Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.PolysaccharidesBacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Fungal Polysaccharides: Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Reishi: A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Glycoside HydrolasesCellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Sugar AcidsPolysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.Hydrofluoric Acid: Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.Tetanus ToxoidStreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.FucoseSulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.HexosaminesDeoxy SugarsGum Arabic: Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.HexosesAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.GlucosamineVirulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.HeptosesMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sarcoma 180Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.ArabinoseOptical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.Angelica sinensis: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.XyloseSargassum: One of the largest genera of BROWN ALGAE, comprised of more than 150 species found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of both hemispheres. Some species are attached (benthic) but most float in the open sea (pelagic). Sargassum provides a critical habitat for hundreds of species of FISHES; TURTLES; and INVERTEBRATES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester: A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Astragalus Plant: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronic Acid: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. In animals, UDP glucuronic acid is used for formation of many glucosiduronides with various aglycones.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Amylopectin: A highly branched glucan in starch.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Lycium: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain CEREBROSIDES and SCOPOLETIN.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Mice, Inbred BALB CDiphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Carbohydrate Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Agaricus: A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Ganoderma: A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Proteus vulgaris: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Pentoses: A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bupleurum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE that is the source of bupleurum root and of bupleurotoxin and is an ingredient of sho-saiko-to.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Laminaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup W-135: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Fructans: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.GalactosamineChromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tamarindus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for its sour fruit.UDPglucose 4-Epimerase: A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsStreptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Citrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Cellvibrio: A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Shigella dysenteriae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Nitrous Acid: Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Muramic Acids: Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. II. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release by polysaccharides in response to Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. (1/6727)

The release of lysosomal hydrolases from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has been postulated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in periodontal disease. In the present study, lysosomal enzyme release was monitored from rabbit peritoneal exudate PMNs exposed to Streptocccus mutans or Streptococcus sanguis. S. mutans grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth failed to promote significant PMN enzyme release. S. sanguis grown in BHI broth, although more effective than S. mutants, was a weak stimulus for promotion of PMN hydrolase release. Preincubation of washed, viable S. mutans in sucrose or in different-molecular-weight dextrans resulted in the ability of the organisms to provoke PMN release reactions. This effect could bot be demonstrated with boiled or trypsinized S. mutans or with viable S. sanguis. However, when grown in BHI broth supplemented with sucrose, but not with glucose, both S. mutans and S. sanguis triggered discharge of PMN enzymes. The mechanism(s) whereby dextran or sucrose modulates PMN-bacterial interaction may in some manner be related to promotion of microbial adhesiveness or aggregation by dextran and by bacterial synthesis of glucans from sucrose.  (+info)

Crystal structures of two H-2Db/glycopeptide complexes suggest a molecular basis for CTL cross-reactivity. (2/6727)

Two synthetic O-GlcNAc-bearing peptides that elicit H-2Db-restricted glycopeptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) have been shown to display nonreciprocal patterns of cross-reactivity. Here, we present the crystal structures of the H-2Db glycopeptide complexes to 2.85 A resolution or better. In both cases, the glycan is solvent exposed and available for direct recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR). We have modeled the complex formed between the MHC-glycopeptide complexes and their respective TCRs, showing that a single saccharide residue can be accommodated in the standard TCR-MHC geometry. The models also reveal a possible molecular basis for the observed cross-reactivity patterns of the CTL clones, which appear to be influenced by the length of the CDR3 loop and the nature of the immunizing ligand.  (+info)

Binding partners for the myelin-associated glycoprotein of N2A neuroblastoma cells. (3/6727)

The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) has been proposed to be important for the integrity of myelinated axons. For a better understanding of the interactions involved in the binding of MAG to neuronal axons, we performed this study to identify the binding partners for MAG on neuronal cells. Experiments with glycosylation inhibitors revealed that sialylated N-glycans of glycoproteins represent the major binding sites for MAG on the neuroblastoma cell line N2A. From extracts of [3H]glucosamine-labelled N2A cells several glycoproteins with molecular weights between 20 and 230 kDa were affinity-precipitated using immobilised MAG. The interactions of these proteins with MAG were sialic acid-dependent and specific for MAG.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of genes required for hyphal morphogenesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. (4/6727)

In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, germination of an asexual conidiospore results in the formation of a hyphal cell. A key feature of spore germination is the switch from isotropic spore expansion to polarized apical growth. Here, temperature-sensitive mutations are used to characterize the roles of five genes (sepA, hypA, podB-podD) in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. Evidence that suggests that the hypA, podB, and sepA genes are required for multiple aspects of hyphal morphogenesis is presented. Notably, podB and sepA are needed for organization of the cytoskeleton at sites of polarized growth. In contrast, podC and podD encode proteins that appear to be specifically required for the establishment of hyphal polarity during spore germination. The role of sepA and the pod genes in controlling the spatial pattern of polarized morphogenesis in germinating spores is also described. Results obtained from these experiments indicate that the normal pattern of germ-tube emergence is dependent upon the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton.  (+info)

Origins of globular structure in proteins. (5/6727)

Thermodynamic incompatibility of polymers in a common solvent is possibly a driving force for formation and evolution of globular protein structures. Folding of polypeptide chains leads to a decrease in both excluded volume of molecules and chemical differences between surfaces of globular molecules with chemical information hidden in the hydrophobic interior. Folding of polypeptide chains results in 'molecular or thermodynamic mimicry' of globular proteins and in at least more than 10-fold higher phase separation threshold values of mixed protein solutions compared to those of classical polymers. Unusually high co-solubility might be necessary for efficient biological functioning of proteins, e.g. enzymes, enzyme inhibitors, etc.  (+info)

Phagocytosis stimulates alternative glycosylation of macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific endosomal protein. (6/6727)

Macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific member of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein family, displays N-linked glycosylation and a heavily sialylated, mucin-like domain. We show that phagocytosis of zymosan by inflammatory peritoneal macrophages potently alters glycan processing of macrosialin in vitro. The phagocytic glycoform is not induced by other forms of endocytosis and depends on particle internalization. Zymosan uptake does not influence macrosialin protein synthesis, but increases the specific incorporation of D-[2-3H]mannose, D-[6-3H]galactose, N-acetyl-D-[1-3H]glucosamine and L-[5,6-3H]fucose by 2-15-fold. The phagocytic glycoform displays increased binding of agglutinins from peanut, Amaranthus caudatus and Galanthus nivalis, whereas binding of the sialic-acid-specific Maakia amurensis agglutinin is slightly reduced. Digestion by N-Glycanase abolishes the incorporation of [3H]mannose label and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin binding activity, but preserves the incorporation of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine and specific lectin binding. We also show that phagocytosis increases the complexity and length of O-linked chains. The data presented highlight the importance of differential glycosylation in the biology of macrosialin, phagosomes and macrophages in general.  (+info)

Structures of N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins from tobacco BY2 suspension cultured cells. (7/6727)

The structures of N-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins expressed in tobacco BY2 cultured cells are reported. Five pyridylaminated (PA-) N-linked sugar chains were derived and purified from hydrazinolysates of the glycoproteins by reversed-phase HPLC and size-fractionation HPLC. The structures of the PA-sugar chains purified were identified by two-dimensional PA-sugar chain mapping, ion-spray MS/MS analysis, and exoglycosidase digestions. The five structures fell into two categories; the major class (92.5% as molar ratio) was a xylose containing-type (Man3Fuc1 Xyl1GlcNAc2 (41.0%), GlcNAc2Man3Fuc1Xyl1GlcNAc2 (26.5%), GlcNAc1Man3Fuc1Xyl1GlcNAc2 (21.7%), Man3 Xyl1GlcNAc2 (3.3%)), and the minor class was a high-mannose type (Man5GlcNAc2 (7.5%)). This is the first report to show that alpha(1-->3) fucosylation of N-glycans does occur but beta(1-->4) galactosylation of the sugar chains does not in the tobacco cultured cells.  (+info)

Trimming and readdition of glucose to N-linked oligosaccharides determines calnexin association of a substrate glycoprotein in living cells. (8/6727)

To analyze the role of glucose trimming and reglucosylation in the binding of substrate proteins to calnexin in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of living cells, we made use of the thermosensitive vesicular stomatitis virus tsO45 glycoprotein (G protein). At nonpermissive temperature the G protein failed to fold completely and remained bound to calnexin. When the cells were shifted to permissive temperature, complete folding occurred accompanied by glucosidase-mediated elimination of calnexin-G protein complexes. If release from calnexin was blocked during the temperature shift by inhibiting the glucosidases, folding occurred, albeit at a reduced rate. In contrast, when unfolded by a shift from permissive to nonpermissive temperature, the G protein was reglucosylated rapidly and became capable of rebinding to calnexin. The rate at which calnexin binding occurred showed a 20-min delay that was explained by accumulation of the G protein in calnexin-free exit sites of the ER. These contained the glucosyltransferase responsible for reglucosylation of misfolded glycoproteins but had little or no calnexin. After unfolding and reglucosylation, the G proteins moved slowly from these structures back to the ER where they reassociated with the chaperone. Taken together, these results in live cells fully supported the lectin-only model of calnexin function. The ER exit sites emerged as a potentially important location for components of the quality control system.  (+info)

All-polysaccharide composite films were prepared from native, unmodified cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) mixed with various natural water-soluble polysaccharides like carboxymethyl cellulose, galactoglucomannan, xyloglucan and guar gum. Composite films were manufactured by pressurized filtration and hot pressing. The mechanical properties of the films were systematically evaluated in the dry and the wet state. GG was furthermore selectively oxidized using galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9), and the effect of the degree of oxidation on the final composite film properties was shown. It was found that all the tested polysaccharides increased the strength and toughness of the dry composite films at 2 weight percent (wt.%) addition to CNF. After soaking the samples for 24 h in water, striking differences between the samples were found: already at 2 wt.% CMC the wet strength of the composite films diminished, while the uncharged polysaccharides improved the wet strength. For example, the addition of 2 wt.% ...
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Non-starch polysaccharide enzymes (NSPEs) have long been used in monogastric animal feed production to degrade non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) to oligosaccharides in order to promote growth performance and gastrointestinal (GI) tract health. However, the precise molecular mechanism of NSPEs in the improvement of the mammalian small intestine remains unknown. In this study, isobaric tags were applied to investigate alterations of the small intestinal mucosa proteome of growing pigs after 50 days of supplementation with 0.6% NSPEs (mixture of xylanase, β-glucanase and cellulose) in the diet. Bioinformatics analysis including gene ontology annotation was performed to determine the differentially expressed proteins. A protein fold-change of ≥ 1.2 and a P-value of | 0.05 were selected as thresholds. Dietary supplementation of NSPEs improved the growth performance of growing pigs. Most importantly, a total of 90 proteins were found to be differentially abundant in the small intestinal mucosa between a
O-glycans are a class of glycans that modify serine or threonine residues of proteins. Biosynthesis of O-glycans starts from the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to serine or threonine. The first GalNAc may be extended with sugars including galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, fucose, or sialic acid, but not mannose, glucose, or xylose. Depending on the sugars added, there are four common O-glycan core structures, cores 1 through 4, and an additional four, cores 5 though 8. Mucins are highly O-glycosylated glycoproteins ubiquitous in mucous secretions on cell surfaces and in body fluids. Mucin O-glycans can be branched, and many sugars or groups of sugars are antigenic. Important modifications of mucin O-glycans include O-acetylation of sialic acid and O-sulfation of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine ...
The recent years have witnessed considerable developments in the interpretation of the three-dimensional structures of plant polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in the context of their functional specificity. A plethora of new structures of catalytic, carbohydrate-binding and protein-scaffolding modules involved in (hemi)cellulose catabolism has emerged in harness with sophisticated biochemical analysis. Despite significant advances, a full understanding of the intricacies of substrate recognition and catalysis by these diverse and specialised enzymes remains an important goal, especially if the application potential of these biocatalysts is to be fully realised.. ...
Documenting mass spectral data is a fundamental aspect of accepted protocols. In this report, we contrast MS(n) sequential disassembly spectra obtained from natural and synthetic glycan epitopes. The epitopes considered are clusters found on conjugate termini of lipids and N- and O-glycans of proteins. The latter are most frequently pendant through a CID-labile HexNAc glycosidic linkage. The synthetic samples were supplied by collaborating colleagues and commercial sources and usually possessed a readily released reducing-end linker, a by-product of synthesis. All samples were comparably methylated, extracted, and MS(n) disassembled to compare their linkage and branching spectral details. Both sample types provide B-ion type fragments early in a disassembly pathway and their compositions are a suggestion of structure. Further steps of disassembly are necessary to confirm the details of linkage and branching. Included in this study were various Lewis and H antigens, 3- and 6-linked ...
Glycans play essential roles in biological functions such as differentiation and cancer. Recently, glycans have been considered as biomarkers for physiological aging. However, details regarding the specific glycans involved are limited. Here, we investigated cellular senescence- and human aging-dependent glycan changes in human diploid fibroblasts derived from differently aged skin donors using a lectin microarray. We found that α2-6sialylated glycans in particular differed between elderly- and fetus-derived cells at early passage. However, both cell types exhibited sequentially decreasing α2-3sialylated O-glycan structures during the cellular senescence process and showed similar overall glycan profiles. We observed a senescence-associated decrease in sialylation and increase in galactose exposure. Therefore, glycan profiling using lectin microarrays might be useful for the characterization of biomarkers of aging.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.. Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks. They may be amorphous or even insoluble in water.[1] When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan, but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans.[2][3]. Natural saccharides are generally of simple carbohydrates called ...
Vesicles derived from maize roots retain a membrane bound H+-ATPase that is able to pump H+ at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. In this work it is shown that heparin, fucose-branched chondroitin sulfate and dextran sulfate 8000 promote a shift of the H+-ATPase optimum pH from 6.0 to 7.0. This shift is a result of a dual effect of the sulfated polysaccharides, inhibition at pH 6.0 and activation at pH 7.O. At pH 6.0 dextran 8000 promotes an increase of the apparent Km for ATP from 0.28 to 0.95 mM and a decrease of the Vmax from 14.5 to 7.1 μmol Pi/mg · 30 min−1. At pH 7.0 dextran 8000 promotes an increase in Vmax from 6.7 to 11.7 μmol Pi/mg · 30 min−1. In the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine the inhibitory effect of the sulfated polysaccharides observed at pH 6.0 was not altered but the activation of pH 7.0 decreased. It was found that in the presence of sulfated polysaccharides the ATPase became highly sensitive to K+ and Na+. Both the inhibition at pH 6.0 and the activation promoted by ...
The study of bacterial glycosidases has emerged as a field at the intersection of microbial pathogenesis and glycobiology. By studying the mechanisms by which bacteria interfere with host glycosylation, new insight can be gained into both bacterial pathogenesis and the impact of glycosylation of the immune system. Interfering with the glycosylation of the host defence is widespread among pathogenic bacteria for modulation of the functions of the immune system or as a way of utilizing the glycans of glycoproteins as nutrients [24,33].. For example, Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive gut bacterium and opportunist, secretes EndoE, an endoglycosidase with activity on the Fc-glycan on IgG and on the glycoprotein RNase B that promotes bacterial growth when nutrients are scarce [24,34]. The endoglycosidases EndoF1-3 from E. meningoseptica and EndoH from Streptomyces plicatus has been shown to be glycan-specific: high-mannose and hybrid oligosaccharides are cleaved by EndoF1 and EndoH, whereas ...
N-glycans or asparagine-linked glycans are major constituents of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. N-glycans are covalently attached to asparagine with the consensus sequence of Asn-X-Ser/Thr by an N-glycosidic bond, GlcNAc b1- Asn. Biosynthesis of N-glycans begins on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane with the transferase reaction of UDP-GlcNAc and the lipid-like precursor P-Dol (dolichol phosphate) to generate GlcNAc a1- PP-Dol. After sequential addition of monosaccharides by ALG glycosyltransferases [MD:M00055], the N-glycan precursor is attached by the OST (oligosaccharyltransferase) complex to the polypeptide chain that is being synthesized and translocated through the ER membrane. The protein-bound N-glycan precursor is subsequently trimmed, extended, and modified in the ER and Golgi by a complex series of reactions catalyzed by membrane-bound glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. N-glycans thus synthesized are classified into three types: high-mannose type, complex type, and hybrid type. ...
N-glycans or asparagine-linked glycans are major constituents of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. N-glycans are covalently attached to asparagine with the consensus sequence of Asn-X-Ser/Thr by an N-glycosidic bond, GlcNAc b1- Asn. Biosynthesis of N-glycans begins on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane with the transferase reaction of UDP-GlcNAc and the lipid-like precursor P-Dol (dolichol phosphate) to generate GlcNAc a1- PP-Dol. After sequential addition of monosaccharides by ALG glycosyltransferases [MD:M00055], the N-glycan precursor is attached by the OST (oligosaccharyltransferase) complex to the polypeptide chain that is being synthesized and translocated through the ER membrane. The protein-bound N-glycan precursor is subsequently trimmed, extended, and modified in the ER and Golgi by a complex series of reactions catalyzed by membrane-bound glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. N-glycans thus synthesized are classified into three types: high-mannose type, complex type, and hybrid type. ...
OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study.. Blood is collected from patients with metastatic breast cancer, patients with noncancerous illness, and healthy volunteers. Samples are analyzed for serum glycan biomarkers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR MS) methods.. Blood samples are collected every 3 months for up to 18 months from patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients without cancer have a single sample collected. ...
OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study.. Blood is collected from patients with metastatic breast cancer, patients with noncancerous illness, and healthy volunteers. Samples are analyzed for serum glycan biomarkers by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR MS) methods.. Blood samples are collected every 3 months for up to 18 months from patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients without cancer have a single sample collected. ...
This book presents the latest breakthrough results in glycobiology regarding the roles of glycans in relation to quality control and transport of protein, the immune system, viral infection, stem cells, the neural system, and various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, muscular dystrophy, and schizophrenia. Although glycoscience has long been regarded as a very specialized field with no simple analytical method, the recent explosive progress in research continues to provide limitless evidence that glycan chains are the key component in various biological phenomena. Cell surface glycans, for example, change with developmental stages or environmental conditions and thus represent a �face� of the cell that is utilized for identification of iPS and ES cells and as biomarkers in diagnosis or detection of cancer. This book comprises 17 chapters, each of which poses outstanding �glyco-related� questions enabling non-specialists to have a clearer idea about ...
This authoritative reference work presents comprehensive information about one of the most important and most wide-spread classes of (bio)organic compounds: the polysaccharides. The comprehensive and thoroughly up-to-date handbook presents the sources, identification, analysis, biosynthesis, biotechnology and applications of important polysaccharides likes starches, cellulose, chitin, gum and microbial polysaccharides. Polysaccharides can exhibit complex structure and various functional activities. These bio macromolecules can therefore serve as raw materials for various different materials, e.g. rayon, cellulose acetate, celluloid and nitrocellulose; and they find multiple applications, for instance as surgical threads (chitin), as sources of energy, dietary fibers, as blood flow adjuvants, in cosmetics, emulsion stabilizers, film formers, binders, viscosity increasing agents or skin conditioning agenta, as food additives in gums, chewing gum bases and as vaccines. Polysaccharides form the basis for
Sulfated polysaccharides have shown promising effects on wound healing processes along with many other biological activities. The sulfated polysaccharides extracted from two algae species habitats in Persian Gulf were studied in vivo for their effects on collagen formation and epidermal regeneration. The polysaccharides were purified from aqueous extracts of P. ...
Although it typically evades the immune system, HIV does have sites of vulnerability that can be targeted in vaccine design. One such site is a glycan near the V3 loop of the envelope protein, but antibodies recognizing this epitope are often not detected in people infected with HIV. Alam et al. designed a synthetic glycopeptide that can identify B cells targeting this epitope and also used it to immunize macaques. Bonsignori et al. used this synthetic glycopeptide and other baits to study the V3-glycan antibody responses of an HIV-infected individual that developed broadly neutralizing antibodies. They also examined viral evolution over time and found clues as to why these types of antibodies do not develop more often. These tools and findings could pave the way for a vaccine that protects against diverse strains of HIV. ...
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The negatively charged sugar sialic acid (Sia) occupies the outermost position in the bulk of cell surface glycans. Lack of sialylated glycans due to genetic ablation of the Sia-activating enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthase (CMAS) resulted in embryonic lethality around day 9.5 post coitum (E9.5) in mice. Developmental failure was caused by complement activation on trophoblasts in Cmas-/- implants and was accompanied by infiltration of maternal neutrophils at the fetal-maternal interface, intrauterine growth restriction, impaired placental development, and a thickened Reicherts membrane. This phenotype, which shared features with complement receptor 1-related protein Y (Crry) depletion, was rescued in E8.5 Cmas-/- mice upon injection of cobra venom factor, resulting in exhaustion of the maternal complement component C3. Here we show that Sia is dispensable for early development of the embryo proper but pivotal for fetal-maternal immune homeostasis during pregnancy, i.e., for protecting the ...
The negatively charged sugar sialic acid (Sia) occupies the outermost position in the bulk of cell surface glycans. Lack of sialylated glycans due to genetic ablation of the Sia-activating enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthase (CMAS) resulted in embryonic lethality around day 9.5 post coitum (E9.5) in mice. Developmental failure was caused by complement activation on trophoblasts in Cmas-/- implants and was accompanied by infiltration of maternal neutrophils at the fetal-maternal interface, intrauterine growth restriction, impaired placental development, and a thickened Reicherts membrane. This phenotype, which shared features with complement receptor 1-related protein Y (Crry) depletion, was rescued in E8.5 Cmas-/- mice upon injection of cobra venom factor, resulting in exhaustion of the maternal complement component C3. Here we show that Sia is dispensable for early development of the embryo proper but pivotal for fetal-maternal immune homeostasis during pregnancy, i.e., for protecting the ...
Recombinant expression systems differ in the type of glycosylation they impart on expressed antigens such as the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins, potentially affecting their biological properties. We performed head-to-head antigenic, immunogenic and molecular profiling of two distantly related Env surface (gp120) antigens produced in different systems: (a) mammalian (293 FreeStyle cells; 293F) cells in the presence of kifunensine, which impart only high-mannose glycans; (b) insect cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9), which confer mainly paucimannosidic glycans; (c) Sf9 cells recombinant for mammalian glycosylation enzymes (Sf9 Mimic), which impart high-mannose, hybrid and complex glycans without sialic acid; and (d) 293F cells, which impart high-mannose, hybrid and complex glycans with sialic acid. Molecular models revealed a significant difference in gp120 glycan coverage between the Sf9-derived and wild-type mammalian-cell-derived material that is predicted to affect
A fresh water-soluble polysaccharide (longan polysaccharide 1 (LP1)) was extracted and successfully purified from pulp via diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-300 HR gel chromatography. HO8910 tumor cells, with inhibition percentages of Tasquinimod supplier 40% and 50%, respectively. In addition, LP1 significantly stimulated the production of the cytokine interferon- (IFN-), increased the activity of murine […]. ...
PGX (PolyGlycopleX) is a precise blend of naturally occurring water-soluble polysaccharides (fibers) that together, have highly unique and desirable properties for weight loss and overall good health. PGX is the result of extensive research by the University of Toronto and the Canadian Center for Functional Medicine. PGX is the worlds most viscous soluble fiber blend. What does viscous mean? Simply to thicken. Once PGX is added to water or food it thickens or becomes viscous. The viscosity of soluble fiber is important as it relates directly to the overall health benefits. The most important advantage of PGX over other soluble fiber products is that significantly less PGX is required to obtain the same important health benefits, including appetite control and reduced food cravings. Why take PGX? PGX has been clinically proven to: - Reduce appetite comfortably and safely - Reduce food cravings - Balance metabolism - Improve regularity - Maintain glucose levels already within normal range
A medical implant can include a bioerodible metal portion and a coating overlying the bioerodible metal portion. The coating can include a therapeutic agent and a polysaccharide matrix reversibly cross-linked with polyvalent metal cations. Upon implantation of the implant within a body, the therapeutic agent is released and the bioerodible metal portion erodes to release polyvalent metal cations capable of re-cross-linking the polysaccharide matrix.
Supplement Polysaccharides (e.g. cellulose, starch, or glycogen) are characterized by the following chemical properties: (1) not sweet in taste, (2) insoluble in water, (3) do not form crystals when desiccated, (4) compact and not osmotically active inside the cells, (5) can be extracted to form white powder, and (6) general chemical formula of Cx(H2O) y. Polysaccharides may be a homopolysaccharide or a heteropolysaccharide depending on their monosaccharide components. A homopolysaccharide consists of same types of monosaccharides whereas a heteropolysaccharide is composed of different types of monosaccharides. ...
Polysaccharides are one of four classes of carbohydrates, which in turn are biological molecules that contain primarily carbon (C) atoms flanked by hydrogen (H) atoms and hydroxyl (OH) groups (H-C-OH). The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, which are monomers-such as the simple sugars glucose, ribose, and [[fructose]-out of which larger carbohydrates are constructed. When there are two monosaccharides linked together by covalent bonds they are known as disaccharides. Oligosaccharides are made up of more than 3 and generally ten (or perhaps 20) monosaccharides. Polysaccharides are even larger chains of monosaccarides. Thus, some carbohydrates are small with molecular weights of less than one hundred, whereas others are true macromolecules with molecular weights in the hundreds of thousands.. In a monosaccharide, the relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are 1:2:1, and thus the formula is C(H2O). In disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, the molar proportions ...
Abnormalities in glycan biosynthesis have got been conclusively linked to many illnesses but the intricacy of glycosylation offers hindered the evaluation of glycan data in purchase to identify glycoforms contributing to disease. systems including a problem in the microarray for uncovering the GnTV (MGAT5) enzyme. Our outcomes demonstrate the potential of systems glycobiology equipment for elucidating essential glycan biomarkers and potential healing goals. The incorporation of multiple data pieces represents an essential application of systems biology for understanding complicated mobile procedures. Writer Overview Glycans are the glucose accessories that are present on fats and protein. These highly adjustable and different glucose stores confer exclusive features to the cell surface area structurally. Latest analysis provides uncovered that these glycan single profiles can represent essential signatures of disease expresses and hence understanding glycan digesting and buildings in cells is ...
Glycans can be covalently attached to any protein or lipid molecule of choice, a process called glycation. Our technology is based on glycation of antigens which can be proteins or peptides derived from macromolecules to which we direct the immune response. Alternatively we couple glycans to delivery systems (such as lipids) that contain encapsulated antigen, for targeting specificity. Specific glycan structures can be recognized by unique receptors, present on DCs.. One of the best-studied receptors on these antigen-presenting cells is DC-SIGN, originally identified by our CSO Prof. Yvette van Kooyk. DCs continuously sample the body for the presence of disease-causing agents. Upon encounter, DCs recognize and take up the pathogen using its glycan sensing receptors. Fragments of the ingested pathogen are then presented to T cells. In an interactive process between the two cell types, DCs instruct the T cells to build up a response aimed to eradicate the particular pathogen. On the other hand DCs ...
Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are found within multi-modular polysaccharide degrading enzymes [glycoside hydrolases (GHs)]. CBMs play a critical role in the recognition of plant cell-wall polysaccharides and enhance the hydrolase activity of their cognate catalytic domains by increasing enzyme substrate proximity. Mimicking their role in Nature, we, in the present study, propose that CBMs may assist in vitro glycosynthase-catalysed polymerization reactions to produce artificial polysaccharides. Glycosynthases are GHs that have been engineered to catalyse glycoside bond formation for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, glycoconjugates and glycans. The degree of polymerization (DP) of the glycans generated is limited by the solubility of the polymeric product. In the present study, we have targeted the synthesis of artificial 1,3-1,4-β-glucans with a regular sequence using the glycosynthase E134S derived from a Bacillus licheniformis lichenase. We show that the addition of CBM11, which binds ...
Asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation is one of the most common co- and post-translational modifications of both intra- and extracellularly distributing proteins, which directly affects their biological functions, such as protein folding, stability and intercellular traffic. Production of the structural well-defined homogeneous N-glycans contributes to comprehensive investigation of their biological roles and molecular basis. Among the various methods, chemo-enzymatic approach serves as an alternative to chemical synthesis, providing high stereoselectivity and economic efficiency. This review summarizes some recent advances in the chemo-enzymatic methods for the production of N-glycans, including the preparation of substrates and sugar donors, and the progress in the glycosyltransferases characterization which leads to the diversity of N-glycan synthesis. We discuss the bottle-neck and new opportunities in exploiting the chemo-enzymatic synthesis of N-glycans based on our research experiences. In addition
Waters BEH-based Glycan chemistry offerings are available in three highly scalable particle sizes that address UPLC (i.e, 1.7 µm) and HPLC-based (2.5 µm XP and 3.5 µm) application needs. Each batch of BEH Glycan material is specifically quality control tested with the 2-AB labeled, Waters Glycan Performance standard to help ensure batch to batch consistency as well as highly similar separated glycan profiles. To help ensure highly similar results, chromatographers can now choose the most appropriate LC-based technology to address their specific released glycan analysis application needs and laboratory instrumentation.
Studies of mucins suggest that the structural effects of O-glycans are restricted to steric interactions between peptide-linked GalNAc residues and adjacent polypeptide residues. It has been proposed, however, that differential O-glycan sialylation alters the structure of the stalk-like region of the T cell co-receptor, CD8, and that this, in turn, modulates ligand binding (Daniels, M. A., Devine, L., Miller, J. D., Moser, J. M., Lukacher, A. E., Altman, J. D., Kavathas, P., Hogquist, K. A., and Jameson, S. C. (2001) Immunity 15, 1051-1061; Moody, A. M., Chui, D., Reche, P. A., Priatel, J. J., Marth, J. D., and Reinherz, E. L. (2001) Cell 107, 501-512). We characterize the glycosylation of soluble, chimeric forms of the alphaalpha- and alphabeta-isoforms of murine CD8 containing the O-glycosylated stalk of rat CD8alphaalpha, and we show that the stalk O-glycans are differentially sialylated in CHO K1 versus Lec3.2.8.1 cells (82 versus approximately 6%, respectively). Sedimentation analysis indicates
Sulfated polysaccharides play a central role in many biological processes including signaling, cell growth and differentiation through interaction with proteins. Investigation of the interactions is i
An estimate of the relative abundance of the various O-glycans was determined from nanoLC-ESI-IT-MS analysis of trypsin-generated (glyco)peptides. It should be noted that because the signal of the monosialylated O-glycopeptide in triply charged state overlapped with the doubly charged peak of the hinge repeat peptide with a putative acetylation modification in all samples, only the doubly charged signal of the monosialylated O-glycopeptide was quantified, thereby leading to an underestimation of this O-glycoform. Furthermore, it is known that glycopeptides with different glycan structures can have different response factors (35), and thus the relative abundances we measured may not accurately reflect the real ratios. In order to obtain a more reliable estimate of the percentage of the hinge repeat motif bearing an O-glycan, tryptic IgG peptides were incubated with exoglycosidases, trimming all O-glycans down to a single N-acetylhexosamine. A previous study of quantitative measurements of a ...
Polysaccharides are the most abundant organic materials in nature, yet correlations between their three-dimensional structure and macroscopic properties have not been established. Automated glycan assembly (AGA) enables the preparation of well-defined oligo- and polysaccharides resembling natural as well as unnatural structures [1]. A collection of related compounds, modified at specific positions of the chain, is presented (Fig1). These synthetic glycans are ideal probes for the fundamental study of polysaccharides, shedding light on how the modification patterns affect the polysaccharides properties (i.e. three dimensional shape). Molecular modelling simulations and NMR analysis show that different classes of polysaccharides adopt fundamentally different conformations, drastically altered by single-site substitutions [2]. Moreover, these synthetic oligosaccharides are shown to self-assemble into nanostructures of varying morphologies. Well-defined differences in chain length, monomer ...
linked with [[Glycosidic bonds,glycosidic bonds]]. Polysaccharides have two main forms and uses: structural and storage. Important examples of these are [[Starch,starch]] and [[Glycogen,glycogen]] (storage), and [[Cellulose,cellulose]] and [[Chitin,chitin]] (structural). Polysaccharides must be more than about ten monosaccharides in length but have no real limit to their length, with some examples consisting of hundreds of sugar units. There is however a general formula that can be used to show the construction of the polysaccharide. As most polysacchardies are formed using a backbone of six-carbon [[Monosaccharides,monosaccharides]], the general formula is (C,sub,6,/sub,H,sub,10,/sub,O,sub,5,/sub,)n, where n is the unknown number and therefore the length of the chain ,ref,Champe PC, Harvey RA, Ferrier DR. (2008)Biochemistry, 4th edition; Philadelphia; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,/ref ...
...   Polysaccharides are relatively complex carbohydrates. They are polymers made up of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic
This gene encodes a member of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase protein family. The encoded enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains and prefers lacto-N-neotetraose as a substrate. It is a type II transmembrane protein ...
Extensive shielding by N-glycans on the surface of the HIV envelope glycoproteins (Env) restricts B cell recognition of conserved neutralizing determinants. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in selected HIV-infected individuals reveals that Abs capable of penetrating the glycan shield can be generated by the B cell repertoire. Accordingly, we sought to determine if targeted N-glycan deletion might alter antibody responses to Env. We focused on the conserved CD4 binding site (CD4bs) since this is a known neutralizing determinant that is devoid of glycosylation to allow CD4 receptor engagement, but is ringed by surrounding N-glycans. We selectively deleted potential N-glycan sites (PNGS) proximal to the CD4bs on well-ordered clade C 16055 native flexibly linked (NFL) trimers to potentially increase recognition by naïve B cells in vivo. We generated glycan-deleted trimer variants that maintained native-like conformation and stability. Using a panel of CD4bs-directed bNAbs, we ...
Extraction: it is a natural polysaccharide that is obtained from different plant species. Benefits: this polysaccharide acts as a prebiotic in the formulation
With the implementation of GlyTouCan the mission of GlycomeDB comes to an end. GlyTouCan is the international glycan structure repository. This repository is a freely available, uncurated registry for glycan structures that assigns globally unique accession numbers to any glycan. All glycan structures and associates information (cross references and taxon annotation) have been migrated to GlyTouCan and are available in this database in addition many more structures. GlyTouCan allows individual researchers to register their own structures and associate these structures with papers. GlyTouCan is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology and has been developed by researchers at the Soka University and the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Please use GlyTouCan and the unique glycan accession numbers for your work and help us to make GlyTouCan a comprehensive namespace for glycan structures. In case of questions or comments please contact Rene ...
With the implementation of GlyTouCan the mission of GlycomeDB comes to an end. GlyTouCan is the international glycan structure repository. This repository is a freely available, uncurated registry for glycan structures that assigns globally unique accession numbers to any glycan. All glycan structures and associates information (cross references and taxon annotation) have been migrated to GlyTouCan and are available in this database in addition many more structures. GlyTouCan allows individual researchers to register their own structures and associate these structures with papers. GlyTouCan is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology and has been developed by researchers at the Soka University and the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Please use GlyTouCan and the unique glycan accession numbers for your work and help us to make GlyTouCan a comprehensive namespace for glycan structures. In case of questions or comments please contact Rene ...
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Detailed studies on oxidation and reduction of complex polysaccharides were studied. Low molecular weight glucan like dextran has been oxidized using ..
The laboratorys main purpose is to understand as the innate immune system recognizes pathogens through surface receptors - basically CLRs or C-type lectins and galectins-expressed mainly in macrophages and dendritic cells. In the past year we have developed a system of study that includes the full complement of glycan recognition proteins (human and murine) immobilized microarray format that will allow us to get a snapshot of how a particular pathogen is "seen" by the immune system. The results of studies using this predictive system may provide clues as to bias the immune response generated against a particular pathogen. A second objective is to define routes signaling / transduction induced in antigen presenting cells by the interaction of C-type lectins and galectinshaptens with their glycans. Knowing the nature of these pathways is essential for the identification of pathogen molecules that may act as regulators / immune modulators and hence serve as potential therapeutic targets for ...
Ling zhi mushroom substance contained polysaccharides, adenosine, ganoderat acid, triterpenoids, peptidoglukan, fiber, protein and some vitamins such as vitamin E, C, B3, B6, B12, and minerals. Beta-D glucan, glukorono beta-D-glucan, arabinoxylo beta-D-glucan as well as other compounds in a complex group of polysaccharides can prevent cancer, but can stimulate the growth of T cells, interleukin 2, natural killer that can attack and destroy infected cells. ...
molecular chaperone thought to be required for expression of active T-synthase, the only enzyme that galactosylates the Tn antigen (GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr-R) to form core 1 Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr (T antigen) during mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis ...
... s are relatively complex carbohydrates. They are polymers made up of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds. They are therefore very large, often branched, macromolecules. They tend to be amorphous, insoluble in…
New users of BIOSCI/bionet may want to read the Frequently Asked Questions or FAQ sheet for BIOSCI. The FAQ provides details on how to participate in these forums and is available for anonymous FTP from net.bio.net [134.172.2.69] in pub/BIOSCI/biosci.FAQ. It may also be requested by sending e-mail to biosci at net.bio.net (use plain English for your request). The FAQ is also posted on the first of each month to the newsgroup BIONEWS/bionet.announce immediately following the posting of the BIOSCI information sheet. Sincerely, Dave Kristofferson BIOSCI/bionet Manager kristoff at net.bio.net ...
Non-proteoglycan polysaccharide[edit]. Hyaluronic acid[edit]. Hyaluronic acid (or "hyaluronan") is a polysaccharide consisting ... Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. It occurs as a proteoglycan (PG) in which two or ... Insights into the evolution of extracellular matrix polysaccharides in Eukaryotes". The New Phytologist. 188 (1): 82-97. doi: ... Michel G, Tonon T, Scornet D, Cock JM, Kloareg B (October 2010). "The cell wall polysaccharide metabolism of the brown alga ...
Polysaccharide 4 Nucleic acid Complementary base sequence 5 Hormone Receptor 6 Avidin Biotin ...
"Sugars & Polysaccharides". Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). Archived from the original on 2011-07-12. Retrieved 2011-07- ...
4.2.2: Acting on polysaccharides. *Hyaluronate lyase. 4.2.3: Acting on phosphates. *Threonine synthase ...
4.2.2: Acting on polysaccharides. *Hyaluronate lyase. 4.2.3: Acting on phosphates. *Threonine synthase ...
4.2.2: Acting on polysaccharides. *Hyaluronate lyase. 4.2.3: Acting on phosphates. *Threonine synthase ...
4.2.2: Acting on polysaccharides. *Hyaluronate lyase. 4.2.3: Acting on phosphates. *Threonine synthase ...
PolysaccharidesEdit. Sucrose. The glycoside bond is represented by the central oxygen atom, which holds the two monosaccharide ... The hydrolysis of polysaccharides to soluble sugars is called "saccharification". Malt made from barley is used as a source of ... or polysaccharides, respectively. Enzymes that hydrolyse glycosidic bonds are called "glycoside hydrolases" or "glycosidases". ...
The more viscous polysaccharides extend the mouth-to-cecum transit time; guar, tragacanth and pectin being slower than wheat ... Adding viscous polysaccharides to carbohydrate meals can reduce post-prandial blood glucose concentrations. Wheat and maize but ... Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant ... This includes waxes, lignin and polysaccharides such as cellulose and pectin. Originally it was thought that dietary fibre was ...
Maca contains polysaccharides. Maca contains glucotropaeolin, m-methoxyglucotropaeolin, benzyl glucosinolates, polyphenols, (1R ...
"Bioactivity and Applications of Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae". Polysaccharides. Springer International Publishing: ... The toxins released by dinoflagellates commonly include sulfated polysaccharides. One common toxin, saxitoxin, blocks sodium ...
Rees, D. A. (1972). "Shapely polysaccharides. The eighth Colworth medal lecture". The Biochemical Journal. 126 (2): 257-73. doi ...
2009). Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. Caister Academic. ISBN 978-1-904455-45-5.. ... Some of the vaccines cover serogroup B, while others cover A, C, W, and Y.[26] A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4) ... Disease-causing strains are classified according to the antigenic structure of their polysaccharide capsule.[10] Serotype ... Other virulence factors include a polysaccharide capsule which prevents host phagocytosis and aids in evasion of the host ...
Bhamidi S (2009). "Mycobacterial Cell Wall Arabinogalactan". Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. ...
Dea, Ian C M (1989). "Industrial polysaccharides" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 61 (7): 1315-1322. doi:10.1351/ ...
Welan gum Kang K.S., Veeder G.T., Mirrasoul P.J., Kaneko T., Cottrell I.W. (1982) Agar-like polysaccharide produced by a ... Gellan gum is a water-soluble anionic polysaccharide produced by the bacterium Sphingomonas elodea (formerly Pseudomonas elodea ... "Industrial polysaccharides" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 61 (7): 1315-1322. doi:10.1351/pac198961071315. ...
N. K. Mathur (19 April 2016). Industrial Galactomannan Polysaccharides. CRC Press. pp. 142-143. ISBN 978-1-4398-4629-2. " ... polysaccharide, primarily galactomannan with a mannose:galactose ratio of 5:1, resulting in a high molecular mass of 200,000- ...
Kiho T, Yamane A, Hui J, Usui S, Ukai S (1996). "Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXVI. Hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (CS ... Kiho T, Hui J, Yamane A, Ukai S (1993). "Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a ... Zhang HN, Lin ZB (2004). "Hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides". Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 25 (2): 191-95 ... 2006). "Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide, with antioxidation, isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia". Phytomedicine. ...
A chain of monosaccharides form to make a polysaccharide. Such polysaccharides include pectin, dextran, agar, and xanthan. ...
... consists of a mixture of two polysaccharides: agarose and agaropectin, with agarose making up about 70% of the mixture.[17 ... The gelling agent in agar is an unbranched polysaccharide obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae, primarily ... "III: Properties, Manufacture, and Application of Seaweed Polysaccharides - Agar, Carageenan, and Algin". Training manual on ... the linear polysaccharide agarose, and a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules called agaropectin.[4] ...
Equine polysaccharide storage myopathy (EPSM). *HERDA. References[edit]. *^ Khatib, Hasan, ed. (2014). "Dominant disorders". ...
structural polysaccharides: cellulose, chitin and others. *storage polysaccharides: starch, glycogen and others ...
Microbial polysaccharides; Part 6: Cellulosics and seed gums; Part 7: Marine polysaccharides. Gums and Stabilisers for the Food ... Polysaccharide characterization; Polysaccharide gelation; Mixed biopolymer systems; High solid systems; Proteins and emulsions ... polysaccharides and proteins) in the food industry. Presentations at the conference cover recent advances in the structure, ...
Structural polysaccharides: cellulose, chitin. Reserve polysaccharides: starch, glycogen. Nucleic acids: DNA, RNA. Synthetic ... structural polysaccharides: cellulose, chitin… storage polysaccharides: starch, glycogen… nucleic acids: DNA, RNA Examples of ...
Indigestible polysaccharides were of great scientific concern in the beginning of the 20th century. Irvine used chemical ... The constitution of polysaccharides. Part II. The conversion of cellulose into glucose". Journal of the Chemical Society, ... Inulin-a versatile polysaccharide with multiple pharmaceutical and food chemical uses. Diss. International Pharmaceutical ... Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted ...
Acidic polysaccharides[edit]. Acidic polysaccharides are polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups, phosphate groups and/or ... Bacterial capsular polysaccharides[edit]. Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. ... Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and ... 5 Bacterial capsular polysaccharides. *6 Chemical identification tests for polysaccharides *6.1 Periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS ...
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). These vaccines are good at preventing severe pneumococcal disease, which often ...
Chemistry, Polysaccharides, Polymers, Radiation Effects, Radiation Chemistry, Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Applications, ... INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, The Radiation Chemistry of Polysaccharides, , IAEA, Vienna (2016). ... Radiation Modified Polysaccharides, Food Packaging, Radiation Processed Products, Novel Materials, Plant Biologists ...
Polysaccharides (also called glycan) are carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides.[1] They may have a ... Examples for polysaccharides are glycogen, cellulose, pectins or chitin.[2] Poly, meaning many, and saccharide comprise this ... Retrieved from "https://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Polysaccharides&oldid=1281695" ...
... we have synthesized several antitumor polysaccharides having D-glucopyranose, D-mannopyranose, D-ara-binofuranose, or its ... to the same extent as the natural polysaccharides. In this report, water soluble, branched polysaccharides having L- ... These synthetic polysaccharides showed high antitumor activity.. Keywords. Antitumor Activity Main Chain Methylation Analysis ... Matsuzaki K., Yamamoto I., Enomoto K., Kaneko Y., Mimura T., Shiio T. (1988) Synthesis of Antitumor Polysaccharides. In: ...
This book provides an excellent introduction into polysaccharide-based supercapacitors. It includes fundamental knowledge on ... bacterial cellulose supercapacitor polysaccharide science storage cellulose nanocrystals natural cellulose fiber substrate ... This book provides an excellent introduction into polysaccharide-based supercapacitors. It includes fundamental knowledge on ... this brief is aimed at a variety of readers with an interest in polysaccharide science and its applications. ...
ATCCs pneumococcal polysaccharides are purified and are the same serotypes found in vaccines against pneumococcal diseases ... ATCC offers 24 types of purified pneumococcal polysaccharides that can be used to study pneumococcal disease biology and in ... Polysaccharides * Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Powder Type 5 (US Type 5) (ATCC® 180-X™) ATCC® Number: 180-X™ Type Strain: no ... Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Powder Type 6A (US Type 6) (ATCC® 14-X™) ATCC® Number: 14-X™ Type Strain: no ...
BacterialBacterial,Britain,Capsules,Child,GreatHaemophilusHumans,ImmunizationInfections,Polysaccharides,Preschool,Programs, ... Alignment,Analysis,Antigens,Bacterial,EscherichiaGenome,Humans,Interactions,Polysaccharides,SalmonellaSequenceVirulencecoli, ... Bacterial,CarrierChild,ConjugateFailure,HaemophilusHumans,ImmunologicInfant,Infections,Memory,Polysaccharides,Preschool, ... Adult,Aged,Antibodies,BacterialBacterial,ConjugateHumans,MeningococcalMiddleNeisseriaPolysaccharides,Vaccination,Vaccines, ...
The polysaccharides, or complex carbohydrates, represent the form that sugar takes when it is stored. Polysaccharides are the ... Simple sugars and polysaccharides compose this group. Glucose is an example of a simple sugar that is an important cellular ... Moreover, polysaccharides and other sugars may function as markers for certain cellular recognition processes, including the ... Macromolecules - proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides - are formed by the polymerization of hundreds of their low- ...
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) can prevent pneumococcal disease.. Pneumococcal disease refers to any illness ...
Make research projects and school reports about Polysaccharides easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... Polysaccharides Chemistry: Foundations and Applications COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group, Inc.. Polysaccharides. Polysaccharides ... polysaccharides A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition © A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition 2005, originally published by Oxford ... polysaccharide Any of a group of complex carbohydrates made up of long chains of monosaccharide (simple-sugar) molecules. ...
Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) can prevent pneumococcal disease.. Pneumococcal disease refers to any illness ... Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease ...
Sulfated Polysaccharides. Miguel Gama. Minho University, Biological Engineering Department, Braga, Portugal. Series: ... This book offers an up-to-date view on sulfated polysaccharide structure and function state of the art in different life ... Chapter 6 - Sulfated Polysaccharides from Green Seaweed. (Anabela Alves, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho ... Chapter 10 - Sulfated Polysaccharides from Unusual Natural Sources. (Marília Medeiros Fernandes de Negreiros, Jailma Almeida- ...
Polysaccharide biosynthesis domain (IPR021148). Short name: Polysacc_synth_dom Overlapping homologous superfamilies *PBDC1-like ... The function of PBDC1 (polysaccharide biosynthesis domain-containing protein) is not clear. ...
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... Demand Assures Motivated Revenue Share during 2017-2026 / Novozyme, ... Soybean Polysaccharide is a water soluble polysaccharide extracted and refined from soybean. Soybean Polysaccharide are acidic ... Demand for Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides in Animal Feed to Reflect High Growth in the Coming Years. Polysaccharides and ... Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides Market Global Forecast over 2026 Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides are complex form of ...
The most common polysaccharide medium used in Ficoll®. Ficoll is produced by the polymerization of sucrose molecules ... with epichlorohydrin to give a polysaccharide with the average molecules weight of 400,000. Ficoll solutions below 20%(w/v) ... Polysaccharides circumvent the high osmotic strength issues that arise with using sucrose solutions. ... USA Home > Product Directory > Cell Biology > Hematology and Histology > Density Gradient Media > Polysaccharides ...
Seaweed Polysaccharides: Isolation and Properties of Agar, Alginate, Carrageenans, Fucoidans and Others. Polysaccharides from ... Marine Polysaccharides as Biofilms, Car.riers and Encapsulation Matrices. Miscellaneous Applications.. Subject Categories. * ... Polysaccharides from Crustacean Shell-wastes: Isolation and Properties of Chitin, Chitosan and their Derivatives. ... Functional Roles of Marine Polysaccharides - Texturizers, Fiber, Antioxidants etc. Food Applications of Chitin, Chitosan and ...
Polysaccharide Phosphorylase. Read the Nobel Lecture. Pdf 241 kB. Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1947 ...
polysaccharide synonyms, polysaccharide pronunciation, polysaccharide translation, English dictionary definition of ... polysaccharide. also pol·y·sac·cha·rid or pol·y·sac·cha·rose n. Any of a class of carbohydrates, such as starch and cellulose, ... polysaccharide. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to polysaccharide: Polysaccharide Vaccine ... Polysaccharide - definition of polysaccharide by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/polysaccharide ...
Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature.. Reeves PR1, Hobbs M, Valvano MA, Skurnik M, Whitfield C, Coplin D, ... Gene nomenclature for bacterial surface polysaccharides is complicated by the large number of structures and genes. We propose ...
Starches are classified as polysaccharides due to their molecular structures. Most starches are found in plants, since plants ... Polysaccharides are sugars that consists of multiple simple sugar units. The simple sugar units are known as monosaccharides, ... Polysaccharides form when numerous monosaccharides bind together to form long-chain compounds. Many of the common ... This allows polysaccharides to be utilized by plants and animals as a source of glucose. ...
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are both complex carbohydrates. Their building blocks are the dietary monosaccharides ... Digestible Polysaccharides. The only digestible polysaccharide is starch, which is a large molecule composed simply of glucose ... "Poly" means "many"; polysaccharides are composed of long chains of monosaccharide units. Some are digestible by human enzymes, ... Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides have separate and overlapping functions in maintaining good colon health and energy. ...
Well-known polysaccharides include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen and structural polysaccharides such as ... Acidic polysaccharides. Acidic polysaccharides are polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups, phosphate groups, and/or ... Polysaccharides from microorganisms, plants and animals. Pages 1-19 in E. J. Vandamme, Biopolymers, Volume 5, Polysaccharides I ... Bacterial capsule polysaccharides. Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. This " ...
MENINGOCOCCAL POLYSACCHARIDE VACCINE (muh ning goh KOK kal vak SEEN) is a vaccine to protect from bacterial meningitis. ... Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine injection. What is this medicine?. MENINGOCOCCAL POLYSACCHARIDE VACCINE (muh ning goh KOK ...
  • Bacterial polysaccharide synthesis and gene nomenclature. (nih.gov)
  • Now, two chemists, postdoctoral fellow Dr. Abragam Joseph and PhD student Alonso Pardo-Vargas in the team led by Peter H. Seeberger, Director at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces (Potsdam, Germany) used an automated synthesis instrument to prepare a linear 100-mer polysaccharide within 188 hours from one building block. (mpg.de)
  • The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. (osti.gov)
  • Beautifully illustrated in full colour throughout, this exceptional new volume provides cutting edge up-to-date information on such important topics as cell wall biology, composition and biosynthesis, glycosyltransferases, hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, enzymatic modification of plant cell wall polysaccharides, glycan engineering in transgenic plants, and polysaccharide nanobiotechnology. (wiley.com)
  • Macromolecules - proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides - are formed by the polymerization of hundreds of their low-molecular-weight precursors - amino acids, nucleotides, and simple sugars. (news-medical.net)
  • Moreover, polysaccharides and other sugars may function as markers for certain cellular recognition processes, including the intracellular movement of proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • The present invention relates to methods for producing N-terminal derivatives of proteins in which a polysaccharide, preferably having at least terminal sialic units and preferably consisting essentially only of sialic acid units, is reacted at the N-terminus of a protein or peptide under controlled conditions to produce an N-terminal derivative. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Some polysaccharides are also involved in recognitions like glycoproteins present at the surface of RBC are proteins linked to polysaccharides. (infobarrel.com)
  • Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. (mdpi.com)
  • Plant Polysaccharides , an exceptional new volume in Wiley-Blackwell's successful Annual Plant Reviews series, covers the polysaccharides and proteins that form the fundamental architecture of the plant cell wall, and the genes that encode the cellular machinery that synthesizes them. (wiley.com)
  • The volume focuses on the evolution of the many families of genes whose products are required to make a particular kind of polysaccharide, bringing attention to the specific biochemical properties of the proteins to the level of kinds of sugar linkages they make. (wiley.com)
  • The addition of polysaccharides to proteins during gel formation can alter the mechanical and textural properties of the resultant gels. (tudelft.nl)
  • Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) Coriolus versicolor Human CYP1A2 CYP2D6 CYP2E1 CYP3A4 ABSTRACT Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy or health supplement in China. (acronymfinder.com)
  • These polysaccharides are synthesized from nucleotide-activated precursors and, in most cases, all the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis, assembly and transport of the completed polymer are encoded by genes organized in dedicated clusters within the genome of the organism. (bionity.com)
  • The detergent is free of an external structurant selected from the group consisting of non-polymeric hydroxyl-containing materials, microfibrillated celluloses, polyacrylates, polysaccharides , polysaccharide derivatives and mixtures thereof. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Analysis of this new class of polysaccharide derivatives with the aid of labeled 2-nitropropyl-2-13C pullulan revealed that the nitrogroup is a mixture of the nitroalkane and nitronic acid tautomers. (tudelft.nl)
  • Owing to the multidisciplinary character of the European Polysaccharide Network of Excellence (EPNOE), the book describes all main aspects of polysaccharide science and technology (biology, enzymology, physics, chemistry, materials science and processing). (springer.com)
  • 7 . The medical implant of claim 1 , wherein the polysaccharide comprises alginate. (google.com.au)
  • 10. The method of claim 1 wherein the polysaccharide comprises maltodextrin. (google.com.au)
  • 14. The method of claim 6 wherein the polysaccharide comprises guar gum, locust bean gum, gum ghatti, gum karaya, tamarind gum, tragacanth gum, or combinations thereof, the oxidizing agent comprises sodium percarbonate and the sulfonating agent comprises sodium sulfite. (google.com.au)
  • 15. The method of claim 6 wherein the polysaccharide comprises maltodextrin, the oxidizing agent comprises sodium percarbonate and the sulfonating agent comprises sodium sulfite. (google.com.au)
  • The chain length of polysaccharides was found to be directly related to their hydrolysis rates. (aiche.org)
  • Pathogenic bacteria commonly produce a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide. (bionity.com)
  • Bacteria and many other microbes, including fungi and algae, often secrete polysaccharides as an evolutionary adaptation to help them adhere to surfaces and to prevent them from drying out. (bionity.com)
  • Here we show that polysaccharides obtained from soil bacteria inhibit sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in an in vivo silkworm evaluation system. (go.jp)
  • Natural hydroxyapatite and a linear polysaccharide ( 1-3 linked β - D galactopyranose and 1,4 linked 3,6 anhydro - α -L-galactopyranose) were used as a precursor in its formation. (hindawi.com)
  • Our purpose was to produce nanoparticles in the presence of a linear polysaccharide with the use of a gelification method. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present work we have synthesized HA nanoparticles facilitated by a linear polysaccharide such as β -D galactopyranose and 1,4 linked 3,6 anhydro- α -L-galactopyranose in order to promote a controlled growth of spherical nanoparticles. (hindawi.com)
  • For this reason, some bacterial polysaccharides are produced on an industrial scale and used as raw material for processed foods, in medicine and in industrial preparations (3). (scielo.br)
  • Our results suggest that silkworms provide an efficient screening system of bacterial polysaccharides that inhibit sucrose-induced hyperglycemia. (go.jp)
  • Ethanol precipitates of extracellular polysaccharides were prepared from viscous bacterial colonies. (go.jp)
  • A total of 182 Lactobacillus strains were screened for production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by a new method: growth in liquid media with high sugar concentrations. (tudelft.nl)
  • Polysaccharides circumvent the high osmotic strength issues that arise with using sucrose solutions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of sucrose culture supernatants, followed by staining of gels for polysaccharide synthesizing activity with sucrose as a substrate, revealed the presence of a single glucansucrase protein of 146 kDa. (tudelft.nl)
  • Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines in activated rheumatoid synovial fibroblast. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Preparing defined polysaccharides provides the basis to understand how these ubiquitous biopolymers serve their roles as materials. (mpg.de)
  • In this report, water soluble, branched polysaccharides having L-arabinofuranose or its oligomer, L-arabinopyranose, or D-galactopyranose as side chains were synthesized, and their structures and antitumor activities were determined, in order to investigate the effect of the kind of side chains on the antitumor activity. (springer.com)
  • Gene nomenclature for bacterial surface polysaccharides is complicated by the large number of structures and genes. (nih.gov)
  • 3.2 Pectic polysaccharides: structures and availability of fragments from natural sources. (wiley.com)
  • Using an Automated Glycan Assembly (AGA) instrument originally developed at the institute they prepared a linear 100-mer and achieved the completion of a 151-mer multiply branched polysaccharide. (mpg.de)
  • A bacterial polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) is a set of physically linked genes that orchestrate the breakdown of a specific glycan. (nih.gov)
  • Reishi Extract is standardized to 10% polysaccharides, the key active constituents in Reishi. (puritan.com)
  • Previously, we have synthesized several antitumor polysaccharides having D-glucopyranose, D-mannopyranose, D-ara-binofuranose, or its oligomer, as side chains of (1→3)-β-glucan, or (1→4)-β-glucan by the orthoester method as models of natural antitumor polysaccharides, such as lentinan, etc. (springer.com)