Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.PolysaccharidesBacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Fungal Polysaccharides: Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Reishi: A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Glycoside HydrolasesCellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Sugar AcidsPolysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.Hydrofluoric Acid: Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.Tetanus ToxoidStreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.FucoseSulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.HexosaminesDeoxy SugarsGum Arabic: Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.HexosesAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.GlucosamineVirulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.HeptosesMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sarcoma 180Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.ArabinoseOptical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.Angelica sinensis: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.XyloseSargassum: One of the largest genera of BROWN ALGAE, comprised of more than 150 species found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of both hemispheres. Some species are attached (benthic) but most float in the open sea (pelagic). Sargassum provides a critical habitat for hundreds of species of FISHES; TURTLES; and INVERTEBRATES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester: A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Astragalus Plant: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronic Acid: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. In animals, UDP glucuronic acid is used for formation of many glucosiduronides with various aglycones.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Amylopectin: A highly branched glucan in starch.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Lycium: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain CEREBROSIDES and SCOPOLETIN.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Mice, Inbred BALB CDiphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Agaricus: A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Ganoderma: A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Pentoses: A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bupleurum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE that is the source of bupleurum root and of bupleurotoxin and is an ingredient of sho-saiko-to.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Laminaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup W-135: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Fructans: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.GalactosamineChromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tamarindus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for its sour fruit.UDPglucose 4-Epimerase: A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsStreptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Citrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Cellvibrio: A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Shigella dysenteriae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Nitrous Acid: Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Muramic Acids: Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.

Repertoire of human antibodies against the polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B. (1/4132)

We examined the repertoire of antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae 6B capsular polysaccharide induced with the conventional polysaccharide vaccine in adults at the molecular level two ways. In the first, we purified from the sera of seven vaccinees antipneumococcal antibodies and determined their amino acid sequences. Their VH regions are mainly the products of VH3 family genes (candidate genes, 3-23, 3-07, 3-66, and 3-74), but the product of a VH1 family gene (candidate gene, 1-03) is occasionally used. All seven individuals have small amounts of polyclonal kappa+ antibodies (Vkappa1 to Vkappa4 families), although kappa+ antibodies are occasionally dominated by antibodies formed with the product of the A27 Vkappa gene. In contrast, lambda+ anti-6B antibodies are dominated by the antibodies derived from one of 3 very similar Vlambda2 family genes (candidate genes, 2c, 2e, and 2a2) and Clambda1 gene product. The Vlambda2(+) antibodies express the 8.12 idiotype, which is expressed on anti-double-stranded-DNA antibodies. In one case, Vlambda is derived from a rarely expressed Vlambda gene, 10a. In the second approach, we studied a human hybridoma (Dob1) producing anti-6B antibody. Its VH region sequence is closely related to those of the 3-15 VH gene (88% nucleotide homology) and JH4 (92% homology). Its VL region is homologous to the 2a2 Vlambda2 gene (91%) and Jlambda1/Clambda1. Taken together, the V region of human anti-6B antibodies is commonly formed by a VH3 and a Vlambda2 family gene product.  (+info)

Isolation and chemical characterization of a capsular polysaccharide antigen shared by clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. (2/4132)

Enterococci are a common cause of serious infections, especially in newborns, severely immunocompromised patients, and patients requiring intensive care. To characterize enterococcal surface antigens that are targets of opsonic antibodies, rabbits were immunized with various gentamicin-killed Enterococcus faecalis strains, and immune sera were tested in an opsonophagocytic assay against a selection of clinical isolates. Serum raised against one strain killed the homologous strain (12030) at a dilution of 1:5,120 and mediated opsonic killing of 33% of all strains tested. In addition, this serum killed two (28%) of seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains. Adsorption of sera with the homologous strain eliminated killing activity. The adsorbing antigens were resistant to treatment with proteinase K and to boiling for 1 h, but were susceptible to treatment with sodium periodate, indicating that the antigen inducing opsonic activity is a polysaccharide. Antibodies in immune rabbit sera reacted with a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy both on the homologous E. faecalis strain and on a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain. The capsular polysaccharides from E. faecalis 12030 and E. faecium 838970 were purified, and chemical and structural analyses indicated they were identical glycerol teichoic acid-like molecules with a carbohydrate backbone structure of 6-alpha-D-glucose-1-2 glycerol-3-PO4 with substitution on carbon 2 of the glucose with an alpha-2-1-D-glucose residue. The purified antigen adsorbed opsonic killing activity from immune rabbit sera and elicited high titers of antibodies (when used to immunize rabbits) that both mediated opsonic killing of bacteria and bound to a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy. These results indicate that approximately one-third of a sample of 15 E. faecalis strains and 7 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains possess shared capsular polysaccharides that are targets of opsonophagocytic antibodies and therefore are potential vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Marmoset species variation in the humoral antibody response: in vivo and in vitro studies. (3/4132)

A comparison of the in vivo and in vitro antibody response capabilities of two marmoset species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus oedipus oedipus, revealed the former to be superior in elaborating humoral antibody. In vivo challenges with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Salmonella typhi flagella consistently yielded higher antibody titres in S. fuscicollis; indeed, with LPS antigen, multiple inoculations of S.o. oedipus marmosets led ultimately to a decrease in antibody formation, in contrast to the anamnestic response of S. fuscicollis. This species differential in immune competence was also suggested in the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (RBC). None of 55 S.o. oedipus PBL cultures and 49 of 89 (55%) S. fuscicollis cultures responded to the test antigen. A similar differential in response to sheep RBC was noted with the spleen cells of each species, although this report contrasts the antibody-forming potential of two marmoset species, a comparison of the immunological response profile of marmosets to those of other laboratory animals challenged with similar antigens suggests these primates may be relatively incompetent. The possible relationship between the haemopoietic chimerism of marmosets and a diminished immune competence is discussed.  (+info)

Regulated exopolysaccharide production in Myxococcus xanthus. (4/4132)

Myxococcus xanthus fibrils are cell surface-associated structures composed of roughly equal amounts of polysaccharide and protein. The level of M. xanthus polysaccharide production under different conditions in the wild type and in several mutants known to have alterations in fibril production was investigated. Wild-type exopolysaccharide increased significantly as cells entered the stationary phase of growth or upon addition of Ca2+ to growing cells, and the polysaccharide-induced cells exhibited an enhanced capacity for cell-cell agglutination. The activity of the key gluconeogenic pathway enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck) also increased under these conditions. Most fibril-deficient mutants failed to produce polysaccharide in a stationary-phase- or Ca2+-dependent fashion. However, regulation of Pck activity was generally unimpaired in these mutant strains. In an stk mutant, which overproduces fibrils, polysaccharide production and Pck activity were constitutively high under the conditions tested. Polysaccharide production increased in most fibril-deficient strains when an stk mutant allele was present, indicating that these fibril-deficient mutants retained the basic cellular components required for fibril polysaccharide production. In contrast to other divalent cations tested, Sr2+ effectively replaced Ca2+ in stimulating polysaccharide production, and either Ca2+ or Sr2+ was required for fruiting-body formation by wild-type cells. By using transmission electron microscopy of freeze-substituted log-phase wild-type cells, fibril material was observed as a cell surface-associated layer of uniform thickness composed of filaments with an ordered structure.  (+info)

Tn5-induced and spontaneous switching of Sinorhizobium meliloti to faster-swarming behavior. (5/4132)

Tn5 mutants of Sinorhizobium meliloti RMB7201 which swarmed 1.5 to 2. 5 times faster than the parental strain in semisolid agar, moist sand, and viscous liquid were identified. These faster-swarming (FS) mutants outgrew the wild type 30- to 40-fold within 2 days in mixed swarm colonies. The FS mutants survived and grew as well as or better than the wild type under all of the circumstances tested, except in a soil matrix subjected to air drying. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis was reduced in each of the FS mutants when they were grown on defined succinate-nitrate medium, but the extent of reduction was different for each. It appears that FS behavior likely results from a modest, general derepression of motility involving an increased proportion of motile and flagellated cells and an increased average number of flagella per cell and increased average flagellar length. Spontaneous FS variants of RMB7201 were obtained at a frequency of about 1 per 10,000 to 20,000 cells by either enrichment from the periphery of swarm colonies or screening of colonies for reduced EPS synthesis on succinate-nitrate plates. The spontaneous FS variants and Tn5 FS mutants were symbiotically effective and competitive in alfalfa nodulation. Reversion of FS variants to wild-type behavior was sporadic, indicating that reversion is affected by unidentified environmental factors. Based on phenotypic and molecular differences between individual FS variants and mutants, it appears that there may be multiple genetic configurations that result in FS behavior in RMB7201. The facile isolation of spontaneous FS variants of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicates that switching to FS behavior may be fairly common among bacterial species. The substantial growth advantage of FS mutants and variants wherever nutrient gradients exist suggests that switching to FS forms may be an important behavioral adaptation in natural environments.  (+info)

Maternal immunization. (6/4132)

Maternal immunization can enhance passive immunity of infants to pathogens that cause life-threatening illnesses. In most instances, immunization during pregnancy will provide important protection for the woman as well as for her offspring. The tetanus toxoid and influenza vaccines are examples of vaccines that provide a double benefit. Other vaccines under evaluation include those for respiratory syncytial virus, pneumococci, group B streptococci, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Although most IgG antibody crosses the placenta in the third trimester, the process is time-dependent, dictating that immunization should be accomplished ideally at least 6 weeks prior to delivery. IgG1 antibodies are transferred preferentially. Maternal immunization has not interfered with active immunization of the infant. Inactivated vaccines administered in the third trimester of pregnancy pose no known risk to the woman or to her fetus.  (+info)

Transfection of human macrophages by lipoplexes via the combined use of transferrin and pH-sensitive peptides. (7/4132)

The crucial function of macrophages in a variety of biological processes and pathologies render these cells important targets for gene therapeutic interventions. Commonly used synthetic gene delivery vectors have not been successful in transfecting these non-dividing cells. A combination strategy involving cationic liposomes to condense and carry DNA, transferrin to facilitate cellular uptake, and the pH-sensitive peptide GALA to promote endosome destabilization, resulted in significant expression of a luciferase gene. Transfection of macrophages was dependent on the degree of differentiation of the cells. The quaternary complexes of cationic liposomes, DNA, transferrin, and GALA exhibited a net negative charge, which may obviate a limitation of cationic synthetic vectors in vivo. The lack of cytotoxicity and the expected lack of immunogenicity of these complexes may render them useful for gene delivery to macrophages in vivo.  (+info)

Altered expression profile of the surface glycopeptidolipids in drug-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex. (8/4132)

Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex are the most frequently encountered opportunistic bacterial pathogens among patients in the advanced stage of AIDS. Two clinical isolates of the same strain, numbers 397 and 417, were obtained from an AIDS patient with disseminated M. avium complex infection before and after treatment with a regimen of clarithromycin and ethambutol. To identify the biochemical consequence of drug treatment, the expression and chemical composition of their major cell wall constituents, the arabinogalactan, lipoarabinomannan, and the surface glycopeptidolipids (GPL), were critically examined. Through thin layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, and chemical analysis, it was found that the GPL expression profiles differ significantly in that several apolar GPLs were overexpressed in the clinically resistant 417 isolate at the expense of the serotype 1 polar GPL, which was the single predominant band in the ethambutol-susceptible 397 isolate. Thus, instead of additional rhamnosylation on the 6-deoxytalose (6-dTal) appendage to give the serotype 1-specific disaccharide hapten, the accumulation of this nonextended apolar GPL probably provided more precursor substrate available for further nonsaccharide substitutions including a higher degree of O-methylation to give 3-O-Me-6-dTal and the unusual 4-O-sulfation on 6-dTal. Further data showed that this alteration effectively neutralized ethambutol, which is known to inhibit arabinan synthesis. Thus, in contrast with derived Emb-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which are devoid of a surface GPL layer, the lipoarabinomannan from resistant 417 isolate grown in the presence of this drug was not apparently truncated.  (+info)

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This study showed that cultivation conditions (medium composition, initial medium pH, aeration rate, inoculum density) affect biomass and polysaccharide production in Ganoderma lucidum strain HAI 447. The synthetic medium (pH 5.5) with maltose at the concentration of 65.0 g L-1, peptone of 0.2%, as well as in the presence of K, Na, and Mg at concentrations of 6.0, 3.0, and 2.0 mM, respectively, presented the best conditions for biomass (29.2 g L-1) and extra- and intracellular polysaccharide (2.9 mg mL(-1) and 73.3 mg g(-1), respectively) production in the analyzed strain. Constant aeration was optimal for biomass and extracellular polysaccharide production, whereas cultivation under stationary conditions was the best for intracellular polysaccharide production. A peak in biomass and polysaccharide production was observed at an inoculum density of 20.0 mL ...
The genomic organization of the chromosomal cps region that is responsible for capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae Chedid (O1:K2) was investigated. Deletion analyses and Southern hybridization studies suggested that the central region of the cloned 29-kb BamHI fragment is indispensable for K2 capsular polysaccharide synthesis. The 24,329-bp nucleotide sequence of the Klebsiella cps region was determined and deposited in the EMBL and GenBank databases through DDBJ and assigned accession number D21242. Nineteen possible open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the sequenced area. Among them, 13 ORFs are very close to each other. Six of the 19 ORFs show considerable nucleotide sequence similarities to Salmonella typhimurium cpsG, cpsB, rfbP, and orf2.8, Escherichia coli gnd, and Haemophilus influenzae bexD, respectively. Moreover, the deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF10 product demonstrated a highly hydrophobic profile and showed putative membrane topology ...
Anti-polysaccharide immunity is a key facet of protection against several bacterial pathogens. Problems exist with current polysaccharide vaccines and alternative strategies that deliver a protective response are needed. We have identified immunological peptide mimics of type 6B and 9V pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides that could be used as vaccine antigens. Peptides mimicking antigenic properties of serotype 6B capsular polysaccharide were obtained from a phage-displayed peptide library expressing dodecameric peptides, using a human monoclonal antibody (Db3G9). A murine monoclonal antibody (206, F-5) against the serotype 9V capsular polysaccharide identified three peptide mimotopes from the dodecameric peptide library and one from a random pentadecameric peptide library. In ELISA, binding of 206, F-5 and Db3G9 to phage displaying the selected mimotopes was significantly inhibited by type-specific pneumococcal polysaccharide. Peptides were conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and were ...
Abs to a number of polysaccharide Ags have several common attributes: CDR-H3 is implicated in binding to Ag (28, 29), its length is strictly maintained (20, 30), and its sequence is almost invariably characterized by the presence of hydrophilic tyrosine residues (21, 31, 32). Xu and Davis (9) showed that, in VH-restricted mice, CDR-H3 diversity was sufficient for the development of specific Ab responses to a variety of hapten and protein Ags but not for two bacterial polysaccharide Ags. The latter finding was attributed to the failure of the single VH gene in their mouse model to accommodate the polysaccharide-specific response, which suggested VH dependency. Work by Nakouzi and Casadevall (33) showed that, in addition to CDR-H3, CDR-H2 encoded amino acids critical for the generation of Abs specific for the polysaccharide galactoxylomannan. These studies highlighted the significant roles that both the VH, as a whole, and the CDR component of the VH, as a part, can play in the generation of ...
Tumor cells that acquire metastatic potential have developed resistance to anoikis, a cell death process, after detachment from their primary site to the second organ. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of a novel marine bacterial polysaccharide EPS11 which exerts its cytotoxic effects through affecting cancer cell adhesion and anoikis. Firstly, we found that EPS11 could significantly affect cell proliferation and block cell adhesion in A549 cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of several cell adhesion associated proteins is downregulated and the filiform structures of cancer cells are destroyed after EPS11 treatment. Interestingly, the destruction of filiform structures in A549 cells by EPS11 is in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitory tendency is very consistent with that observed in the cell adhesion assay, which confirms that filiform structures play important roles in modulating cell adhesion. Moreover, we showed that EPS11 induces apoptosis of A549 ...
Comprehensive in scope, Food Polysaccharides and Their Applications, Second Edition explains the production aspects and the chemical and physical properties of the Synopsis Comprehensive in scope, "Food Polysaccharides and Their Applications, Second Edition" explains the production aspects and the chemical and physical. ... and biotechnological applications of bacterial polysaccharides. Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and their applications in a dairy food ... Food Applications compiles recent data on the food applications of marine polysaccharides from such Microalgae, and Their Polysaccharides: Food Applications. ... and other biomedical applications. Polysaccharide conjugates Food-Grade Covalent Complexes and Their Application as Comprehensive Reviews in Food Polysaccharides are ideal natural phosphorylation modification is the most common application to Food-Grade Covalent Complexes and Their. Practical Food Applications of Differential Scanning Typical food samples and their ...
From here you can specify a search of the Bacterial Polysaccharide Gene Database. The results of the search will be returned as a "hit list". From the hit list you follow links to look at individual records from the database in greater detail.. ...
Erythrocytes coated with bacterial capsular polysaccharides, notably the Vi antigen, were no longer agglutinated by antibodies directed against the various antigens native to the red cell surface. These effects could not be attributed to prevention of antibody uptake even though in some systems the uptake of antibody was diminished. In fact, agglutination by Rh-incomplete antibody was brought back to the original titer only after the sensitized Vi-coated cells had been subjected to ten alternating exposures to globulin and antiglobulin. Hemagglutination by Newcastle, mumps, and influenza viruses was also suppressed. Erythrocytes coated with Vi polysaccharide assumed the distinctive physicochemical attributes of this acidic polymer which results in a stabilization of the erythrocyte suspension as manifested by increased electrophoretic mobility and a striking decrease in the rate of sedimentation. Among the possible models for explaining the nature of the Vi effect on immune agglutination, the ...
Polysaccharide antigens are T cell-independent antigens, and do not induce immune B cell memory. Consequently, vaccines based on polysaccharides have limited clinical usefulness and induce short-lasting antibody responses in adults. Their immunogenicity can be enhanced by conjugation to an immunogenic carrier protein, generating T cell-dependent glycoconjugate antigens able to induce immunological memory. However, these glycoconjugates suffer from some problems. Recent investigations have found a group of structurally distinct bacterial polysaccharides able to activate T cells in vivo and in vitro. They present a zwitterionic charge motif distributed along the chain and, for this reason, they are called zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs). This zwitterionic charge motif is believed to be responsible for their particular immunological behavior. The integrity of the zwitterionic motif is essential for the biological activity of ZPS. However, it must be clarified if the introduction of the ...
The capsular polysaccharide (SIII) of type III pneumococci was removed enzymatically, and the cells thus deprived of preformed SIII were washed and examined for capacity to synthesize SIII anew. The washed, decapsulated cocci lost their capacity to be agglutinated in type-specific antiserum but again became agglutinable and formed readily measurable amounts of SIII, after suspension in a solution containing only glucose and salts.. Maximal SIII synthesis required the presence of glucose, magnesium, potassium and phosphate ions, and oxygen. Other fermentable sugars could be substituted for glucose but then the yield of SIII was reduced. Synthesis of SIII occurred anaerobically but was increased four- to fivefold by oxygenation of the suspension. The effects of pH and of enzyme poisons on the capacity of the cocci to form SIII are described.. ...
Bacterioides fragilis is a gram-negative anaerobe and a prototypic gut commensal organism. B. fragilis is able to produce eight different capsular polysaccharides, which envelope the organism and form its protective capsule. Polysaccharide A (PSA) is one of these polysaccharides and, interestingly, has a unique zwitterionic motif that includes alternating positively and negatively charged sugar residues. PSA consists of a tetrasaccharide repeat unit that forms a polymer of between 30-300 repeats.. Such bacterial capsular polysaccharides are well known to industry, and are the basis of polysaccharide conjugate vaccines used successfully for decades in millions of people. The specific zwitterionic polysaccharide PSA was shown, in a series of landmark papers by our companys scientific founders that overturned established immunologic paradigms, to be processed via the endosomal pathway in antigen-presenting cells, depolymerized by NO-dependent deamination, and presented to CD4+ T-cells by MHC class ...
Totally, 142 HF patients with midrange ejection fraction (HFmrEF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were enrolled in the study. There was a significantly correlation both between the EF and the EPSS and between the EF and the LVIDd/EPSS (P,0.001). In both HFmrEF and HFrEF groups, the correlation between the LVIDd/EPSS and the EF was more significant than was the correlation between the EPSS and the EF (P,0.001). The results of the linear regression analysis indicated that the LVIDd/EPSS was an independent predictor of the HFmrEF and the HFrEF (P,0.001). In the patients with EPSS≤12, there was a significant association between the EF and the LVIDd/EPSS (P,0.001) but not between the EF and the EPSS(P,0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the LVIDd/EPSS predicted advanced HF with 87% sensitivity and 72% specificity, using a cutoff value of 3.35,and it predicted the HFrEF (EF,40%) with 84% sensitivity and 81% specificity, using a cutoff value of 3.75.. ...
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Author Summary Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is an important pathogen worldwide and causes a wide range of diseases, mostly in young children and the elderly. There are 91 serotypes of pneumococcus, each of which produces a unique polysaccharide, called the capsule, that attaches to the bacterial surface and prevents it from being cleared by the host. The serotypes differ greatly in their prevalence in the human population. There is currently a vaccine, effective in infancy, which targets seven clinically important serotypes, but several types not covered by the vaccine are beginning to increase in carriage frequency. As a result, it is critical to understand why some serotypes are frequently carried in the human population while others are not. In this study, we find that the high-prevalence serotypes tend to be more heavily encapsulated and more resistant to killing by neutrophils. Significantly, we find that the biochemical properties of the different polysaccharides can be used to
High-throughput sequencing allows detailed study of the BCR repertoire postimmunization, but it remains unclear to what extent the de novo identification of Ag-specific sequences from the total BCR repertoire is possible. A conjugate vaccine containing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and group C meningococcal polysaccharides, as well as tetanus toxoid (TT), was used to investigate the BCR repertoire of adult humans following immunization and to test the hypothesis that public or convergent repertoire analysis could identify Ag-specific sequences. A number of Ag-specific BCR sequences have been reported for Hib and TT, which made a vaccine containing these two Ags an ideal immunological stimulus. Analysis of identical CDR3 amino acid sequences that were shared by individuals in the postvaccine repertoire identified a number of known Hib-specific sequences but only one previously described TT sequence. The extension of this analysis to nonidentical, but highly similar, CDR3 amino acid ...
The behaviour of strains of Klebsiella aerogenes of capsular serotype K21 and strains of Escherichia coli producing a structurally related polysaccharide (colanic acid) was analysed by phagocytic and serum-killing assays. The cell-surface characteris
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular architectures and functional properties of gellan gum and related polysaccharides. AU - Chandrasekaran, R.. AU - Radha, A.. PY - 1995/5. Y1 - 1995/5. N2 - Certain linear and branched polysaccharides produced by unrelated species of bacteria are grouped in the gellan gum family because of their conserved backbone structures. All have excellent rheological properties and, thus, are useful in industrial applications. Physicochemical investigations of these polysaccharides in solution and structural studies of them in the solid state using X-ray diffraction have provided mutually complementary results. The study double-helix morphology that is characteristic of gellan gum prevails in other members of the gum family in spite of the presence of substituents and side chains. Association between double helices is facilitated by ions and water molecules. The observed physical properties of solutions and gels made with members of the gellan gum family can be directly rationalized ...
Bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Bacterial virulence may be enhanced by the presence of a polysaccharide capsule or by lipopolysaccharide. The polysaccharide capsules often act to inhibit phagocytosis, allowing for evasion of host defense mechanisms. Our laboratory is engaged in the study of polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide of P. gingivalis. Polysaccharide and lipoplysaccharide are released from the bacterial cell surface and purified by a variety of techniques. The purified components are then characterized chemically and immunologically. The ability of these components to function as immunogens and as activators of the serum complement system is under investigation. Current investigations are also evaluating the association to periodontal disease and the capsular polysaccharide serotype. ...
Phd Student: Li, Chengxin. Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Email: ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
Autor: Hicke, H. G. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1999; Keywords: biotechnology|br/|membrane reactors|br/|membrane-bound enzymes|br/|microporous and porous membranes|br/|polysaccharide synthesis|br/|photo-grafted membranes|br/|chromatography; Titel: Novel enzyme-membrane reactor for polysaccharide synthesis
Polysaccharides are also abundant in plant and marine sources and these are an as yet relatively untapped resource for these molecules. Isolated polysaccharides have been shown to have potent biological activities in a range of cell types and as such are a focus of identification of novel bioactive compounds for therapeutic use. Polysaccharides are under investigation for the modulation of the immune system that can be used to both reduce inflammation in certain diseases but also to potentiate inflammation which has been shown to be beneficial post-surgery. Using a range of high throughput strategies were are examining the biological roles of naturally derived polysaccharides, with a particular focus on seaweed-derived polysaccharides.. ...
Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Powder Type 1 (US Type 1) ATCC ® 164-X™ Designation: TypeStrain=False Application: Elisa standard polysaccharide type 1
Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Powder Type 2 (US Type 2) ATCC ® 168-X™ Designation: TypeStrain=False Application: Elisa standard polysaccharide type 2
The formation of heparin-precursor polysaccharide (N-acetylheparosan) was studied with a mouse mastocytoma microsomal fraction. Incubation of this fraction with UDP-[3H]GlcA and UDP-GlcNAc yielded labelled macromolecules that could be depolymerized, apparently to single polysaccharide chains, by alkali treatment, and thus were assumed to be proteoglycans. Label from UDP-[3H]GlcA (approx. 3 microM) is transiently incorporated into microsomal polysaccharide even in the absence of added UDP-GlcNAc, probably owing to the presence of endogenous sugar nucleotide. When the concentration of exogenous UDP-GlcNAc was increased to 25 microM the rate of incorporation of 3H increased and proteoglycans carrying polysaccharide chains with an Mr of approx. 110,000 were produced. Increasing the UDP-GlcNAc concentration to 5 mM led to an approx. 4-fold decrease in the rate of 3H incorporation and a decrease in the Mr of the resulting polysaccharide chains to approx. 6000 (predominant component). When both ...
The polysaccharide hydration phenomenon is nowadays the subject of intense research. The interaction of native and modified polysaccharides and polysaccharides-based bioconjugates with water has an important influence on their functional behaviour. Notwithstanding that the hydration phenomenon has been studied for decades, there is still a lack of awareness about the influence of hydration water on the polysaccharide´s structure and consequences for industrial or medicinal applications. The hydration of polysaccharides is often described by the existence of water layers differing in their physical properties depending on the distance from the polysaccharide. Using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) such water layers were categorized according their properties upon cooling in hyaluronan (HYA, sodium salt of ß-1,4-linked units of ß-1,3-linked D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine), a model polysaccharide in the present work. The amount of non-freezing water, i.e. water in close
Cell Wall and CapsuleCapsular and extracellular polysacchridesSerotype determining Capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Staphylococcus Capsular polysaccharide synthesis enzyme Cap5K ...
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Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are produced by a multi-protein membrane layer complicated, in which a particular type of tyrosine-autokinases named BY-kinases, control their move and polymerization. is certainly defective recommending that CpsD autophosphorylation interferes with these procedures therefore producing in cell constriction problems and cell elongation. We display that CpsD stocks structural homology with ParA-like … Read more Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are produced by a multi-protein membrane layer. Read More ...
POLYSACCHARIDE STRUCTURE. References. Tombs, M .P. & Harding, S.E., An Introduction to Pol ysaccharide Biotechnology, Taylor & Francis, London, 1997 D.A. Rees, Polysaccharide Shapes, Chapman & Hall, 1977 Slideshow 198522 by johana
Linear polysaccharides are typically composed of repeating mono- or disaccharide units and are ubiquitous among living organisms. Polysaccharide diversity arises from chain-length variation, branching, and additional modifications. Structural diversity is associated with various physiological functions, which are often regulated by cognate polysaccharide-binding proteins. Proteins that interact with linear polysaccharides have been identified or developed, such as galectins and polysaccharide-specific antibodies, respectively. Currently, data is accumulating on the three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide-binding proteins. These proteins are classified into two types: exo-type and endo-type. The former group specifically interacts with the terminal units of polysaccharides, whereas the latter with internal units. In this review, we describe the structural aspects of exo-type and endo-type protein-polysaccharide interactions. Further, we discuss the structural basis for affinity and specificity
Group II K antigens such as the K5 are associated with Escherichia coli causing serious extraintestinal infections. Genes for the production of group II capsules (kps) are organised into three functional regions 1, 2 and 3. The central region 2 encodes proteins involved in the biosynthesis of type specific polysaccharide. Proteins encoded by the flanking regions 1 and 3 are involved in the export of polysaccharide across the bacterial membranes unto the cell surface. Translocation of polysaccharide across the inner membrane is mediated by two region 3 encoded proteins, KpsM and KpsT which belong to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. Region 1 encodes six proteins, KpsF-E-D-U-C-S. The KpsE protein was shown to localise in the inner membrane and mutants lacking the encoded protein were unable to export polysaccharide to the cell surface. To understand the export role of the KpsE, its membrane topology was determined using TnphoA mutagenesis and beta-lactamase fusions. The ...
Agricultural and forestry and landscape machinery China, Ginseng Polysaccharides, Ginseng polysaccharides are made up of the galacturonic acid, galactose, rhamnose, acidic heteropolysaccharide (which is...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An alternative polysaccharide uptake mechanism of marine bacteria. AU - Reintjes,Greta. AU - Arnosti,Carol. AU - Fuchs,Bernhard M.. AU - Amann,Rudolf. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - Heterotrophic microbial communities process much of the carbon fixed by phytoplankton in the ocean, thus having a critical role in the global carbon cycle. A major fraction of the phytoplankton-derived substrates are high-molecular-weight (HMW) polysaccharides. For bacterial uptake, these substrates must initially be hydrolysed to smaller sizes by extracellular enzymes. We investigated polysaccharide hydrolysis by microbial communities during a transect of the Atlantic Ocean, and serendipitously discovered - using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy - that up to 26% of total cells showed uptake of fluorescently labelled polysaccharides (FLA-PS). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation identified these organisms as members of the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes and the ...
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Covalently modified polysaccharides are routinely used in tissue engineering due to their tailored biofunctionality. Understanding the effect of single-chain level modification on the solution conformation of the single chain, and more importantly on the self-assembly and aggregation of the ensemble of chains is expected to improve our ability to control network topology and the properties of the resulting gels. Attaching an RGD peptide to a polysaccharide backbone is a common procedure used to promote cell adhesion in hydrogel scaffolds. Recently it has been shown that the spatial presentation of the RGD sequences affects the cell behavior; thus, understanding the effects of grafted RGD on the conformational properties of the solvated polysaccharide chains is a prerequisite for rational design of polysaccharide-peptide based biomaterials. Here we investigate the effect of covalently linked G4RGDS on the conformational state of the individual chain and chain assemblies of alginate, chitosan, and ...
Baker, P J.; Prescott, B; Stashak, P W.; and Amsbaugh, D F., "Characterization of the antibody response to type iii pneumococcal polysaccharide at the cellular level. Iii. Studies on the average avidity of the antibody produced by specific plaque-forming cells." (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 1026 ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
An amino derivative of the natural glucuronide, euxanthic acid, was prepared and coupled by the azo-link to proteins. These azo-proteins gave precipitates with type II pneumococcus antiserum, which were inhibited by glucuronides. The effect of varying azoprotein/serum ratio on the amount and com position of the precipitate was similar to the effect of varying polysaccharide/serum ratio on the precipitate form ed when the specific polysaccharide is added to the serum. Attempts to immunize rabbits and mice with a ino-euxanthic acid azoprotein were not successful. Chemical estimations and animal protection experiments indicated that the material precipitated by the azo-protein from the serum was part of the antibody to type II pneumococcus. These results support the view that at any rate part of the specificity of type II serum for the type polysaccharide is due to glucuronic acid or some closely similar grouping. ...
Alpha and Beta linkages in Polysaccharides - posted in -Biochemistry-: Hi, maybe a stupid question and I should already know this, but when linkages in polysaccharides are mentioned it has either alpha or beta mentioned before them. what does this refer to? e.g. α (1→4) linkages in glucans and β-1,4 linkage in chitin. Thanks for any help
Polysaccharides are carbohydrates formed from repeating structures called monosaccharides, which are single-sugar units. At least three monosaccharides must combine to form a polysaccharide. Examples...
An improved Electronic Performance Support System, EPSS. A simplified prior-art EPSS can be viewed as a computerized system which divides a process, such as designing, building, and marketing an automobile, into individual stages. At each stage, the EPSS makes various tools available to users and, in general, the tools available at one stage are different than those available at other stages. Under the invention, different users examine various tools, select those considered best, and submit the selected tools to a common repository. Other users of EPSSs can withdraw and use the selected tools.
Polysaccharides play a major role in the overall health of humans. Polysaccharides are many types of saccharides (a form of sugar) joined together in a variety of bonds to produce diverse styles of molecules. These massive long chains needs to be degraded (or broken down) into smaller molecules before they could without difficulty be digested by the body system
Enzyme immunoassay for the determination of IgG antibodies to Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide (PCP) in human serum or plasma.
Enzyme immunoassay for the determination of IgG antibodies to Pneumococcal Capsular Polysaccharide (PCP) in human serum or plasma. SmartEIA kit is specifically designed for automated analysis using the Agility instrument.
A broad variety of bacteria including the Rhizobiaceae are able to secrete polysaccharides. Sugar polymers that form an adherent cohesive layer on the cell surface are designated capsular polysacharides (CPS), whereas the term exopolysaccharide (EPS) is used for polysaccharides with little or no cell association. Due to the variation of monosaccharide sequences, condensation linkages and non-carbohydrate decorations, an infinite array of structures can be provided by this class of macromolecules. Different rheological properties depend on the structure and the molecular weight of EPS. These properties and the location of EPS, forming the outer layer of the cell surface, contribute to the cell protection against environmental influences, attachment to surfaces, nutrient gathering and to antigenicity (Costerton et al., 1987, Sutherland 1988, Whitfield 1988, Beveridge and Graham 1991). The structural diversity of oligosaccharides derived from EPS enables them to function additionally as ...
2009). Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. Caister Academic. ISBN 978-1-904455-45-5.. ... To differentiate any bacterial growth from other species a small amount of a bacterial colony is tested for oxidase, catalase ... Some of the vaccines cover serogroup B, while others cover A, C, W, and Y.[26] A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4) ... It causes the only form of bacterial meningitis known to occur epidemically, mainly Africa and Asia. It occurs worldwide in ...
Bhamidi S (2009). "Mycobacterial Cell Wall Arabinogalactan". Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. ... "Human Intelectin Is a Novel Soluble Lectin That Recognizes Galactofuranose in Carbohydrate Chains of Bacterial Cell Wall". ...
It is available, however, through the American Type Culture Collection[1]. Harada T. (1983). "Special bacterial polysaccharides ... Yokobayashi Y, et al.. Process for producing bacterial isoamylase. US Patent 3,560,345 dated Feb 2 1971.. ...
"Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature". Trends in Microbiology. 4 (12): 495-503. doi:10.1016/S0966-842X(97) ... who specialises in molecular microbiology and bacterial infectious diseases. He has been the Marks and Spencer Professor of ...
Wzc - a tyrosine kinase found in the bacterial inner membrane. Participates in polymerization of capsule polysaccharides. Wzx ... Transfers new polysaccharide units across the inner membrane. Wzy - Assembles longer polysaccharide chains using units ... These polysaccharides help protect the bacteria from harsh environments, toxic chemicals, and bacteriophages. The CPS operon ... of the genome present in some Escherichia coli which regulates the production of polysaccharides which make up the bacterial ...
Bhamidi S (2009). "Mycobacterial Cell Wall Arabinogalactan". Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. ... As with other bacterial pathogens, surface and secreted proteins of M. tuberculosis contribute significantly to the virulence ... The cell wall consists of the hydrophobic mycolate layer and a peptidoglycan layer held together by a polysaccharide, ... In addition, the availability of genetic manipulation techniques still lags far behind that of other bacterial species. A ...
Bacterial fermentation of undigested polysaccharides produces these. Some of the fecal odor is due to indoles, metabolized from ... Other bacterial products include gas (flatus), which is a mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of the ... Undigested polysaccharides (fiber) are metabolized to short-chain fatty acids by bacteria in the large intestine and absorbed ... largely bacterial) fermentation of unabsorbed material occurs. Unlike the small intestine, the colon does not play a major role ...
Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-45-5. Holzapfel, W ... The first contact between an infecting phage and its bacterial host is the attachment of the phage to the host cell. This ... Gram-positive LAB have a thick peptidoglycan layer, which must be traversed to inject the phage genome into the bacterial ... They consist of the organelles of a simple bacterial structure. LAB are amongst the most important groups of microorganisms ...
Stacey's main research interest was in polysaccharides. He helped to develop bacterial polyglucose dextran as a blood plasma ...
ISBN 978-1-904455-41-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Ullrich M (editor) (2009). Bacterial Polysaccharides: ... Welman AD (2009). "Exploitation of Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria". Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current ... Microorganisms synthesize a wide spectrum of multifunctional polysaccharides including intracellular polysaccharides, ... structural polysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides. Exopolysaccharides generally consist of ...
... entry in LPSN [Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on ... nov., Bacteria That Decompose Algal Polysaccharides". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 42 (4): 621-627. doi: ... Skerman, V. B. D.; McGowan, V.; Sneath, P. H. A. (1980). "Approved Lists of Bacterial Names". International Journal of ... Simidu, U.; Kita-Tsukamoto, K.; Yasumoto, T.; Yotsu, M. (1990). "Taxonomy of Four Marine Bacterial Strains That Produce ...
Finn, Adam (2004-01-01). "Bacterial polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines". British Medical Bulletin. 70 (1): 1-14. doi: ... The shortcomings of the polysaccharide vaccine led to the production of the Hib polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine. ... Attaching Hib polysaccharide to a protein carrier greatly increased the ability of the immune system of young children to ... Similar to other polysaccharide vaccines, immune response to the vaccine was highly age-dependent. Children under 18 months of ...
He also contributed towards solving the problems with bacterial polysaccharides. He was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in ...
... transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells in direct contact) and transduction (injection of donor bacterial DNA ... Only some species have a capsule, usually consisting of polysaccharides. Also, only some species are flagellates, and when they ... For the bacterial cells bounded by a single cell membrane, the term "monoderm bacteria" or "monoderm prokaryotes" has been ... This is because the thick peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall retains the stain after it is washed away from the ...
GBS is surrounded by a bacterial capsule composed of polysaccharides (exopolysaccharides). GBS are subclassified into 10 ... The capsular polysaccharide of GBS, which is an important virulence factor, is also an excellent candidate for the development ... Baker CJ, Edwards MS, Kasper DL (1981). "Role of antibody to native type III polysaccharide of group B Streptococcus in infant ... In the western world, GBS (in the absence of effective prevention measures) is the main cause of bacterial infections in ...
GBS is surrounded by a bacterial capsule composed of polysaccharides (exopolysacharide). The species is subclassified into ten ... The capsular polysaccharide of GBS is not only an important GBS virulence factor but it is also an excellent candidate for the ... In the western world, GBS (in the absence of effective prevention measures) is the major cause of several bacterial infections ... GBS is the leading cause of bacterial neonatal infection in the baby during gestation and after delivery with significant ...
"The love-hate relationship between bacterial polysaccharides and the host immune system". Nature Reviews Immunology. 849-858. ... B. thetaiotaomicron, a bacterial species in the ileum and colon, stimulates the gene encoding fucose, Fut2, in intestinal ... Nisin A inhibits methicillin-resistant S. aureus by binding to the precursor to bacterial cell wall synthesis, lipid II. This ... For example, the human symbiont Bacteroides fragilis produces polysaccharide A (PSA), which binds to toll-like receptor 2 (TLR- ...
Outer membrane auxiliary proteins (polysaccharide transporter) - α-helical transmembrane proteins from the outer bacterial ... Bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres and photosystems I and II. *Light-harvesting complexes from bacteria and chloroplasts ... General bacterial porin family, known as trimeric porins (n=16,S=20) ... Alpha-helical proteins are present in the inner membranes of bacterial cells or the plasma membrane of eukaryotes, and ...
Ullrich M (editor) (2009). Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1 ... Welman AD (2009). "Exploitation of Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria". Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current ... Microorganisms synthesize a wide spectrum of multifunctional polysaccharides including intracellular polysaccharides, ... structural polysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides. Exopolysaccharides generally consist of ...
... capsular polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, and teichoic acid), proteins involved in bacterial pathogenesis (e.g. hemolysis ... In bacterial efflux systems, certain substances that need to be extruded from the cell include surface components of the ... Bacterial drug resistance has become an increasingly major health problem. One of the mechanisms for drug resistance is ... Bacterial ABC transporters are essential in cell viability, virulence, and pathogenicity. Iron ABC uptake systems, for example ...
This technique for the creation of an effective immunogen is most often applied to bacterial polysaccharides for the prevention ... ISBN 978-1-904455-74-5. Lee C, Lee LH, Koizumi K (2002). "Polysaccharide Vaccines for Prevention of Encapsulated Bacterial ... By conjugating the polysaccharide to a protein carrier, a T cell response can be induced. Normally, polysaccharides by ... In the case of a conjugate vaccine, the carrier peptide linked to the polysaccharide target antigen is able to be presented on ...
... bacterial nanomachines for dismantling plant polysaccharides. Nat. Rev. Micro. (2016). Bayer, E. A., Shoham, Y. & Lamed, R. in ... based on the specific affinity between cohesin and dockerin modules from the same bacterial species and type. These enzymatic ...
P. syringae produces polysaccharides which allow it to adhere to the surface of plant cells. It also releases quorum sensing ... Fall, Ray; Wolber, Paul K. (1995). "Biochemistry of Bacterial Ice Nuclei". In Lee, Richard E.; Warren, Gareth J.; Gusta, L. V. ... P. syringae pathogenesis is dependent on effector proteins secreted into the plant cell by the bacterial type III secretion ... The bacteria secrete highly viscous compounds such as polysaccharides and DNA to create a protective environment in which to ...
Polysaccharides in seaweed may be metabolized in humans through the action of bacterial gut enzymes. Such enzymes are ...
The IgG responses to bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigens are mediated primarily via IgG2 subclass, and deficiencies in ... unresponsiveness against bacterial polysaccharide antigens". Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). Jonsdottir, I., Vidarsson, G. (1998 ... Acton, R. T., Barton, J. C. (2016). "Selective Subnormal IgG1 in 54 Adult Index Patients with Frequent or Severe Bacterial ... The pentameric structure of IgM antibodies makes them efficient at binding antigens with repetitive epitopes (e.g. bacterial ...
They have a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 different serotypes are known ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ... Type strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ...
Shao W, Liu H, Liu X, Sun H, Wang S, Zhang R (2015) pH-responsive release behavior and anti-bacterial activity of bacterial ... we propose new composite hydrogels composed of bacterial cellulose and other polysaccharides as xanthan and ... Antimicrobial Food Pads Containing Bacterial Cellulose and Polysaccharides. In: Mondal M. (eds) Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent ... Shi Z, Zhang Y, Phillips GO, Yang G (2014) Utilization of bacterial cellulose in food. Food Hydrocoll 35:539-545CrossRefGoogle ...
Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature.. Reeves PR1, Hobbs M, Valvano MA, Skurnik M, Whitfield C, Coplin D, ... Gene nomenclature for bacterial surface polysaccharides is complicated by the large number of structures and genes. We propose ...
The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial ... Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed. ... produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, ... Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation. Barbara Vu 1,2, Miao Chen 2, Russell J. Crawford 1 and ...
Accessing the Bacterial Polysaccharide Gene Database (BPGD). From here you can specify a search of the Bacterial Polysaccharide ... FASEB SUMMER RESEARCH CONFERENCE on MICROBIAL POLYSACCHARIDES OF MEDICAL, AGRICULTURAL, AND INDUSTRIAL IMPORTANCE ...
Our results suggest that silkworms provide an efficient screening system of bacterial polysaccharides that inhibit sucrose- ... Ethanol precipitates of extracellular polysaccharides were prepared from viscous bacterial colonies. Among 24 samples obtained ... Here we show that polysaccharides obtained from soil bacteria inhibit sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in an in vivo silkworm ... from different bacterial species, oral administration of 6 samples from Rhizobium altiplani, Cupriavidus sp., Paenibacillus ...
Activation of bacterial lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases with cellobiose dehydrogenase.. [Jennifer S M Loose, Zarah Forsberg ... Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) represent a recent addition to the carbohydrate-active enzymes and are classified ... Overall, MtCDH seems to be a universal electron donor for both bacterial and fungal LPMOs, indicating that their electron ... LPMOs are crucial for effective degradation of recalcitrant polysaccharides like cellulose or chitin. These enzymes are copper- ...
The structures of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigens, extracted and purified from microbial cultures and ... While these groups are often considered important for the structural identity of the polysaccharides, they play a major role in ... The incidence of infectious diseases caused by several bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus ... Berti F, De Ricco R, Rappuoli R. Role of O-Acetylation in the Immunogenicity of Bacterial Polysaccharide Vaccines. Molecules. ...
The first part of this work describes studies on the structures of three bacterial polysaccharides, i.e., the extracellular ... Determination of the structures of three bacterial polysaccharides and synthesis and use of new spacers for glycoconjugate ... polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 2 and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strain X6C61 and the O-antigenic side-chain of ...
Where in loose bacterial surface polysaccharide plays a critical role? ... Where in loose bacterial surface polysaccharide plays a critical role? A. Gonorrhea. B. Meningitis with no underlying trauma. C ... all of these causative agents have polysaccharide capsules that allow survival in the blood-stream in an immunologically na ve ... polysaccharide) is important for successful hematogenous spread to the central nervous system; examples include cryptococcus, ...
... Domenii publicaţii > ... Alteration in bacterial capsular polysaccharides following co-culture with human epithelial cells. Domenii publicaţii > ...
The invention includes a new method to conjugate the O-specific polysaccharide-core part of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide ... polysaccharides) directly to amine-containing species (e.g. proteins) without prior modification of either component. While ...
Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Miguel A. Campos, Miguel A. Vargas, Verónica ... Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Miguel A. Campos, Miguel A. Vargas, Verónica ... Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Miguel A. Campos, Miguel A. Vargas, Verónica ... Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
... on the nature of the Ab response to the bacterial polysaccharide DEX following bacterial challenge. We previously showed that ... The love-hate relationship between bacterial polysaccharides and the host immune system. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6: 849-858. ... Limiting CDR-H3 Diversity Abrogates the Antibody Response to the Bacterial Polysaccharide α 1→3 Dextran. Tamer I. Mahmoud, ... Limiting CDR-H3 Diversity Abrogates the Antibody Response to the Bacterial Polysaccharide α 1→3 Dextran ...
1. Influence of some bacterial polysaccharides on the binding of soil particles. M. J. Geoghegan, R. C. Brian ... 1. Influence of some bacterial polysaccharides on the binding of soil particles ... 1. Influence of some bacterial polysaccharides on the binding of soil particles ... 1. Influence of some bacterial polysaccharides on the binding of soil particles ...
Dissertation: Structural studies of bacterial polysaccharides using N.M.R. spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. ... Structural studies of bacterial polysaccharides using N.M.R. spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. University dissertation from ...
Faster and Better Structure Determination of Bacterial Polysaccharides for Improved Diagnosis and Vaccines. Project: PhD ...
Bacterial polysaccharides, p. 287-363. In G. O. Aspinall (ed.), The polysaccharides, vol. 2. Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY ... Recognition of Bacterial Surface Polysaccharides by Lectins of the Innate Immune System and Its Contribution to Defense against ... Recognition of Bacterial Surface Polysaccharides by Lectins of the Innate Immune System and Its Contribution to Defense against ... Recognition of Bacterial Surface Polysaccharides by Lectins of the Innate Immune System and Its Contribution to Defense against ...
... N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine Affects Growth, Extracellular Polysaccharide Production, and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Solid Surfaces ...
Adhesive interactions between bacterial cells coupled with adherence to a solid surface can lead to the formation of a biofilm ... Bacterial-Bacterial Cell Interactions in Biofilms: Detection of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesins by Blotting and Confocal ... Jefferson K.K., Cerca N. (2006) Bacterial-Bacterial Cell Interactions in Biofilms: Detection of Polysaccharide Intercellular ... to evaluate extracellular polysaccharide production by a variety of bacterial species.. Key Words. Biofilms exo-polysaccharide ...
... ... Microbial Genomics, Emphasizing the Molecular Biology of Polysaccharide Degradation and Bacterial Adhesion to Plant Surfaces.. ... An obligatory step in cellulose degradation by anaerobic bacteria is the adhesion of the bacterium to the polysaccharide. In ... many anaerobic bacteria the adhesion protein, and the enzymes required for polysaccharide hydrolysis, are organized into a ...
SUPPRESSION OF BLOOD GROUP AGGLUTINABILITY OF HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES BY CERTAIN BACTERIAL POLYSACCHARIDES Ruggero Ceppellini ... Erythrocytes coated with bacterial capsular polysaccharides, notably the Vi antigen, were no longer agglutinated by antibodies ... SUPPRESSION OF BLOOD GROUP AGGLUTINABILITY OF HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES BY CERTAIN BACTERIAL POLYSACCHARIDES . J Exp Med 1 March 1963 ... Erythrocytes coated with Vi polysaccharide assumed the distinctive physicochemical attributes of this acidic polymer which ...
TitleRroles of plant defense response and bacterial surface polysaccharides in survival of human enteric pathogens Escherichia ... Rroles of plant defense response and bacterial surface polysaccharides in survival of human enteric pathogens Escherichia coli ... Rroles of plant defense response and bacterial surface polysaccharides in survival of human enteric pathogens Escherichia coli ... Colonization study with E. coli O157:H7 86-24 wild-type strain and its isogenic mutants of surface polysaccharides showed that ...
5 Bacterial capsular polysaccharides. *6 Chemical identification tests for polysaccharides *6.1 Periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS ... Bacterial capsular polysaccharides[edit]. Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. ... Acidic polysaccharides[edit]. Acidic polysaccharides are polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups, phosphate groups and/or ... Cell-surface polysaccharides play diverse roles in bacterial ecology and physiology. They serve as a barrier between the cell ...
Bacterial Strains and Culture.. Plasmid-free E. faecalis FA2-2 (5) was used for generating isogenic mutants by means of ... The capsular polysaccharide of Enterococcus faecalis and its relationship to other polysaccharides in the cell wall. Lynn E. ... The capsular polysaccharide of Enterococcus faecalis and its relationship to other polysaccharides in the cell wall ... The capsular polysaccharide of Enterococcus faecalis and its relationship to other polysaccharides in the cell wall ...
  • This report provides updated recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (i.e., bacteremia, meningitis, or infection of other normally sterile sites [ 2 ]) through use of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) among all adults aged ≥65 years and those adults aged 19--64 years with underlying medical conditions that put them at greater risk for serious pneumococcal infection. (cdc.gov)
  • These recommendations update the last statement by the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) on pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MMWR 1984;33:273-6, 281) and include new information regarding 1) vaccine efficacy, 2) use in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and in other groups at increased risk of pneumococcal disease, and 3) guidelines for revaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • The flow cytometric assay could reproducibly measure functional antibody activity in prevaccination ( n = 28) and postvaccination ( n = 36) serum specimens from healthy adult volunteers vaccinated with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. (asm.org)
  • S. meliloti biosynthesises an extracellular polysaccharide called succinoglycan, which is well characterised in terms of its structure and biosynthesis. (ed.ac.uk)
  • These polysaccharides are synthesized from nucleotide-activated precursors and, in most cases, all the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis, assembly and transport of the completed polymer are encoded by genes organized in dedicated clusters within the genome of the organism. (bionity.com)
  • Three subtractive hybridization products were mapped to a genetic locus encoding proteins involved in the biosynthesis, export and translocation of a capsular polysaccharide. (nih.gov)
  • These are likely to be critical to our understanding of the mechanism by which polysaccharide biosynthesis is regulated. (edu.au)
  • Determination of the transposon insertion site in strain 4A followed by deletion and complementation experiments revealed that the SO3177 gene, encoding a putative formyltransferase and situated in a cell surface polysaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster, was responsible for the increased current. (asm.org)
  • Transmission electron microscopy showed that a layered structure at the cell surface, stainable with ruthenium red, was impaired in the SO3177 mutant (ΔSO3177), confirming that SO3177 is involved in the biosynthesis of cell surface polysaccharides. (asm.org)
  • Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. (mdpi.com)
  • In V H -restricted mice, the variability introduced by the third CDR of the H chain (CDR-H3) was shown to be sufficient for the generation of the primary Ab specificities to proteins but, surprisingly, not to selected polysaccharides ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The results further highlight genes and loci that may participate in polysaccharide utilization, notably encoding Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZymes) and glycan binding proteins together with a number of proteins of unknown function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacterial endosymbiont genes were identified in this dataset, some of which have a copy number consistent with being lateral gene transfers between endosymbiont genomes and Hemiptera, including ankyrin-repeat related proteins, lysozyme, and mannanase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the type and force of bonds connecting these proteins to the polysaccharide moiety of glycogen are significantly different. (chemweb.com)
  • On the other hand, it is known that pathogenic organisms have developed countermeasures to resist these agents such as reducing the net negative charge of the bacterial membranes. (asm.org)
  • The lecture program is complemented by tutorials, which extend skills in exploring and critically assessing the scientific literature, and practicals which develop advanced experimental skills for the study of bacterial pathogenic mechanisms. (edu.au)
  • Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) represent a recent addition to the carbohydrate-active enzymes and are classified as auxiliary activity (AA) families 9, 10, 11, and 13. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • While some esterases remove methoxyl side chains, thus enhancing the possibility of successful infection of plant tissue, others remove the groups which prevent access of the substrate to the active site resulting in the improvement of the rate at which main-chain-degrading enzymes hydrolyze the polysaccharide backbone. (readabstracts.com)
  • The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a homoglycan composed of β-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues, synthesized by enzymes encoded in icaADBC is a major functional factor in biofilm accumulation, promoting virulence in experimental biomaterial-associated S. epidermidis infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enzymes offer a selective and efficient means to convert biomass and its components including polysaccharides into chemicals, materials, energy, food and feed in a sustainable manner. (springer.com)
  • A wide variety of potential enzymes suitable for processing and upgrading of lignocellulosic polysaccharides and polysaccharide -based materials is currently commercially available and novel enzymes are actively searched for. (springer.com)
  • The role of these enzymes in future lignocellulosic polysaccharide processing and up-grading is dependent on the value addition and economical feasibility reached as well as the wide industrial acceptance of the bioprocessing technologies. (springer.com)
  • These results demonstrate that cell surface polysaccharides affect not only the cell adhesion to graphite anodes but also the current generation in MFCs. (asm.org)
  • Polysaccharide is any of a class of relatively complex, high-molecular weight carbohydrates consisting of long-chains of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Capsular polysaccharides are water soluble, commonly acidic, and have molecular weights on the order of 100-1000 kDa. (bionity.com)
  • In the review the infectious diseases have been discussed where the mimicry phenomenon may occurr, and also autoimmune disease where due to the molecular mimicry bacterial structures are potent to induce adverse immune reactions. (edu.pl)
  • Despite many advances in research on photosynthetic carbon fixation in marine diatoms, the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms of extracellular polysaccharide production remain significant challenges to be resolved at the molecular scale in order to proceed toward an understanding of their functions at the cellular level, as well as their interactions and fate in the ocean. (mdpi.com)
  • Colonization study with E. coli O157:H7 86-24 wild-type strain and its isogenic mutants of surface polysaccharides showed that colanic acid-deficient and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-deficient mutants significantly less survived on Arabidopsis plant and lettuce on day 1 and 5 post-inoculation, compared to the wild-type. (rutgers.edu)
  • The flow cytometric opsonophagocytosis assay was highly reproducible (for 87% of repetitive assays the titers were within 1 dilution of the median titer) and serotype specific, with ≥97% inhibition of opsonophagocytic titer by addition of homologous serotype-specific polysaccharide. (asm.org)
  • Following a brief summary of the basic principle of the AFM experiment and the first AFM studies of diatom extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), we focus on the detection of supramolecular structures in polysaccharide systems produced by marine diatoms. (mdpi.com)
  • In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. (plos.org)
  • PIA polysaccharide I-containing fractions eluting from Q-Sepharose were devoid of detectable 20-kDaPS using specific ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adhesive interactions between bacterial cells coupled with adherence to a solid surface can lead to the formation of a biofilm. (springer.com)
  • By providing an unprecedented view of global transcriptomic responses during polysaccharide utilization in an alga-associated model flavobacterium, this study expands the current knowledge on the functional role of flavobacteria in the marine carbon cycle and on their interactions with algae. (frontiersin.org)
  • We investigated interactions berween mucosal lesions and bacterial invasion in ulcerative colitis using the acridine-orange staining method. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. (mdpi.com)
  • Biochemical analysis of BiXyn10A demonstrated that such insertion sequences encode a new family of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) that binds to xylose-configured oligosaccharide/polysaccharide ligands, the substrate of the BiXyn10A enzymatic activity. (pnas.org)
  • Fermentation of dietary fiber in the lower gut of humans is a critical process for the function and integrity of both the bacterial community and host cells. (pnas.org)
  • Multiple mechanisms, including direct EET through the physical contact of bacterial cells via outer membrane (OM) cytochromes ( 42 ) and conductive nanowires ( 16 ) and mediated EET via self-produced electron shuttles such as quinones and flavins ( 27 , 30 , 39 , 41 ), have been identified. (asm.org)