Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
A strong oxidizing agent.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
One of the largest genera of BROWN ALGAE, comprised of more than 150 species found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of both hemispheres. Some species are attached (benthic) but most float in the open sea (pelagic). Sargassum provides a critical habitat for hundreds of species of FISHES; TURTLES; and INVERTEBRATES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. In animals, UDP glucuronic acid is used for formation of many glucosiduronides with various aglycones.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A highly branched glucan in starch.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain CEREBROSIDES and SCOPOLETIN.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE that is the source of bupleurum root and of bupleurotoxin and is an ingredient of sho-saiko-to.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for its sour fruit.
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.
Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.
A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An unbranched glucan in starch.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.

Repertoire of human antibodies against the polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B. (1/4132)

We examined the repertoire of antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae 6B capsular polysaccharide induced with the conventional polysaccharide vaccine in adults at the molecular level two ways. In the first, we purified from the sera of seven vaccinees antipneumococcal antibodies and determined their amino acid sequences. Their VH regions are mainly the products of VH3 family genes (candidate genes, 3-23, 3-07, 3-66, and 3-74), but the product of a VH1 family gene (candidate gene, 1-03) is occasionally used. All seven individuals have small amounts of polyclonal kappa+ antibodies (Vkappa1 to Vkappa4 families), although kappa+ antibodies are occasionally dominated by antibodies formed with the product of the A27 Vkappa gene. In contrast, lambda+ anti-6B antibodies are dominated by the antibodies derived from one of 3 very similar Vlambda2 family genes (candidate genes, 2c, 2e, and 2a2) and Clambda1 gene product. The Vlambda2(+) antibodies express the 8.12 idiotype, which is expressed on anti-double-stranded-DNA antibodies. In one case, Vlambda is derived from a rarely expressed Vlambda gene, 10a. In the second approach, we studied a human hybridoma (Dob1) producing anti-6B antibody. Its VH region sequence is closely related to those of the 3-15 VH gene (88% nucleotide homology) and JH4 (92% homology). Its VL region is homologous to the 2a2 Vlambda2 gene (91%) and Jlambda1/Clambda1. Taken together, the V region of human anti-6B antibodies is commonly formed by a VH3 and a Vlambda2 family gene product.  (+info)

Isolation and chemical characterization of a capsular polysaccharide antigen shared by clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. (2/4132)

Enterococci are a common cause of serious infections, especially in newborns, severely immunocompromised patients, and patients requiring intensive care. To characterize enterococcal surface antigens that are targets of opsonic antibodies, rabbits were immunized with various gentamicin-killed Enterococcus faecalis strains, and immune sera were tested in an opsonophagocytic assay against a selection of clinical isolates. Serum raised against one strain killed the homologous strain (12030) at a dilution of 1:5,120 and mediated opsonic killing of 33% of all strains tested. In addition, this serum killed two (28%) of seven vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains. Adsorption of sera with the homologous strain eliminated killing activity. The adsorbing antigens were resistant to treatment with proteinase K and to boiling for 1 h, but were susceptible to treatment with sodium periodate, indicating that the antigen inducing opsonic activity is a polysaccharide. Antibodies in immune rabbit sera reacted with a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy both on the homologous E. faecalis strain and on a vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strain. The capsular polysaccharides from E. faecalis 12030 and E. faecium 838970 were purified, and chemical and structural analyses indicated they were identical glycerol teichoic acid-like molecules with a carbohydrate backbone structure of 6-alpha-D-glucose-1-2 glycerol-3-PO4 with substitution on carbon 2 of the glucose with an alpha-2-1-D-glucose residue. The purified antigen adsorbed opsonic killing activity from immune rabbit sera and elicited high titers of antibodies (when used to immunize rabbits) that both mediated opsonic killing of bacteria and bound to a capsule-like structure visualized by electron microscopy. These results indicate that approximately one-third of a sample of 15 E. faecalis strains and 7 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium strains possess shared capsular polysaccharides that are targets of opsonophagocytic antibodies and therefore are potential vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Marmoset species variation in the humoral antibody response: in vivo and in vitro studies. (3/4132)

A comparison of the in vivo and in vitro antibody response capabilities of two marmoset species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus oedipus oedipus, revealed the former to be superior in elaborating humoral antibody. In vivo challenges with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Salmonella typhi flagella consistently yielded higher antibody titres in S. fuscicollis; indeed, with LPS antigen, multiple inoculations of S.o. oedipus marmosets led ultimately to a decrease in antibody formation, in contrast to the anamnestic response of S. fuscicollis. This species differential in immune competence was also suggested in the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (RBC). None of 55 S.o. oedipus PBL cultures and 49 of 89 (55%) S. fuscicollis cultures responded to the test antigen. A similar differential in response to sheep RBC was noted with the spleen cells of each species, although this report contrasts the antibody-forming potential of two marmoset species, a comparison of the immunological response profile of marmosets to those of other laboratory animals challenged with similar antigens suggests these primates may be relatively incompetent. The possible relationship between the haemopoietic chimerism of marmosets and a diminished immune competence is discussed.  (+info)

Regulated exopolysaccharide production in Myxococcus xanthus. (4/4132)

Myxococcus xanthus fibrils are cell surface-associated structures composed of roughly equal amounts of polysaccharide and protein. The level of M. xanthus polysaccharide production under different conditions in the wild type and in several mutants known to have alterations in fibril production was investigated. Wild-type exopolysaccharide increased significantly as cells entered the stationary phase of growth or upon addition of Ca2+ to growing cells, and the polysaccharide-induced cells exhibited an enhanced capacity for cell-cell agglutination. The activity of the key gluconeogenic pathway enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck) also increased under these conditions. Most fibril-deficient mutants failed to produce polysaccharide in a stationary-phase- or Ca2+-dependent fashion. However, regulation of Pck activity was generally unimpaired in these mutant strains. In an stk mutant, which overproduces fibrils, polysaccharide production and Pck activity were constitutively high under the conditions tested. Polysaccharide production increased in most fibril-deficient strains when an stk mutant allele was present, indicating that these fibril-deficient mutants retained the basic cellular components required for fibril polysaccharide production. In contrast to other divalent cations tested, Sr2+ effectively replaced Ca2+ in stimulating polysaccharide production, and either Ca2+ or Sr2+ was required for fruiting-body formation by wild-type cells. By using transmission electron microscopy of freeze-substituted log-phase wild-type cells, fibril material was observed as a cell surface-associated layer of uniform thickness composed of filaments with an ordered structure.  (+info)

Tn5-induced and spontaneous switching of Sinorhizobium meliloti to faster-swarming behavior. (5/4132)

Tn5 mutants of Sinorhizobium meliloti RMB7201 which swarmed 1.5 to 2. 5 times faster than the parental strain in semisolid agar, moist sand, and viscous liquid were identified. These faster-swarming (FS) mutants outgrew the wild type 30- to 40-fold within 2 days in mixed swarm colonies. The FS mutants survived and grew as well as or better than the wild type under all of the circumstances tested, except in a soil matrix subjected to air drying. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis was reduced in each of the FS mutants when they were grown on defined succinate-nitrate medium, but the extent of reduction was different for each. It appears that FS behavior likely results from a modest, general derepression of motility involving an increased proportion of motile and flagellated cells and an increased average number of flagella per cell and increased average flagellar length. Spontaneous FS variants of RMB7201 were obtained at a frequency of about 1 per 10,000 to 20,000 cells by either enrichment from the periphery of swarm colonies or screening of colonies for reduced EPS synthesis on succinate-nitrate plates. The spontaneous FS variants and Tn5 FS mutants were symbiotically effective and competitive in alfalfa nodulation. Reversion of FS variants to wild-type behavior was sporadic, indicating that reversion is affected by unidentified environmental factors. Based on phenotypic and molecular differences between individual FS variants and mutants, it appears that there may be multiple genetic configurations that result in FS behavior in RMB7201. The facile isolation of spontaneous FS variants of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicates that switching to FS behavior may be fairly common among bacterial species. The substantial growth advantage of FS mutants and variants wherever nutrient gradients exist suggests that switching to FS forms may be an important behavioral adaptation in natural environments.  (+info)

Maternal immunization. (6/4132)

Maternal immunization can enhance passive immunity of infants to pathogens that cause life-threatening illnesses. In most instances, immunization during pregnancy will provide important protection for the woman as well as for her offspring. The tetanus toxoid and influenza vaccines are examples of vaccines that provide a double benefit. Other vaccines under evaluation include those for respiratory syncytial virus, pneumococci, group B streptococci, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Although most IgG antibody crosses the placenta in the third trimester, the process is time-dependent, dictating that immunization should be accomplished ideally at least 6 weeks prior to delivery. IgG1 antibodies are transferred preferentially. Maternal immunization has not interfered with active immunization of the infant. Inactivated vaccines administered in the third trimester of pregnancy pose no known risk to the woman or to her fetus.  (+info)

Transfection of human macrophages by lipoplexes via the combined use of transferrin and pH-sensitive peptides. (7/4132)

The crucial function of macrophages in a variety of biological processes and pathologies render these cells important targets for gene therapeutic interventions. Commonly used synthetic gene delivery vectors have not been successful in transfecting these non-dividing cells. A combination strategy involving cationic liposomes to condense and carry DNA, transferrin to facilitate cellular uptake, and the pH-sensitive peptide GALA to promote endosome destabilization, resulted in significant expression of a luciferase gene. Transfection of macrophages was dependent on the degree of differentiation of the cells. The quaternary complexes of cationic liposomes, DNA, transferrin, and GALA exhibited a net negative charge, which may obviate a limitation of cationic synthetic vectors in vivo. The lack of cytotoxicity and the expected lack of immunogenicity of these complexes may render them useful for gene delivery to macrophages in vivo.  (+info)

Altered expression profile of the surface glycopeptidolipids in drug-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex. (8/4132)

Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex are the most frequently encountered opportunistic bacterial pathogens among patients in the advanced stage of AIDS. Two clinical isolates of the same strain, numbers 397 and 417, were obtained from an AIDS patient with disseminated M. avium complex infection before and after treatment with a regimen of clarithromycin and ethambutol. To identify the biochemical consequence of drug treatment, the expression and chemical composition of their major cell wall constituents, the arabinogalactan, lipoarabinomannan, and the surface glycopeptidolipids (GPL), were critically examined. Through thin layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, and chemical analysis, it was found that the GPL expression profiles differ significantly in that several apolar GPLs were overexpressed in the clinically resistant 417 isolate at the expense of the serotype 1 polar GPL, which was the single predominant band in the ethambutol-susceptible 397 isolate. Thus, instead of additional rhamnosylation on the 6-deoxytalose (6-dTal) appendage to give the serotype 1-specific disaccharide hapten, the accumulation of this nonextended apolar GPL probably provided more precursor substrate available for further nonsaccharide substitutions including a higher degree of O-methylation to give 3-O-Me-6-dTal and the unusual 4-O-sulfation on 6-dTal. Further data showed that this alteration effectively neutralized ethambutol, which is known to inhibit arabinan synthesis. Thus, in contrast with derived Emb-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which are devoid of a surface GPL layer, the lipoarabinomannan from resistant 417 isolate grown in the presence of this drug was not apparently truncated.  (+info)

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This study showed that cultivation conditions (medium composition, initial medium pH, aeration rate, inoculum density) affect biomass and polysaccharide production in Ganoderma lucidum strain HAI 447. The synthetic medium (pH 5.5) with maltose at the concentration of 65.0 g L-1, peptone of 0.2%, as well as in the presence of K, Na, and Mg at concentrations of 6.0, 3.0, and 2.0 mM, respectively, presented the best conditions for biomass (29.2 g L-1) and extra- and intracellular polysaccharide (2.9 mg mL(-1) and 73.3 mg g(-1), respectively) production in the analyzed strain. Constant aeration was optimal for biomass and extracellular polysaccharide production, whereas cultivation under stationary conditions was the best for intracellular polysaccharide production. A peak in biomass and polysaccharide production was observed at an inoculum density of 20.0 mL ...
The genomic organization of the chromosomal cps region that is responsible for capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae Chedid (O1:K2) was investigated. Deletion analyses and Southern hybridization studies suggested that the central region of the cloned 29-kb BamHI fragment is indispensable for K2 capsular polysaccharide synthesis. The 24,329-bp nucleotide sequence of the Klebsiella cps region was determined and deposited in the EMBL and GenBank databases through DDBJ and assigned accession number D21242. Nineteen possible open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the sequenced area. Among them, 13 ORFs are very close to each other. Six of the 19 ORFs show considerable nucleotide sequence similarities to Salmonella typhimurium cpsG, cpsB, rfbP, and orf2.8, Escherichia coli gnd, and Haemophilus influenzae bexD, respectively. Moreover, the deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF10 product demonstrated a highly hydrophobic profile and showed putative membrane topology ...
Anti-polysaccharide immunity is a key facet of protection against several bacterial pathogens. Problems exist with current polysaccharide vaccines and alternative strategies that deliver a protective response are needed. We have identified immunological peptide mimics of type 6B and 9V pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides that could be used as vaccine antigens. Peptides mimicking antigenic properties of serotype 6B capsular polysaccharide were obtained from a phage-displayed peptide library expressing dodecameric peptides, using a human monoclonal antibody (Db3G9). A murine monoclonal antibody (206, F-5) against the serotype 9V capsular polysaccharide identified three peptide mimotopes from the dodecameric peptide library and one from a random pentadecameric peptide library. In ELISA, binding of 206, F-5 and Db3G9 to phage displaying the selected mimotopes was significantly inhibited by type-specific pneumococcal polysaccharide. Peptides were conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and were ...
Light chain variable region sequence of rabbit antipneumococcal type III polysaccharide antibody 3368. Biochemistry. 1978 Jul 25; 17(15):3101-9 ...
Abs to a number of polysaccharide Ags have several common attributes: CDR-H3 is implicated in binding to Ag (28, 29), its length is strictly maintained (20, 30), and its sequence is almost invariably characterized by the presence of hydrophilic tyrosine residues (21, 31, 32). Xu and Davis (9) showed that, in VH-restricted mice, CDR-H3 diversity was sufficient for the development of specific Ab responses to a variety of hapten and protein Ags but not for two bacterial polysaccharide Ags. The latter finding was attributed to the failure of the single VH gene in their mouse model to accommodate the polysaccharide-specific response, which suggested VH dependency. Work by Nakouzi and Casadevall (33) showed that, in addition to CDR-H3, CDR-H2 encoded amino acids critical for the generation of Abs specific for the polysaccharide galactoxylomannan. These studies highlighted the significant roles that both the VH, as a whole, and the CDR component of the VH, as a part, can play in the generation of ...
Tumor cells that acquire metastatic potential have developed resistance to anoikis, a cell death process, after detachment from their primary site to the second organ. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of a novel marine bacterial polysaccharide EPS11 which exerts its cytotoxic effects through affecting cancer cell adhesion and anoikis. Firstly, we found that EPS11 could significantly affect cell proliferation and block cell adhesion in A549 cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of several cell adhesion associated proteins is downregulated and the filiform structures of cancer cells are destroyed after EPS11 treatment. Interestingly, the destruction of filiform structures in A549 cells by EPS11 is in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitory tendency is very consistent with that observed in the cell adhesion assay, which confirms that filiform structures play important roles in modulating cell adhesion. Moreover, we showed that EPS11 induces apoptosis of A549 ...
Comprehensive in scope, Food Polysaccharides and Their Applications, Second Edition explains the production aspects and the chemical and physical properties of the Synopsis Comprehensive in scope, Food Polysaccharides and Their Applications, Second Edition explains the production aspects and the chemical and physical. ... and biotechnological applications of bacterial polysaccharides. Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and their applications in a dairy food ... Food Applications compiles recent data on the food applications of marine polysaccharides from such Microalgae, and Their Polysaccharides: Food Applications. ... and other biomedical applications. Polysaccharide conjugates Food-Grade Covalent Complexes and Their Application as Comprehensive Reviews in Food Polysaccharides are ideal natural phosphorylation modification is the most common application to Food-Grade Covalent Complexes and Their. Practical Food Applications of Differential Scanning Typical food samples and their ...
From here you can specify a search of the Bacterial Polysaccharide Gene Database. The results of the search will be returned as a hit list. From the hit list you follow links to look at individual records from the database in greater detail.. ...
We have measured antibodies to pneumococcal and Haemophilus polysaccharides in a prospective study of 450 children aged 2-16 years with otitis media requiring grommets (ear tubes). Pneumococcal antibody levels were significantly higher in the 2-6 year (P | 0.004) and 7-10 year (P | 0.04) study groups in comparison with age-matched controls. There was no difference in Haemophilus antibody levels between the study and control group children for the age groups 2-6 years and 11-16 years. Haemophilus antibody levels were significantly lower in the 7-10 year (P | 0.003) group in comparison with age-matched controls. Eighty-eight out of 450 (19.6%) children had pneumococcal antibody levels below the 25th percentile. Nineteen out of 88 (21.6%) children with pneumococcal antibody levels below the 25th centile were test immunized with 23 valent Pneumococcal polysaccharide and unconjugated Haemophilus type b capsular polysaccharide. Of these 19 children (aged 4-11 years), five mounted suboptimal responses to both
Erythrocytes coated with bacterial capsular polysaccharides, notably the Vi antigen, were no longer agglutinated by antibodies directed against the various antigens native to the red cell surface. These effects could not be attributed to prevention of antibody uptake even though in some systems the uptake of antibody was diminished. In fact, agglutination by Rh-incomplete antibody was brought back to the original titer only after the sensitized Vi-coated cells had been subjected to ten alternating exposures to globulin and antiglobulin. Hemagglutination by Newcastle, mumps, and influenza viruses was also suppressed. Erythrocytes coated with Vi polysaccharide assumed the distinctive physicochemical attributes of this acidic polymer which results in a stabilization of the erythrocyte suspension as manifested by increased electrophoretic mobility and a striking decrease in the rate of sedimentation. Among the possible models for explaining the nature of the Vi effect on immune agglutination, the ...
Polysaccharide antigens are T cell-independent antigens, and do not induce immune B cell memory. Consequently, vaccines based on polysaccharides have limited clinical usefulness and induce short-lasting antibody responses in adults. Their immunogenicity can be enhanced by conjugation to an immunogenic carrier protein, generating T cell-dependent glycoconjugate antigens able to induce immunological memory. However, these glycoconjugates suffer from some problems. Recent investigations have found a group of structurally distinct bacterial polysaccharides able to activate T cells in vivo and in vitro. They present a zwitterionic charge motif distributed along the chain and, for this reason, they are called zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs). This zwitterionic charge motif is believed to be responsible for their particular immunological behavior. The integrity of the zwitterionic motif is essential for the biological activity of ZPS. However, it must be clarified if the introduction of the ...
The capsular polysaccharide (SIII) of type III pneumococci was removed enzymatically, and the cells thus deprived of preformed SIII were washed and examined for capacity to synthesize SIII anew. The washed, decapsulated cocci lost their capacity to be agglutinated in type-specific antiserum but again became agglutinable and formed readily measurable amounts of SIII, after suspension in a solution containing only glucose and salts.. Maximal SIII synthesis required the presence of glucose, magnesium, potassium and phosphate ions, and oxygen. Other fermentable sugars could be substituted for glucose but then the yield of SIII was reduced. Synthesis of SIII occurred anaerobically but was increased four- to fivefold by oxygenation of the suspension. The effects of pH and of enzyme poisons on the capacity of the cocci to form SIII are described.. ...
Bacterioides fragilis is a gram-negative anaerobe and a prototypic gut commensal organism. B. fragilis is able to produce eight different capsular polysaccharides, which envelope the organism and form its protective capsule. Polysaccharide A (PSA) is one of these polysaccharides and, interestingly, has a unique zwitterionic motif that includes alternating positively and negatively charged sugar residues. PSA consists of a tetrasaccharide repeat unit that forms a polymer of between 30-300 repeats.. Such bacterial capsular polysaccharides are well known to industry, and are the basis of polysaccharide conjugate vaccines used successfully for decades in millions of people. The specific zwitterionic polysaccharide PSA was shown, in a series of landmark papers by our companys scientific founders that overturned established immunologic paradigms, to be processed via the endosomal pathway in antigen-presenting cells, depolymerized by NO-dependent deamination, and presented to CD4+ T-cells by MHC class ...
Totally, 142 HF patients with midrange ejection fraction (HFmrEF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were enrolled in the study. There was a significantly correlation both between the EF and the EPSS and between the EF and the LVIDd/EPSS (P,0.001). In both HFmrEF and HFrEF groups, the correlation between the LVIDd/EPSS and the EF was more significant than was the correlation between the EPSS and the EF (P,0.001). The results of the linear regression analysis indicated that the LVIDd/EPSS was an independent predictor of the HFmrEF and the HFrEF (P,0.001). In the patients with EPSS≤12, there was a significant association between the EF and the LVIDd/EPSS (P,0.001) but not between the EF and the EPSS(P,0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the LVIDd/EPSS predicted advanced HF with 87% sensitivity and 72% specificity, using a cutoff value of 3.35,and it predicted the HFrEF (EF,40%) with 84% sensitivity and 81% specificity, using a cutoff value of 3.75.. ...
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Author Summary Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is an important pathogen worldwide and causes a wide range of diseases, mostly in young children and the elderly. There are 91 serotypes of pneumococcus, each of which produces a unique polysaccharide, called the capsule, that attaches to the bacterial surface and prevents it from being cleared by the host. The serotypes differ greatly in their prevalence in the human population. There is currently a vaccine, effective in infancy, which targets seven clinically important serotypes, but several types not covered by the vaccine are beginning to increase in carriage frequency. As a result, it is critical to understand why some serotypes are frequently carried in the human population while others are not. In this study, we find that the high-prevalence serotypes tend to be more heavily encapsulated and more resistant to killing by neutrophils. Significantly, we find that the biochemical properties of the different polysaccharides can be used to
High-throughput sequencing allows detailed study of the BCR repertoire postimmunization, but it remains unclear to what extent the de novo identification of Ag-specific sequences from the total BCR repertoire is possible. A conjugate vaccine containing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and group C meningococcal polysaccharides, as well as tetanus toxoid (TT), was used to investigate the BCR repertoire of adult humans following immunization and to test the hypothesis that public or convergent repertoire analysis could identify Ag-specific sequences. A number of Ag-specific BCR sequences have been reported for Hib and TT, which made a vaccine containing these two Ags an ideal immunological stimulus. Analysis of identical CDR3 amino acid sequences that were shared by individuals in the postvaccine repertoire identified a number of known Hib-specific sequences but only one previously described TT sequence. The extension of this analysis to nonidentical, but highly similar, CDR3 amino acid ...
The behaviour of strains of Klebsiella aerogenes of capsular serotype K21 and strains of Escherichia coli producing a structurally related polysaccharide (colanic acid) was analysed by phagocytic and serum-killing assays. The cell-surface characteris
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular architectures and functional properties of gellan gum and related polysaccharides. AU - Chandrasekaran, R.. AU - Radha, A.. PY - 1995/5. Y1 - 1995/5. N2 - Certain linear and branched polysaccharides produced by unrelated species of bacteria are grouped in the gellan gum family because of their conserved backbone structures. All have excellent rheological properties and, thus, are useful in industrial applications. Physicochemical investigations of these polysaccharides in solution and structural studies of them in the solid state using X-ray diffraction have provided mutually complementary results. The study double-helix morphology that is characteristic of gellan gum prevails in other members of the gum family in spite of the presence of substituents and side chains. Association between double helices is facilitated by ions and water molecules. The observed physical properties of solutions and gels made with members of the gellan gum family can be directly rationalized ...
Bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Bacterial virulence may be enhanced by the presence of a polysaccharide capsule or by lipopolysaccharide. The polysaccharide capsules often act to inhibit phagocytosis, allowing for evasion of host defense mechanisms. Our laboratory is engaged in the study of polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide of P. gingivalis. Polysaccharide and lipoplysaccharide are released from the bacterial cell surface and purified by a variety of techniques. The purified components are then characterized chemically and immunologically. The ability of these components to function as immunogens and as activators of the serum complement system is under investigation. Current investigations are also evaluating the association to periodontal disease and the capsular polysaccharide serotype. ...
We present evidence that the ambient oxygen concentration may be an important factor in the ability of S. pneumoniae, an acrotolerant streptococcus, to regulate the characteristics of its cell surface. Our approach took advantage of observations that the pneumococcus varies between two phenotypes previously shown to differ in their amounts of CPS (13). Findings in the current study show that oxygen levels affect the O and T phase variants differently. There is greatly enhanced production of CPS in O variants in conditions of reduced oxygen, whereas synthesis of CPS in T variants remains comparatively low under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effect of oxygen on CPS expression was shown by two different methods, quellung, which allows visualization of the capsule size, and a capture ELISA, which enables amounts of CPS to be quantified. Both of these methods rely on the use of type-specific antiserum to detect CPS. Results from experiments using either technique show that ...
Phd Student: Li, Chengxin. Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Email: ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
Abstract Background and objectives: important virulence factor for many invasive bacterial pathogens of humans. Escherichia coli offer a model system to study the mechanisms by which capsular polysaccharides are synthesized and exported onto the cell surface of bacteria. Biosynthesis of the E consists of the repeat structure -4) GlcA- (1, 4)-GlcNAc- (1-, ...
Autor: Hicke, H. G. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1999; Keywords: biotechnology|br/|membrane reactors|br/|membrane-bound enzymes|br/|microporous and porous membranes|br/|polysaccharide synthesis|br/|photo-grafted membranes|br/|chromatography; Titel: Novel enzyme-membrane reactor for polysaccharide synthesis
Polysaccharides are also abundant in plant and marine sources and these are an as yet relatively untapped resource for these molecules. Isolated polysaccharides have been shown to have potent biological activities in a range of cell types and as such are a focus of identification of novel bioactive compounds for therapeutic use. Polysaccharides are under investigation for the modulation of the immune system that can be used to both reduce inflammation in certain diseases but also to potentiate inflammation which has been shown to be beneficial post-surgery. Using a range of high throughput strategies were are examining the biological roles of naturally derived polysaccharides, with a particular focus on seaweed-derived polysaccharides.. ...
Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Powder Type 1 (US Type 1) ATCC ® 164-X™ Designation: TypeStrain=False Application: Elisa standard polysaccharide type 1
Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Powder Type 2 (US Type 2) ATCC ® 168-X™ Designation: TypeStrain=False Application: Elisa standard polysaccharide type 2
The formation of heparin-precursor polysaccharide (N-acetylheparosan) was studied with a mouse mastocytoma microsomal fraction. Incubation of this fraction with UDP-[3H]GlcA and UDP-GlcNAc yielded labelled macromolecules that could be depolymerized, apparently to single polysaccharide chains, by alkali treatment, and thus were assumed to be proteoglycans. Label from UDP-[3H]GlcA (approx. 3 microM) is transiently incorporated into microsomal polysaccharide even in the absence of added UDP-GlcNAc, probably owing to the presence of endogenous sugar nucleotide. When the concentration of exogenous UDP-GlcNAc was increased to 25 microM the rate of incorporation of 3H increased and proteoglycans carrying polysaccharide chains with an Mr of approx. 110,000 were produced. Increasing the UDP-GlcNAc concentration to 5 mM led to an approx. 4-fold decrease in the rate of 3H incorporation and a decrease in the Mr of the resulting polysaccharide chains to approx. 6000 (predominant component). When both ...
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The polysaccharide hydration phenomenon is nowadays the subject of intense research. The interaction of native and modified polysaccharides and polysaccharides-based bioconjugates with water has an important influence on their functional behaviour. Notwithstanding that the hydration phenomenon has been studied for decades, there is still a lack of awareness about the influence of hydration water on the polysaccharide´s structure and consequences for industrial or medicinal applications. The hydration of polysaccharides is often described by the existence of water layers differing in their physical properties depending on the distance from the polysaccharide. Using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) such water layers were categorized according their properties upon cooling in hyaluronan (HYA, sodium salt of ß-1,4-linked units of ß-1,3-linked D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine), a model polysaccharide in the present work. The amount of non-freezing water, i.e. water in close
Cell Wall and Capsule,Capsular and extracellular polysacchrides,Serotype determining Capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Staphylococcus,Capsular polysaccharide synthesis enzyme ...
Cell Wall and CapsuleCapsular and extracellular polysacchridesSerotype determining Capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Staphylococcus Capsular polysaccharide synthesis enzyme Cap5K ...
The European Polysaccharide Network of Excellence (EPNOE) is a research, education and knowledge transfer network connecting Companies, Academic and Research Institutions working or interested in polysaccharides. It was established owing to the help of the European Commission. It is 40-member strong. Members are legal bodies like universities, research organizations or companies. EPNOEs main missions are: to offer a networking platform enabling close interactions between members in order to favor innovation, boost knowledge transfer and organize R&D activities in a totally confidential manner; to organize basic and applied research for the study of fundamental concepts, the testing of new ideas and the development of new products based on or containing polysaccharides; to organize education in polysaccharide science at the level of continuing education for companies and of post-graduate students and post-docs. The first mission is performed through a variety of tools which will be described and
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Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are produced by a multi-protein membrane layer complicated, in which a particular type of tyrosine-autokinases named BY-kinases, control their move and polymerization. is certainly defective recommending that CpsD autophosphorylation interferes with these procedures therefore producing in cell constriction problems and cell elongation. We display that CpsD stocks structural homology with ParA-like … Read more Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are produced by a multi-protein membrane layer. Read More ...
The invention relates to a method for producing polysaccharide esters or polysaccharide mixed esters, in which a polysaccharide or a modified polysaccharide is converted with at least one esterification reagent and at least one halogenide component, an imidazole compound which is generated in situ being used as catalyst.
The N19 polyepitope, comprising a sequential string of universal human CD4+-T-cell epitopes, was tested as a carrier protein in a formulation of combined glycoconjugate vaccines containing the capsular polysaccharides (PSs) of serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. importantly, N19-specific antibodies did not cross-react with the parent protein from which N19 epitopes were derived, e.g., tetanus toxoid and influenza virus hemagglutinin. Finally, T helper epitopes of the N19 carrier protein were effectively generated both in vivo (after immunization with the N19 itself) and in vitro (after restimulation of epitope-specific spleen cells). Taken together, these data show that the N19 polyepitope represents a strong and valid option for the generation of improved or new combined glycoconjugate vaccines. The limited immune response of infants to most bacterial capsular polysaccharides (PSs) makes them a population at risk of infections with encapsulated bacteria such as type b (Hib), (Men), and others. ...
POLYSACCHARIDE STRUCTURE. References. Tombs, M .P. & Harding, S.E., An Introduction to Pol ysaccharide Biotechnology, Taylor & Francis, London, 1997 D.A. Rees, Polysaccharide Shapes, Chapman & Hall, 1977 Slideshow 198522 by johana
Development of delivery systems able to hold and release a combination of bioactive compounds at the target site represents a strategy for improving the therapeutic outcomes and overcome the central issues in the multitherapeutic approach. A delivery system based on polysaccharides suitable for loading a combination of chemotherapeutic drugs, doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil, at defined weight ratio and deliver them following a pH-dependent kinetics was developed. Nanocomplexes were prepared by polyelectrolytes complexation and characterised in terms of average dimension, morphology, drug content by dynamic light scattering, transmission and scanning microscope and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively. The complexes showed a spherical shape with the hydrodynamic diameter between 100 and 130 nm, positive ς-potential, high stability in physiological environment and up to 800 μg of drugs per mg loaded. Release studies demonstrate a pH-dependent trend with high control of the release rate for each ...
Linear polysaccharides are typically composed of repeating mono- or disaccharide units and are ubiquitous among living organisms. Polysaccharide diversity arises from chain-length variation, branching, and additional modifications. Structural diversity is associated with various physiological functions, which are often regulated by cognate polysaccharide-binding proteins. Proteins that interact with linear polysaccharides have been identified or developed, such as galectins and polysaccharide-specific antibodies, respectively. Currently, data is accumulating on the three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide-binding proteins. These proteins are classified into two types: exo-type and endo-type. The former group specifically interacts with the terminal units of polysaccharides, whereas the latter with internal units. In this review, we describe the structural aspects of exo-type and endo-type protein-polysaccharide interactions. Further, we discuss the structural basis for affinity and specificity
Group II K antigens such as the K5 are associated with Escherichia coli causing serious extraintestinal infections. Genes for the production of group II capsules (kps) are organised into three functional regions 1, 2 and 3. The central region 2 encodes proteins involved in the biosynthesis of type specific polysaccharide. Proteins encoded by the flanking regions 1 and 3 are involved in the export of polysaccharide across the bacterial membranes unto the cell surface. Translocation of polysaccharide across the inner membrane is mediated by two region 3 encoded proteins, KpsM and KpsT which belong to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. Region 1 encodes six proteins, KpsF-E-D-U-C-S. The KpsE protein was shown to localise in the inner membrane and mutants lacking the encoded protein were unable to export polysaccharide to the cell surface. To understand the export role of the KpsE, its membrane topology was determined using TnphoA mutagenesis and beta-lactamase fusions. The ...
Agricultural and forestry and landscape machinery China, Ginseng Polysaccharides, Ginseng polysaccharides are made up of the galacturonic acid, galactose, rhamnose, acidic heteropolysaccharide (which is...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An alternative polysaccharide uptake mechanism of marine bacteria. AU - Reintjes,Greta. AU - Arnosti,Carol. AU - Fuchs,Bernhard M.. AU - Amann,Rudolf. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - Heterotrophic microbial communities process much of the carbon fixed by phytoplankton in the ocean, thus having a critical role in the global carbon cycle. A major fraction of the phytoplankton-derived substrates are high-molecular-weight (HMW) polysaccharides. For bacterial uptake, these substrates must initially be hydrolysed to smaller sizes by extracellular enzymes. We investigated polysaccharide hydrolysis by microbial communities during a transect of the Atlantic Ocean, and serendipitously discovered - using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy - that up to 26% of total cells showed uptake of fluorescently labelled polysaccharides (FLA-PS). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation identified these organisms as members of the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes and the ...
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Membrane fouling caused by soluble microbial products (SMP), which mainly consists of polysaccharides and proteins, remains one of the main factors limiting the efficiency and applications of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Surrogates, such as sodium alginate (SA) and bovine albumin serum (BSA), are commonly used to investigate fouling mechanisms of SMP. This research aims to investigate the filtration behaviour and fouling mechanisms of polysaccharides using alginate as a surrogate, and to develop advanced tetra-detector size exclusion chromatography (SEC) methods for the characterisation of the main colloidal and hydrodynamic properties of SMPs. This project improved understanding of the effect of calcium, flux, and BSA addition on the filtration resistance of the polysaccharide gel layer, the irreversible membrane resistance, and the membrane rejection behaviour. In addition, the study also developed tetra-detector methods for the characterisation of model polysaccharides, and assessed the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel rkp gene clusters of Sinorhizobium meliloti involved in capsular polysaccharide production and invasion of the symbiotic nodule. T2 - The rkpK gene encodes a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase. AU - Kereszt, Attila. AU - Kiss, Erno. AU - Reuhs, Bradley L.. AU - Carlson, Russell W.. AU - Kondorosi, Ádám. AU - Putnoky, Péter. PY - 1998/10. Y1 - 1998/10. N2 - The production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) was shown to be required for the infection process by rhizobia that induce the formation of indeterminate nodules on the roots of leguminous host plants. In Sinorhizobium meliloti (also known as Rhizobium meliloti) Rm41, a capsular polysaccharide (KPS) analogous to the group II K antigens of Escherichia coli can replace EPS during symbiotic nodule development and serve as an attachment site for the strain-specific bacteriophage φ16-3. The rkpA to -J genes in the chromosomal rkp-1 region code for proteins that are involved in the synthesis, modification, and transfer of an ...
The type III polysaccharides of group B Streptococcus in its native state chemically consists of glucose, galactose, glucosamine, and sialic acid. The core of t
A single strain (8021) of Neisseria meningitidis, isolated from a child with disseminated meningococcal disease, was found to elaborate two serogroup-specific capsular polysaccharides - Y and W135. The original isolate as well as the progeny of ten single colony sub-isolates each agglutinated with both group Y and group W135 serogrouping antisera. The capsular polysaccharide of strain 8021 contained the chemical constituents of both the W135 and Y capsular polysaccharides in a ratio of about 2.5:1. The patient responded immunologically to both capsular polysaccharides with haemagglutinating antibodies. Analysis by double diffusion in agar revealed that the capsular polysaccharide of strain 8021 contained individual molecules of group W135 and group Y capsular polysaccharides as well as a mosaic molecule containing both antigenic determinants.
A nonpigmented mutant of Porphyromonas gingivalis was constructed by using transposon mutagenesis. The mutant possessed the transposon DNA at the novel gene porR. Gene targeted mutagenesis revealed that porR was responsible for pigmentation. The porR gene shared similarities with genes of the degT family, the products of which are now considered to be transaminases involved in biosynthesis of sugar portions of cell-surface polysaccharides and aminoglycosides. The porR mutant showed a pleiotropic phenotype: delayed maturation of fimbrillin, preferential presence of Rgp and Kgp proteinases in culture supernatants, and no haemagglutination. The porR mutant had altered phenol extractable polysaccharide compared to the porR + sibling strain. A mAb, 1B5, that reacts with sugar portions of P. gingivalis cell surface polysaccharide and membrane-type Rgp proteinase showed no reaction with the cell lysates of the porR mutant. These results indicate that porR is involved in biosynthesis of cell surface
In their natural environments microorganisms exist predominantly in aggregates and biofilms. The ability of bacteria to form aggregates is associated with the biosynthesis of polymers such as polysaccharides. In this study the physical mechanisms underlying bacterial aggregation by extracellular polysaccharides are investigated by utilising the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. S. meliloti biosynthesises an extracellular polysaccharide called succinoglycan, which is well characterised in terms of its structure and biosynthesis. A range of previously constructed succinoglycan biosynthesis mutants were screened for altered aggregation. An S. meliloti exoS mutant (a gain of function mutation that results in a constitutively active two component regulator called ExoS) overproduces succinoglycan and has enhanced aggregation compared to the parent strain, Rm1021. The aggregates settle to the bottom of the culture vessel resulting in loss of turbidity of the cultures and phase separation. Microscopic ...
Natural antibodies serve as the bodys first line of defense against pneumococcal challenge. Polyreactive human pneumococcal polysaccharide IgG antibodies have not been extensively studied. We analyzed human polyreactive antibodies that bind multiple pneumococcal polysaccharides, including PPS14 and PPS23F. These antibodies were isolated from single pneumococcal polysaccharide specific B cells allowing for the analysis of human immunoglobulins with natively paired variable regions. Although isolated individually, these antibodies demonstrated similar characteristics. Most antibodies possessed a variable light chain with a CDR3 length made up of nine amino acids and relatively high number of flexible amino acids in combined VH/VL. While these antibodies were polyreactive and structurally alike, kinetic analysis revealed unique KD values. Variable chains are responsible for antigen recognition whereas antibody fine specificity is affected by isotype structure. To investigate the contribution of the
Sera obtained from human volunteers at 6 weeks after vaccination with highly purified type III polysaccharide antigen prepared from a group B Streptococcus, strain M732, were found to protect neonatal rats from otherwise lethal infection by the homologous strain. The specific antibody content of the sera, expressed in micrograms of antibody protein per milliliter, was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in conjunction with quantitative precipitin analysis. For two sera studied in detail, the protective dose of antibody for 50% of the animals was 0.4 micrograms. Immune serum obtained from a volunteer who received type II polysaccharide vaccine was not protective against type III infection. Absorption of anti-type III serum by quantitative precipitation of antibodies with type III polysaccharide completely removed the passive protective activity of the serum. The results show that antibodies induced in humans by purified type II polysaccharide give serotype-specific protection in an ...
0007]The present invention provides a polysaccharide derivative having different kinds of substituents introduced into its 2- and 3-positions. In particular, the present invention provides a polysaccharide derivative obtained by substituting hydroxyl groups or amino groups at the 3- and 6-positions of a polysaccharide with substituents of one kind different from that at a 2-position of the polysaccharide, a polysaccharide derivative obtained by randomly substituting hydroxyl groups or amino groups at the 3- and 6-positions of a polysaccharide with substituents of two kinds different from that at a 2-position of the polysaccharide, and a polysaccharide derivative obtained by substituting hydroxyl groups or amino groups at the 3- and 6-positions of a polysaccharide with substituents of two kinds different from that at a 2-position of the polysaccharide. Further, the present invention provides, as a method of producing any such polysaccharide derivative, a method involving: specifically introducing ...
Abdelhameed, Ali Saber and Morris, Gordon A. and Almutairi, Fahad and Adams, Gary G. and Duvivier, Pierre and Conrath, Karel and Harding, Stephen E. (2016) Solution conformation and flexibility of capsular polysaccharides from Neisseria meningitidis and glycoconjugates with the tetanus toxoid protein. Scientific Reports, 6 (1). 35588/1-35588/11. ISSN 2045-2322 Abdelhameed, Ali Saber and Adams, Gary G. and Morris, Gordon A. and Almutairi, Fahad M. and Duvivier, Pierre and Conrath, Karel and Harding, Stephen E. (2016) A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate. Scientific Reports, 6 (1). 22208/1-22208/11. ISSN 2045-2322 Morris, Gordon A. and Adams, Gary G. and Harding, Stephen E. (2014) On hydrodynamic methods for the analysis of the sizes and shapes of polysaccharides in dilute solution: a short review. Food Hydrocolloids, 42 . pp. 318-334. ISSN 0268-005X ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious worldwide pathogen and the focus of numerous vaccine development projects. Currently the most widely accepted surrogate marker for evaluating the efficacy of a given vaccine is to utilize ELISA. Measurement of antibody concentration by ELISA without reduction in cross-reactive antibodies causes an overestimation of antibody concentration and therefore protection, this is most notable in the aged, an at risk group for this infection. We compared the immune response to the pneumococcal polysaccharides (PPS) 4 and 14 of 20 young to 20 elderly adults. Pre-and post-vaccination IgG antibody concentrations and antibody avidity against PPS4 and PPS14 were measured using two different enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) absorption protocols. All sera were pre-absorbed with either cell-wall polysaccharide (CPS), or CPS and serotype 22F polysaccharide. Pre- and post-vaccination IgG antibody concentrations for serotype 4, but not 14, were significantly lowered with the
PNTOR : Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive bacterium that causes a variety of infectious diseases in children and adults. These include invasive disease (bacteremia and meningitis) and infections of the respiratory tract (pneumonia and otitis media). There is an annual estimated number of 5000 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia (without pneumonia) with a fatality rate of approximately 20%, reaching as high as 60% in the elderly population. It is estimated that as many as 400,000 hospitalizations from pneumococcal pneumonia occur annually in the United States, with a case-fatality rate of 5% to 7%.   More than 90 serotypes of S pneumoniae have been identified, based on varying polysaccharides that are found in the bacterial cell wall. The serotypes responsible for disease vary with age and geographic location.   Bacterial polysaccharides induce a T-cell independent type II humoral immune response. Vaccines containing bacterial polysaccharides can be effective in generating an immune
Due to the growing need to find a more efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional waste removal methods, industries are paying more attention to the function of bacteria and their EPSs in bioremediation.[14]. Researchers found that adding EPSs from cyanobacteria to wastewaters removes heavy metals such as copper, cadmium and lead.[14] EPSs alone can physically interact with these heavy metals and take them in through biosorption.[14] The efficiency of removal can be optimized by treating the EPSs with different acids or bases first before adding them to the wastewaters.[14] Contaminated soils contain high levels of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); EPSs from two bacteria, Zoogloea sp. and Aspergillus niger, are efficient at removing these toxic compounds.[15] EPSs contain enzymes such as oxidoreductase and hydrolase, which are capable of degrading PAHs.[15] The amount of PAHs degradation depends on the concentration of EPSs added to the soil. This method proves to ...
The bacteria Escherichia coli K4 produces a capsular polysaccharide (K4 CPS) whose backbone is similar to the non sulphated chondroitin chain. The chondroitin sulphate is one of the major components of the extra-cellular matrix of the vertebrate connective tissues and a high value molecule, widely employed as active principle in the treatment of osteoarthritis. It is usually obtained by extraction from animal tissues, but the risk of virus contaminations, as well as the scarceness of raw material, makes this productive process unsafe and unable to satisfy the growing market demand. In previous studies a new biotechnological process to produce chondroitin from Escherichia coli K4 capsular polysaccharide was investigated and a 1.4 g·L-1 K4 CPS concentration was reached using fed-batch fermentation techniques. In this work, on the trail of these results, we exploited new fermentation strategies to further improve the capsular polysaccharide production. The inhibitory effect of acetate on the bacterial
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.. Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks. They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water.[1] When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan, but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans.[2][3]. Natural saccharides are generally of simple carbohydrates called ...
Author: Silva Seco, Bruna Mara et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2020; Open Access; Title: Sequential linkage of carbohydrate antigens to mimic capsular polysaccharides : towards semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine candidates against Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 14
CHICAGO, Sept. 16, 2011 /CHICAGOPRESSRELEASE.COM/ - GlycoVaxyn AG, a leader in the development of innovative vaccines, today announced an abstract to be presented on a glycoprotein vaccine based on recombinant DNA technology to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection at the 51st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), September 17 to 20, 2011, in Chicago. The study demonstrates that a glycoprotein made by in vivo conjugation of S. aureus capsular polysaccharides to various antigen carrier proteins, using GlycoVaxyns proprietary bio-conjugate technology, can induce functional antibodies in several animal models.. The data will be presented during a poster session at 11:15 a.m. to 1:15 p.m. CDT on September 18.. GlycoVaxyns bio-conjugate technology employs well-understood recombinant DNA techniques to modify E. coli bacteria to reproducibly manufacture specific glycoproteins. The technology enables almost any bacterial polysaccharide to be conjugated to almost ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Han Zheng, Shaobo Ji, Zhijie Liu, Ruiting Lan, Ying Huang, Xuemei Bai, Marcelo Gottschalk, Jianguo Xu].
The introduction of vaccines containing the capsular polysaccharides of N. meningitidis, S. pneumonia, and H. influenzae type b has driven a significant reduction in cases of disease caused by these bacteria. The polysaccharide-specific antibody responses following vaccination are well characterized, however less is known about the B cells underlying this response. Here, we summarize the plasma cell (PC) and memory B cell (BMEM) responses following plain polysaccharide and protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccination, drawing together studies covering a range of vaccines and age groups. These studies show that infant primary PC and BMEM responses to polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines are low in relation to older age groups but are significantly higher following booster doses. PC kinetics have generally been found to follow a similar pattern irrespective of vaccine type or age group, whereas divergent BMEM responses have been reported following plain polysaccharide and conjugate vaccination. A degree of
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The cell surface of many bacterial species is covered with polysaccharides. These extracellular carbohydrates can be in the form of glycolipids, glycoproteins or capsules. The capsular polysaccharides exist in both Gram-negative and Gram-negative bacteria such as Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, E. coli, Streptococci pneumoniae etc. A special form of glycolipids is called lipopolysaccharides which exist only in Gram-negative bacteria. These polysaccharides are strain-specific and serve as virulence factors for the bacteria. Immune response against the cell surface polysaccharides can stimulate the hosts to produce strain-specific antibodies which can protect the hosts from future infections by the same bacterial strain. We are heavily involved in the synthesis and immunological evaluation of neoglycoconjugates related to some of the polysaccharides ...
Sirrus, Inc., a developer of novel monomers and crosslinkers, welcomes Alexander Polykarpov, PhD, as its new Director of Polymer Synthesis. Dr. Polykarpov will be responsible for the companys polymer synthesis efforts, leading the development of hybrid, crosslinked and homopolymers based on Sirrus patented methylene malonate technology.. Alex has a unique combination of polymer synthesis and application development experience, says Jeff Uhrig, Sirrus CEO. Accordingly, he is uniquely qualified to design polymer architectures that will address commercial opportunities.. Dr. Polykarpov holds a PhD in Organic Photochemistry from Bowling Green State University and brings more than 25 years of polymer science experience to Sirrus. Most recently, he served as Polymer Lab Manager at AkzoNobel Coatings Inc., where he led a research team developing new polymer platforms for can and coil coatings. Dr. Polykarpovs research portfolio includes seven issued patents.. Since the acquisition of Sirrus by ...
Bacteria evolving resistance against the action of multiple drugs and its ability to disseminate the multidrug resistance trait(s) across various strains of the same bacteria or different bacterial species impose serious threat to public health. Evolution of such multidrug resistance is due to the fact that, most of the antibiotics target bacterial survival mechanisms which exert selective pressure on the bacteria and aids it to escape from the action of antibiotics. Nonetheless, targeting bacterial virulence strategies such as bacterial surface associated polysaccharides biosynthesis and their surface accumulation mechanisms may be an attractive strategy, as they impose less selective pressure on the bacteria. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) or K antigen that is located on the bacterial surface armors bacteria from host immune response. Thus, unencapsulating bacteria would be a good strategy for drug design, besides CPS itself being a good vaccine target, by interfering with CPS biosynthesis and surface
The exopolysaccharide slime colanic acid has been isolated from representative strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Aerobacter cloacae. Analysis showed that each polymer contained glucose, galactose, fucose and glucuronic acid, together with acetate and pyruvate. The molar proportions of these components were 1:1·8:1·9:1:1:1 approximately. On the basis of periodate oxidation of the natural and deacetylated polysaccharide, glucose is proposed as the site of the acetyl groups. The pyruvate is attached to galactose. Three neutral oligosaccharides and ten electrophoretically mobile oligosaccharides were isolated and partially characterized. Four of the fragments were esters of pyruvic acid. Most oligosaccharides were isolated from all three polysaccharide preparations. Three further oligosaccharides were isolated from carboxyl-reduced colanic acid and sodium borotritide was used to label the glucose derived from glucuronic acid in these fragments. One trisaccharide was obtained ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Twenty-eight divergent polysaccharide loci specifying within and amongst strain capsule diversity in three strains of Bacteroides fragilis. AU - Patrick,S.. AU - Blakely,G.W.. AU - Houston,S.. AU - Moore,J.. AU - Abratt,V.R.. AU - dos Santos,Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha. AU - Cedeño-Tárraga,A.M.. AU - Corton,N.. AU - Corton,C.. AU - Bignell,A.. AU - Barron,A.. AU - Clark,L.. AU - Bentley,S.D.. AU - Parkhill,J.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Comparison of the complete genome sequence of Bacteroides fragilis 638R originally isolated in the USA, was made with two previously sequenced strains isolated in the UK (NCTC 9343) and Japan (YCH46). The presence of 10 loci containing genes associated with polysaccharide biosynthesis, each including a putative Wzx flippase and Wzy polymerase, was confirmed in all three strains, despite a lack of cross-reactivity between NCTC 9343 and 638R surface polysaccharide-specific antibodies by immunolabelling and microscopy. Genomic comparisons revealed ...
Exopolysaccharides have various applications due to their unique rheological properties as in food, pharmaceutical and other industries. Exopolysaccharides also have some medical applications as anti-cancer, anti-viral and immune-modulator. In present study, 72 bacterial strains were isolated from root nodules of eight different leguminous plants and screened for exopolysaccharide production. Out of 72 isolates, 15 bacterial isolates showing good growth and exopolysaccharide production in primar
Supplement Polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose, starch, or glycogen) are characterized by the following chemical properties: (1) not sweet in taste, (2) insoluble in water, (3) do not form crystals when desiccated, (4) compact and not osmotically active inside the cells, (5) can be extracted to form white powder, and (6) general chemical formula of Cx(H2O) y. Polysaccharides may be a homopolysaccharide or a heteropolysaccharide depending on their monosaccharide components. A homopolysaccharide consists of same types of monosaccharides whereas a heteropolysaccharide is composed of different types of monosaccharides. ...
This authoritative reference work presents comprehensive information about one of the most important and most wide-spread classes of (bio)organic compounds: the polysaccharides. The comprehensive and thoroughly up-to-date handbook presents the sources, identification, analysis, biosynthesis, biotechnology and applications of important polysaccharides likes starches, cellulose, chitin, gum and microbial polysaccharides. Polysaccharides can exhibit complex structure and various functional activities. These bio macromolecules can therefore serve as raw materials for various different materials, e.g. rayon, cellulose acetate, celluloid and nitrocellulose; and they find multiple applications, for instance as surgical threads (chitin), as sources of energy, dietary fibers, as blood flow adjuvants, in cosmetics, emulsion stabilizers, film formers, binders, viscosity increasing agents or skin conditioning agenta, as food additives in gums, chewing gum bases and as vaccines. Polysaccharides form the basis for
Water was collected via Niskin bottles mounted on a rosette, equipped with a CTD.. Experiments on (operationally defined) particles were carried out by gravity-filtering water through 3 um pore size filters. 1/12th sections of the 3 um pore-size filters were submerged in 15 mL artificial seawater; enzyme activities were measured as described below.. The potential of the seawater microbial community associated with large particles (, 3 micrometer pore size filter) to hydrolyze six high-molecular-weight polysaccharides (arabinogalactan, chondroitin sulfate, fucoidan, laminarin, pullulan, and xylan) was investigated in surface and bottom water. For each substrate, three 15 mL falcon tubes were filled with autoclaved artificial seawater and one 15 mL falcon tube was filled with autoclaved seawater and a blank filter piece to serve as a killed control. Substrate was added at 3.5 uM monomer-equivalent concentrations, except for fucoidan, which was added at 5 uM concentrations (a higher concentration ...
A method of inducing an immune response against multiple strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which comprises administering to a human or animal an amount of mucoid exopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas aer
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signaling factor interactions with polysaccharide aggregates of bacterial biofilms. AU - Desalvo, Stephen C.. AU - Liu, Yating. AU - Choudhary, Geetika Sanjay. AU - Ren, Dacheng. AU - Nangia, Shikha. AU - Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna. PY - 2015/2/17. Y1 - 2015/2/17. N2 - Biofilms are surface-attached colonies of bacteria embedded in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Inside the eukaryotic hosts, bacterial biofilms interact with the host cells through signaling factors (SFs). These signaling processes play important roles in the interaction between bacteria and host cells and the outcome of infections and symbiosis. However, how host immune factors diffuse through biofilms is not well understood. Here, we describe synergistic molecular dynamics and experimental approaches for studying the translocation of signaling factors through polysaccharide chain aggregates present in the extracellular matrix of bacterial biofilms. The effect of polysaccharide chain degradation on the ...
Polysaccharides are one of four classes of carbohydrates, which in turn are biological molecules that contain primarily carbon (C) atoms flanked by hydrogen (H) atoms and hydroxyl (OH) groups (H-C-OH). The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, which are monomers-such as the simple sugars glucose, ribose, and [[fructose]-out of which larger carbohydrates are constructed. When there are two monosaccharides linked together by covalent bonds they are known as disaccharides. Oligosaccharides are made up of more than 3 and generally ten (or perhaps 20) monosaccharides. Polysaccharides are even larger chains of monosaccarides. Thus, some carbohydrates are small with molecular weights of less than one hundred, whereas others are true macromolecules with molecular weights in the hundreds of thousands.. In a monosaccharide, the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are 1:2:1, and thus the formula is C(H2O). In disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, the molar proportions ...
The monosaccharide L-rhamnose is common in bacterial polysaccharides and the disaccharide alpha-L-Rhap-alpha-(1 -, 2)-alpha-L-Rhap-OMe represents a structural model for a part of Shigella flexneri O-antigen polysaccharides. Utilization of [1-C-13]-site-specific labeling in the anomeric position at the glycosidic linkage between the two sugar residues facilitated the determination of transglycosidic NMR (3)J(CH) and (3)J(CC) coupling constants. Based on these spin-spin couplings the major state and the conformational distribution could be determined with respect to the psi torsion angle, which changed between water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvents, a finding mirrored by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with explicit solvent molecules. The C-13 NMR spin relaxation parameters T-1, T-2, and heteronuclear NOE of the probe were measured for the disaccharide in DMSO-d(6) at two magnetic field strengths, with standard deviations ,= 1%. The combination of MD simulation and a stochastic ...
This vaccine is a freeze-dried preparation of the group-specific polysaccharide antigens from Neisseria meningitides Group A and Group C, Mixed lactose as stabilizer made of white loose lyophilized vaccine. This product is only recommended for Children and adults over the age of 2 years. This vaccine can produce a humoral immune, and it is used to prevent disease caused by the bacteria named Neisseria meningitidis groups A and group C ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel Method for Polysaccharide Synthesis Using an Enzyme. T2 - The First in Vitro Synthesis of Cellulose via a Nonbiosynthetic Path Utilizing Cellulase as Catalyst. AU - Kobayashi, Shiro. AU - Kashiwa, Keita. AU - Kawasaki, Tatsuya. AU - Shoda, Shin Ichiro. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - The in vitro synthesis of cellulose via a nonbiosynthetic path has been achieved for the first time by condensation of β-D-cellobiosyl fluoride as substrate for cellulase, a hydrolysis enzyme of cellulose, in a mixed solvent of acetonitrile/acetate buffer (pH 5, 5:1). The water-insoluble part of the products is synthetic cellulose, the structure of which was confirmed by comparison with an authentic natural cellulose sample with use of solid C NMR and IR spectroscopies as well as with a hydrolysis experiment. The present synthetic cellulose was converted to the corresponding triacetate whose molecular weight was at least 6.3 × 103 (degree of polymerization (DP) ≥ 22). X-ray as well as ...
Salivary and serum antibody response against Neisseria meningitidis after vaccination with conjugate polysaccharide vaccines in Ethiopian ...
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The polysaccharide of peach gum, prepared by a partial acid hydrolysis, was degraded by a mixture of extracellular glacanohydrolases of Aspergillus flavus. This way obtained polysaccharide differed from the original one especially by a higher content of D-mannose and a lower content of D-galactose bound by (1 3) glycosidic bonds. The obtained results are discussed from the standpoint of composition of the main and side chains of the native polysaccharide.. ...
Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
Markham, R B.; Stashak, P W.; Prescott, B; and Baker, P J., Effect of concanavalin a on lymphocyte interactions involved in the antibody response to type iii pneumococcal polysaccharide. I. Comparision of the suppression induced by con a and low dose paralysis. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2112 ...
Wang, Hongxia et al The Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein (H-NS) Is a Repressor of Vibrio cholerae Exopolysaccharide Biosynthesis (vps) Genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78.7 (2012): 2482-2488. Web. 19 Jan. 2020. ...
HSV1 is an enveloped Virus with several Glycoproteins (GPs) on its surface (gB, gA, gC) which allow virus entry into the host cells. Vitrobio postulated that these virus proteins could be blocked & new virus infection could be stopped using specific virus protein antagonist polymers or natural tannins (Ref: Hypothesis - Shrivastava et al: Int. J. Virology, 2011). Similarly, bacterial infection can also be stopped by neutralizing bacterial polysaccharides with polymers capable of binding with macromolecules. After 17 years of R&D, Vitrobio identified specific polymers which can bind with selected targets & neutralize the infection (Patent PCT/EP2010/050236). These polymers were then incorporated into a patented glycerol-based filmogen viscous solution, glycerol being commonly used as pharmaceutical excipient & 18 times more osmotically active than Sea Water yet NON-IRRITANT (International patents: PCT/FR99/01340 & PCT/EP2013/061835). The hypertonic solution film attracts hypotonic fluids from the ...
It is available, however, through the American Type Culture Collection[1]. Harada T. (1983). "Special bacterial polysaccharides ... Yokobayashi Y, et al.. Process for producing bacterial isoamylase. US Patent 3,560,345 dated Feb 2 1971. v t e. ...
Bhamidi S (2009). "Mycobacterial Cell Wall Arabinogalactan". Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. ... As with other bacterial pathogens, M. tuberculosis produces a number of surface and secreted proteins that contribute to its ... Mycobacteria can be infected by mycobacteriophages, bacterial viruses that may be used in the future to treat tuberculosis and ... Mycobacteria can be grown by bacterial culture, but are slowly growing, and 6-8 weeks are generally required before concluding ...
Bacterial fermentation of undigested polysaccharides produces these. Some of the fecal odor is due to indoles, metabolized from ... Other bacterial products include gas (flatus), which is a mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of the ... Undigested polysaccharides (fiber) are metabolized to short-chain fatty acids by bacteria in the large intestine and absorbed ... largely bacterial) fermentation of unabsorbed material occurs. Unlike the small intestine, the colon does not play a major role ...
Welman AD (2009). "Exploitation of Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria". Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current ... Microorganisms synthesize a wide spectrum of multifunctional polysaccharides including intracellular polysaccharides, ... Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-45-5.CS1 maint: ... structural polysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides. Exopolysaccharides generally consist of ...
Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-45-5. Fhoula I, ... The first contact between an infecting phage and its bacterial host is the attachment of the phage to the host cell. This ... While most of the bacterial isolates, were able to produce IAA, phosphate-solubilization was limited to only one of the eight ... Gram-positive LAB have a thick peptidoglycan layer, which must be traversed to inject the phage genome into the bacterial ...
2009). Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-45-5. Hill ... To differentiate any bacterial growth from other species a small amount of a bacterial colony is tested for oxidase, catalase ... It causes the only form of bacterial meningitis known to occur epidemically, mainly in Africa and Asia. It occurs worldwide in ... Some of the vaccines cover serogroup B, while others cover A, C, W, and Y. A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4) has ...
Bhamidi S (2009). "Mycobacterial Cell Wall Arabinogalactan". Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. ... "Human Intelectin Is a Novel Soluble Lectin That Recognizes Galactofuranose in Carbohydrate Chains of Bacterial Cell Wall". ...
"Capsule polysaccharide mediates bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides". Infection and Immunity. 72 (12): 7107-14. doi: ... bacterial infection, IV Vancomycin, bacterial infection, IV. Guavanin 2, bacterial infection against Gram-positive and Gram- ... bacterial infections, IV Daptomycin, bacterial infections, IV Enfuvirtide, HIV, subcutaneous injection Oritavancin, bacterial ... AMPs can possess multiple activities including anti-gram-positive bacterial, anti-gram-negative bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- ...
Finn, Adam (1 January 2004). "Bacterial polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines". British Medical Bulletin. 70 (1): 1-14. doi ... The shortcomings of the polysaccharide vaccine led to the production of the Hib polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine. The ... Attaching Hib polysaccharide to a protein carrier greatly increased the ability of the immune system of young children to ... Similar to other polysaccharide vaccines, immune response to the vaccine was highly age-dependent. Children under 18 months of ...
"Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature". Trends in Microbiology. 4 (12): 495-503. doi:10.1016/S0966-842X(97) ... who specialises in molecular microbiology and bacterial infectious diseases. Since 2018, he has been Vice-Chancellor of the ...
Polysaccharide matrices typically enclose bacterial biofilms. In addition to the polysaccharides, these matrices may also ... "Building Codes for Bacterial Cities , Quanta Magazine". Quanta Magazine. Retrieved 2017-07-25. Lear G, Lewis GD, eds. (2012). ... Bacterial biofilms start the colonization process by creating microenvironments that are more favorable for biofouling species ... The role that biofilm plays as reservoirs of bacterial fish pathogens has not been explored in detail but it certainly deserves ...
... of which regulates the production of polysaccharides making up the bacterial capsule. These polysaccharides help protect the ... Wzc - a tyrosine kinase found in the bacterial inner membrane. Participates in polymerization of capsule polysaccharides. Wzx ... Transfers new polysaccharide units across the inner membrane. Wzy - Assembles longer polysaccharide chains using units ... Whitfield C (2006). "Biosynthesis and assembly of capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli". Annual Review of Biochemistry ...
"The Modulation of Adaptive Immune Responses by Bacterial Zwitterionic Polysaccharides". International Journal of Microbiology. ... Proteins and few polysaccharides have immunogenic properties, which allows them to induce humoral immune responses. Proteins ... Consequently, they may require conjugation with an epitope such as a protein or polysaccharide to increase immunogenic potency ... Proteins are significantly more immunogenic than polysaccharides. Immunogenicity is influenced by multiple characteristics of ...
GBS is surrounded by a bacterial capsule composed of polysaccharides (exopolysacharide). The species is subclassified into ten ... The capsular polysaccharide of GBS is not only an important GBS virulence factor but it is also an excellent candidate for the ... In the western world, GBS (in the absence of effective prevention measures) is the major cause of several bacterial infections ... GBS is the leading cause of bacterial neonatal infection in the baby during gestation and after delivery with significant ...
Bacterial disease ice-ice infects Kappaphycus (red seaweed), turning its branches white. The disease caused heavy crop losses ... Carrageenans, alginates and agaroses, with other macroalgal polysaccharides, have biomedicine applications. Delisea pulchra may ... interfere with bacterial colonization. Sulfated saccharides from red and green algae inhibit some DNA and RNA-enveloped viruses ...
Stacey's main research interest was in polysaccharides. He helped to develop bacterial polyglucose dextran as a blood plasma ...
Mazmanian, Sarkis (2006). "The love-hate relationship between bacterial polysaccharides and the host immune system". Nature ... Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a bacterial species in the ileum and colon, stimulates the gene encoding fucose, Fut2, in ... IgA coats pathogenic bacterial and viral surfaces (immune exclusion), preventing colonization by blocking their attachment to ... Nisin A inhibits methicillin-resistant S. aureus by binding to the precursor to bacterial cell wall synthesis, lipid II. This ...
June 2020). "Modulation of bacterial multicellularity via spatio-specific polysaccharide secretion". PLoS Biology. 18 (6): ... June 2020). "Modulation of bacterial multicellularity via spatio-specific polysaccharide secretion". PLoS Biology. 18 (6): ... Myxobacteria are used to study the polysaccharide production in gram-negative bacteria like the model Myxococcus Xanthus which ... One species of myxobacteria, Minicystis rosea, has the largest known bacterial genome with over 16 million nucleotides. The ...
"Modulation of bacterial multicellularity via spatio-specific polysaccharide secretion". PLOS Biology. 18 (6): e3000728. doi: ... Corynebacterium glutamicum is one of the most important bacterial species with an annual production of more than two million ... An example of model bacteria used to study motility or the production of polysaccharides and development is Myxococcus xanthus ... Wenner, Melinda (30 November 2007). "Humans Carry More Bacterial Cells than Human Ones". Scientific American. Retrieved 14 ...
"Modulation of bacterial multicellularity via spatio-specific polysaccharide secretion". PLOS Biology. 18 (6): e3000728. doi: ... This motility depend on the presence of the Type IV pili and divers polysaccharides. More than 37 genes are involved in the A- ... Nair, Ramith R.; Vasse, Marie; Wielgoss, Sébastien; Sun, Lei; Yu, Yuen-Tsu N.; Velicer, Gregory J. "Bacterial predator-prey ... the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Myxococcus xanthus preying on an E. coli colony Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body formation ...
June 2020). "Modulation of bacterial multicellularity via spatio-specific polysaccharide secretion". PLOS Biology. 18 (6): ... Bacterial colony optimization is an algorithm used in evolutionary computing. The algorithm is based on a lifecycle model that ... Bacterial biofilms can emerge through the collective behavior of thousands or millions of cells Biofilms formed by Bacillus ... Under nutritional stress bacterial colonies can organize themselves in such a way so as to maximize nutrient availability. ...
By combining the bacterial polysaccharide with another antigen, the immune system is able to respond. The most commonly used ... Lee C, Lee LH, Koizumi K (2002). "Polysaccharide Vaccines for Prevention of Encapsulated Bacterial Infections: Part 1". Infect ... By conjugating the polysaccharide to a protein carrier, a T cell response can be induced. Normally, polysaccharides by ... The conjugation of polysaccharide target antigen to the carrier protein also increases efficiency of the vaccine as a non ...
... entry in LPSN; Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on ... nov., Bacteria That Decompose Algal Polysaccharides". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 42 (4): 621-627. doi: ... Skerman, V. B. D.; McGowan, V.; Sneath, P. H. A. (1980). "Approved Lists of Bacterial Names". International Journal of ... Simidu, U.; Kita-Tsukamoto, K.; Yasumoto, T.; Yotsu, M. (1990). "Taxonomy of Four Marine Bacterial Strains That Produce ...
As a group these are known as polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria. As in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides ... Bacterial cell envelopes fall into two major categories: a gram-positive type and a gram-negative type, distinguished by Gram ... The bacterial cell wall differs from that of all other organisms by the presence of peptidoglycan (poly-N-acetylglucosamine and ... While all bacterial cell walls (with a few exceptions e.g. intracellular parasites such as Mycoplasma) contain peptidoglycan, ...
... bacterial nanomachines for dismantling plant polysaccharides. Nat. Rev. Micro. (2016). Bayer, E. A., Shoham, Y. & Lamed, R. in ... based on the specific affinity between cohesin and dockerin modules from the same bacterial species and type. These enzymatic ...
A single dose may have merely nanograms of virus particles, or micrograms of bacterial polysaccharides. A vaccine injection, ... With bacterial vaccines, we can enumerate this with an approximate number of bacteria cells. The live typhoid vaccine contains ... These toxoid vaccines are used against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (whooping cough). If the bacteria polysaccharide ... The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine contains 32 micrograms of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugated with CRM197 (a diphtheria ...
A single dose may have merely nanograms of virus particles, or micrograms of bacterial polysaccharides. A vaccine injection, ... Targeting of identified bacterial proteins that are involved in complement inhibition would neutralize the key bacterial ... By linking these outer coats to proteins (e.g., toxins), the immune system can be led to recognize the polysaccharide as if it ... DNA vaccination - The proposed mechanism is the insertion and expression of viral or bacterial DNA in human or animal cells ( ...
The IgG responses to bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigens are mediated primarily via IgG2 subclass, and deficiencies in ... unresponsiveness against bacterial polysaccharide antigens". Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 20: 28-34. PMID 1509985. Jonsdottir ... Acton, R. T., Barton, J. C. (2016). "Selective Subnormal IgG1 in 54 Adult Index Patients with Frequent or Severe Bacterial ... The pentameric structure of IgM antibodies makes them efficient at binding antigens with repetitive epitopes (e.g. bacterial ...
... transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells in direct contact) and transduction (injection of donor bacterial DNA ... Only some species have a capsule, usually consisting of polysaccharides. Also, only some species are flagellates, and when they ... For the bacterial cells bounded by a single cell membrane, the term monoderm bacteria has been proposed. In contrast to gram- ... This is because the thick peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall retains the stain after it is washed away from the ...
... self antigens and common bacterial polysaccharides. B1 cells are present in low numbers in the lymph nodes and spleen and are ... antibody production and long-term protection after bacterial infection such as Borrelia hermsii and Streptococcus pneumoniae. ...
They have a polysaccharide capsule that acts as a virulence factor for the organism; more than 90 different serotypes are known ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ... Type strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ...
Anevlavis S; Bouros D (2010). "Community acquired bacterial pneumonia". Expert Opin Pharmacother. 11 (3): 361-74. doi:10.1517/ ... 2003). "Decline in invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine". N. Engl. ... "A systematic review on the diagnosis of pediatric bacterial pneumonia: when gold is bronze". PLoS ONE. 5 (8): e11989. doi ...
β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... Mcintosh, M (19 October 2004). "Curdlan and other bacterial (1→3)-β-D-glucans". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 68 (2 ... Although technically β-glucans are chains of D-glucose polysaccharides linked by β-type glycosidic bonds, by convention not all ... In addition, these side-chains can be attached to other types of molecules, like proteins, as in polysaccharide-K. ...
Some diseases, such as tetanus, cause disease not by bacterial growth but by bacterial production of a toxin. Tetanus toxin is ... For example, a toxoid might be attached to a polysaccharide from the capsule of the bacteria responsible for most lobar ... Use of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (Report). Centers for Disease ...
Gums of trees are beta-linked polysaccharides that are not easily digested.[4] These require a form of microbial fermentation ... rendering their natural adaptations useless such as the chiseling teeth and the bacterial fermentation. ...
However bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides, and some polymeric proteins, can stimulate B lymphocytes without ... That may explain why children up to 5 years are not capable of producing effective antibodies against polysaccharide antigens, ... An example of TI-1 antigen is lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial DNA.[2] ...
A chain of monosaccharides form to make a polysaccharide. Such polysaccharides include pectin, dextran, agar, and xanthan. ... It is also an excellent place for bacterial growth and food spoilage if it is not properly processed. One way this is measured ...
Lipids and nucleic acids are antigenic only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides.[citation needed] Non-microbial non ... or because of viral or intracellular bacterial infection. The fragments are then presented on the cell surface in the complex ... and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens only when combined ... Antigens are usually carried by proteins and polysaccharides, and less frequently, lipids. This includes parts (coats, capsules ...
In addition, bacterial hyaluronate lyases (EC may also be referred to as hyaluronidases, although this is uncommon.[6] ... that Streptococcus and Staphylococcus pathogens use hyaluronidase as a virulence factor to destroy the polysaccharide that ... having a function akin to bacterial hyaluronidases.[18] ...
The enzymes that digest polysaccharides, by contrast, are primarily produced by the walls of the intestines.) The cells are ... Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome. *Whipple's. *Short bowel syndrome. *Steatorrhea. *Milroy disease ...
According to the Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, some groups of peptides include plant peptides, bacterial/antibiotic ... oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, etc. ...
Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of organisms and ... "Green fluorescent protein as a reporter for macromolecular localization in bacterial cells". Methods. 20 (1): 62-72. doi ...
Its name comes from the production of lactic acid by bacterial fermentation, which is called souring. Crème fraîche is one type ... The common stabilizers that are added to sour cream are polysaccharides and gelatin, including modified food starch, guar gum, ... It can also be prepared by the souring of pasteurized cream with acid-producing bacterial culture.[2] The bacteria that ... The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. ...
This results in the imbalance between host and bacterial factors which can in turn result in a change from health to disease. ... Bacteria contained within the biofilm are protected by an slimy extracellular polysaccharide matrix which helps to protect them ... Periodontal diseases take on many different forms but are usually a result of a coalescence of bacterial plaque biofilm ... Bacterial transportation: Bacteria will readily adhere to the acquired pellicle through adhesins, proteins and enzymes within ...
Dyed polysaccharide substrates[24][edit]. These substrates can be subdivided into two classes- ... and it has exhibited efficacy in degrading polymicrobial bacterial biofilms by hydrolyzing the β(1-4) glycosidic linkages ... Progressive cellulase will continue to interact with a single polysaccharide strand, nonprogressive cellulase will interact ... or shorter polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. Cellulose breakdown is of considerable economic importance, because it makes a ...
Instead, disease results from the exposure of cryptic N-glycan (polysaccharide) linkages common to lower eukaryotes and ... Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) patients also present with eczema, autoimmune manifestations, recurrent bacterial infections and ... Recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and chronic inflammation of the gut and lungs are seen in chronic granulomatous ...
... of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their ... Type I secretion is also involved in export of non-proteinaceous substrates like cyclic β-glucans and polysaccharides. ... 2009). Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42 ... Salyers, A. A. & Whitt, D. D. (2002). Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach, 2nd ed., Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN ...
Three quarters of the dry mass of the xylem is cellulose, a polysaccharide, and most of the remainder is lignin, a complex ... The tannin causes the hide to become supple, less affected by water and more resistant to bacterial attack.[141] ...
The bacterial cell takes in malate, converts it into lactate, and releases carbon dioxide in the process. The lactate is then ... have the potential to synthesize polysaccharides that add an oily viscosity to the wine. In the case of Lactobacillus, some of ... This prevents undesirable bacterial strains from producing "off" flavors. Conversely, commercial winemakers actively prevent ... In the 1930s, the French enologist Jean Ribéreau-Gayon published papers stating the benefits of this bacterial transformation ...
Japanese Yagi bombs developed at Pingfan consisted of two compartments, one with houseflies and another with a bacterial slurry ... and possibly other proteins and polysaccharides of medical value.[41] ...
Reactions of mice with primary subcutaneous tumors to injection of a hemorrhage-producing bacterial polysaccharide". Journal of ... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ... Sepsis is an inflammatory immune response triggered by an infection.[3][4] Bacterial infections are the most common cause, but ... Infections leading to sepsis are usually bacterial but may be fungal or viral.[21] Gram-positive bacteria were the primary ...
Bacterial or viral[edit]. As bacterial and viral infections can both cause the same kinds of symptoms, it can be difficult to ... Some individuals develop natural serum antibodies to the surface polysaccharides of some agents although they have had little ... Comparison of viral and bacterial infection Characteristic Viral infection Bacterial infection Typical symptoms In general, ... Bacterial throat pain is often characterized by more pain on one side of the throat. An ear infection is more likely to be ...
This method involves genetically engineering bacterial species such as Clostridium, Bifidobacteria and Salmonella by adding the ... Fisher, M. Y.; Yang, L. X. (May 2002). "Anticancer effects and mechanisms of polysaccharide-K (PSK): implications of cancer ... Kobayashi, H; Matsunaga, K; Oguchi, Y (1995). "Antimetastatic effects of PSK (Krestin), a protein-bound polysaccharide obtained ... "Efficacy of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curative resections of gastric cancer", Cancer ...
... extracts of polysaccharide-K, schizophyllan, polysaccharide peptide, or lentinan are government-registered adjuvant cancer ... using fungi to lower bacterial levels in contaminated water).[44] ...
... which classifies it as a universal surface component of a bacterial cell, found just outside the bacterial cell wall. A ... A glycocalyx, literally meaning "sugar coat" (glykys = sweet, kalyx = husk), is a network of polysaccharides that project from ... The difference between a capsule and a slime layer is that in a capsule polysaccharides are firmly attached to the cell wall, ... The term was initially applied to the polysaccharide matrix coating epithelial cells, but its functions have been discovered to ...
Most large molecules, including virtually all proteins and many polysaccharides, can serve as antigens.[2] The parts of an ... Most viral vaccines are based on live attenuated viruses, whereas many bacterial vaccines are based on acellular components of ... and most bacterial vaccines require the addition of adjuvants that activate the antigen-presenting cells of the innate immune ... protecting against bacterial infections, until the newborn can synthesize its own antibodies.[2] ...
Rhabdiferous cells secrete polysaccharides that also form part of the mesohyl.. *Oocytes and spermatocytes are reproductive ... Members of this family have been found to have anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. One example isolated ...
... capsular polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, and teichoic acid), proteins involved in bacterial pathogenesis (e.g. hemolysis ... In bacterial efflux systems, certain substances that need to be extruded from the cell include surface components of the ... Bacterial drug resistance has become an increasingly major health problem. One of the mechanisms for drug resistance is ... Bacterial ABC transporters are essential in cell viability, virulence, and pathogenicity. Iron ABC uptake systems, for example ...
Baghurst, Katrine I.; Baghurst, Peter A.; Record, Sally J. (2000). Chapter 7.3 Dietary Fiber, Nonstarch Polysaccharide, and ... and butyrate and increased bacterial cell mass. The short-chain fatty acids are produced in the large intestine where they are ... Baghurst, P. A.; Baghurst, K. I.; Record, S. J. (1996). "Dietary Fibre, Non-starch Polysaccharides and Resistant Starch - A ... This includes resistant starch, non-starch polysaccharide fibers, oligosaccharides, and simple sugars which have significance ...
Bacterial diseases[edit]. Bacterium. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax. Anthrax vaccines. ... Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Pneumovax, Prevnar Vibrio cholerae. Cholera. Cholera ...
Shao W, Liu H, Liu X, Sun H, Wang S, Zhang R (2015) pH-responsive release behavior and anti-bacterial activity of bacterial ... we propose new composite hydrogels composed of bacterial cellulose and other polysaccharides as xanthan and ... Antimicrobial Food Pads Containing Bacterial Cellulose and Polysaccharides. In: Mondal M. (eds) Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent ... Shi Z, Zhang Y, Phillips GO, Yang G (2014) Utilization of bacterial cellulose in food. Food Hydrocoll 35:539-545CrossRefGoogle ...
Bacterial surface or secreted polysaccharides are molecules that can function as barriers to protect bacterial cells against ... Bacterial surface or secreted polysaccharides are molecules that can function as barriers to protect bacterial cells against ... With the advent of modern bacterial genetics, techniques such as construction and characterization of polysaccharide mutants, ... cloning of genes and complementation of these mutations, and expression of polysaccharides in heterologous bacterial hosts has ...
Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature.. Reeves PR1, Hobbs M, Valvano MA, Skurnik M, Whitfield C, Coplin D, ... Gene nomenclature for bacterial surface polysaccharides is complicated by the large number of structures and genes. We propose ...
The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial ... Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed. ... produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, ... Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation. Barbara Vu 1,2, Miao Chen 2, Russell J. Crawford 1 and ...
Accessing the Bacterial Polysaccharide Gene Database (BPGD). From here you can specify a search of the Bacterial Polysaccharide ... FASEB SUMMER RESEARCH CONFERENCE on MICROBIAL POLYSACCHARIDES OF MEDICAL, AGRICULTURAL, AND INDUSTRIAL IMPORTANCE ...
Bacterial" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Polysaccharides, Bacterial" was a major or minor topic ... "Polysaccharides, Bacterial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Polysaccharides, Bacterial" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Polysaccharides, Bacterial". ...
Our results suggest that silkworms provide an efficient screening system of bacterial polysaccharides that inhibit sucrose- ... Ethanol precipitates of extracellular polysaccharides were prepared from viscous bacterial colonies. Among 24 samples obtained ... Here we show that polysaccharides obtained from soil bacteria inhibit sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in an in vivo silkworm ... from different bacterial species, oral administration of 6 samples from Rhizobium altiplani, Cupriavidus sp., Paenibacillus ...
Hyaluronic acid sodium salt from Streptococcus equi bacterial glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide; CAS Number: 9067-32-7; Synonym ... bacterial glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide Synonym: Poly(β-glucuronic acid-[1→3]-β-N-acetylglucosamine-[1→4]), alternating ... Bacterial hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural non-sulphated high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that may be used to study ... Glycosaminoglycans are large linear polysaccharides constructed of repeating disaccharide units. The disaccharide units that ...
Activation of bacterial lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases with cellobiose dehydrogenase.. [Jennifer S M Loose, Zarah Forsberg ... Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) represent a recent addition to the carbohydrate-active enzymes and are classified ... Overall, MtCDH seems to be a universal electron donor for both bacterial and fungal LPMOs, indicating that their electron ... LPMOs are crucial for effective degradation of recalcitrant polysaccharides like cellulose or chitin. These enzymes are copper- ...
The structures of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigens, extracted and purified from microbial cultures and ... While these groups are often considered important for the structural identity of the polysaccharides, they play a major role in ... The incidence of infectious diseases caused by several bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus ... Berti F, De Ricco R, Rappuoli R. Role of O-Acetylation in the Immunogenicity of Bacterial Polysaccharide Vaccines. Molecules. ...
Laboratory of Bacterial Polysaccharides, Division of Bacterial Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Center for Biologics ... Laboratory of Bacterial Polysaccharides, Division of Bacterial Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Center for Biologics ... Laboratory of Bacterial Polysaccharides, Division of Bacterial Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Center for Biologics ... Laboratory of Bacterial Polysaccharides, Division of Bacterial Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Center for Biologics ...
The first part of this work describes studies on the structures of three bacterial polysaccharides, i.e., the extracellular ... Determination of the structures of three bacterial polysaccharides and synthesis and use of new spacers for glycoconjugate ... polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 2 and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strain X6C61 and the O-antigenic side-chain of ...
Where in loose bacterial surface polysaccharide plays a critical role? ... Where in loose bacterial surface polysaccharide plays a critical role? A. Gonorrhea. B. Meningitis with no underlying trauma. C ... all of these causative agents have polysaccharide capsules that allow survival in the blood-stream in an immunologically na ve ... polysaccharide) is important for successful hematogenous spread to the central nervous system; examples include cryptococcus, ...
... Domenii publicaţii > ... Alteration in bacterial capsular polysaccharides following co-culture with human epithelial cells. Domenii publicaţii > ...
The invention includes a new method to conjugate the O-specific polysaccharide-core part of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide ... polysaccharides) directly to amine-containing species (e.g. proteins) without prior modification of either component. While ...
Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Miguel A. Campos, Miguel A. Vargas, Verónica ... Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Miguel A. Campos, Miguel A. Vargas, Verónica ... Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Miguel A. Campos, Miguel A. Vargas, Verónica ... Capsule Polysaccharide Mediates Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
... on the nature of the Ab response to the bacterial polysaccharide DEX following bacterial challenge. We previously showed that ... The love-hate relationship between bacterial polysaccharides and the host immune system. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6: 849-858. ... Limiting CDR-H3 Diversity Abrogates the Antibody Response to the Bacterial Polysaccharide α 1→3 Dextran. Tamer I. Mahmoud, ... Limiting CDR-H3 Diversity Abrogates the Antibody Response to the Bacterial Polysaccharide α 1→3 Dextran ...
Nonstarch Polysaccharides Modulate Bacterial Microbiota, Pathways for Butyrate Production, and Abundance of Pathogenic ... Nonstarch Polysaccharides Modulate Bacterial Microbiota, Pathways for Butyrate Production, and Abundance of Pathogenic ... Nonstarch Polysaccharides Modulate Bacterial Microbiota, Pathways for Butyrate Production, and Abundance of Pathogenic ... Nonstarch Polysaccharides Modulate Bacterial Microbiota, Pathways for Butyrate Production, and Abundance of Pathogenic ...
1. Influence of some bacterial polysaccharides on the binding of soil particles. M. J. Geoghegan, R. C. Brian ... 1. Influence of some bacterial polysaccharides on the binding of soil particles ... 1. Influence of some bacterial polysaccharides on the binding of soil particles ... 1. Influence of some bacterial polysaccharides on the binding of soil particles ...
Dissertation: Structural studies of bacterial polysaccharides using N.M.R. spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. ... Structural studies of bacterial polysaccharides using N.M.R. spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. University dissertation from ...
Faster and Better Structure Determination of Bacterial Polysaccharides for Improved Diagnosis and Vaccines. Project: PhD ...
Bacterial polysaccharides, p. 287-363. In G. O. Aspinall (ed.), The polysaccharides, vol. 2. Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY ... Recognition of Bacterial Surface Polysaccharides by Lectins of the Innate Immune System and Its Contribution to Defense against ... Recognition of Bacterial Surface Polysaccharides by Lectins of the Innate Immune System and Its Contribution to Defense against ... Recognition of Bacterial Surface Polysaccharides by Lectins of the Innate Immune System and Its Contribution to Defense against ...
... N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine Affects Growth, Extracellular Polysaccharide Production, and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Solid Surfaces ...
Faster and Better Structure Determination of Bacterial Polysaccharides for Improved Diagnosis and Vaccines. *Li, Chengxin (PhD ... Structural, biosynthetic and serological interaction studies of the capsular polysaccharides from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Li ...
Bacterial community dynamics during polysaccharide degradation at contrasting sites in the Southern and Atlantic Oceans Wietz, ... Bacterial community dynamics during polysaccharide degradation at contrasting sites in the Southern and Atlantic Oceans , ...
5 Bacterial capsular polysaccharides. *6 Chemical identification tests for polysaccharides *6.1 Periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS ... Bacterial capsular polysaccharides[edit]. Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. ... Acidic polysaccharides[edit]. Acidic polysaccharides are polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups, phosphate groups and/or ... Cell-surface polysaccharides play diverse roles in bacterial ecology and physiology. They serve as a barrier between the cell ...
Adhesive interactions between bacterial cells coupled with adherence to a solid surface can lead to the formation of a biofilm ... Bacterial-Bacterial Cell Interactions in Biofilms: Detection of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesins by Blotting and Confocal ... Jefferson K.K., Cerca N. (2006) Bacterial-Bacterial Cell Interactions in Biofilms: Detection of Polysaccharide Intercellular ... to evaluate extracellular polysaccharide production by a variety of bacterial species.. Key Words. Biofilms exo-polysaccharide ...
Bacterial Strains and Culture.. Plasmid-free E. faecalis FA2-2 (5) was used for generating isogenic mutants by means of ... The capsular polysaccharide of Enterococcus faecalis and its relationship to other polysaccharides in the cell wall. Lynn E. ... The capsular polysaccharide of Enterococcus faecalis and its relationship to other polysaccharides in the cell wall ... The capsular polysaccharide of Enterococcus faecalis and its relationship to other polysaccharides in the cell wall ...
... ... Microbial Genomics, Emphasizing the Molecular Biology of Polysaccharide Degradation and Bacterial Adhesion to Plant Surfaces.. ... An obligatory step in cellulose degradation by anaerobic bacteria is the adhesion of the bacterium to the polysaccharide. In ... many anaerobic bacteria the adhesion protein, and the enzymes required for polysaccharide hydrolysis, are organized into a ...
Bacterial polysaccharides. Bacterial polysaccharides represent a diverse range of macromolecules that include peptidoglycan, ... Bacterial capsule polysaccharides. Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. This " ... Well-known polysaccharides include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen and structural polysaccharides such as ... Acidic polysaccharides. Acidic polysaccharides are polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups, phosphate groups, and/or ...
  • In some cases, these molecules are immunodominant antigens eliciting a vigorous immune response, while in other cases the expression of polysaccharides camouflages the bacteria from the immune system. (routledge.com)
  • With the advent of modern bacterial genetics, techniques such as construction and characterization of polysaccharide mutants, cloning of genes and complementation of these mutations, and expression of polysaccharides in heterologous bacterial hosts has prompted investigations into the roles and functions of these molecules for many different bacteria. (routledge.com)
  • Here, we present the genetic analysis of polysaccharides from a number of bacteria pathogenic to humans and one symbiotic with plants in hopes that similarities in the experimental approaches as well as finding s from such investigations may lead to a general understanding of polysaccharide synthesis and regulation in various bacteria. (routledge.com)
  • Polysaccharides found in bacteria and especially bacterial capsules. (harvard.edu)
  • Here we show that polysaccharides obtained from soil bacteria inhibit sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in an in vivo silkworm evaluation system. (go.jp)
  • Capsular polysaccharides of encapsulated bacteria are weakly immunogenic T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • The role of Ab against capsular polysaccharide (CPS) Ag in protection against encapsulated bacteria was first described in the early 1930s ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Linear discriminant analysis of NSP and TRFLP profiles and 16S rRNA gene copy numbers for major bacterial groups revealed that CMC resulted in a distinctive bacterial community in comparison to the other NSP, which was characterized by higher gene copy numbers for total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas , Clostridium cluster XIVa, and Enterobacteriaceae and increased prevalences of E. coli virulence factors in feces. (asm.org)
  • The association of specific bacterial serotypes of a given genus with defined clinical infections is a common phenomenon that applies to a variety of gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Effect of NAC on bacteria cultured in 20% LB. Bacterial growth, expressed as optical density at 600 nm [OD (600nm) ], was measured for 24 h. (asm.org)
  • An obligatory step in cellulose degradation by anaerobic bacteria is the adhesion of the bacterium to the polysaccharide. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • In many anaerobic bacteria the adhesion protein, and the enzymes required for polysaccharide hydrolysis, are organized into a complex and interesting structure called the cellulosome. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. (bionity.com)
  • This "capsule" cloaks antigenic proteins on the bacterial surface that would otherwise provoke an immune response and thereby lead to the destruction of the bacteria. (bionity.com)
  • Bacteria and many other microbes, including fungi and algae, often secrete polysaccharides as an evolutionary adaptation to help them adhere to surfaces and to prevent them from drying out. (bionity.com)
  • Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine is used to prevent infection caused by meningococcal bacteria. (drugs.com)
  • Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine contains four of the most common types of meningococcal bacteria (A, C, W, and Y). (drugs.com)
  • Extracellular polysaccharides are as structurally and functionally diverse as the bacteria that synthesise them. (edu.au)
  • Here, we use transcriptome sequencing to understand the diversity of genes expressed by the human gut bacteria Bacteroides intestinalis and Bacteroides ovatus grown in monoculture with the abundant dietary polysaccharide xylan. (pnas.org)
  • The ability of bacteria to form aggregates is associated with the biosynthesis of polymers such as polysaccharides. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore alternative polymers such as the bacterial extracellular polysaccharide xanthan produced by Xanthomonas campestris can result in aggregation of bacteria by depletion attraction. (ed.ac.uk)
  • This study has demonstrated for the first time that an extracellular polysaccharide produced by bacteria can result in aggregation via depletion attraction which may be an under explored mechanism by which aggregation of bacteria can occur. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In deep-sea sediments, there are mass of plants and animals debris deposited from the upper ocean, including seaweed debris which provides the carbon sources for polysaccharide-degrading bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, these complex polysaccharide-degrading bacteria are also abundant in deep sea sediments and also play an important role in the carbon cycle of deep sea. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a typical genus of polysaccharide-degrading bacteria, Flammeovirga is a newly defined member of the family Flammeovirgaceae of the class α-Proteobacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunochemical characterization of O polysaccharides composing the alpha-D-rhamnose backbone of lipopolysaccharide of Pseudomonas syringae and classification of bacteria into serogroups O1 and O2 with monoclonal antibodies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Detailed insights into the enzymatic machinery of heterotrophic bacteria capable to utilize algal polysaccharides contributes to a better understanding of carbon cycling and food web dynamics in the marine environment. (uni-bremen.de)
  • These findings will contribute to a greater understanding of the utilization of anionic polysaccharides by marine heterotrophic bacteria. (uni-bremen.de)
  • These observations suggest that the decrease in bacterial phagocytosis in this model by macrophages that phagocytosed dextran sulfate sodium indicates a decline of the mucosal defense system to bacteria. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A technological scheme for obtaining bacterial polysaccharides has been developed, which includes such stages as the cultivation of bacteria, the separation of bacterial biomass from the culture liquid, desalting, precipitation, washing and drying. (edu.uz)
  • The obtained results show that bacteria have a high potential for the yield of bacterial exopolysaccharides (7.1-9.5 mg/ml). (edu.uz)
  • Immune response to many bacterial pathogens is triggered by the polysaccharide capsule of the bacteria. (news-medical.net)
  • Bacterial glycobiology: rhamnose-containing cell wall polysaccharides in Gram-positive bacteria. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Previously, we showed that many biofilm-forming bacteria preferentially spread in the direction of aligned and densely packed polysaccharide fibers in compressed substrates, a behavior we referred to as polymertropism. (syr.edu)
  • This arrangement of polysaccharide fibers is likely to be similar to that found in the "slime" trails deposited by many biofilm-forming bacteria and would explain previous observations that bacteria tend to follow these trails of polysaccharides. (syr.edu)
  • In particular, these phosphatases have been associated with the control of the biosynthesis of capsular polysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides, critically important virulence factors for bacteria.RECENT ADVANCES: Deletion and over-expression of the phosphatases result in altered polysaccharide biosynthesis in a range of bacteria. (edu.au)
  • Furthermore, the determination of bacterial tyrosine phosphoproteomes will likely help to uncover the fundamental roles, mechanism and critical importance of these phosphatases in a wide range of bacteria. (edu.au)
  • Soil aggregation around roots of the plants is a function of the bacterial exo-polysaccharides (EPS), however, such a role of the EPS-producing bacteria in the saline environments has rarely been investigated. (agriculture-xprt.com)
  • Myxobacteria are used to study the polysaccharide production in gram-negative bacteria like the model Myxococcus Xanthus which have four different machineries of polysaccharide secretion and where a new Wzx/Wzy machinery producing a new polysaccharide was identified in 2020. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcutaneous Vaccination with Conjugate Typhoid Vaccine Vi-DT Induces Systemic, Mucosal, and Memory Anti-Polysaccharide Responses. (harvard.edu)
  • This report provides updated recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (i.e., bacteremia, meningitis, or infection of other normally sterile sites [ 2 ]) through use of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) among all adults aged ≥65 years and those adults aged 19--64 years with underlying medical conditions that put them at greater risk for serious pneumococcal infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine is for use in adults and children who are at least 2 years of age. (drugs.com)
  • Like any vaccine, meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person. (drugs.com)
  • It is not known whether meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine will harm an unborn baby. (drugs.com)
  • It is not known whether meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. (drugs.com)
  • Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine is usually given only once. (drugs.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to test the safety and favorable immune response to an anti-streptococcal vaccine (a vaccine that treats a common bacterial infection) in healthy non-pregnant women. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study is designed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine in Japanese participants to support registration of the product in Japan. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To describe the seroconversion rate (percentage of subjects with at least a 4-fold increase of their Vi antibody titer) between Day 0 before vaccination and Day 28 after vaccination with typhoid Vi polysaccharide (SP093) vaccine in subjects aged 2 years and above. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To describe the safety profile of a single dose of typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine up to 28 days after vaccination, in subjects aged 2 years and above. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To describe the immune response following a single dose of typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine in subjects aged 2 years and above. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All participants will receive a single dose of typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine on Day 0 and be assessed for immunogenicity on Day 0 before vaccination and on Day 28 post-vaccination. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All participants will receive single dose of typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine on Day 0. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine or any other medicines. (drugs.com)
  • Typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine is not recommended for infants and children younger than 2 years of age. (drugs.com)
  • Subjects received one dose of either the PsA-TT conjugate vaccine, meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccine (PsA/C), or tetanus toxoid vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • Two types of pneumococcal vaccines are cur- polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) because its effective- rently available for adults: the 23-valent pneumo- ness differs according to serotype. (cdc.gov)
  • Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine, Japan decline might have changed the effectiveness of microbiologic testing results were available were in- PPSV23 against PPSV23-serotype IPD. (cdc.gov)
  • The first use of polysaccharides for vaccination purposes was the meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. (news-medical.net)
  • Coupling proteins to polysaccharides allows T cells to assist B cells in activating an immune response, thus increasing the applicability of the vaccine. (news-medical.net)
  • Each vaccine dose (0.5 mL) contains 25 mg of each polysaccharide antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • These recommendations update the last statement by the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) on pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MMWR 1984;33:273-6, 281) and include new information regarding 1) vaccine efficacy, 2) use in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and in other groups at increased risk of pneumococcal disease, and 3) guidelines for revaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Each vaccine dose (0.5 mL) contains 25 ug of each polysaccharide antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • The flow cytometric assay could reproducibly measure functional antibody activity in prevaccination ( n = 28) and postvaccination ( n = 36) serum specimens from healthy adult volunteers vaccinated with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. (asm.org)
  • We tested seven serotypes found in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine, although the assay is adaptable to other serotypes as well. (asm.org)
  • MENINGOCOCCAL POLYSACCHARIDE VACCINE (muh ning goh KOK kal vak SEEN) is a vaccine to protect from bacterial meningitis. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • The incidence of infectious diseases caused by several bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae , and Neisseria meningitidis , has been dramatically reduced over the last 25 years through the use of glycoconjugate vaccines. (mdpi.com)
  • While these groups are often considered important for the structural identity of the polysaccharides, they play a major role in the functional immune response to some vaccines such as meningococcal serogroup A and Salmonella typhi Vi, but do not seem to be important for many others, such as meningococcal serogroups C, W, Y, and type III Group B Streptococcus . (mdpi.com)
  • We determined that B cells exposed to meningococcal type C polysaccharide (MCPS) or group B Streptococcus serotype V (GBS-V) were unresponsive to BAFF- and APRIL-induced Ig secretion. (jimmunol.org)
  • The first part of this work describes studies on the structures of three bacterial polysaccharides, i.e., the extracellular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 2 and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strain X6C61 and the O-antigenic side-chain of the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli 086. (diva-portal.org)
  • The ability of vaccines to elicit an effective defense against pathogens, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae , and Neisseria meningitidis , depends largely on the induction of protective Abs to capsular polysaccharides or T-independent Ags associated with these microorganisms ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Group B Streptococcus (GBS) continues to be the single most frequent cause of life-threatening bacterial infection during the first 2 months of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conjugation of the capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae to protein carriers has introduced a new generation of pneumococcal vaccines which may be efficacious in preventing pneumococcal otitis media during infancy. (curehunter.com)
  • We developed a semiautomated flow cytometric opsonophagocytosis assay using HL-60 granulocytes as effector cells and nonviable 5,6-carboxyfluorescein, succinimidyl ester-labeled Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) as bacterial targets. (asm.org)
  • The cell walls of many species within the genera Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Lactococcus contain large amounts of the sugar rhamnose, which is incorporated in cell wall-anchored polysaccharides (CWP) that possibly function as homologues of well-studied wall teichoic acids (WTA). (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Keinhörster D, Salzer A, Duque-Jaramillo A, George SE, Marincola G, Lee JC, Weidenmaier C, Wolz C. Revisiting the regulation of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster in Staphylococcus aureus. (harvard.edu)
  • These polysaccharides are synthesized from nucleotide-activated precursors and, in most cases, all the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis, assembly and transport of the completed polymer are encoded by genes organized in dedicated clusters within the genome of the organism. (bionity.com)
  • Three subtractive hybridization products were mapped to a genetic locus encoding proteins involved in the biosynthesis, export and translocation of a capsular polysaccharide. (nih.gov)
  • Unsurprisingly then, much effort has been made to catalogue the enormous structural complexity of the extracellular polysaccharides made possible by the wide assortment of available monosaccharide combinations, non-carbohydrate residues, and linkage types, and to elucidate their biosynthesis and export. (edu.au)
  • S. meliloti biosynthesises an extracellular polysaccharide called succinoglycan, which is well characterised in terms of its structure and biosynthesis. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Knirel, YA & Valvano, MA 2013, Bacterial polysaccharides structure and biosynthesis . (qub.ac.uk)
  • Beautifully illustrated in full colour throughout, this exceptional new volume provides cutting edge up-to-date information on such important topics as cell wall biology, composition and biosynthesis, glycosyltransferases, hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, enzymatic modification of plant cell wall polysaccharides, glycan engineering in transgenic plants, and polysaccharide nanobiotechnology. (wiley.com)
  • These are likely to be critical to our understanding of the mechanism by which polysaccharide biosynthesis is regulated. (edu.au)
  • Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the generation, ontogeny, production, and selection of B cells bearing Abs with Ag binding sites specific to polysaccharides and T-independent Ags is needed to optimize the design and ontogenetic timing of vaccines directed against pathogens bearing these types of immunodominant Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • Ultrafiltration is widely used for the purification of polysaccharide-based vaccines against pneumococci and meningococci, but there is currently no fundamental understanding of the factors controlling the ultrafiltration behavior of these polysaccharides. (elsevier.com)
  • Mixtures of capsular polysaccharides, either conjugated or native are used as vaccines . (bionity.com)
  • Serogroup C meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines were introduced in the United Kingdom in 1999, but the sequence types of meningococci causing disease since that time have not yet been reported. (asm.org)
  • Polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are providing essential and highly effective immunization against some of the major human pathogens ( 1 , 13 , 19 , 20 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • The chinchilla model has been used extensively for studying the pathogenesis of pneumococcal otitis media and for testing the efficacy of early pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) vaccines , but immunologic studies in the chinchilla have been limited by the lack of antibodies against specific immunoglobulin isotypes . (curehunter.com)
  • Pneumococcal vaccines and Hemophilus influenzae type b vaccines are also based on polysaccharides. (news-medical.net)
  • These vaccines generate immune responses in adults, but do not trigger immune responses in infants who are too young to mount a B-cell response to polysaccharide alone. (news-medical.net)
  • Glycoepitopes are most commonly associated with capsular polysaccharides (CPS) or the O-antigen domains of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). (asm.org)
  • Erythrocytes coated with bacterial capsular polysaccharides, notably the Vi antigen, were no longer agglutinated by antibodies directed against the various antigens native to the red cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • They can be present in many forms, including cell-bound capsular polysaccharides, unbound "slime", and as O-antigen component of lipopolysaccharide, with an equally wide range of biological functions. (edu.au)
  • Synthesis of a common polysaccharide antigen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the 6-aminohexyl glycoside. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The first is a common polysaccharide antigen (CPA, A-band) composed of repeating D -rhamnose sugars. (nature.com)
  • Most patients with C. neoformans infections have a high concentration of serum polysaccharide antigen and low titers of serum antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • LPMOs are crucial for effective degradation of recalcitrant polysaccharides like cellulose or chitin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Microbial Genomics, Emphasizing the Molecular Biology of Polysaccharide Degradation and Bacterial Adhesion to Plant Surfaces. (osumicrobiology.org)
  • The chemical complexity of algal polysaccharides, their differences between algal groups and variations through time and space, imply that marine flavobacteria have evolved dedicated degradation mechanisms and regulation of their metabolism during interactions with algae. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present study, we report the first transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis for an alga-associated flavobacterium during polysaccharide degradation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The effect of polysaccharide chain degradation on the energetics of SF-EPS interactions was examined by simulating an EPS consisting of various polysaccharide chain lengths. (syr.edu)
  • In the second part of this chapter, we propose new composite hydrogels composed of bacterial cellulose and other polysaccharides as xanthan and carboxymethylcellulose, hydrogels which could act as superabsorbent of moisture and fluids exuded from packaged fresh food products. (springer.com)
  • 3D structure of cellulose , a beta-glucan polysaccharide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen , and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose and chitin are examples of structural polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, most organisms cannot metabolize cellulose or other polysaccharides like chitin and arabinoxylans . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose is an unbranched polysaccharide of glucose with β-1,4 glycosidic linkages that are chemically very stable. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) represent a recent addition to the carbohydrate-active enzymes and are classified as auxiliary activity (AA) families 9, 10, 11, and 13. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The results further highlight genes and loci that may participate in polysaccharide utilization, notably encoding Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZymes) and glycan binding proteins together with a number of proteins of unknown function. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, abundant putative enzymes involved in degrading polysaccharide were found. (frontiersin.org)
  • Consequently, using bacterial enzymes as analytical tools to investigate the turnover rates of anionic polysaccharides will elucidate their fate in the marine carbon cycle. (uni-bremen.de)
  • Enzymes offer a selective and efficient means to convert biomass and its components including polysaccharides into chemicals, materials, energy, food and feed in a sustainable manner. (springer.com)
  • A wide variety of potential enzymes suitable for processing and upgrading of lignocellulosic polysaccharides and polysaccharide -based materials is currently commercially available and novel enzymes are actively searched for. (springer.com)
  • The role of these enzymes in future lignocellulosic polysaccharide processing and up-grading is dependent on the value addition and economical feasibility reached as well as the wide industrial acceptance of the bioprocessing technologies. (springer.com)
  • The inferred regulatory network in B. thetaiotaomicron contains 308 genes encoding polysaccharide and sugar catabolic enzymes, carbohydrate-binding and transport systems, and TFs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While some esterases remove methoxyl side chains, thus enhancing the possibility of successful infection of plant tissue, others remove the groups which prevent access of the substrate to the active site resulting in the improvement of the rate at which main-chain-degrading enzymes hydrolyze the polysaccharide backbone. (readabstracts.com)
  • For example, the polysaccharide capsules enable these pathogens to resist phagocytosis. (asm.org)
  • The present study provides better understanding of roles of plant defense response and surface polysaccharides on the molecular interactions between human pathogens and plants. (rutgers.edu)
  • Interestingly, the similar trend of bacterial survival/persistence between Arabidopsis (model plant) and lettuce (plant crop) may suggest a potential use of Arabidopsis as an appropriate model plant for studying the mechanisms of plant responses to human enteric pathogens on leafy vegetables. (rutgers.edu)
  • Recent studies in human streptococcal and enterococcal pathogens have highlighted critical roles for these complex polysaccharides in bacterial cell wall architecture and pathogenesis. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • B1b B cells generate a novel form of memory and provide Ab mediated-protection to persisting bacterial pathogens. (uab.edu)
  • There have been several publications regarding the role of cell wall polysaccharides in the pathogenesis of enterococcal infections ( 10 , 13 , 17 , 37 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • The presence and chemical structure of many rhamnose-containing cell wall polysaccharides (RhaCWP) has sometimes been known for decades. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • These serotyping schemes include differences in capsular polysaccharide antigens but are also based on differences in surface antigens, including lipoteichoic acid ( 16 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • The structures of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigens, extracted and purified from microbial cultures and obtained with very high purity, show that many of them are decorated by O-acetyl groups. (mdpi.com)
  • Many pathogenic bacterial species are classified into serological types, distinguished by their carbohydrate-rich surface antigens. (asm.org)
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide capsular antigens in chronic secretory otitis media. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Other patients at greater risk because of decreased responsiveness to polysaccharide antigens or more rapid decline in serum antibody include those with functional or anatomic asplenia (e.g., sickle cell disease or splenectomy), Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and organ transplantation. (cdc.gov)
  • Polysaccharides are an important class of biological polymers . (wikipedia.org)
  • Polysaccharides are essentially polymers in which monosaccharides are joined together by glycosidic bonds as water is removed. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Polysaccharides are polymers. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Among algal compounds, polysaccharides play an important role as bioactive polymers and food source for heterotrophic organisms. (uni-bremen.de)
  • In particular, when two bacterial species were placed in close proximity and in competition with each other, the ability of one species to move rapidly and directly away from the other by utilizing the aligned polymers of compressed agar substrates led to a clear survival benefit. (syr.edu)
  • Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. (mdpi.com)
  • Impact of proteins and polysaccharides on flavor release from oil-in-water emulsions during simulated cooking. (harvard.edu)
  • The new method simplifies production by utilizing squaric acid chemistry for conjugating the free amine-containing species (e.g. polysaccharides) directly to amine-containing species (e.g. proteins) without prior modification of either component. (nih.gov)
  • In V H -restricted mice, the variability introduced by the third CDR of the H chain (CDR-H3) was shown to be sufficient for the generation of the primary Ab specificities to proteins but, surprisingly, not to selected polysaccharides ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Plant Polysaccharides , an exceptional new volume in Wiley-Blackwell's successful Annual Plant Reviews series, covers the polysaccharides and proteins that form the fundamental architecture of the plant cell wall, and the genes that encode the cellular machinery that synthesizes them. (wiley.com)
  • The volume focuses on the evolution of the many families of genes whose products are required to make a particular kind of polysaccharide, bringing attention to the specific biochemical properties of the proteins to the level of kinds of sugar linkages they make. (wiley.com)
  • On the enzymatic level, the saccharolytic machinery in B. thetaiotaomicron includes a large number of extracellular and periplasmic proteins involved in polysaccharide binding, processing, and cleavage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, it is known that pathogenic organisms have developed countermeasures to resist these agents such as reducing the net negative charge of the bacterial membranes. (asm.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is unique among pathogenic fungi, because it possesses a polysaccharide capsule that is essential for virulence. (asm.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is unusual among the pathogenic fungi because it has a polysaccharide capsule that is antiphagocytic ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Even though these complex polysaccharides are not very digestible, they provide important dietary elements for humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This strain is a cosmopolitan marine bacterium that uses complex polysaccharides as exclusive source of carbon and energy and plays a key role in the marine carbon cycle. (frontiersin.org)
  • All of these strains can degrade complex polysaccharides. (frontiersin.org)
  • The impact of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) differing in their functional properties on intestinal bacterial community composition, prevalence of butyrate production pathway genes, and occurrence of Escherichia coli virulence factors was studied for eight ileum-cannulated growing pigs by use of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and quantitative PCR. (asm.org)
  • 2004) A crucial role for exopolysaccharide modification in bacterial biofilm formation, immune evasion, and virulence. (springer.com)
  • The results presented here demonstrate that the capsular polysaccharide of B. mallei is required for production of disease in two animal models of glanders infection and is a major virulence factor. (nih.gov)
  • Capsular polysaccharides are major contributors to the virulence of many microorganisms. (asm.org)
  • The protective level of serum antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations were introduced in the B. mallei capsular gene cluster and the corresponding mutants were examined for their reactivity with antibodies raised against Burkholderia pseudomallei surface polysaccharides by immunoblotting and ELISA. (nih.gov)
  • In support of this observation, we showed that serotype C and D capsule polysaccharides mask lipoteichoic acid from detection by agglutinating antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Enzyme immunoassay for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies against type 6B pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide and cell wall C polysaccharide in chinchilla serum. (curehunter.com)
  • Antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide are opsonic ( 31 , 39 , 41 , 48 , 56 ) and can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of amphotericin B ( 12 , 21 , 38 ), fluconazole ( 34 ), and flucytosine ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the polysaccharide capsule are potential therapeutic reagents for use in C. neoformans infections. (asm.org)
  • Flavobacteriia are recognized as key players in the marine carbon cycle, due to their ability to efficiently degrade algal polysaccharides both in the open ocean and in coastal regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Compared with chemical treatment, biodegradation is an efficient and clean strategy for producing the algal oligosaccharides from algal polysaccharides. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gene nomenclature for bacterial surface polysaccharides is complicated by the large number of structures and genes. (nih.gov)
  • Using a novel genetic system, we demonstrated that seven of the nine genes in the cps operon are essential for capsule production, indicating that serotypes A and B do not make a capsular polysaccharide. (asm.org)
  • 5.7 Genes for GT2 synthases for bacterial (1,3)-ß-d-glucans and related polysaccharide. (wiley.com)
  • The exo-polysaccharide involved in biofilm formation in a number of bacterial species is a polymer of N -acetyl-glucosamine. (springer.com)
  • Inside the eukaryotic hosts, bacterial biofilms interact with the host cells through signaling factors (SFs). (syr.edu)
  • Here, we describe synergistic molecular dynamics and experimental approaches for studying the translocation of signaling factors through polysaccharide chain aggregates present in the extracellular matrix of bacterial biofilms. (syr.edu)
  • The persistence of P. aeruginosa in CF patient lungs and the establishment of bacterial biofilms, as well as the bacterial resistance to antibiotic action and host-mediated clearance mechanisms in these microniches, has been attributed to the production of an exopolysaccharide called alginate ( 6 , 17 , 22 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide is one of the most important cell-surface polysaccharides, as it plays a key structural role in outer membrane integrity, as well as being an important mediator of host-pathogen interactions. (bionity.com)
  • In spite of technological advances in chemistry, molecular biology and imaging techniques that allowed for considerable expansion of knowledge pertaining to the bacterial surface polysaccharides, current understanding of the mechanisms of synthesis and regulation of extracellular polysaccharides is yet to fully explain their structural intricacy and functional variability. (edu.au)
  • Peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PG-PS) is a primary structural component of bacterial cell walls and causes rheumatoid-like arthritis in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The invention includes a new method to conjugate the O-specific polysaccharide-core part of the bacterial lipopolysaccharide and protein subcomponents. (nih.gov)
  • Colonization study with E. coli O157:H7 86-24 wild-type strain and its isogenic mutants of surface polysaccharides showed that colanic acid-deficient and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-deficient mutants significantly less survived on Arabidopsis plant and lettuce on day 1 and 5 post-inoculation, compared to the wild-type. (rutgers.edu)
  • The O polysaccharide (OPS) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pseudomonas syringae pv. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we report the characterization of a novel mechanism of resistance to APs that is dependent on the bacterial capsule polysaccharide (CPS). (asm.org)
  • Among 24 samples obtained from different bacterial species, oral administration of 6 samples from Rhizobium altiplani , Cupriavidus sp. (go.jp)
  • One way to identify the environmental cues that cause a given bacterial species to switch to the biofilm mode of growth is to monitor exo-polysaccharide elaboration in vitro. (springer.com)
  • In this chapter, we outline two methods that use wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin that binds to N -acetyl-glucosamine, to evaluate extracellular polysaccharide production by a variety of bacterial species. (springer.com)
  • Many bacterial species produce capsular polysaccharides that contribute to pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system. (asm.org)
  • Specifically, species of diatoms in the northern Adriatic Sea can produce large amounts, up to 50 g/m 3 of extracellular polysaccharides in a month [ 6 ], resulting in the episodic formation of a macroscopic gel phase [ 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • One species of myxobacteria, Minicystis rosea, has the largest known bacterial genome with over 16 million nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collectively, these results suggest a mechanism for the weak immunogenicity of bacterial polysaccharides and explain the previously observed differences between bacterial polysaccharide and NP-Ficoll immunogenicity. (jimmunol.org)
  • For bacterial infections, immunogenicity can be achieved by heat treatment or chemical inactivation. (news-medical.net)
  • Zobellia galactanivorans Dsij T , originally isolated from a red alga, was grown in minimal medium with either glucose (used as a reference monosaccharide) or one selected algal polysaccharide from brown (alginate, laminarin) or red algae (agar, porphyran, ι- or κ-carrageenan) as sole carbon source. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present dissertation, I investigated different aspects of bacterial utilization of three anionic polysaccharides from macroalgae - ulvan, alginate and fucoidan. (uni-bremen.de)
  • 7 . The medical implant of claim 1 , wherein the polysaccharide comprises alginate. (google.com.au)
  • Alginate also increases bacterial adherence to the respiratory epithelia ( 8 , 31 ), thereby increasing the rate of colonization within the respiratory tract. (asm.org)
  • Hence, the search of novel microorganisms that efficiently degrade polysaccharides is becoming increasingly crucial. (frontiersin.org)
  • Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages , and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides . (wikipedia.org)
  • In a monosaccharide, the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are 1:2:1, and thus the formula is C(H 2 O). In disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, the molar proportions deviate slightly from the general formula because two hydrogens and one oxygen are lost during each of the condensation reactions that forms them. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Essentially, disaccahrides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides are formed by a condensation reaction in which in combining the monosaccharide units there is a loss of hydrogen (H) from one molecule and a hydroxyl group (OH) from the other and a glycosidic bond formed. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • and oligosaccharides and polysaccharides and related compounds. (elsevier.com)
  • all of these causative agents have polysaccharide capsules that allow survival in the blood-stream in an immunologically na ve individual so they can reach the bloodbrain barrier. (proprofs.com)
  • High-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection analysis of serotype C and D capsules indicated that cpsF is responsible for glucosylation of serotype C capsular polysaccharide in E. faecalis . (asm.org)
  • We investigated interactions berween mucosal lesions and bacterial invasion in ulcerative colitis using the acridine-orange staining method. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In total, this microorganism can utilize dozens of dietary plant polysaccharides and host-derived mucosal glycans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polysaccharide is any of a class of relatively complex, high-molecular weight carbohydrates consisting of long-chains of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Polysaccharides are one of four classes of carbohydrates , which in turn are biological molecules that contain primarily carbon (C) atoms flanked by hydrogen (H) atoms and hydroxyl (OH) groups (H-C-OH). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Polysaccharides are relatively complex carbohydrates . (bionity.com)
  • A deeper understanding of the diversity of carbohydrates and the many applications of oligo- and polysaccharides found in nature are of high interest. (diva-portal.org)
  • Intended for researchers in biochemistry, medicine, nutrition and industry, this book discusses such topics as components of bacterial polysaccharides, fluorinated carbohydrates, and carbon sugars chemistry. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacterial Strains and Culture. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we investigated survival and persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O104:H4 strains on Arabidopsis thaliana and romaine lettuce, as well as production of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and induction of plant defense response. (rutgers.edu)
  • Polysaccharide rich extract of Tinospora cordifolia inhibits the intracellular survival of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Polysaccharide rich extract (PRE) from Tinospora cordifolia inhibits the intracellular survival of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages by nitric oxide induction. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In the present study, effects of polysaccharide rich extract (PRE) isolated from Tinospora cordifolia, on the survival of intracellular MTB strains and activation of macrophages were investigated. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Immunochemical characterization and taxonomic evaluation of the O polysaccharides of the lipopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas syringae serogroup O1 strains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Disease-causing strains are classified according to the antigenic structure of their polysaccharide capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polysaccharide produced by the epa locus is thought to be the cell wall rhamnopolymer ( 10 ), but it cannot be detected on the surface of the bacterium ( 43 ). (asm.org)
  • In this study the physical mechanisms underlying bacterial aggregation by extracellular polysaccharides are investigated by utilising the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Flammeovirga pacifica strain WPAGA1 is a Gram-negative, polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from the marine sediment of the West Pacific Ocean. (frontiersin.org)
  • The flow cytometric opsonophagocytosis assay was highly reproducible (for 87% of repetitive assays the titers were within 1 dilution of the median titer) and serotype specific, with ≥97% inhibition of opsonophagocytic titer by addition of homologous serotype-specific polysaccharide. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural non-sulphated high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that may be used to study formulations of non-animal gels potentially useful for procedures such as soft tissue augmentation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Capsular polysaccharides are water soluble, commonly acidic, and have molecular weights on the order of 100-1000 kDa. (bionity.com)
  • Despite many advances in research on photosynthetic carbon fixation in marine diatoms, the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms of extracellular polysaccharide production remain significant challenges to be resolved at the molecular scale in order to proceed toward an understanding of their functions at the cellular level, as well as their interactions and fate in the ocean. (mdpi.com)
  • Humans have developed some of these polysaccharides into useful products, including xanthan gum , dextran , gellan gum, and pullulan. (bionity.com)
  • Bacterial Adhesion: Chemistry, Biology and Physics. (edu.au)
  • An association between adherent biofilm production on tissue culture plates and expression of a specific polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA), which is functionally involved in cell clustering, was investigated for 179 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and bacterial adhesion to polyethylene-glycol-textured polyurethane biomaterial surfaces. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In Japan, PCV7 was licensed in November 2010, ens Serum Institute, https://en.ssi.dk) after culturing included in the routine immunization program for overnight. (cdc.gov)
  • In general, opsonophagocytic titers were not significantly inhibited by the presence of either heterologous pneumococcal polysaccharide or penicillin in the serum. (asm.org)
  • Total immunoglobulin levels were measured by immunodiffusion, and Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM)-specific serum antibody levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (asm.org)
  • Upon hydrolysis, polysaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides such as glucose , ribose , and fructose . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature. (nih.gov)
  • From here you can specify a search of the Bacterial Polysaccharide Gene Database. (edu.au)
  • According to the CAZy database ( http://www.cazy.org ) [ 11 ], B. thetaiotaomicron possesses 269 glycoside hydrolases, 87 glycosyl transferases, 15 polysaccharide lyases, and 19 carbohydrate esterases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By providing an unprecedented view of global transcriptomic responses during polysaccharide utilization in an alga-associated model flavobacterium, this study expands the current knowledge on the functional role of flavobacteria in the marine carbon cycle and on their interactions with algae. (frontiersin.org)
  • Polysaccharide utilization in B. thetaiotaomicron is characterized by specific features exhibited on three levels: enzymatic, transport, and regulatory. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3.2 Pectic polysaccharides: structures and availability of fragments from natural sources. (wiley.com)
  • Following a brief summary of the basic principle of the AFM experiment and the first AFM studies of diatom extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), we focus on the detection of supramolecular structures in polysaccharide systems produced by marine diatoms. (mdpi.com)
  • To further investigate the use of these polysaccharides in strain WPAGA1, a schematic of various polysaccharide-degrading metabolic pathways were deduced from the genome sequence. (frontiersin.org)
  • B) ST3 bacterial genome equivalence 1 day postinfection was determined by qPCR and is shown for the MAbs indicated. (asm.org)
  • Polysaccharides, Bacterial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Only minor effects of NSP fractions on the ileal bacterial community were observed, but NSP clearly changed the digestion in the small intestine. (asm.org)
  • In vitro studies were performed using chicken caecal crypts and porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Salmonella enterica serovars following pre-treatment separately with soluble plantain NSP and acidic or neutral polysaccharide fractions of plantain NSP, each compared with saline vehicle. (plos.org)
  • The contribution of major bacterial groups to the assimilation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and glucose in the Delaware Estuary was assessed using microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization. (usda.gov)
  • Diatoms, important marine photoautotrophic protists that account for up to 25% of the primary production on Earth [ 1 ], produce large quantities of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), consisting predominantly of polysaccharides [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • AFM makes characterization of the diatom polysaccharide networks at the micro and nanometric scales and a clear distinction between the self-assembly and self-organization of these complex systems in marine environments possible. (mdpi.com)
  • 2004) Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) protects Staphylococcus epidermidis against major components of the human innate immune system. (springer.com)