Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
A strong oxidizing agent.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
One of the largest genera of BROWN ALGAE, comprised of more than 150 species found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of both hemispheres. Some species are attached (benthic) but most float in the open sea (pelagic). Sargassum provides a critical habitat for hundreds of species of FISHES; TURTLES; and INVERTEBRATES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. In animals, UDP glucuronic acid is used for formation of many glucosiduronides with various aglycones.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A highly branched glucan in starch.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain CEREBROSIDES and SCOPOLETIN.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE that is the source of bupleurum root and of bupleurotoxin and is an ingredient of sho-saiko-to.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for its sour fruit.
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.
Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.
A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An unbranched glucan in starch.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. II. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release by polysaccharides in response to Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. (1/6727)

The release of lysosomal hydrolases from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has been postulated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in periodontal disease. In the present study, lysosomal enzyme release was monitored from rabbit peritoneal exudate PMNs exposed to Streptocccus mutans or Streptococcus sanguis. S. mutans grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth failed to promote significant PMN enzyme release. S. sanguis grown in BHI broth, although more effective than S. mutants, was a weak stimulus for promotion of PMN hydrolase release. Preincubation of washed, viable S. mutans in sucrose or in different-molecular-weight dextrans resulted in the ability of the organisms to provoke PMN release reactions. This effect could bot be demonstrated with boiled or trypsinized S. mutans or with viable S. sanguis. However, when grown in BHI broth supplemented with sucrose, but not with glucose, both S. mutans and S. sanguis triggered discharge of PMN enzymes. The mechanism(s) whereby dextran or sucrose modulates PMN-bacterial interaction may in some manner be related to promotion of microbial adhesiveness or aggregation by dextran and by bacterial synthesis of glucans from sucrose.  (+info)

Crystal structures of two H-2Db/glycopeptide complexes suggest a molecular basis for CTL cross-reactivity. (2/6727)

Two synthetic O-GlcNAc-bearing peptides that elicit H-2Db-restricted glycopeptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) have been shown to display nonreciprocal patterns of cross-reactivity. Here, we present the crystal structures of the H-2Db glycopeptide complexes to 2.85 A resolution or better. In both cases, the glycan is solvent exposed and available for direct recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR). We have modeled the complex formed between the MHC-glycopeptide complexes and their respective TCRs, showing that a single saccharide residue can be accommodated in the standard TCR-MHC geometry. The models also reveal a possible molecular basis for the observed cross-reactivity patterns of the CTL clones, which appear to be influenced by the length of the CDR3 loop and the nature of the immunizing ligand.  (+info)

Binding partners for the myelin-associated glycoprotein of N2A neuroblastoma cells. (3/6727)

The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) has been proposed to be important for the integrity of myelinated axons. For a better understanding of the interactions involved in the binding of MAG to neuronal axons, we performed this study to identify the binding partners for MAG on neuronal cells. Experiments with glycosylation inhibitors revealed that sialylated N-glycans of glycoproteins represent the major binding sites for MAG on the neuroblastoma cell line N2A. From extracts of [3H]glucosamine-labelled N2A cells several glycoproteins with molecular weights between 20 and 230 kDa were affinity-precipitated using immobilised MAG. The interactions of these proteins with MAG were sialic acid-dependent and specific for MAG.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of genes required for hyphal morphogenesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. (4/6727)

In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, germination of an asexual conidiospore results in the formation of a hyphal cell. A key feature of spore germination is the switch from isotropic spore expansion to polarized apical growth. Here, temperature-sensitive mutations are used to characterize the roles of five genes (sepA, hypA, podB-podD) in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. Evidence that suggests that the hypA, podB, and sepA genes are required for multiple aspects of hyphal morphogenesis is presented. Notably, podB and sepA are needed for organization of the cytoskeleton at sites of polarized growth. In contrast, podC and podD encode proteins that appear to be specifically required for the establishment of hyphal polarity during spore germination. The role of sepA and the pod genes in controlling the spatial pattern of polarized morphogenesis in germinating spores is also described. Results obtained from these experiments indicate that the normal pattern of germ-tube emergence is dependent upon the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton.  (+info)

Origins of globular structure in proteins. (5/6727)

Thermodynamic incompatibility of polymers in a common solvent is possibly a driving force for formation and evolution of globular protein structures. Folding of polypeptide chains leads to a decrease in both excluded volume of molecules and chemical differences between surfaces of globular molecules with chemical information hidden in the hydrophobic interior. Folding of polypeptide chains results in 'molecular or thermodynamic mimicry' of globular proteins and in at least more than 10-fold higher phase separation threshold values of mixed protein solutions compared to those of classical polymers. Unusually high co-solubility might be necessary for efficient biological functioning of proteins, e.g. enzymes, enzyme inhibitors, etc.  (+info)

Phagocytosis stimulates alternative glycosylation of macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific endosomal protein. (6/6727)

Macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific member of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein family, displays N-linked glycosylation and a heavily sialylated, mucin-like domain. We show that phagocytosis of zymosan by inflammatory peritoneal macrophages potently alters glycan processing of macrosialin in vitro. The phagocytic glycoform is not induced by other forms of endocytosis and depends on particle internalization. Zymosan uptake does not influence macrosialin protein synthesis, but increases the specific incorporation of D-[2-3H]mannose, D-[6-3H]galactose, N-acetyl-D-[1-3H]glucosamine and L-[5,6-3H]fucose by 2-15-fold. The phagocytic glycoform displays increased binding of agglutinins from peanut, Amaranthus caudatus and Galanthus nivalis, whereas binding of the sialic-acid-specific Maakia amurensis agglutinin is slightly reduced. Digestion by N-Glycanase abolishes the incorporation of [3H]mannose label and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin binding activity, but preserves the incorporation of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine and specific lectin binding. We also show that phagocytosis increases the complexity and length of O-linked chains. The data presented highlight the importance of differential glycosylation in the biology of macrosialin, phagosomes and macrophages in general.  (+info)

Structures of N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins from tobacco BY2 suspension cultured cells. (7/6727)

The structures of N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins expressed in tobacco BY2 cultured cells are reported. Five pyridylaminated (PA-) N-linked sugar chains were derived and purified from hydrazinolysates of the glycoproteins by reversed-phase HPLC and size-fractionation HPLC. The structures of the PA-sugar chains purified were identified by two-dimensional PA-sugar chain mapping, ion-spray MS/MS analysis, and exoglycosidase digestions. The five structures fell into two categories; the major class (92.5% as molar ratio) was a xylose containing-type (Man3Fuc1 Xyl1GlcNAc2 (41.0%), GlcNAc2Man3Fuc1Xyl1GlcNAc2 (26.5%), GlcNAc1Man3Fuc1Xyl1GlcNAc2 (21.7%), Man3 Xyl1GlcNAc2 (3.3%)), and the minor class was a high-mannose type (Man5GlcNAc2 (7.5%)). This is the first report to show that alpha(1-->3) fucosylation of N-glycans does occur but beta(1-->4) galactosylation of the sugar chains does not in the tobacco cultured cells.  (+info)

Trimming and readdition of glucose to N-linked oligosaccharides determines calnexin association of a substrate glycoprotein in living cells. (8/6727)

To analyze the role of glucose trimming and reglucosylation in the binding of substrate proteins to calnexin in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of living cells, we made use of the thermosensitive vesicular stomatitis virus tsO45 glycoprotein (G protein). At nonpermissive temperature the G protein failed to fold completely and remained bound to calnexin. When the cells were shifted to permissive temperature, complete folding occurred accompanied by glucosidase-mediated elimination of calnexin-G protein complexes. If release from calnexin was blocked during the temperature shift by inhibiting the glucosidases, folding occurred, albeit at a reduced rate. In contrast, when unfolded by a shift from permissive to nonpermissive temperature, the G protein was reglucosylated rapidly and became capable of rebinding to calnexin. The rate at which calnexin binding occurred showed a 20-min delay that was explained by accumulation of the G protein in calnexin-free exit sites of the ER. These contained the glucosyltransferase responsible for reglucosylation of misfolded glycoproteins but had little or no calnexin. After unfolding and reglucosylation, the G proteins moved slowly from these structures back to the ER where they reassociated with the chaperone. Taken together, these results in live cells fully supported the lectin-only model of calnexin function. The ER exit sites emerged as a potentially important location for components of the quality control system.  (+info)

All-polysaccharide composite films were prepared from native, unmodified cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) mixed with various natural water-soluble polysaccharides like carboxymethyl cellulose, galactoglucomannan, xyloglucan and guar gum. Composite films were manufactured by pressurized filtration and hot pressing. The mechanical properties of the films were systematically evaluated in the dry and the wet state. GG was furthermore selectively oxidized using galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9), and the effect of the degree of oxidation on the final composite film properties was shown. It was found that all the tested polysaccharides increased the strength and toughness of the dry composite films at 2 weight percent (wt.%) addition to CNF. After soaking the samples for 24 h in water, striking differences between the samples were found: already at 2 wt.% CMC the wet strength of the composite films diminished, while the uncharged polysaccharides improved the wet strength. For example, the addition of 2 wt.% ...
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Presenter. Richard Gawel (The AWRI). Description Polysaccharides are important wine macromolecules that are derived from both the grape and yeast during fermentation and lees contact. While their presence is known to influence the efficiency of white winemaking processes such as juice settling, cold stabilisation and filtration, they are also thought to have a positive influence on white wine texture. The impact of various juice settling and handling methods (i.e. whole bunch pressing, hyperoxidation, skin contact, free run and press fractions, solids and partial skin fermentation) on polysaccharide content of white wine, and their effect on mouth-feel will be discussed.. Registration. Click here to register. Further information. Please contact infoservices ([email protected]).. ...
Non-starch polysaccharide enzymes (NSPEs) have long been used in monogastric animal feed production to degrade non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) to oligosaccharides in order to promote growth performance and gastrointestinal (GI) tract health. However, the precise molecular mechanism of NSPEs in the improvement of the mammalian small intestine remains unknown. In this study, isobaric tags were applied to investigate alterations of the small intestinal mucosa proteome of growing pigs after 50 days of supplementation with 0.6% NSPEs (mixture of xylanase, β-glucanase and cellulose) in the diet. Bioinformatics analysis including gene ontology annotation was performed to determine the differentially expressed proteins. A protein fold-change of ≥ 1.2 and a P-value of | 0.05 were selected as thresholds. Dietary supplementation of NSPEs improved the growth performance of growing pigs. Most importantly, a total of 90 proteins were found to be differentially abundant in the small intestinal mucosa between a
O-glycans are a class of glycans that modify serine or threonine residues of proteins. Biosynthesis of O-glycans starts from the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to serine or threonine. The first GalNAc may be extended with sugars including galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, fucose, or sialic acid, but not mannose, glucose, or xylose. Depending on the sugars added, there are four common O-glycan core structures, cores 1 through 4, and an additional four, cores 5 though 8. Mucins are highly O-glycosylated glycoproteins ubiquitous in mucous secretions on cell surfaces and in body fluids. Mucin O-glycans can be branched, and many sugars or groups of sugars are antigenic. Important modifications of mucin O-glycans include O-acetylation of sialic acid and O-sulfation of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine ...
O-glycans are a class of glycans that modify serine or threonine residues of proteins. Biosynthesis of O-glycans starts from the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to serine or threonine. The first GalNAc may be extended with sugars including galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, fucose, or sialic acid, but not mannose, glucose, or xylose. Depending on the sugars added, there are four common O-glycan core structures, cores 1 through 4, and an additional four, cores 5 though 8. Mucins are highly O-glycosylated glycoproteins ubiquitous in mucous secretions on cell surfaces and in body fluids. Mucin O-glycans can be branched, and many sugars or groups of sugars are antigenic. Important modifications of mucin O-glycans include O-acetylation of sialic acid and O-sulfation of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine ...
The recent years have witnessed considerable developments in the interpretation of the three-dimensional structures of plant polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in the context of their functional specificity. A plethora of new structures of catalytic, carbohydrate-binding and protein-scaffolding modules involved in (hemi)cellulose catabolism has emerged in harness with sophisticated biochemical analysis. Despite significant advances, a full understanding of the intricacies of substrate recognition and catalysis by these diverse and specialised enzymes remains an important goal, especially if the application potential of these biocatalysts is to be fully realised.. ...
Documenting mass spectral data is a fundamental aspect of accepted protocols. In this report, we contrast MS(n) sequential disassembly spectra obtained from natural and synthetic glycan epitopes. The epitopes considered are clusters found on conjugate termini of lipids and N- and O-glycans of proteins. The latter are most frequently pendant through a CID-labile HexNAc glycosidic linkage. The synthetic samples were supplied by collaborating colleagues and commercial sources and usually possessed a readily released reducing-end linker, a by-product of synthesis. All samples were comparably methylated, extracted, and MS(n) disassembled to compare their linkage and branching spectral details. Both sample types provide B-ion type fragments early in a disassembly pathway and their compositions are a suggestion of structure. Further steps of disassembly are necessary to confirm the details of linkage and branching. Included in this study were various Lewis and H antigens, 3- and 6-linked ...
To illustrate the importance of this effect, we provide evidence that IgM competition may explain the unexpected observation that IgG of certain antigenic specificities appears to be preferentially transported from mothers to fetuses. We show that IgM in maternal serum competes with IgG resulting in lower than expected IgG signals. Since cord blood contains very low levels of IgM, competition only affects maternal IgG signals, making it appear that certain IgG antibodies are higher in cord blood than matched maternal blood. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of competition for studies involving anti-glycan antibodies.. Introduction. Human serum contains a wide variety of carbohydrate-binding antibodies that play a critical role in human health and provide a rich pool of potential biomarkers for many biomedical applications and diseases. For example, the detection of anti-glycan antibodies against blood group A and B antigens provides a simple and reliable strategy to predict ...
Glycans play essential roles in biological functions such as differentiation and cancer. Recently, glycans have been considered as biomarkers for physiological aging. However, details regarding the specific glycans involved are limited. Here, we investigated cellular senescence- and human aging-dependent glycan changes in human diploid fibroblasts derived from differently aged skin donors using a lectin microarray. We found that α2-6sialylated glycans in particular differed between elderly- and fetus-derived cells at early passage. However, both cell types exhibited sequentially decreasing α2-3sialylated O-glycan structures during the cellular senescence process and showed similar overall glycan profiles. We observed a senescence-associated decrease in sialylation and increase in galactose exposure. Therefore, glycan profiling using lectin microarrays might be useful for the characterization of biomarkers of aging.
Glycosylation modulates growth, maintenance, and stress signaling processes. Consequently, altered N-glycosylation is associated with reduced fitness and disease. Therefore, expanding our understanding of N-glycans in altering biological processes is of utmost interest. Herein, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/caspase9 (CRISPR/Cas9) technology was employed to engineer a glycosylation mutant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line, K16, which expresses predominantly hybrid type N-glycans. This newly engineered cell line enabled us to compare N-glycan effects on cellular properties of hybrid type N-glycans, to the well-established Pro´5 and Lec1 cell lines, which express complex and oligomannose types of N-glycans, respectively. Lectin binding studies revealed the predominant N-glycan expressed in K16 is hybrid type. Cell dissociation and migration assays demonstrated the greatest strength of cell-cell adhesion and fastest migratory rates for oligomannose N-glycans, and ...
The role of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and lignin in shaping the texture of fried products has not been investigated in details yet. These compounds, which accompany dry matter and starch, are a building material of cell walls and can play a crucial role in the texture of French fries. The...
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.. Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks. They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water.[1] When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan, but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans.[2][3]. Natural saccharides are generally of simple carbohydrates called ...
According to the research report titled Global Non-Starch Polysaccharides Market Size study, by Type (Diutan, Beta-glucan, Scleroglucan), by Application (Food & Beverages, Dietary Supplements, Animal Feed, Cleaning Agents, Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic, Others) and Regional Forecasts 2020-2027
Vesicles derived from maize roots retain a membrane bound H+-ATPase that is able to pump H+ at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. In this work it is shown that heparin, fucose-branched chondroitin sulfate and dextran sulfate 8000 promote a shift of the H+-ATPase optimum pH from 6.0 to 7.0. This shift is a result of a dual effect of the sulfated polysaccharides, inhibition at pH 6.0 and activation at pH 7.O. At pH 6.0 dextran 8000 promotes an increase of the apparent Km for ATP from 0.28 to 0.95 mM and a decrease of the Vmax from 14.5 to 7.1 μmol Pi/mg · 30 min−1. At pH 7.0 dextran 8000 promotes an increase in Vmax from 6.7 to 11.7 μmol Pi/mg · 30 min−1. In the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine the inhibitory effect of the sulfated polysaccharides observed at pH 6.0 was not altered but the activation of pH 7.0 decreased. It was found that in the presence of sulfated polysaccharides the ATPase became highly sensitive to K+ and Na+. Both the inhibition at pH 6.0 and the activation promoted by ...
The study of bacterial glycosidases has emerged as a field at the intersection of microbial pathogenesis and glycobiology. By studying the mechanisms by which bacteria interfere with host glycosylation, new insight can be gained into both bacterial pathogenesis and the impact of glycosylation of the immune system. Interfering with the glycosylation of the host defence is widespread among pathogenic bacteria for modulation of the functions of the immune system or as a way of utilizing the glycans of glycoproteins as nutrients [24,33].. For example, Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive gut bacterium and opportunist, secretes EndoE, an endoglycosidase with activity on the Fc-glycan on IgG and on the glycoprotein RNase B that promotes bacterial growth when nutrients are scarce [24,34]. The endoglycosidases EndoF1-3 from E. meningoseptica and EndoH from Streptomyces plicatus has been shown to be glycan-specific: high-mannose and hybrid oligosaccharides are cleaved by EndoF1 and EndoH, whereas ...
N-glycans or asparagine-linked glycans are major constituents of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. N-glycans are covalently attached to asparagine with the consensus sequence of Asn-X-Ser/Thr by an N-glycosidic bond, GlcNAc b1- Asn. Biosynthesis of N-glycans begins on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane with the transferase reaction of UDP-GlcNAc and the lipid-like precursor P-Dol (dolichol phosphate) to generate GlcNAc a1- PP-Dol. After sequential addition of monosaccharides by ALG glycosyltransferases [MD:M00055], the N-glycan precursor is attached by the OST (oligosaccharyltransferase) complex to the polypeptide chain that is being synthesized and translocated through the ER membrane. The protein-bound N-glycan precursor is subsequently trimmed, extended, and modified in the ER and Golgi by a complex series of reactions catalyzed by membrane-bound glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. N-glycans thus synthesized are classified into three types: high-mannose type, complex type, and hybrid type. ...
N-glycans or asparagine-linked glycans are major constituents of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. N-glycans are covalently attached to asparagine with the consensus sequence of Asn-X-Ser/Thr by an N-glycosidic bond, GlcNAc b1- Asn. Biosynthesis of N-glycans begins on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane with the transferase reaction of UDP-GlcNAc and the lipid-like precursor P-Dol (dolichol phosphate) to generate GlcNAc a1- PP-Dol. After sequential addition of monosaccharides by ALG glycosyltransferases [MD:M00055], the N-glycan precursor is attached by the OST (oligosaccharyltransferase) complex to the polypeptide chain that is being synthesized and translocated through the ER membrane. The protein-bound N-glycan precursor is subsequently trimmed, extended, and modified in the ER and Golgi by a complex series of reactions catalyzed by membrane-bound glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. N-glycans thus synthesized are classified into three types: high-mannose type, complex type, and hybrid type. ...
OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study.. Blood is collected from patients with metastatic breast cancer, patients with noncancerous illness, and healthy volunteers. Samples are analyzed for serum glycan biomarkers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR MS) methods.. Blood samples are collected every 3 months for up to 18 months from patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients without cancer have a single sample collected. ...
OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study.. Blood is collected from patients with metastatic breast cancer, patients with noncancerous illness, and healthy volunteers. Samples are analyzed for serum glycan biomarkers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR MS) methods.. Blood samples are collected every 3 months for up to 18 months from patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients without cancer have a single sample collected. ...
This book presents the latest breakthrough results in glycobiology regarding the roles of glycans in relation to quality control and transport of protein, the immune system, viral infection, stem cells, the neural system, and various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, muscular dystrophy, and schizophrenia. Although glycoscience has long been regarded as a very specialized field with no simple analytical method, the recent explosive progress in research continues to provide limitless evidence that glycan chains are the key component in various biological phenomena. Cell surface glycans, for example, change with developmental stages or environmental conditions and thus represent a �face� of the cell that is utilized for identification of iPS and ES cells and as biomarkers in diagnosis or detection of cancer. This book comprises 17 chapters, each of which poses outstanding �glyco-related� questions enabling non-specialists to have a clearer idea about ...
This authoritative reference work presents comprehensive information about one of the most important and most wide-spread classes of (bio)organic compounds: the polysaccharides. The comprehensive and thoroughly up-to-date handbook presents the sources, identification, analysis, biosynthesis, biotechnology and applications of important polysaccharides likes starches, cellulose, chitin, gum and microbial polysaccharides. Polysaccharides can exhibit complex structure and various functional activities. These bio macromolecules can therefore serve as raw materials for various different materials, e.g. rayon, cellulose acetate, celluloid and nitrocellulose; and they find multiple applications, for instance as surgical threads (chitin), as sources of energy, dietary fibers, as blood flow adjuvants, in cosmetics, emulsion stabilizers, film formers, binders, viscosity increasing agents or skin conditioning agenta, as food additives in gums, chewing gum bases and as vaccines. Polysaccharides form the basis for
Sulfated polysaccharides have shown promising effects on wound healing processes along with many other biological activities. The sulfated polysaccharides extracted from two algae species habitats in Persian Gulf were studied in vivo for their effects on collagen formation and epidermal regeneration. The polysaccharides were purified from aqueous extracts of P. ...
Although it typically evades the immune system, HIV does have sites of vulnerability that can be targeted in vaccine design. One such site is a glycan near the V3 loop of the envelope protein, but antibodies recognizing this epitope are often not detected in people infected with HIV. Alam et al. designed a synthetic glycopeptide that can identify B cells targeting this epitope and also used it to immunize macaques. Bonsignori et al. used this synthetic glycopeptide and other baits to study the V3-glycan antibody responses of an HIV-infected individual that developed broadly neutralizing antibodies. They also examined viral evolution over time and found clues as to why these types of antibodies do not develop more often. These tools and findings could pave the way for a vaccine that protects against diverse strains of HIV. ...
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The negatively charged sugar sialic acid (Sia) occupies the outermost position in the bulk of cell surface glycans. Lack of sialylated glycans due to genetic ablation of the Sia-activating enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthase (CMAS) resulted in embryonic lethality around day 9.5 post coitum (E9.5) in mice. Developmental failure was caused by complement activation on trophoblasts in Cmas-/- implants and was accompanied by infiltration of maternal neutrophils at the fetal-maternal interface, intrauterine growth restriction, impaired placental development, and a thickened Reicherts membrane. This phenotype, which shared features with complement receptor 1-related protein Y (Crry) depletion, was rescued in E8.5 Cmas-/- mice upon injection of cobra venom factor, resulting in exhaustion of the maternal complement component C3. Here we show that Sia is dispensable for early development of the embryo proper but pivotal for fetal-maternal immune homeostasis during pregnancy, i.e., for protecting the ...
The negatively charged sugar sialic acid (Sia) occupies the outermost position in the bulk of cell surface glycans. Lack of sialylated glycans due to genetic ablation of the Sia-activating enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthase (CMAS) resulted in embryonic lethality around day 9.5 post coitum (E9.5) in mice. Developmental failure was caused by complement activation on trophoblasts in Cmas-/- implants and was accompanied by infiltration of maternal neutrophils at the fetal-maternal interface, intrauterine growth restriction, impaired placental development, and a thickened Reicherts membrane. This phenotype, which shared features with complement receptor 1-related protein Y (Crry) depletion, was rescued in E8.5 Cmas-/- mice upon injection of cobra venom factor, resulting in exhaustion of the maternal complement component C3. Here we show that Sia is dispensable for early development of the embryo proper but pivotal for fetal-maternal immune homeostasis during pregnancy, i.e., for protecting the ...
Recombinant expression systems differ in the type of glycosylation they impart on expressed antigens such as the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins, potentially affecting their biological properties. We performed head-to-head antigenic, immunogenic and molecular profiling of two distantly related Env surface (gp120) antigens produced in different systems: (a) mammalian (293 FreeStyle cells; 293F) cells in the presence of kifunensine, which impart only high-mannose glycans; (b) insect cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9), which confer mainly paucimannosidic glycans; (c) Sf9 cells recombinant for mammalian glycosylation enzymes (Sf9 Mimic), which impart high-mannose, hybrid and complex glycans without sialic acid; and (d) 293F cells, which impart high-mannose, hybrid and complex glycans with sialic acid. Molecular models revealed a significant difference in gp120 glycan coverage between the Sf9-derived and wild-type mammalian-cell-derived material that is predicted to affect
A fresh water-soluble polysaccharide (longan polysaccharide 1 (LP1)) was extracted and successfully purified from pulp via diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-300 HR gel chromatography. HO8910 tumor cells, with inhibition percentages of Tasquinimod supplier 40% and 50%, respectively. In addition, LP1 significantly stimulated the production of the cytokine interferon- (IFN-), increased the activity of murine […]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determination of cytokine regulated glycan expression by using molecularly imprinted polymers targeting sialic acid. AU - Shinde, Sudhirkumar. AU - El-Schich, Zahra PY - 2019/7/11. Y1 - 2019/7/11. N2 - Cancer cells often have an increased amount of glycans, such as sialic acid (SA), on the cell surface, which normallyplay an important role in cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. In this study, SA expression is determinedby fluorescent nanoprobes, molecularly imprinted polymers, SA-MIPs. The nanoprobes are synthesized with animprinting approach to produce tailor-made fluorescent core-shell particles with high affinity for cell surface SA.Inflammation and cytokine production are well known tumor promoters, modulating the cellular microenvironment,including an aberrant cell surface glycan pattern. The recombinant cytokines IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and a cocktail ofcytokines collected from stimulated T leukemia Jurkat cells were used to induce in vitro inflammation in two ...
PGX (PolyGlycopleX) is a precise blend of naturally occurring water-soluble polysaccharides (fibers) that together, have highly unique and desirable properties for weight loss and overall good health. PGX is the result of extensive research by the University of Toronto and the Canadian Center for Functional Medicine. PGX is the worlds most viscous soluble fiber blend. What does viscous mean? Simply to thicken. Once PGX is added to water or food it thickens or becomes viscous. The viscosity of soluble fiber is important as it relates directly to the overall health benefits. The most important advantage of PGX over other soluble fiber products is that significantly less PGX is required to obtain the same important health benefits, including appetite control and reduced food cravings. Why take PGX? PGX has been clinically proven to: - Reduce appetite comfortably and safely - Reduce food cravings - Balance metabolism - Improve regularity - Maintain glucose levels already within normal range
A medical implant can include a bioerodible metal portion and a coating overlying the bioerodible metal portion. The coating can include a therapeutic agent and a polysaccharide matrix reversibly cross-linked with polyvalent metal cations. Upon implantation of the implant within a body, the therapeutic agent is released and the bioerodible metal portion erodes to release polyvalent metal cations capable of re-cross-linking the polysaccharide matrix.
C1q TNF Related Protein 3 (CTRP3) is a member of a family of secreted proteins that exert a multitude of biological effects. Our initial work identified CTRP3s promise as an effective treatment for Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Specifically, we demonstrated that mice fed a high fat diet failed to develop NAFLD when treated with CTRP3. The purpose of this current project is to identify putative receptors which mediate the hepatic actions of CTRP3. Methods We used Ligand-receptor glycocapture technology with TriCEPS™-based ligand-receptor capture (LRC-TriCEPS; Dualsystems Biotech AG). The LRC-TriCEPS experiment with CTRP3-FLAG protein as ligand and insulin as a control ligand was performed on the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell line. Results Initial analysis demonstrated efficient coupling of TriCEPS to CTRP3. Further, flow cytometry analysis (FACS) demonstrated successful oxidation and crosslinking of CTRP3-TriCEPS and Insulin-TriCEPS complexes to cell surface glycans. Demonstrating the
Supplement Polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose, starch, or glycogen) are characterized by the following chemical properties: (1) not sweet in taste, (2) insoluble in water, (3) do not form crystals when desiccated, (4) compact and not osmotically active inside the cells, (5) can be extracted to form white powder, and (6) general chemical formula of Cx(H2O) y. Polysaccharides may be a homopolysaccharide or a heteropolysaccharide depending on their monosaccharide components. A homopolysaccharide consists of same types of monosaccharides whereas a heteropolysaccharide is composed of different types of monosaccharides. ...
Polysaccharides are one of four classes of carbohydrates, which in turn are biological molecules that contain primarily carbon (C) atoms flanked by hydrogen (H) atoms and hydroxyl (OH) groups (H-C-OH). The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, which are monomers-such as the simple sugars glucose, ribose, and [[fructose]-out of which larger carbohydrates are constructed. When there are two monosaccharides linked together by covalent bonds they are known as disaccharides. Oligosaccharides are made up of more than 3 and generally ten (or perhaps 20) monosaccharides. Polysaccharides are even larger chains of monosaccarides. Thus, some carbohydrates are small with molecular weights of less than one hundred, whereas others are true macromolecules with molecular weights in the hundreds of thousands.. In a monosaccharide, the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are 1:2:1, and thus the formula is C(H2O). In disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, the molar proportions ...
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Abnormalities in glycan biosynthesis have got been conclusively linked to many illnesses but the intricacy of glycosylation offers hindered the evaluation of glycan data in purchase to identify glycoforms contributing to disease. systems including a problem in the microarray for uncovering the GnTV (MGAT5) enzyme. Our outcomes demonstrate the potential of systems glycobiology equipment for elucidating essential glycan biomarkers and potential healing goals. The incorporation of multiple data pieces represents an essential application of systems biology for understanding complicated mobile procedures. Writer Overview Glycans are the glucose accessories that are present on fats and protein. These highly adjustable and different glucose stores confer exclusive features to the cell surface area structurally. Latest analysis provides uncovered that these glycan single profiles can represent essential signatures of disease expresses and hence understanding glycan digesting and buildings in cells is ...
Glycans can be covalently attached to any protein or lipid molecule of choice, a process called glycation. Our technology is based on glycation of antigens which can be proteins or peptides derived from macromolecules to which we direct the immune response. Alternatively we couple glycans to delivery systems (such as lipids) that contain encapsulated antigen, for targeting specificity. Specific glycan structures can be recognized by unique receptors, present on DCs.. One of the best-studied receptors on these antigen-presenting cells is DC-SIGN, originally identified by our CSO Prof. Yvette van Kooyk. DCs continuously sample the body for the presence of disease-causing agents. Upon encounter, DCs recognize and take up the pathogen using its glycan sensing receptors. Fragments of the ingested pathogen are then presented to T cells. In an interactive process between the two cell types, DCs instruct the T cells to build up a response aimed to eradicate the particular pathogen. On the other hand DCs ...
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) induces the secretion of paracrine signals, leading to monocyte recruitment and thereby contributing to the initiation of angiogenesis and tissue healing. We have previously demonstrated that fucoidan, an antithrombotic polysaccharide, promotes the formation of new blood vessels in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. We examined the effect of fucoidan on the capacity of peripheral blood monocytes to adhere and migrate. Monocytes negatively isolated with magnetic beads from peripheral blood of healthy donors were treated with fucoidan. Fucoidan induced a 1.5-fold increase in monocyte adhesion to gelatin (p | 0.05) and a five-fold increase in chemotaxis in Boyden chambers (p | 0.05). Fucoidan also enhanced migration 2.5-fold in a transmigration assay (p | 0.05). MMP9 activity in monocyte supernatants was significantly enhanced by fucoidan (p | 0.05). Finally, Western blot analysis of fucoidan-treated monocytes showed upregulation of ERK/p38 phosphorylation. Inhibition of ERK
Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are found within multi-modular polysaccharide degrading enzymes [glycoside hydrolases (GHs)]. CBMs play a critical role in the recognition of plant cell-wall polysaccharides and enhance the hydrolase activity of their cognate catalytic domains by increasing enzyme substrate proximity. Mimicking their role in Nature, we, in the present study, propose that CBMs may assist in vitro glycosynthase-catalysed polymerization reactions to produce artificial polysaccharides. Glycosynthases are GHs that have been engineered to catalyse glycoside bond formation for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, glycoconjugates and glycans. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the glycans generated is limited by the solubility of the polymeric product. In the present study, we have targeted the synthesis of artificial 1,3-1,4-β-glucans with a regular sequence using the glycosynthase E134S derived from a Bacillus licheniformis lichenase. We show that the addition of CBM11, which binds ...
Pingdingshan JinJing Biological Technology Co. Ltd. is a Chinese company founded in 2010. It processes the by-products from soy production to create soluble soy polysaccharides (SSPS) and soy fiber.
Asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation is one of the most common co- and post-translational modifications of both intra- and extracellularly distributing proteins, which directly affects their biological functions, such as protein folding, stability and intercellular traffic. Production of the structural well-defined homogeneous N-glycans contributes to comprehensive investigation of their biological roles and molecular basis. Among the various methods, chemo-enzymatic approach serves as an alternative to chemical synthesis, providing high stereoselectivity and economic efficiency. This review summarizes some recent advances in the chemo-enzymatic methods for the production of N-glycans, including the preparation of substrates and sugar donors, and the progress in the glycosyltransferases characterization which leads to the diversity of N-glycan synthesis. We discuss the bottle-neck and new opportunities in exploiting the chemo-enzymatic synthesis of N-glycans based on our research experiences. In addition
Waters BEH-based Glycan chemistry offerings are available in three highly scalable particle sizes that address UPLC (i.e, 1.7 µm) and HPLC-based (2.5 µm XP and 3.5 µm) application needs. Each batch of BEH Glycan material is specifically quality control tested with the 2-AB labeled, Waters Glycan Performance standard to help ensure batch to batch consistency as well as highly similar separated glycan profiles. To help ensure highly similar results, chromatographers can now choose the most appropriate LC-based technology to address their specific released glycan analysis application needs and laboratory instrumentation.
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Studies of mucins suggest that the structural effects of O-glycans are restricted to steric interactions between peptide-linked GalNAc residues and adjacent polypeptide residues. It has been proposed, however, that differential O-glycan sialylation alters the structure of the stalk-like region of the T cell co-receptor, CD8, and that this, in turn, modulates ligand binding (Daniels, M. A., Devine, L., Miller, J. D., Moser, J. M., Lukacher, A. E., Altman, J. D., Kavathas, P., Hogquist, K. A., and Jameson, S. C. (2001) Immunity 15, 1051-1061; Moody, A. M., Chui, D., Reche, P. A., Priatel, J. J., Marth, J. D., and Reinherz, E. L. (2001) Cell 107, 501-512). We characterize the glycosylation of soluble, chimeric forms of the alphaalpha- and alphabeta-isoforms of murine CD8 containing the O-glycosylated stalk of rat CD8alphaalpha, and we show that the stalk O-glycans are differentially sialylated in CHO K1 versus Lec3.2.8.1 cells (82 versus approximately 6%, respectively). Sedimentation analysis indicates
Sulfated polysaccharides play a central role in many biological processes including signaling, cell growth and differentiation through interaction with proteins. Investigation of the interactions is i
The sugar calculator is grossly misleading as it assumes carbohydrates in excess of 11g (natural sugars present in milk per serving) are all added sugars, which is NOT TRUE. All sugars are carbohydrates but NOT all carbohydrates are sugars. Long-chain polysaccharides (acting as source of energy), dietary fiber, prebiotics, etc are all carbohydrates.Food regulatory authorities classify the simple monosaccharides and disaccharides as sugars, not the complex polysaccharides that act as a sourse of energy, and depending on the grade, glucose syrup solids/corn syrup solids contain 60-90% complex polysaccharides, so they are NOT totally sugars. ...
An estimate of the relative abundance of the various O-glycans was determined from nanoLC-ESI-IT-MS analysis of trypsin-generated (glyco)peptides. It should be noted that because the signal of the monosialylated O-glycopeptide in triply charged state overlapped with the doubly charged peak of the hinge repeat peptide with a putative acetylation modification in all samples, only the doubly charged signal of the monosialylated O-glycopeptide was quantified, thereby leading to an underestimation of this O-glycoform. Furthermore, it is known that glycopeptides with different glycan structures can have different response factors (35), and thus the relative abundances we measured may not accurately reflect the real ratios. In order to obtain a more reliable estimate of the percentage of the hinge repeat motif bearing an O-glycan, tryptic IgG peptides were incubated with exoglycosidases, trimming all O-glycans down to a single N-acetylhexosamine. A previous study of quantitative measurements of a ...
Polysaccharides are the most abundant organic materials in nature, yet correlations between their three-dimensional structure and macroscopic properties have not been established. Automated glycan assembly (AGA) enables the preparation of well-defined oligo- and polysaccharides resembling natural as well as unnatural structures [1]. A collection of related compounds, modified at specific positions of the chain, is presented (Fig1). These synthetic glycans are ideal probes for the fundamental study of polysaccharides, shedding light on how the modification patterns affect the polysaccharides properties (i.e. three dimensional shape). Molecular modelling simulations and NMR analysis show that different classes of polysaccharides adopt fundamentally different conformations, drastically altered by single-site substitutions [2]. Moreover, these synthetic oligosaccharides are shown to self-assemble into nanostructures of varying morphologies. Well-defined differences in chain length, monomer ...
Bioactivity and Applications of Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae. Polysaccharides. Springer International Publishing. pp ... The toxins released by dinoflagellates commonly include sulfated polysaccharides. One common toxin, saxitoxin, blocks sodium ...
Rees, D. A. (1972). "Shapely polysaccharides. The eighth Colworth medal lecture". The Biochemical Journal. 126 (2): 257-73. doi ...
"Sugars & Polysaccharides". Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2011-07- ...
"Hemicellulosic Polysaccharides". uga.edu. University of Georgia. Retrieved April 1, 2020. McCartney, L; et al. (2005). " ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Dea, Ian C M (1989). "Industrial polysaccharides" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 61 ...
... is a water-soluble anionic polysaccharide produced by the bacterium Sphingomonas elodea (formerly Pseudomonas elodea ... Dea, Ian C M (1989). "Industrial polysaccharides" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 61 (7): 1315-1322. doi:10.1351/ ... Agar-like polysaccharide produced by a Pseudomonas species: Production and basic properties. Applied & Environmental ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) N. K. Mathur (19 April 2016). Industrial Galactomannan Polysaccharides. CRC Press. pp. ... polysaccharide, primarily galactomannan with a mannose:galactose ratio of 5:1, resulting in a high molecular mass of 200,000- ...
Ukai S, Kiho T, Hara C, Morita M, Goto A, Imaizumi N, Hasegawa Y (1983). "Polysaccharides in fungi. XIII. Anti-tumor activity ... Ukai S, Hara C, Kiho T (1982). "Polysaccharides in fungi. IX. a β-D-glucan from alkaline extract of Dictyophora indusiata Fisch ... The fruit bodies of the fungus contain biologically active polysaccharides. A β-D-glucan called T-5-N and prepared from ... Ukai S, Hara C, Kiho T, Hirose K (1980). "Polysaccharides in fungi V. Isolation and characterization of a mannan from aqueous ...
Maca contains polysaccharides. Maca contains glucotropaeolin, m-methoxyglucotropaeolin, benzyl glucosinolates, polyphenols, (1R ...
Della Valle F, Romeo A (1987). "New polysaccharide esters and their salts". Eur.Pat. Appl. EP0216453 A2 19870401. Della Valle F ... Romeo A (1989). "Crosslinked carboxy polysaccharides". Eur. Pat. Appl. EP0341745 A1 19891115. Zheng Shu X, Liu Y, Palumbo FS, ... enzymes lengthen hyaluronan by repeatedly adding D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to the nascent polysaccharide as ...
Microbial polysaccharides; Part 6: Cellulosics and seed gums; Part 7: Marine polysaccharides. Gums and Stabilisers for the Food ... Polysaccharide characterization; Polysaccharide gelation; Mixed biopolymer systems; High solid systems; Proteins and emulsions ... polysaccharides and proteins) in the food industry. Presentations at the conference cover recent advances in the structure, ...
Indigestible polysaccharides were of great scientific concern in the beginning of the 20th century. Irvine used chemical ... The constitution of polysaccharides. Part II. The conversion of cellulose into glucose". Journal of the Chemical Society, ... Inulin - a versatile polysaccharide with multiple pharmaceutical and food chemical uses. Diss. International Pharmaceutical ... Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted ...
"Polysaccharides of algae: 60. Fucoidan from the pacific brown alga Analipus japonicus (Harv.) winne (Ectocarpales, ...
doi:10.1016/S0008-6215(00)90829-2. Kucharska E, Bober J (2004). "Fungal polysaccharides as immunostimulators". Advances in ...
nov., Bacteria That Decompose Algal Polysaccharides". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 42 (4): 621-627. doi: ...
Finkenstadt, Victoria L. (2005). "Natural polysaccharides as electroactive polymers". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 67 (6): 735- ...
"Extracellular polysaccharides of green algae". Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 7 (2): 665-672. doi:10.1139/m56-079. Krauss, ...
Stephen, Allistair M. (1995). Food Polysaccharides and Their Applications. Taylor & Francis Group. v t e. ...
These polysaccharides come from the Golgi apparatus and plant cell wall, which are rich in plant-specific polysaccharides. ... Root mucilage is made of plant-specific polysaccharides or long chains of sugar molecules. This polysaccharide secretion of ... These ruptured or lysed cells release their component parts, which include the polysaccharides that form root mucilage. ... The root mucilage is hydrolysed using acid to break down the polysaccharides into their monosaccharide components. The ...
"Polysaccharides of lichens and fungi. V. Antitumour active polysaccharides of lichens of Evernia, Acroscyphus and Alectoria spp ... Yokota, Itsuro; Shibata, Shoji; Saitô, Hazime (1979). "A 13C-n.m.r. analysis of linkages in lichen polysaccharides: an approach ... Later studies showed it to be a mixture of polysaccharides. In 1838, Gerardus Johannes Mulder isolated the blue-staining ... doi:10.1016/S0008-6215(00)85771-7. Gorin, Philip A.J.; Iacomini, Marcello (1984). "Polysaccharides of the lichens Cetraria ...
"Special bacterial polysaccharides and polysaccharases". Biochem Soc Symp. 48: 97-116. PMID 6400487. Yokobayashi Y, et al.. ...
Higher oligosaccharides are called polysaccharides. It is now well known that glycoconjugates play an indispensable role in ... and polysaccharides. A disaccharide is formed from two monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides can be formed by a small number of ...
This polysaccharide is a primary component of cell walls in fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans and ... Chitin is a modified polysaccharide that contains nitrogen; it is synthesized from units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (to be ... The structure of chitin is comparable to another polysaccharide, cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers. It is ... Karrer, P.; Hofmann, A. (1929). "Polysaccharide XXXIX. Über den enzymatischen Abbau von Chitin and Chitosan I". Helvetica ...
Enzymatic breakdown and hydrolysis of storage polysaccharides occurs during ripening. The main storage polysaccharides include ... In fruit, the cell walls are mainly composed of polysaccharides including pectin. During ripening, a lot of the pectin is ... "Modification of pectin polysaccharides during ripening of postharvest banana fruit". Food Chemistry. 111 (1): 144-9. doi: ...
Microorganisms synthesize a wide spectrum of multifunctional polysaccharides including intracellular polysaccharides, ... structural polysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides. Exopolysaccharides generally consist of ... EPSs are mostly composed of polysaccharides (exopolysaccharides) and proteins, but include other macro-molecules such as DNA, ... cremoris, contribute a gelatinous texture to fermented milk products (e.g., Viili), and these polysaccharides are also ...
Severian Dumitriu (2005). Polysaccharides: Structural Diversity And Functional Versatility. CRC Press. p. 855. ISBN 978-0-8247- ... Hartemink, R.: Prebiotic effects of Non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the ...
Wzx - Transfers new polysaccharide units across the inner membrane. Wzy - Assembles longer polysaccharide chains using units ... of which regulates the production of polysaccharides making up the bacterial capsule. These polysaccharides help protect the ... Whitfield C (2006). "Biosynthesis and assembly of capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli". Annual Review of Biochemistry ...
Coutts RT, Smail GA (12 May 2014). Polysaccharides Peptides and Proteins: Pharmaceutical Monographs. Elsevier. pp. 153-. ISBN ...
The polysaccharides of the florideœ. Floridean starch". Journal of the Chemical Society: 1468-1470. doi:10.1039/JR9490001468. ... "Evolution of Plant-Like Crystalline Storage Polysaccharide in the Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii Argues for a Red Alga ...
By conjugating the polysaccharide to a protein carrier, a T cell response can be induced. Normally, polysaccharides by ... The conjugation of polysaccharide target antigen to the carrier protein also increases efficiency of the vaccine as a non ... In the case of a conjugate vaccine, the carrier peptide linked to the polysaccharide target antigen is able to be presented on ... The immune systems of young children are not able to recognize the antigen as the polysaccharide covering disguises the antigen ...
Acidic polysaccharides[edit]. Acidic polysaccharides are polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups, phosphate groups and/or ... Bacterial capsular polysaccharides[edit]. Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. ... Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and ... 5 Bacterial capsular polysaccharides. *6 Chemical identification tests for polysaccharides *6.1 Periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS ...
Chemistry, Polysaccharides, Polymers, Radiation Effects, Radiation Chemistry, Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Applications, ... INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, The Radiation Chemistry of Polysaccharides, , IAEA, Vienna (2016). ... Radiation Modified Polysaccharides, Food Packaging, Radiation Processed Products, Novel Materials, Plant Biologists ...
... Mingqiang Li. ,1. ,. 2 Jianxun Ding. ,3 Yu Tao. ,2. ,. 4 Bingyang Shi. ,5 and Jing ... studied the anticancer effects of nanoyam polysaccharides and the Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharide in prostate cancer and ... Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications,. International Journal of Polymer Science,. vol. 2019. ,. Article ID 7841836. ,. ... combined anti-IL-5 mAb and Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABPS) to improve airway function in a mouse asthma model. C. ...
... we have synthesized several antitumor polysaccharides having D-glucopyranose, D-mannopyranose, D-ara-binofuranose, or its ... to the same extent as the natural polysaccharides. In this report, water soluble, branched polysaccharides having L- ... These synthetic polysaccharides showed high antitumor activity.. Keywords. Antitumor Activity Main Chain Methylation Analysis ... Matsuzaki K., Yamamoto I., Enomoto K., Kaneko Y., Mimura T., Shiio T. (1988) Synthesis of Antitumor Polysaccharides. In: ...
This book provides an excellent introduction into polysaccharide-based supercapacitors. It includes fundamental knowledge on ... bacterial cellulose supercapacitor polysaccharide science storage cellulose nanocrystals natural cellulose fiber substrate ... This book provides an excellent introduction into polysaccharide-based supercapacitors. It includes fundamental knowledge on ... this brief is aimed at a variety of readers with an interest in polysaccharide science and its applications. ...
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) can prevent pneumococcal disease.. Pneumococcal disease refers to any illness ...
ATCCs pneumococcal polysaccharides are purified and are the same serotypes found in vaccines against pneumococcal diseases ... ATCC offers 24 types of purified pneumococcal polysaccharides that can be used to study pneumococcal disease biology and in ... Polysaccharides * Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Powder Type 5 (US Type 5) (ATCC® 180-X™) ATCC® Number: 180-X™ Type Strain: no ... Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Powder Type 6A (US Type 6) (ATCC® 14-X™) ATCC® Number: 14-X™ Type Strain: no ...
BacterialBacterial,Britain,Capsules,Child,GreatHaemophilusHumans,ImmunizationInfections,Polysaccharides,Preschool,Programs, ... Alignment,Analysis,Antigens,Bacterial,EscherichiaGenome,Humans,Interactions,Polysaccharides,SalmonellaSequenceVirulencecoli, ... Bacterial,CarrierChild,ConjugateFailure,HaemophilusHumans,ImmunologicInfant,Infections,Memory,Polysaccharides,Preschool, ... Adult,Aged,Antibodies,BacterialBacterial,ConjugateHumans,MeningococcalMiddleNeisseriaPolysaccharides,Vaccination,Vaccines, ...
Polysaccharide-K (Krestin, PSK) is a protein-bound polysaccharide isolated from the fruitbody of Trametes versicolor. PSK has ... American Cancer Societys page for Trametes versicolor and Polysaccharide-K. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centers page for ... Kobayashi H, Matsunaga K, Oguchi Y (1995). "Antimetastatic effects of PSK (Krestin), a protein-bound polysaccharide obtained ... Fisher M, Yang LX (2002). "Anticancer effects and mechanisms of polysaccharide-K (PSK): implications of cancer immunotherapy". ...
Purchase Tailor-Made Polysaccharides in Biomedical Applications - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128213445, ... Modified polysaccharides in wound healing. 11. Applications of tailored polysaccharides in orthopedics. 12. Uses of tailored ... 4. Graft modified polysaccharides in biomedical applications. 5. Tailor-made polysaccharide-based hydrogels for biomedical ... 2. Etherified polysaccharides in biomedical applications. 3. Chemically cross-linked polysaccharides for biomedical ...
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of microbial polysaccharides, their current uses, and highlights biomedical ... Polysaccharides of Microbial Origin. Buchuntertitel. Biomedical Applications. Herausgeber. * Joaquim Oliveira * Hajer Radhouani ... Polysaccharides of Microbial Origin. Biomedical Applications. Herausgeber: Oliveira, Joaquim, Radhouani, Hajer, Reis, Rui L. ( ... She has been working with biomaterials based on natural polysaccharides to treat different articular cartilage pathologies. She ...
Make research projects and school reports about Polysaccharides easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... Polysaccharides Chemistry: Foundations and Applications COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group, Inc.. Polysaccharides. Polysaccharides ... polysaccharides A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published by Oxford ... polysaccharide Any of a group of complex carbohydrates made up of long chains of monosaccharide (simple-sugar) molecules. ...
Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) can prevent pneumococcal disease.. Pneumococcal disease refers to any illness ... Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease ...
of polysaccharide wt . of polysaccharide × 100. The bold values are related to polymers considered for floculation experiments ... Keywords: grafting; modifications; microwave chemistry; POC-2014; polysaccharides Introduction. Polysaccharides are a natural ... Grafting of polysaccharides, specific modification of polysaccharides or fibers particularly for preparing smart textiles or ... Specific modifications on polysaccharides. Polysaccharides possess functional groups (hydroxyl, amino…) which allow specific ...
Sulfated Polysaccharides. Miguel Gama. Minho University, Biological Engineering Department, Braga, Portugal. Series: ... This book offers an up-to-date view on sulfated polysaccharide structure and function state of the art in different life ... Chapter 6 - Sulfated Polysaccharides from Green Seaweed. (Anabela Alves, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho ... Chapter 10 - Sulfated Polysaccharides from Unusual Natural Sources. (Marília Medeiros Fernandes de Negreiros, Jailma Almeida- ...
Polysaccharide biosynthesis domain (IPR021148). Short name: Polysacc_synth_dom Overlapping homologous superfamilies *PBDC1-like ... The function of PBDC1 (polysaccharide biosynthesis domain-containing protein) is not clear. ...
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... Demand Assures Motivated Revenue Share during 2017-2026 / Novozyme, ... Soybean Polysaccharide is a water soluble polysaccharide extracted and refined from soybean. Soybean Polysaccharide are acidic ... Demand for Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides in Animal Feed to Reflect High Growth in the Coming Years. Polysaccharides and ... Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides Market Global Forecast over 2026 Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides are complex form of ...
The most common polysaccharide medium used in Ficoll®. Ficoll is produced by the polymerization of sucrose molecules ... with epichlorohydrin to give a polysaccharide with the average molecules weight of 400,000. Ficoll solutions below 20%(w/v) ... Polysaccharides circumvent the high osmotic strength issues that arise with using sucrose solutions. ... USA Home > Product Directory > Cell Biology > Hematology and Histology > Density Gradient Media > Polysaccharides ...
Bacterial surface or secreted polysaccharides are molecules that can function as barriers to protect bacterial cells against ... Here, we present the genetic analysis of polysaccharides from a number of bacteria pathogenic to humans and one symbiotic with ... Streptococcus Capsular Polysaccharides, Janet Yother. Staphylococcus Aureus Capsules, Jean C. Lee and Chia Y. Lee. ... Bacterial surface or secreted polysaccharides are molecules that can function as barriers to protect bacterial cells against ...
Seaweed Polysaccharides: Isolation and Properties of Agar, Alginate, Carrageenans, Fucoidans and Others. Polysaccharides from ... Marine Polysaccharides as Biofilms, Car.riers and Encapsulation Matrices. Miscellaneous Applications.. Subject Categories. * ... Polysaccharides from Crustacean Shell-wastes: Isolation and Properties of Chitin, Chitosan and their Derivatives. ... Functional Roles of Marine Polysaccharides - Texturizers, Fiber, Antioxidants etc. Food Applications of Chitin, Chitosan and ...
Polysaccharide Phosphorylase. Read the Nobel Lecture. Pdf 241 kB. Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1947 ...
Read more about the prescription drug polysaccharide iron complex (Iferex 150, Ferrex 150, Niferex 150). ... Consumer information about the medication polysaccharide iron complex (Iferex 150, Ferrex 150, Niferex 150) side effects, drug ... The FDA classifies polysaccharide iron complex in pregnancy category A, which means that polysaccharide iron complex can be ... polysaccharide iron complex. *What is polysaccharide iron complex? What is its (mechanism of action)? ...
polysaccharide synonyms, polysaccharide pronunciation, polysaccharide translation, English dictionary definition of ... polysaccharide. also pol·y·sac·cha·rid or pol·y·sac·cha·rose n. Any of a class of carbohydrates, such as starch and cellulose, ... polysaccharide. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to polysaccharide: Polysaccharide Vaccine ... Polysaccharide - definition of polysaccharide by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/polysaccharide ...
Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature.. Reeves PR1, Hobbs M, Valvano MA, Skurnik M, Whitfield C, Coplin D, ... Gene nomenclature for bacterial surface polysaccharides is complicated by the large number of structures and genes. We propose ...
Starches are classified as polysaccharides due to their molecular structures. Most starches are found in plants, since plants ... Polysaccharides are sugars that consists of multiple simple sugar units. The simple sugar units are known as monosaccharides, ... Polysaccharides form when numerous monosaccharides bind together to form long-chain compounds. Many of the common ... This allows polysaccharides to be utilized by plants and animals as a source of glucose. ...
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are both complex carbohydrates. Their building blocks are the dietary monosaccharides ... Digestible Polysaccharides. The only digestible polysaccharide is starch, which is a large molecule composed simply of glucose ... "Poly" means "many"; polysaccharides are composed of long chains of monosaccharide units. Some are digestible by human enzymes, ... Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides have separate and overlapping functions in maintaining good colon health and energy. ...
Well-known polysaccharides include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen and structural polysaccharides such as ... Acidic polysaccharides. Acidic polysaccharides are polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups, phosphate groups, and/or ... Polysaccharides from microorganisms, plants and animals. Pages 1-19 in E. J. Vandamme, Biopolymers, Volume 5, Polysaccharides I ... Bacterial capsule polysaccharides. Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. This " ...
MENINGOCOCCAL POLYSACCHARIDE VACCINE (muh ning goh KOK kal vak SEEN) is a vaccine to protect from bacterial meningitis. ... Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine injection. What is this medicine?. MENINGOCOCCAL POLYSACCHARIDE VACCINE (muh ning goh KOK ...
  • 3D structure of cellulose , a beta-glucan polysaccharide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen , and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose and chitin are examples of structural polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, most organisms cannot metabolize cellulose or other polysaccharides like chitin and arabinoxylans . (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples for polysaccharides are glycogen , cellulose , pectins or chitin . (conservapedia.com)
  • Like α -amylose, cellulose is a linear polysaccharide composed entirely of glucose. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Starch and cellulose are polysaccharides. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cellulose is an unbranched polysaccharide of glucose with β-1,4 glycosidic linkages that are chemically very stable. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As a result, cellulose is "immune" to enzyme s that normally break down storage polysaccharides. (everything2.com)
  • Polysaccharides such as cellulose are the building materials for plants and shells of chitin protect animals. (mpg.de)
  • Even though Nature produces 100s of millions of tons of cellulose and chitin each year, access to completely defined polysaccharides has proven extremely difficult. (mpg.de)
  • Some polysaccharides are linear in structure like cellulose and mucopolysaccharides, while some are branched like starch and glycogen. (infobarrel.com)
  • These structural polysaccharides are cellulose , hemicelluloses , chitin etc. cellulose together with hemicelluloses is found in plant cell walls to provide rigidity to the cell while chitins are found in exoskeleton of insects. (infobarrel.com)
  • Polysaccharide esters (e.g. cellulose and starch) are among the first polymeric materials applied commercially. (alibris.com)
  • Various disaccharides for comparison include maltose and sucrose and various polysaccharides include starch and cellulose. (education.com)
  • A method for producing derivatized microfibrillar polysaccharide, including but not limited to cellulose, derivatized by steric and/or electrostatic forces, where the electrostatic forces are provided by anionic charge or by a combinatio. (sumobrain.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 1 wherein the polysaccharide comprises a starch, a galactomannan gum, a cellulose, or combinations thereof. (google.com.au)
  • Biological conversion of lignocellulose involves synergistic action of a large array of enzymes including the recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) that perform oxidative cleavage of cellulose. (nature.com)
  • It both approaches polysaccharides as a polymer class and provides detailed descriptions of most major polysaccharides (cellulose, mannan, xylan, chitin-chitosan, cyclodextrines). (springer.com)
  • Starch (a polymer of glucose) is used as a storage polysaccharide in plants, being found in the form of both amylose and the branched amylopectin . (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to amylopectin, which comprises 70 to 90 percent of natural starch, α -amylose is a branching polysaccharide. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Starch is the only digestible polysaccharide. (openpr.com)
  • Is starch a polysaccharide? (reference.com)
  • The only digestible polysaccharide is starch, which is a large molecule composed simply of glucose. (livestrong.com)
  • Starch is a polysaccharide of glucose with α-1,4 glycosidic linkages (in which the carbon-1 of one sugar molecule is linked to the carbon-4 of the adjacent molecule). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Some polysaccharides are used to store energy (as food reserve) like glycogen , starch , fructans and they are stored as food reserve for future uses. (infobarrel.com)
  • In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between subjects design trial, 73 middle-aged adults consumed 4 g of a proprietary mixture of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) (Ambrotose ® ​ complex), a rice flour placebo, or a sucrose control. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • demonstrated the vaccine immune effect of Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharides (RPPS). (hindawi.com)
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) can prevent pneumococcal disease . (cdc.gov)
  • MENINGOCOCCAL POLYSACCHARIDE VACCINE (muh ning goh KOK kal vak SEEN) is a vaccine to protect from bacterial meningitis. (nationwidechildrens.org)
  • Sanofi Pasteur, the manufacturer of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Menomune), announced in February 2017 that it is discontinuing production of the vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Each vaccine dose (0.5 mL) contains 25 mg of each polysaccharide antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • Examples of polysaccharide use in the pharma industry include as plasma expanders, carriers for water-insoluble drugs, in drug formulation, as immune stimulators and vaccine antigens. (microfluidicscorp.com)
  • The studies conclusively found that Microfluidizer® technology is effective in achieving the target weight of polysaccharides used as vaccine antigens, in some cases with a single pass. (microfluidicscorp.com)
  • Menomune - A/C/Y/W-135, Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine, Groups A, C, Y and W- 135 Combined, is a vaccine for subcutaneous injection. (rxlist.com)
  • Menomune - A/C/Y/W-135 vaccine consists of a sterile lyophilized preparation of the group-specific polysaccharide antigens from N meningitidis, Group A, Group C, Group Y, and Group W-135. (rxlist.com)
  • Potency is evaluated by measuring the molecular size of each polysaccharide component using a column chromatography method as standardized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) 10 for Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine. (rxlist.com)
  • Menomune® - A/C/Y/W-135, Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine, Groups A, C, Y and W-135 Combined, is indicated for active immunization for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135. (rxlist.com)
  • Before receiving meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine, tell your doctor if you have a weak immune system, if you are allergic to latex rubber, or if you are receiving steroids, chemotherapy, or radiation treatment. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Like any vaccine, meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine is used to prevent infection caused by meningococcal bacteria. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine works by exposing you to a small dose of the bacteria or a protein from the bacteria, which causes your body to develop immunity to the disease. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine is for use in adults and children who are at least 3 months of age. (cardiosmart.org)
  • FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine will harm an unborn baby. (cardiosmart.org)
  • It is not known whether meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine is usually given only once. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of meningococcal polysaccharide diphtheria conjugate vaccine in adults older than 55 years of age. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Transcutaneous Vaccination with Conjugate Typhoid Vaccine Vi-DT Induces Systemic, Mucosal, and Memory Anti-Polysaccharide Responses. (harvard.edu)
  • These recommendations update the last statement by the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) on pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MMWR 1984;33:273-6, 281) and include new information regarding 1) vaccine efficacy, 2) use in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and in other groups at increased risk of pneumococcal disease, and 3) guidelines for revaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Each vaccine dose (0.5 mL) contains 25 ug of each polysaccharide antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • When is pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV 23) recommended in children with pediatric HIV infection? (medscape.com)
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV 23) should be given to children at 2 years of age, with 1 revaccination 3-5 years later. (medscape.com)
  • What is meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Menomune A/C/Y/W-135)? (rxlist.com)
  • Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine contains four of the most common types of meningococcal bacteria (A, C, W, and Y). (rxlist.com)
  • Seven articles report the investigations on the biological activities of natural polysaccharides. (hindawi.com)
  • Some of these have indicated high antitumor activity against Sarcoma 180 implanted into mice, to the same extent as the natural polysaccharides. (springer.com)
  • She has been working with biomaterials based on natural polysaccharides to treat different articular cartilage pathologies. (springer.com)
  • We investigated preparation of film dosage form (FD) from natural polysaccharides using the casting method without organic solvents, heating or pH control. (scirp.org)
  • Polysaccharides (also called glycan ) are carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides . (conservapedia.com)
  • The polysaccharides, or complex carbohydrates, represent the form that sugar takes when it is stored. (news-medical.net)
  • Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides are essentially complex carbohydrates that include chain of monosaccharide molecules. (openpr.com)
  • Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are both complex carbohydrates. (livestrong.com)
  • Polysaccharide is any of a class of relatively complex, high-molecular weight carbohydrates consisting of long-chains of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Polysaccharides are one of four classes of carbohydrates , which in turn are biological molecules that contain primarily carbon (C) atoms flanked by hydrogen (H) atoms and hydroxyl (OH) groups (H-C-OH). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A horse with Equine Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy has an excessive glycogen buildup or storage in the skeletal muscles due to improper digestion of sugars, starches and carbohydrates found in cereal grains such as barley, corn, and oats. (terrificpets.com)
  • Polysaccharides are the carbohydrates that are polymers of monosaccharide on which more than 10 sugar (monosaccharide) units are linked together through glycosidic linkage . (infobarrel.com)
  • Crude polysaccharide (yield 56.8%) was isolated by removing fat, protein and low molecular weight carbohydrates from initial okara. (mdpi.com)
  • Polysaccharides are relatively complex carbohydrates . (bionity.com)
  • A deeper understanding of the diversity of carbohydrates and the many applications of oligo- and polysaccharides found in nature are of high interest. (diva-portal.org)
  • Capsular polysaccharides are water soluble, commonly acidic, and have molecular weights on the order of 100-1000 kDa. (bionity.com)
  • Mixtures of capsular polysaccharides, either conjugated or native are used as vaccines . (bionity.com)
  • Herein, we assessed whether this same mechanism applies to conjugates prepared from other capsular polysaccharides. (pnas.org)
  • nearly two hundred different polysaccharides are produced by E. coli alone. (bionity.com)
  • For this reason, some bacterial polysaccharides are produced on an industrial scale and used as raw material for processed foods, in medicine and in industrial preparations (3). (scielo.br)
  • Our results suggest that silkworms provide an efficient screening system of bacterial polysaccharides that inhibit sucrose-induced hyperglycemia. (go.jp)
  • With the discontinuation of Menomune, no meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines licensed for use in people 56 years of age are available in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Enhanced stability of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines by using lactose as a menstruum for lyophilization . (rxlist.com)
  • Polysaccharides are the structural components of a cell. (news-medical.net)
  • Polysaccharides can also be roughly divided into groups according to their two main functions: energy storage and their contributions to structural components of cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The authors Laboratory is involved in the chemical and structural determination of sulfated polysaccharides from different sources. (asce.org)
  • See all of Structural Polysaccharide , no other writeups in this node. (everything2.com)
  • Access to complex polysaccharides are the basis for investigations into fundamental structural processes such as carbohydrate folding that is not understood until today. (mpg.de)
  • Best book for polysaccharides: Structural and Functional understanding of polysaccharides. (infobarrel.com)
  • Liu, Y. Isolation and Structural Characterisation of Okara Polysaccharides. (mdpi.com)
  • Li B, Lu F, Nan H, Liu Y. Isolation and Structural Characterisation of Okara Polysaccharides. (mdpi.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharide is one of the most important cell-surface polysaccharides, as it plays a key structural role in outer membrane integrity, as well as being an important mediator of host-pathogen interactions. (bionity.com)
  • Although some natural algal polysaccharide mixtures have been used already for centuries, their fractionation and structural investigations were started quite recently. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glycogen is a highly branched polysaccharide of glucose with α-glycosidic linkages. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Ginseng polysaccharides can significantly enhance the body's immune system, improve immune function, prevent major diseases, prevent cancer, antioxidant, protect bone marrow function, with a clear or white blood cells, and improve liver detoxification, prevent of liver damage and promote damage liver tissue repair, lower blood glucose and liver glycogen. (eceurope.com)
  • Polysaccharides are a broad term for any sugar molecule that has a glycogen bond. (ihealthdirectory.com)
  • Macromolecules - proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides - are formed by the polymerization of hundreds of their low-molecular-weight precursors - amino acids, nucleotides, and simple sugars. (news-medical.net)
  • Moreover, polysaccharides and other sugars may function as markers for certain cellular recognition processes, including the intracellular movement of proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • The present invention relates to methods for producing N-terminal derivatives of proteins in which a polysaccharide, preferably having at least terminal sialic units and preferably consisting essentially only of sialic acid units, is reacted at the N-terminus of a protein or peptide under controlled conditions to produce an N-terminal derivative. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Some polysaccharides are also involved in recognitions like glycoproteins present at the surface of RBC are proteins linked to polysaccharides. (infobarrel.com)
  • Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. (mdpi.com)
  • Impact of proteins and polysaccharides on flavor release from oil-in-water emulsions during simulated cooking. (harvard.edu)
  • Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages , and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ficoll is produced by the polymerization of sucrose molecules with epichlorohydrin to give a polysaccharide with the average molecules weight of 400,000. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Bacterial surface or secreted polysaccharides are molecules that can function as barriers to protect bacterial cells against environmental stresses, as well as act as adhesins or recognition molecules. (routledge.com)
  • In some cases, these molecules are immunodominant antigens eliciting a vigorous immune response, while in other cases the expression of polysaccharides camouflages the bacteria from the immune system. (routledge.com)
  • With the advent of modern bacterial genetics, techniques such as construction and characterization of polysaccharide mutants, cloning of genes and complementation of these mutations, and expression of polysaccharides in heterologous bacterial hosts has prompted investigations into the roles and functions of these molecules for many different bacteria. (routledge.com)
  • So, these polysaccharides have very long molecules, lots of sugar residues joined together. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Within the chemistry of natural polymers, the use of microwave irradiation has been exploited in the past two decades to alleviate limitations in the synthesis of graft modified polysaccharide materials. (degruyter.com)
  • Specifically it has been exploited in the past two decades to alleviate limitations in the synthesis of graft modified polysaccharide materials [6]. (degruyter.com)
  • Here, we present the genetic analysis of polysaccharides from a number of bacteria pathogenic to humans and one symbiotic with plants in hopes that similarities in the experimental approaches as well as finding s from such investigations may lead to a general understanding of polysaccharide synthesis and regulation in various bacteria. (routledge.com)
  • Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature. (nih.gov)
  • Now, two chemists, postdoctoral fellow Dr. Abragam Joseph and PhD student Alonso Pardo-Vargas in the team led by Peter H. Seeberger, Director at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces (Potsdam, Germany) used an automated synthesis instrument to prepare a linear 100-mer polysaccharide within 188 hours from one building block. (mpg.de)
  • And if we can understand how these polysaccharides are synthesized, then we can look for natural variation in the levels of their synthesis, so that we can hand on some of benefits of natural variation to human health or we can manipulate them. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • According to Fact.MR's recent research report, the global market for polysaccharides and oligosaccharides is anticipated to expand at a value CAGR of 4.8% throughout the period of assessment, 2017-2026. (openpr.com)
  • By the end of the assessment year, 2026, above 7540 Bn tons of production of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides is estimated to be consumed across the globe. (openpr.com)
  • Asia Pacific excluding Japan (APEJ) region is expected to be a highly lucrative region for the growth of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides market. (openpr.com)
  • The consumption of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides is expected to grow in this region owing to increased demand from the food sector in various applications. (openpr.com)
  • The Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides Market in APEJ is estimated to reach a valuation a little under US$ 9 Bn by the end of the year of assessment from a value of about US$ 5 Bn in 2017. (openpr.com)
  • Europe followed by North America are also expected to largely contribute to the growth of the global polysaccharides and oligosaccharides market. (openpr.com)
  • Also the consumption of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in this region is expected to grow at a moderate pace in the coming years. (openpr.com)
  • Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides are used in various applications such as in the production of beverages, infant milk formula, animal feed, bakery and confectionery, dairy products and snacks. (openpr.com)
  • The consumption of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in animal feed is expected to increase at a robust rate in the coming years. (openpr.com)
  • Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides have separate and overlapping functions in maintaining good colon health and energy. (livestrong.com)
  • In a monosaccharide, the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are 1:2:1, and thus the formula is C(H 2 O). In disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, the molar proportions deviate slightly from the general formula because two hydrogens and one oxygen are lost during each of the condensation reactions that forms them. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Essentially, disaccahrides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides are formed by a condensation reaction in which in combining the monosaccharide units there is a loss of hydrogen (H) from one molecule and a hydroxyl group (OH) from the other and a glycosidic bond formed. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. (bionity.com)
  • Bacteria and many other microbes, including fungi and algae, often secrete polysaccharides as an evolutionary adaptation to help them adhere to surfaces and to prevent them from drying out. (bionity.com)
  • Polysaccharides found in bacteria and especially bacterial capsules. (harvard.edu)
  • Here we show that polysaccharides obtained from soil bacteria inhibit sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in an in vivo silkworm evaluation system. (go.jp)
  • Many of the common polysaccharide compounds, including starches, contain the monosaccharide glucose as their simple sugar unit. (reference.com)
  • This allows polysaccharides to be utilized by plants and animals as a source of glucose. (reference.com)
  • Upon hydrolysis, polysaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides such as glucose , ribose , and fructose . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Glucose and sucrose stimulated the polysaccharide production in a similar way. (scielo.br)
  • Other patients at greater risk because of decreased responsiveness to polysaccharide antigens or more rapid decline in serum antibody include those with functional or anatomic asplenia (e.g., sickle cell disease or splenectomy), Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and organ transplantation. (cdc.gov)
  • The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. (osti.gov)
  • And in our first pig trial that we finished last year, we added, we supplemented the diet with one of these cell wall polysaccharides. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Changes in cell wall polysaccharides from ripening olive fruits. (wur.nl)
  • In recent years there has been a continuous search for new water-soluble polysaccharides, particularly those produced by microorganisms. (scielo.br)
  • Three water-soluble polysaccharides have been isolated from flower buds of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HIB 1,2,3). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Polysaccharides from Crustacean Shell-wastes: Isolation and Properties of Chitin, Chitosan and their Derivatives. (routledge.com)
  • In this work the authors describe the procedures for the isolation, purification and chemical characterization of the sulfated polysaccharides from the tunic of ascidian and the body wall of sea cucumber. (asce.org)
  • Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum Promote Cognitive Function and Neural Progenitor Proliferation in Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines in activated rheumatoid synovial fibroblast. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) Coriolus versicolor Human CYP1A2 CYP2D6 CYP2E1 CYP3A4 ABSTRACT Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy or health supplement in China. (acronymfinder.com)
  • [1] When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan , but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans . (wikipedia.org)
  • Polysaccharides include long monosaccharide chains in which the monosaccharide units are bound by glycosidic linkages. (openpr.com)
  • polysaccharides are composed of long chains of monosaccharide units. (livestrong.com)
  • Even though these complex polysaccharides are not very digestible, they provide important dietary elements for humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, polysaccharides are digestible as well as non-digestible. (openpr.com)
  • Non-starchy and starchy vegetables, unrefined grains, certain fruits and legumes are sources of non-digestible polysaccharides. (openpr.com)
  • Owing to the multidisciplinary character of the European Polysaccharide Network of Excellence (EPNOE), the book describes all main aspects of polysaccharide science and technology (biology, enzymology, physics, chemistry, materials science and processing). (springer.com)
  • Grafting of polysaccharides, specific modification of polysaccharides or fibers particularly for preparing smart textiles or medical products as well as reactions of polysaccharides to valuable bio-platform molecule will be discussed. (degruyter.com)
  • The chain length of polysaccharides was found to be directly related to their hydrolysis rates. (aiche.org)
  • Chitin is a mayor component in the exoskeleton s of antropod s, as it is a tough, modified polysaccharide. (everything2.com)
  • Advantages were confirmed in two pharmaceutical case studies for conjugated vaccines containing polysaccharides. (microfluidicscorp.com)
  • Helper T cell responses to glycoconjugate vaccines are regulated through mechanisms dependent upon the structure of the polysaccharide. (pnas.org)
  • Gene nomenclature for bacterial surface polysaccharides is complicated by the large number of structures and genes. (nih.gov)
  • We analyzed human polyreactive antibodies that bind multiple pneumococcal polysaccharides, including PPS14 and PPS23F. (scirp.org)
  • Simple sugars and polysaccharides compose this group. (news-medical.net)
  • Polysaccharides are sugars that consists of multiple simple sugar units. (reference.com)
  • The detergent is free of an external structurant selected from the group consisting of non-polymeric hydroxyl-containing materials, microfibrillated celluloses, polyacrylates, polysaccharides , polysaccharide derivatives and mixtures thereof. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • From here you can specify a search of the Bacterial Polysaccharide Gene Database. (edu.au)
  • Starches are classified as polysaccharides due to their molecular structures. (reference.com)
  • In addition to their structure, the polymer molecular weight can affect the properties of polysaccharides. (microfluidicscorp.com)
  • A Microfluidizer® processor reduces the molecular weight without altering the chemical structure of the polysaccharide or its attached groups. (microfluidicscorp.com)
  • The neutral polysaccharides (HIB 1 and 2) are composed of arabinans and arabinogalactans of low relative molecular mass. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Polysaccharides: Molecular and Supramolecular Structures. (springer.com)
  • These polysaccharides are synthesized from nucleotide-activated precursors and, in most cases, all the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis, assembly and transport of the completed polymer are encoded by genes organized in dedicated clusters within the genome of the organism. (bionity.com)
  • What is polysaccharide iron complex? (medicinenet.com)
  • Polysaccharide iron complex is an iron containing drug used to improve low iron levels. (medicinenet.com)
  • Polysaccharide iron complex is available in generic form and is available over-the-counter (OTC). (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the side effects of polysaccharide iron complex? (medicinenet.com)
  • A doctor should be consulted before polysaccharide iron complex is used in children. (medicinenet.com)
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with polysaccharide iron complex? (medicinenet.com)
  • Polysaccharide iron complex should be used with caution with medications like ciprofloxacin ( Cipro ), levofloxacin ( Levaquin ), moxifloxacin ( Avelox ), minocycline ( Minocin ), doxycycline ( Vibramycin ), levothyroxine ( Synthroid ), ibandronate ( Boniva ), and alendronate , ( Fosamax ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Polysaccharide iron complex can slow down the absorption of such medications and may reduce their therapeutic effects. (medicinenet.com)
  • Is polysaccharide iron complex safe to take if you are pregnant or breastfeeding? (medicinenet.com)
  • The FDA classifies polysaccharide iron complex in pregnancy category A, which means that polysaccharide iron complex can be safely and effectively used in pregnant females without any risks to the unborn. (medicinenet.com)
  • What else should you know about polysaccharide iron complex? (medicinenet.com)
  • What preparations of polysaccharide iron complex-oral are available? (medicinenet.com)
  • How should I keep polysaccharide iron complex-oral stored? (medicinenet.com)
  • Polysaccharide iron complex capsules should be stored between 15 C and 30 C (59 F and 86 F). (medicinenet.com)
  • Polysaccharide iron complex (Iferex 150, Ferrex 150, Niferex 150) is a prescription medication used to prevent or treat anemia. (medicinenet.com)
  • 3. Glassman E "Oral iron therapy with ferrous fumarate and polysaccharide iron complex. (drugs.com)
  • In recent years both in human and animal nutrition there is a growing interest towards the beneficial effects of complex polysaccharides in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Overall, this special issue bridges the polysaccharide and biomedical applications. (hindawi.com)
  • Tailor-Made Polysaccharides in Biomedical Applications provides extensive details on all the vital precepts, basics, and fundamental aspects of tailored polysaccharides in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. (elsevier.com)
  • It will be useful to biomedical researchers, chemical engineers, regulatory scientists, and students who are actively involved in developing pharmaceutical products for biomedical applications by using tailor-made polysaccharides. (elsevier.com)
  • Polysaccharides are long polymers of monosaccharides and their derivatives. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been developed to detect Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide from the four serotypes A, B, C and D. The ELISAs avoid the problem of unreliable polysaccharide binding to polystyrene plates by using MAbs to capture and immobilize the polysaccharide antigen. (nih.gov)
  • Processing of both the protein and the polysaccharide creates glycopeptides in the endosome of antigen-presenting cells. (pnas.org)
  • Preparing defined polysaccharides provides the basis to understand how these ubiquitous biopolymers serve their roles as materials. (mpg.de)
  • Processing and Development of Polysaccharide-Based Biopolymers for Packaging Applications presents the latest cutting-edge research into the processing and utilization of bio-based polymers for packaging applications, covering materials derived from polysaccharides, polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), polybutylene and bio-polyethylene. (elsevier.com)
  • PSK is a protein polysaccharide consisting of a beta-glucan β-1,4 main chain with β-1,3 and β-1,6 side chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polysaccharides from Marine Microorganisms. (routledge.com)
  • The present work searched for new polysaccharide-producing microorganisms in soil. (scielo.br)
  • Polysaccharides are an important class of biological polymers . (wikipedia.org)
  • obtained the high quality of Astragalus polysaccharide by applying the cellulase method and proved its biological features against rheumatoid arthritis. (hindawi.com)
  • The ELISAs can be used to measure the concentration of polysaccharide in biological fluids and are potentially useful tools for basic research and clinical studies. (nih.gov)
  • Chemical structure and biological activity of polysaccharides from Hibiscus sabdariffa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Humans have developed some of these polysaccharides into useful products, including xanthan gum , dextran , gellan gum, and pullulan. (bionity.com)
  • Ginseng polysaccharides are made up of the galacturonic acid, galactose, rhamnose, acidic heteropolysaccharide (which is composed of arabinose), and dextran. (eceurope.com)
  • Polysaccharide-K (Krestin, PSK) is a protein-bound polysaccharide isolated from the fruitbody of Trametes versicolor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of PBDC1 (polysaccharide biosynthesis domain-containing protein) is not clear. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Some months ago on the net, there was some discussion of how to remove polysaccharide contaminants from protein preps prior to running SDS-PAGE gels. (bio.net)
  • We are isolating a soluble protein using immunoaffinity chromatography, and find that our crude protein preps contain much polysaccharide that gradually precipitates. (bio.net)
  • Any suggestions for how to remove polysaccharides from the protein solution? (bio.net)
  • Covalent linkage of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide to a carrier protein provides CD4 + T cells with epitopes that facilitate a memory response to the polysaccharide. (pnas.org)
  • Keinhörster D, Salzer A, Duque-Jaramillo A, George SE, Marincola G, Lee JC, Weidenmaier C, Wolz C. Revisiting the regulation of the capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster in Staphylococcus aureus. (harvard.edu)
  • Polysaccharides circumvent the high osmotic strength issues that arise with using sucrose solutions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Previously, we have synthesized several antitumor polysaccharides having D-glucopyranose, D-mannopyranose, D-ara-binofuranose, or its oligomer, as side chains of (1→3)-β-glucan, or (1→4)-β-glucan by the orthoester method as models of natural antitumor polysaccharides, such as lentinan, etc. (springer.com)