch or so into the can of polyurethane. (ehow.com)
  • Apply the polyurethane with a roller or large foam paint brush. (ehow.com)
  • Roll or brush in a downward motion, spreading the polyurethane evenly downward over the surface until you have finished. (ehow.com)
  • Epifanes Polyurethane Yacht Coating is a two-component, high gloss, polyester saturated aliphatic urethane coating. (defender.com)
  • If you are repeat customer and know that you are going to need multiple orders of a specific polyurethane product throughout the year, we can fabricate you a steel mould or order you in a silicone mould so that the process is more efficient and to decrease mould costs for you in the long run. (hillhead.com)
  • Capsular contracture around silicone miniimplants following bacterial contamination: an in vivo comparative experimental study between textured and polyurethane implants. (bvsalud.org)
  • When installing a parquet or any other type of wooden floor, it is imperative to protect it with a layer of epoxy resin, or some polymer substance, such as polyurethane. (thefrisky.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of a polyurethane resin Quartz-die (Zermack - Italy) used for dental modeling. (bvsalud.org)
  • In accordance with the adopted parameters, it could be concluded that the polyurethane resin Quartz-die showed a lower compression resistance and a lower superficial hardness than did the Type IV plaster. (bvsalud.org)
  • CPI's mission is to promote the growth of the North American polyurethanes industry through effective advocacy, delivery of compelling benefits messages demonstrating how polyurethanes deliver sustainable outcomes, and creation of robust safety education and product stewardship programs. (americanchemistry.com)
  • A great bonus to using polyurethane is the absence of odor. (greatist.com)
  • Old fashioned marine enamels and even water-based marine paints are also available, but overall most boatbuilders feel that one-part polyurethanes, such as Interlux Brightsides or Pettit EZPoxy , offer the best finish for the effort required and for the money spent. (clcboats.com)
  • Waterborne polyurethanes will be the focus of one of the presentations at the upcoming Polyurethanes Short Course, to be held Oct. 3-4 at the Cincinnati Marriott at RiverCenter in Covington, KY. (adhesivesmag.com)
  • Polyurethanes are produced by reacting diisocyanates with polyols, often in the presence of a catalyst, or upon exposure to ultraviolet light. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several formulations of polyurethane tread material available. (casterconcepts.com)
  • Union Carbide and Mobay, a U.S. Monsanto/Bayer joint venture, also began making polyurethane chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • That way, the surface will not only be dry but the chemicals in the polyurethane will have had enough time to cure. (ehow.com)
  • Otto Bayer and his coworkers at IG Farben in Leverkusen, Germany, first made polyurethanes in 1937. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyurethane foam (including foam rubber) is sometimes made using small amounts of blowing agents to give less dense foam, better cushioning/energy absorption or thermal insulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hardwood floors in my home were refinished last year, and I accidentally made some marks in the polyurethane. (doityourself.com)
  • The carpet's Comfort Plus ® Cushioned Backing, which is made with polyurethane technology from The Dow Chemical Company, helps boost the flooring's appearance and durability. (buildings.com)
  • The cushioned polyurethane backing system, made with DOW™ ENHANCER™ Technology, helps the carpet withstand high traffic, while providing sound absorption and comfort underfoot. (buildings.com)
  • 0 is made from an FDA approved BPA free Polyurethane material. (shopzilla.com)
  • Each hose is made of UV-resistant ester-based polyurethane supported by a copper spiral, which you can ground to prevent static buildup. (canadianwoodworking.com)
  • The rigid parts of the hands are 3D-printed in HIPS while the flexible parts, including the joints and the tendons, are made from polyurethane rubber. (lu.se)
  • Cut your application time in half with Rust-Oleum® Varathane® One Step Stain & Polyurethane. (rustoleum.com)
  • Instead use Minwax® Fast Drying Polyurethane or Minwax® Water Based Oil-Modified Polyurethane over any red mahogany stain. (minwax.com)
  • This carpet, especially its pattern, is designed to help hide spills, and the polyurethane backing was chosen over other options due to its durability. (buildings.com)
  • Polyurethane helps the carpet and backing to absorb the pounding motion of foot traffic and support the weight of furniture, without bottoming out. (buildings.com)
  • Enter polyurethane condoms. (greatist.com)
  • Just like any other barrier method, polyurethane condoms have their pros and cons. (greatist.com)
  • We dive in to give you the naked truth about polyurethane condoms. (greatist.com)
  • Polyurethane condoms don't leak unless they tear. (greatist.com)
  • Mini-implants with three different surfaces (fine-textured, rough-textured and polyurethane ) were placed on the dorsum of each rat . (bvsalud.org)
  • Rough-textured and polyurethane implants showed more biofilm formation than fine-textured implants. (bvsalud.org)
  • but was in irregular array on polyurethane implants. (bvsalud.org)
  • In presence of bacterial contamination , rough-textured implants have the most propensity of developing capsular contracture comparing to fine-textured and polyurethane implants at three months after implantation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Despite high bacterial load and biofilm formation, polyurethane implants are resistant to capsule contracture due to surface characteristics. (bvsalud.org)
  • I have a question, but it's directed at DIY pro or generally any person experienced in polyurethane finishes. (finewoodworking.com)
  • This survey is available for purchase from the ACC store and provides a breakdown of raw material demand for polyurethane markets in the United States, Canada and Mexico over a three-year period. (americanchemistry.com)
  • Polyurethane is a highly versatile material that is durable and lightweight and can help reduce waste and consume less energy. (americanchemistry.com)
  • Wood is a natural material, which means that it is porous and can rot, but with the help of the polyurethane coating, such awkward situations can easily be avoided. (thefrisky.com)
  • The Polyurethanes Short Course includes a thorough review of polyurethane technologies, raw material considerations, application/dispensing and processing equipment, formulation, test methods and end-use applications. (adhesivesmag.com)
  • In 2003, a worker died after he sprayed a polyurethane developed an acute asthmatic attack at work. (cdc.gov)
  • Regular maintenance is required, and it depends on how often the epoxy or polyurethane coating needs to be reapplied. (thefrisky.com)
  • Sculpting with Polyurethane Foam allows students to combine creativity, imagination and science to make their own foam sculptures in this Flinn Chemistry Minute. (flinnsci.com)
  • This expansion enhanced the manufacturing capacity of the company for flexible polyurethane foam used in mattresses and upholstered furniture. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Flexible polyurethane foam accounts for about 30 percent of the entire North American polyurethane market, and is used largely for bedding, furniture and in the automotive industry. (americanchemistry.com)
  • Polyurethane Foam Tape product price in India ranges from 100 to 120 INR and minimum order requirements from 1 to 2,500. (tradeindia.com)
  • CPI members are leaders in product stewardship and CPI creates and shares safety and health resources for most aspects of manufacturing and processing of polyurethanes. (americanchemistry.com)
  • Instead, we recommend Minwax® Super Fast Drying Polyurethane for Floors or Minwax® Ultimate Floor Finish for maximum durability. (minwax.com)
  • Apply as many coats of polyurethane as needed, until it as thick as you desire. (ehow.com)
  • Almost everyone who has a wood floor often asks the question about polyurethane coats and how long they would last. (thefrisky.com)
  • This chemical variety produces polyurethanes with different chemical structures leading to many different applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Argus' polyurethanes services give you in-depth global and regional pricing insight, including feedstock analysis, in single, concise and integrated reports. (argusmedia.com)
  • Heat exposure - While polyurethane is extremely tough when used properly, excessive heat will melt most polyurethane tires. (casterconcepts.com)
  • Tough and transparent, Magnum Industrial polyurethane dust collector hoses resist puncture and won't kink. (canadianwoodworking.com)
  • The growth of the MDI, TDI & polyurethane market was largely influenced by the expansions during the past five years. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • This innovative, oil-based formula provides deep, rich color and Varathane's® renowned polyurethane finish-both in one easy step. (rustoleum.com)
  • Sponsored: Improve the performance and efficiency of your dust collection system with Magnum Industrial polyurethane dust collector hoses. (canadianwoodworking.com)
  • Painting with polyurethanes, and its complicated preparations, can consume a large percent of your total building time. (clcboats.com)
  • Allow the surface time to dry completely before applying the polyurethane. (ehow.com)
  • But, it's not just putting a layer of polyurethane all the time. (thefrisky.com)
  • Since that time, he has held various research and application development positions of increasing responsibility, and worked in polyurethane research at Bayer AG in Germany for two years. (adhesivesmag.com)
  • Polyurethane brings out the beauty of raw wood and protects it from the elements. (ehow.com)
  • This does two things: First, it helps remove even more of that offending sawdust, and second, the moisture in the rag opens the grain of the wood thus allowing it to accept a greater amount of polyurethane. (ehow.com)
  • Don't create any bubbles in the process since they have a tendency to become dry bumps once the polyurethane has dried on your wood. (ehow.com)
  • To me it looks like only the polyurethane is damaged, and the wood itself is fine. (doityourself.com)
  • The demand for MDI, TDI & polyurethane is increasing owing to the growth in the demand from various end-use industries such as construction, automotive, furniture & interiors, electronics & appliances, footwear, and packaging, among many others. (marketsandmarkets.com)