Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. ("Intracisternal" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.

Improving proteolytic cleavage at the 3A/3B site of the hepatitis A virus polyprotein impairs processing and particle formation, and the impairment can be complemented in trans by 3AB and 3ABC. (1/193)

The orchestrated liberation of viral proteins by 3C(pro)-mediated proteolysis is pivotal for gene expression by picornaviruses. Proteolytic processing is regulated either by the amino acid sequence at the cleavage site of the substrate or by cofactors covalently or noncovalently linked to the viral proteinase. To determine the role of the amino acid sequence at cleavage sites 3A/3B and 3B/3C that are essential for the liberation of 3C(pro) from its precursors and to assess the function of the stable processing intermediates 3AB and 3ABC, we studied the effect of cleavage site mutations on hepatitis A virus (HAV) polyprotein processing, particle formation, and replication. Using the recombinant vaccinia virus system, we showed that the normally retarded cleavage at the 3A/3B junction can be improved by altering the amino acid sequence at the scissile bond such that it matches the preferred HAV 3C cleavage sites. In contrast to the processing products of the wild-type polyprotein, 3ABC was no longer detectable in the mutant. VP0 and VP3 were generated less efficiently, implying that processing of the structural protein precursor P1-2A depends on the presence of stable 3ABC and/or 3AB. In addition, cleavage of 2BC was impaired in 3AB/3ABC-deficient mutants. Formation of HAV particles was not affected in mutants with blocked 3A/3B and/or 3B/3C cleavage sites. However, 3ABC-deficient mutants produced small numbers of HAV particles, which could be augmented by coexpressing 3AB or 3ABC. The hydrophobic domain of 3A that has been proposed to mediate membrane anchorage of the replication complex was crucial for restoration of defective particle formation. In vitro transcripts of the various cleavage site mutants were unable to initiate an infectious cycle, and no progeny viruses were obtained even after blind passages. Taken together, the data suggest that accumulation of uncleaved HAV 3AB and/or 3ABC is pivotal for both viral replication and efficient particle formation.  (+info)

Hyperphosphorylation of the hepatitis C virus NS5A protein requires an active NS3 protease, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5A encoded on the same polyprotein. (2/193)

The nonstructural protein NS5A of hepatitis c virus (HCV) has been demonstrated to be a phosphoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 56 kDa. In the presence of other viral proteins, p56 is converted into a slower-migrating form of NS5A (p58) by additional phosphorylation events. In this report, we show that the presence of NS3, NS4A, and NS4B together with NS5A is necessary and sufficient for the generation of the hyperphosphorylated form of NS5A (p58) and that all proteins must be encoded on the same polyprotein (in cis). Kinetic studies of NS5A synthesis and pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that fully processed NS5A is the substrate for the formation of p58 and that p56 is converted to p58. To investigate the role of NS3 in NS5A hyperphosphorylation, point and deletion mutations were introduced into NS3 in the context of a polyprotein containing the proteins from NS3 to NS5A. Mutation of the catalytic serine residue into alanine abolished protease activity of NS3 and resulted in total inhibition of NS5A hyperphosphorylation, even if polyprotein processing was allowed by addition of NS3 and NS4A in trans. The same result was obtained by deletion of the first 10 or 28 N-terminal amino acids of NS3, which are known to be important for the formation of a stable complex between NS3 and its cofactor NS4A. These data suggest that the formation of p58 is closely connected to HCV polyprotein processing events. Additional data obtained with NS3 containing the 34 C-terminal residues of NS2 provide evidence that in addition to NS3 protease activity the authentic N-terminal sequence is required for NS5A hyperphosphorylation.  (+info)

Bovine leukemia virus Gag particle assembly in insect cells: formation of chimeric particles by domain-switched leukemia/lentivirus Gag polyprotein. (3/193)

A key stage in the life cycle of C-type retroviruses is the assembly of Gag precursor protein at the plasma membrane of infected cells. Here we report the assembly of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) gag gene product into virus-like particles (VLPs) using the baculovirus expression system. Expression of BLV Pr44(Gag) resulted in the assembly and release of VLPs, thereby confirming the ability of retroviral Gag polyprotein to assemble and bud from insect cells. Efficient particle formation required a myristoylation signal at the N-terminus of BLV Pr44(Gag). Recombinant baculoviruses expressing matrix (MA) or capsid-nucleocapsid (CA-NC) proteins of BLV were generated but neither of these domains was capable of assembling into particulate structures. To assess the compatibility of Gag domains between leukemia and lentivirus groups three different recombinant chimeras each expressing MA of one virus (e.g., simian immunodeficiency or BLV) and CA-NC of another (e.g., BLV or human T-cell leukemia virus type-I) were constructed. Each of the chimeric proteins assembled efficiently and budded as VLPs, suggesting that the MA and CA domains of these two evolutionary divergent retrovirus groups can be functionally exchanged without perturbation of Gag VLP formation. The lenti-leukemia chimeric Gag approach has potential for studying protein-protein interactions in other retroviruses.  (+info)

Crystal structure of an inhibitor complex of the 3C proteinase from hepatitis A virus (HAV) and implications for the polyprotein processing in HAV. (4/193)

The proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein is an essential step during the life cycle of hepatitis A virus (HAV), as it is in all positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of animals. In HAV the 3C proteinase is the only proteolytic activity involved in the polyprotein processing. The specific recognition of the cleavage sites by the 3C proteinase depends on the amino acid sequence of the cleavage site. The structure of the complex of the HAV 3C proteinase and a dipeptide inhibitor has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The double-mutant of HAV 3C (C24S, F82A) was inhibited with the specific inhibitor iodoacetyl-valyl-phenylalanyl-amide. The resulting complex had an acetyl-Val-Phe-amide group covalently attached to the S(gamma) atom of the nucleophilic Cys 172 of the enzyme. Crystals of the complex of HAV 3C (C24S, F82A) acetyl-Val-Phe-amide were found to be monoclinic, space group P2(1), having 4 molecules in the asymmetric unit and diffracting to 1.9-A resolution. The final refined structure consists of 4 molecules of HAV 3C (C24S,F82A) acetyl-Val-Phe-amide, 1 molecule of DMSO, 1 molecule of glycerol, and 514 water molecules. There are considerable conformational differences among the four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The final R-factor is 20.4% for all observed reflections between 15.0- and 1.9-A resolution and the corresponding R(free) is 29.8%. The dipeptide inhibitor is bound to the S(1)(') and S(2)(') specificity subsites of the proteinase. The crystal structure reveals that the HAV 3C proteinase possesses a well-defined S(2)(') specificity pocket and suggests that the P(2)(') residue could be an important determinant for the selection of the primary cleavage site during the polyprotein processing in HAV.  (+info)

Mutational analysis of the GB virus B internal ribosome entry site. (5/193)

GB virus B (GBV-B) is a recently discovered hepatotropic flavivirus that is distantly related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). We show here that translation of its polyprotein is initiated by internal entry of ribosomes on GBV-B RNA. We analyzed the translational activity of dicistronic RNA transcripts containing wild-type or mutated 5' nontranslated GBV-B RNA (5'NTR) segments, placed between the coding sequences of two reporter proteins, in vitro in rabbit reticulocyte lysate and in vivo in transfected BT7-H cells. We related these results to a previously proposed model of the secondary structure of the GBV-B 5'NTR (M. Honda, et al. RNA 2:955-968, 1996). We identified an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) bounded at its 5' end by structural domain II, a location analogous to the 5' limit of the IRES in both the HCV and pestivirus 5'NTRs. Mutational analysis confirmed the structure proposed for domain II of GBV-B RNA, and demonstrated that optimal IRES-mediated translation is dependent on each of the putative RNA hairpins in this domain, including two stem-loops not present in the HCV or pestivirus structures. IRES activity was also absolutely dependent on (i) phylogenetically conserved, adenosine-containing bulge loops in domain III and (ii) the primary nucleotide sequence of stem-loop IIIe. IRES-directed translation was inhibited by a series of point mutations predicted to stabilize stem-loop IV, which contains the initiator AUG codon in its loop segment. A reporter gene was translated most efficiently when fused directly to the initiator AUG codon, with no intervening downstream GBV-B sequence. This finding indicates that the 3' limit of the GBV-B IRES is at the initiator AUG and that it does not require downstream polyprotein-coding sequence as suggested for the HCV IRES. These results show that the GBV-B IRES, while sharing a common general structure, differs both structurally and functionally from other flavivirus IRES elements.  (+info)

Identification of a novel cleavage activity of the first papain-like proteinase domain encoded by open reading frame 1a of the coronavirus Avian infectious bronchitis virus and characterization of the cleavage products. (6/193)

The coronavirus Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) employs polyprotein processing as a strategy to express its gene products. Previously we identified the first cleavage event as proteolysis at the Gly(673)-Gly(674) dipeptide bond mediated by the first papain-like proteinase domain (PLPD-1) to release an 87-kDa mature protein. In this report, we demonstrate a novel cleavage activity of PLPD-1. Expression, deletion, and mutagenesis studies showed that the product encoded between nucleotides 2548 and 8865 was further cleaved by PLPD-1 at the Gly(2265)-Gly(2266) dipeptide bond to release an N-terminal 195-kDa and a C-terminal 41-kDa cleavage product. Characterization of the cleavage activity revealed that the proteinase is active on this scissile bond when expressed in vitro in rabbit reticulocyte lysates and can act on the same substrate in trans when expressed in intact cells. Both the N- and C-terminal cleavage products were detected in virus-infected cells and were found to be physically associated. Glycosidase digestion and site-directed mutagenesis studies of the 41-kDa protein demonstrated that it is modified by N-linked glycosylation at the Asn(2313) residue encoded by nucleotides 7465 to 7467. By using a region-specific antiserum raised against the IBV sequence encoded by nucleotides 8865 to 9786, we also demonstrated that a 33-kDa protein, representing the 3C-like proteinase (3CLP), was specifically immunoprecipitated from the virus-infected cells. Site-directed mutagenesis and expression studies showed that a previously predicted cleavage site (Q(2583)-G(2584)) located within the 41-kDa protein-encoding region was not utilized by 3CLP, supporting the conclusion that the 41-kDa protein is a mature viral product.  (+info)

Multiple interactions among proteins encoded by the mite-transmitted wheat streak mosaic tritimovirus. (7/193)

The genome organization of the mite-transmitted wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) appears to parallel that of members of the Potyviridae with monopartite genomes, but there are substantial amino acid dissimilarities with other potyviral polyproteins. To initiate studies on the functions of WSMV-encoded proteins, a protein interaction map was generated using a yeast two-hybrid system. Because the pathway of proteolytic maturation of the WSMV polyprotein has not been experimentally determined, random libraries of WSMV cDNA were made both in DNA-binding domain and activation domain plasmid vectors and introduced into yeast. Sequence analysis of multiple interacting pairs revealed that interactions largely occurred between domains within two groups of proteins. The first involved interactions among nuclear inclusion protein a, nuclear inclusion protein b, and coat protein (CP), and the second involved helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) and cylindrical inclusion protein (CI). Further immunoblot and deletion mapping analyses of the interactions suggest that subdomains of CI, HC-Pro, and P1 interact with one another. The two-hybrid assay was then performed using full-length genes of CI, HC-Pro, P1, P3, and CP, but no heterologous interactions were detected. In vitro binding assay using glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins and in vitro translation products, however, revealed mutual interactions among CI, HC-Pro, P1, and P3. The failure to detect interactions between full-length proteins by the two-hybrid assay might be due to adverse effects of expression of viral proteins in yeast cells. The capacity to participate in multiple homomeric and heteromeric molecular interactions is consistent with the pleiotropic nature of many potyviral gene mutants and suggests mechanisms for regulation of various viral processes via a network of viral protein complexes.  (+info)

Virus-specific cofactor requirement and chimeric hepatitis C virus/GB virus B nonstructural protein 3. (8/193)

GB virus B (GBV-B) is closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and causes acute hepatitis in tamarins (Saguinus species), making it an attractive surrogate virus for in vivo testing of anti-HCV inhibitors in a small monkey model. It has been reported that the nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) serine protease of GBV-B shares similar substrate specificity with its counterpart in HCV. Authentic proteolytic processing of the HCV polyprotein junctions (NS4A/4B, NS4B/5A, and NS5A/5B) can be accomplished by the GBV-B NS3 protease in an HCV NS4A cofactor-independent fashion. We further characterized the protease activity of a full-length GBV-B NS3 protein and its cofactor requirement using in vitro-translated GBV-B substrates. Cleavages at the NS4A/4B and NS5A/5B junctions were readily detectable only in the presence of a cofactor peptide derived from the central region of GBV-B NS4A. Interestingly, the GBV-B substrates could also be cleaved by the HCV NS3 protease in an HCV NS4A cofactor-dependent manner, supporting the notion that HCV and GBV-B share similar NS3 protease specificity while retaining a virus-specific cofactor requirement. This finding of a strict virus-specific cofactor requirement is consistent with the lack of sequence homology in the NS4A cofactor regions of HCV and GBV-B. The minimum cofactor region that supported GBV-B protease activity was mapped to a central region of GBV-B NS4A (between amino acids Phe22 and Val36) which overlapped with the cofactor region of HCV. Alanine substitution analysis demonstrated that two amino acids, Val27 and Trp31, were essential for the cofactor activity, a finding reminiscent of the two critical residues in the HCV NS4A cofactor, Ile25 and Ile29. A model for the GBV-B NS3 protease domain and NS4A cofactor complex revealed that GBV-B might have developed a similar structural strategy in the activation and regulation of its NS3 protease activity. Finally, a chimeric HCV/GBV-B bifunctional NS3, consisting of an N-terminal HCV protease domain and a C-terminal GBV-B RNA helicase domain, was engineered. Both enzymatic activities were retained by the chimeric protein, which could lead to the development of a chimeric GBV-B virus that depends on HCV protease function.  (+info)

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Pol Polyprotein - Drugs in Development, 2021 provides in depth analysis on Pol Polyprotein targeted pipeline therapeutics. The report provides comprehensive information complete with Analysis by Indications, Stage of Development, Mechanism of Action (MoA), Route of Administration (RoA) and Molecule Type. The report also covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases. Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Pol Polyprotein targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. The report analyses the pipeline products across relevant therapy areas under development targeting Pol Polyprotein.. The report helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage.. The report is built using data ...
The replication strategy of viruses in the family Caliciviridae includes proteolytic processing of a large polyprotein by the virus-encoded 3CL Pro protein to release several nonstructural proteins. The 3CL Pro of MNV-1 maps to amino acids 995 to 1177 of the polyprotein and processes the polyprotein at five cleavage sites, 341E/G342, 705Q/N706, 870E/G871, 994E/A995, and 1177Q/G1178, to release six proteins with the following gene order: p38.3 (Nterm)-p39.6 (NTPase)-p18.6-p14.3 (VPg)-p19.2 (Pro)-p57.5 (Pol). Despite the divergence of the ORF1 polyprotein amino acid sequences, the location of the cleavage sites as well as a sequence preference for glutamic acid or glutamine residues in the P1 position were found to be well conserved among noroviruses. In contrast, some sequence variation in the P1′ position of the cleavage sites is tolerated. A comparison of the MNV-1 ORF1 sequence with those of other MNV strains in GenBank (accession numbers DQ223041, DQ223042, and DQ223043) showed variation in ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is of growing concern in public health with around 350 million chronically infected individuals worldwide. Although the IFN-α/rivabirin is the only approved therapy with 10-30% clinical efficacy, the protective molecular mechanism involved during the treatment is still unknown. To analyze the effect of HCV polyprotein expression on the antiviral response of the host, we developed a novel vaccinia virus (VV)-based delivery system (VT7-HCV7.9) where structural and nonstructural (except part of NS5B) proteins of HCV ORF from genotype 1b are efficiently expressed and produced, and timely regulated in mammalian cell lines. Regulated transcript production and viral polypeptide processing was demonstrated in various cell lines infected with the recombinant VT7-HCV7.9, indicating that the cellular and viral proteolytic machineries are functional within these cells. The inducible expression of the HCV polyprotein by VV inhibits the synthesis of both host and viral proteins over
I have predicted two viral proteins using modeller and validated by Ramachandran plot. I have to generate poly protein as single pdb structure. How to assemble predicted protein model into one polyprotein . also there is no single resolved polyprotein or model from nearest family member of virus. Thanks in advance ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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DCV capsid polyprotein兔多克隆抗体(ab92954)可与重组片段样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Encoded by the genome of the viruses of the hepatitis C group, and contributes to the maturation of the precursor polyproteins. The enzyme is greatly activated by binding of the 54-residue NS4A cofactor protein also derived from the viral polyprotein. Type example of peptidase family S29. The crystallographic structure shows a chymotrypsin-like fold ...
The replicase polyprotein 1ab is a multifunctional protein: it contains the activities necessary for the transcription of negative stranded RNA, leader RNA, subgenomic mRNAs and progeny virion RNA as well as proteinases responsible for the cleavage of the polyprotein into functional products.
The African swine fever virus (ASFV) protease that processes the viral polyproteins is required for a late maturational step in virus core assembly and production of infectious progeny virus. On the other hand, studies on ASFV morphogenesis have shown a correlation between proteolytic processing of polyproteins and correct virus assembly, suggesting that the activity of the protease might be modulated during the infection. Indeed, recent studies demonstrated that the protease activity is controlled by two disulfide bridges formed between cysteines C14 and C24 and between C45 and C50. To investigate the mechanism of this redox regulation, we have studied the interaction of the wild type protease and punctual mutants of the involved cysteines to serine with the substrate polyprotein pp62. Our results show, in pull down experiments, the binding of the wild type but not the mutated protease to polyprotein pp62, indicating that the intramolecular disulfide bonds are necessary for the interaction of ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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Rabbit polyclonal DCV capsid polyprotein antibody validated for WB, ELISA, ICC. Referenced in 1 publication and 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding…
to these conserved sequences within the HIV Protease tunnel, preventing the nascent polyproteins from entering. Unable to actively cleave the nascent proteins into their functional form, HIV is unable to mature and proliferate, allowing the patients immune system to fight off the infection more easily.[1][2] ...
HOXD1 is a protein with a homeobox DNA-binding domain, and it belongs to the Antp homeobox family. This nuclear protein functions as a…
p,The ethanolamine utilization (Eut) microcompartment is a protein-based metabolic organelle that is strongly associated with pathogenesis in bacteria that inhabit the human gut. The exterior shell of this elaborate protein complex is composed from a few thousand copies of BMC-domain shell proteins, which form a semi-permeable diffusion barrier that provides the interior enzymes with substrates and cofactors while simultaneously retaining metabolic intermediates. The ability of this protein shell to regulate passage of substrate and cofactor molecules is critical for microcompartment function, but the details of how this diffusion barrier can allow the passage of large cofactors while still retaining small intermediates remain unclear. Previous work has revealed two conformations of the EutL shell protein, providing substantial evidence for a gated pore that might allow the passage of large cofactors. Here we report structural and biophysical evidence to show that ethanolamine, the substrate of ...
Global Markets Directs, Pol Polyprotein - Pipeline Review, H1 2016, provides in depth analysis on Pol Polyprotein targeted pipeline therapeutics.
Cheraviruses have three CPs of similar sizes. In some cases, these proteins are not fully or reproducibly resolved from each other by electrophoresis. The genome of cheraviruses is bipartite and the genomic organization is similar to that of comoviruses, although RNA-2 is thought to encode a single polyprotein (Figure 3.Secoviridae). The RNA-2-encoded movement protein of apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) is 42 kDa, suggesting that translation initiation occurs at the second AUG, which is in a better context. Tubular structures containing virus-like particles are observed in infected cells and are likely involved in cell-to-cell movement of the virus. The movement protein and all three CPs are necessary for cell-to-cell movement of the virus [{Yoshikawa et al., 2006:16362640RJOHTXYoshikawa et al., 2006, A movement protein and three capsid proteins are all necessary for the cell-to-cell movement of apple latent spherical cheravirus, Arch Virol, 151, 5, 837-48}]. The MP binds to VP25, one of the ...
Murine hepatitis virus ATCC ® VR-246™ Designation: Original (Friend) Application: Stored material should by passed 1-2 times before being used for large-scale experiments.
hepatitis C virus proteinase Cpro-1: cleaves HCV polyprotein p110 to generate N-terminal of p70; enzyme activity is unique HCV characteristic, different from other members of flaviviridiae; amino acid sequence has been determined
Supplementary Materialscells-08-01444-s001. wellness concern world-wide [1,2,3,4]. Latest ZIKV global outbreaks, with Brazil on the epicentre, highlighted what sort Mouse monoclonal to CD59(PE) of previously neglected flavivirus can turn into a severe threat for human being health. While human being ZIKV infections remained only sporadic and with a limited impact for decades [5,6,7,8], recent outbreaks exposed that ZIKV caused clusters of severe congenital and neurological abnormalities in babies and peripheral nervous system impairments in adults [9,10,11,12]. Considering the dramatic increase of severe human being cases, strategies to efficiently control this disease, either in terms of antiviral treatments or vaccines, are urgently needed and a granted requirement for more considerable studies. Flaviviruses contain a genomic single-stranded positive RNA encoding a single large polyprotein that is consequently cleaved by cellular and viral proteases into three structural proteins (C, prM/M and ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Semliki-Forest-virus-specific nonstructural protein nsP4 is an autoproteinase. AU - Takkinen, Kristiina. AU - Peränen, Johan. AU - Keränen, Sirkka. AU - Söderlund, Hans. AU - Kääriäinen, Leevi. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The Semliki‐Forest‐virus‐specific nonstructural proteins are translated as a large polyprotein (2431 amino acid residues), from which the mature polymerase components nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4 are released by proteolytic cleavages. The complete ns polyprotein (P1234) can be cleaved in two alternative ways yielding either P123 (with sequences of nsP1, nsP2 and nsP3) and nsP4 or P12 (nsP1 plus nsP2) and P34 (nsP3 plus nsP4). We studied the possible autoproteolytic role of nsP4 involved in the cleavage between nsP3 and nsP4 in an in vitro transcription‐translation system. cDNAs encoding P34 precursor and shorter precursor protein segments covering the nsP3‐nsP4 cleavage region, were cloned under the T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The mRNAs ...
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The HCV replication complex. After clathrin-mediated endocytosis, fusion of HCV with cellular membranes, and uncoating the viral nucleocapsid, the single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of the virus of approximately 9600 nucleotides is released into the cytoplasm to serve as a messenger RNA for the HCV polyprotein precursor. The HCV genome contains a single large open reading frame encoding for a polyprotein of approximately 3100 amino acids. The translated section of the HCV genome is flanked by the strongly conserved HCV 3′ and 5′ untranslated regions (UTR). The 5′ UTR is comprised of four highly structured domains forming the internal ribosome entry site (IRES), which is a virus-specific structure to initiate HCV mRNA translation. From the initially translated polyprotein, the structural HCV protein core (C) and envelope 1 and 2 (E1, E2); p7; and the six nonstructural HCV proteins NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A and NS5B, are processed by both viral and host proteases. The core protein ...
Many bacterial cells contain proteinaceous microcompartments that act as simple organelles by sequestering specific metabolic processes involving volatile or toxic metabolites. Here we report the three-dimensional (3D) crystal structures, with resolutions between 1.65 and 2.5 angstroms, of the four homologous proteins (EutS, EutL, EutK, and EutM) that are thought to be the major shell constituents of a functionally complex ethanolamine utilization (Eut) microcompartment. The Eut microcompartment is used to sequester the metabolism of ethanolamine in bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The four Eut shell proteins share an overall similar 3D fold, but they have distinguishing structural features that help explain the specific roles they play in the microcompartment. For example, EutL undergoes a conformational change that is probably involved in gating molecular transport through shell protein pores, whereas structural evidence suggests that EutK might bind a nucleic acid ...
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Citation: Tatineni, S., Mcmechan, A., Hein, G., French, R.C. 2011. Efficient and stable expression of GFP through Wheat streak mosaic virus-based vectors in cereal hosts using a range of cleavage sites: Formation of dense fluorescent aggregates for sensitive virus tracking. Virology. 410:268-281, doi:10.1016/j.virol.2010.10.043. Interpretive Summary: In this study, we inserted a GFP cistron into the WSMV genome with a range of cleavage peptides to release GFP from the viral polyprotein. The cleavage peptides from WSMV failed to release GFP from the viral polyprotein and formed a fusion protein of GFP:HC-Pro, which was expressed as dense aggregate-like fluorescent structures for sensitive tracking of the virus in cereal hosts. The availability of GFP-tagged WSMV greatly improved the ability to non-destructively trace the spread of the virus within plant tissues during the infection, and opened new research avenues examining the WSMV movement, trafficking, and virus-host interactions in cereal ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
The pestivirus genome encodes a single polyprotein which is subject to co- and posttranslational processing by cellular and viral proteases. The map positions of all virus-encoded proteins are known with the exception of a hypothetical peptide (p?) which interlinks the glycoprotein E2 and the nonstructural protein NS2-3 approximately between amino acid positions 1060 and 1130. Expression studies with recombinant vaccinia viruses bearing a set of C-terminally truncated E2-p?-NS2-encoding sequences derived from a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain led to the identification of a minor fraction of E2 which had an increased molecular mass due to a C-terminal extension. This larger form of E2 (E2p7) was specifically recognized by an antiserum raised against the amino acid sequence from 1065 to 1125. In addition, the antibodies revealed a BVDV-encoded 7-kDa protein (p7) in infected cells. By radiosequencing it was determined that Val-1067 was the N-terminal amino acid of in vitro-synthesized p7. ...
The polyprotein allergens/antigens of nematodes (NPAs) are the only lipid binding proteins known to be produced as polyproteins. Cleavage of the large polyprotein precursors at regularly spaced proteinase cleavage sites produces 10 or 11 individual protein units of similar to 15 kDa. The sequences of these units are highly diverse within and between species, but there are five absolutely or strongly conserved amino acid positions (Trp 15, Gln20, Leu42, Cys64, and Cys120). We have tested the role of these signature amino acids by mutational or chemical alteration of the ABA-1 protein of Ascaris, and examined the resulting modified proteins for perturbations of their lipid binding activities and structural integrity. Substitution of Trp15 and Gln20 both affect the stability of the protein in terms of resistance to thermal or chemical denaturation, but the ligand binding function is unaffected. Mutation of Leu42, however, disrupts both the proteins structural stability and functional integrity, as ...
The genome encodes two polyproteins. The first polyprotein consists of four non-structural units: in order from the N terminal ... The second is a structural polyprotein composed of five expression units: from the N terminal to the C terminal - Capsid, E3, ... The processing of the polyprotein occurs in a highly regulated manner, with cleavage at the P2/3 junction influencing RNA ... Four nonstructural proteins (nsP1-4) which are produced as a single polyprotein constitute the virus' replication machinery. ...
Hoffmann, Toni; Dougan, Lorna (2012). "Single molecule force spectroscopy using polyproteins". Chemical Society Reviews. 41 (14 ... "Single-molecule force spectroscopy on polyproteins and receptor-ligand complexes: The current toolbox". Journal of Structural ...
"Replicase polyprotein 1ab". Uniprot. Sato K, Masuda T, Hu Q, Tobo T, Gillaspie S, Niida A, et al. (June 2019). "Novel oncogene ...
Protease degrades peptide bonds of the viral polyproteins, making the separate proteins functional. Reverse transcriptase ... These viral proteins are encoded as polyproteins. In order to carry out their life cycle, the retrovirus relies heavily on the ...
VPg is removed from the viral RNA, which is then translated into a processed ORF1 polyprotein to yield the replication proteins ... ORF2 encodes for minor structural polyproteins, VP2. While there have been predictions of a third ORF (ORF3), there is no proof ...
Such sequences are common in virus polyproteins. The frameshift occurs due to wobble pairing. The Gibbs free energy of ...
An alternative name is the ORF1ab polyprotein. It contains the polyprotein cleavage proteinases. The optimum pH for the ... Replicase polyprotein 1ab protein is in the human Sars coronavirus. Rep is involved in the transcription and replication of ... "P0C6X7- Replicase polyprotein 1ab". UniProt. Sun, Wenjing; Guo, Changlong; Meng, Xiangning; Yu, Yang; Jin, Yan; Tong, Dandan; ... Two viruses that interact are rep and PVR proteins which are replicase polyprotein 1ab and Poliovirus receptor respectively. ...
UniProt: TEV polyprotein: "P04517". Rawlings ND, Barrett AJ, Bateman A (January 2012). "MEROPS: the database of proteolytic ... TEV polyprotein on UniProt TEV protease on MEROPS National Cancer Institute TEV FAQ Biology portal. ... The tobacco etch virus encodes its entire genome as a single massive polyprotein (350 kDa). This is cleaved into functional ... Dougherty WG, Cary SM, Parks TD (August 1989). "Molecular genetic analysis of a plant virus polyprotein cleavage site: a model ...
These polyproteins are thought to be cleaved into 12 products. The virus contains a nucleocapsid that is spherical with a ... The genome is dominated by two large open reading frames, ORF1a and ORF1ab; these code for two polyproteins, PP1a and PP1ab. ...
Rice, C.M.; Rawlings, N.D.; Woessner, J.F. (1998). "Hepatitis C virus polyprotein peptidase". In Barrett, A.J. (ed.). Handbook ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction: Hydrolysis of four peptide bonds in the viral precursor polyprotein, ...
The Gag polyprotein directs the assembly and release of virus particles from infected cells. The Gag polyprotein has three ... Another family represents the M domain of the Gag polyprotein found in avian retroviruses. It includes Gag polyproteins from ... Matrix proteins are produced as N-terminal domains of Gag precursor polyproteins. ... the Gag polyprotein is cleaved by the retroviral protease into several corresponding structural proteins, yielding the matrix ( ...
Biosynthesis as a proteinase-adhesin polyprotein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (3): 1007-10. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.3 ...
They are characterised by similarities in their replication-associated polyproteins. These account for the majority of their ...
Martín Alonso JM, Casais R, Boga JA, Parra F (February 1996). "Processing of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus polyprotein". ... Liu B, Clarke IN, Lambden PR (April 1996). "Polyprotein processing in Southampton virus: identification of 3C-like protease ... identification of cleavage sites in the ORF1 polyprotein and analysis of cleavage specificity". Journal of Virology. 69 (11): ... "Identification of further proteolytic cleavage sites in the Southampton calicivirus polyprotein by expression of the viral ...
ORFs 2a and 2b encode the replicational polyproteins P2a and P2ab. Translation of ORF2a from the genomic RNA is dependent on a ...
The core of the virus contains Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins. These polyproteins are cleaved in the mature virus to their ...
The polyproteins are cleaved into smaller proteins each with their own function. The nucleotides encoding them are known as ... The proteins encoded by the gag and pol genes are translated from genome-length mRNAs into Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins. In ... gag and pol encode polyproteins, each managing the capsid and replication. The pol region encodes enzymes necessary for viral ... Depending on the virus, the genes may overlap or fuse into larger polyprotein chains. Some viruses contain additional genes. ...
It is a component of the gag polyprotein. Fourth-generation HIV immunoassays detect viral p24 protein in the blood (as well as ...
Flaviviruses produce a polyprotein from the ssRNA genome. The polyprotein is cleaved to a number of products, one of which is ...
The unspliced viral RNA translation produces env, gag, and gag-pol polyproteins. The Env becomes a polypeptide precursor and ...
Through translation of the genome a polyprotein is produced. It is later cleaved in order to give twelve proteins. These ...
The RNA is then translated to produce a polyprotein, which is then processed by viral proteases into RNA dependent RNA ... "Carrot virus Y country Australia polyprotein gene, partial cds". 2002-10-10. Retrieved 13 December 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
The polyprotein pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) contains many polypeptide hormones. The cleavage pattern of POMC, however, may vary ... Some proteins and most eukaryotic polypeptide hormones are synthesized as a large precursor polypeptide known as a polyprotein ... Common names for the polyprotein include gag (group-specific antigen) in retroviruses and ORF1ab in Nidovirales. The latter ... between different tissues, yielding different sets of polypeptide hormones from the same polyprotein. Many viruses also produce ...
The protease cleaves the gag and pol polyprotein precursor. The viral tat gene encodes a 94-amino acid protein. Tat is the most ... The env gene is translated into a single precursor polyprotein that is cleaved by a host protease into two proteins, the ...
It cleaves the coronavirus polyprotein at eleven conserved sites. It is a cysteine protease and a member of the PA clan of ... It cleaves the coronavirus polyprotein at 11 conserved sites. The 3CL protease has a cysteine-histidine catalytic dyad at its ... sites of the SARS 3C-like proteinase The protease is important in the processing of the coronavirus replicase polyprotein ( ... protease 3CLpro is a potential drug target for coronavirus infections due to its essential role in processing the polyproteins ...
These are initially produced as a polyprotein, but are later cleaved by viral or host proteases, to form separate polyproteins ... Then, the P123 polyprotein is further cleaved to form nsP1, nsP2, and nsP3 proteins, in addition to nsP4. These produce +ssRNA ... The protease function of the C-terminal serves to cleave the capsid protein from the polyprotein in which it was produced, so ... There are five structural proteins - C, E3, E2, 6K, and E1 - as well as the nonstructural polyprotein - nsP1-4. Rio Negro virus ...
Therefore, the virus produces a polyprotein that is able to cut the translated viral polypeptide. The polyprotein contains an ... This enzyme is then able to cleave the remaining polyprotein. One of the products cleaved is a polymerase, responsible for the ... 2011). Once translated, the polyprotein is cleaved by a combination of viral and host proteases to release mature polypeptides ...
"Entrez Gene: HERV-FRD HERV-FRD provirus ancestral Env polyprotein". Vargas A, Moreau J, Landry S, LeBellego F, Toufaily C, ...
A single HCV polyprotein is translated, and then cleaved by cellular and viral proteases into three structural proteins (core, ... polyprotein processing and localization". Journal of General Virology. 92 (11): 2502-2511. doi:10.1099/vir.0.034801-0. PMID ... leading to the suppression of HCV replication and its processing of polyproteins, as well as resulting in an unusual protein ... "Expression and identification of hepatitis C virus polyprotein cleavage products". Journal of Virology. 67 (3): 1385-1395. doi: ...
The enzyme is essential for processing the replication-related polyprotein. To find the enzyme, scientists used the genome ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Pestivirus+NS3+polyprotein+peptidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... Pestivirus NS3 polyprotein peptidase (EC 3.4.21.113, border disease virus NS3 endopeptidase, BDV NS3 endopeptidase, bovine ... polyprotein cleavage sites, cofactor requirements, and molecular model of an enzyme essential for pestivirus replication". ... protein p80 of bovine viral diarrhea virus is a proteinase involved in polyprotein processing". Virology. 184 (1): 341-50. doi: ...
Gag polyproteinSAAS annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without ... tr,Q86830,Q86830_AVIMB Gag polyprotein OS=Avian myeloblastosis virus OX=11866 PE=4 SV=1 ...
Nonstructural polyproteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p ... tr,A0A249JLD2,A0A249JLD2_CHIKV Nonstructural polyprotein OS=Chikungunya virus OX=37124 PE=4 SV=1 ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Dengue virus type 2 (strain 16681) polyprotein mRNA, complete cds Dengue virus type 2 (strain 16681) polyprotein mRNA, complete ... Dengue virus type 2 (strain 16681) polyprotein mRNA, complete cds. GenBank: U87411.1 ...
Sapovirus Hu/GII/Hokkaido/Nay1/2005/JPN polyprotein mRNA, partial cds Sapovirus Hu/GII/Hokkaido/Nay1/2005/JPN polyprotein mRNA ... Sapovirus Hu/GII/Hokkaido/Nay1/2005/JPN polyprotein mRNA, partial cds. GenBank: EF213768.1 ...
Rabbit polyclonal DCV capsid polyprotein antibody validated for WB, ELISA, ICC. Referenced in 1 publication and 1 independent ... The predicted MW of the capsid polyprotein is around 100kDa. But, after infection of DCV to cells, the polyprotein is cleaved ... DCV capsid polyprotein (DCVgp2) includes rhv_like or Picornavirus capsid protein domain_like and CRPV_capsid domains. ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to C terminal residues of Drosophila C virus DCV capsid polyprotein. ...
Potyviral RNA is expressed as two polyproteins which undergo post-translational proteolytic processing. Genome polyprotein is ... P3N-PIPO polyprotein. Cleaved into the following 3 chains:. P1 proteinase (EC:3.4.-.-*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC ... Isoform P3N-PIPO polyprotein (identifier: P0CJ94-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basketAdded to basket. ... Isoform Genome polyprotein (identifier: Q65399-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basketAdded to basket. ...
Here, we show that also cellular calpains have a potential role in the processing of the enteroviral polyprotein. Using ... Enterovirus proteins are translated as a single polyprotein, which is cleaved by viral proteases to release capsid and ... Whether they assist polyprotein processing in infected cells remains to be shown. ... In conclusion, we show that cellular proteases, calpains, can cleave structural proteins from enterovirus polyprotein in vitro ...
Membrane metalloprotease TRABD2A restricts HIV-1 progeny production in resting CD4+ T cells by degrading viral Gag polyprotein ... T cells by degrading the virion structural precursor polyprotein Gag at the plasma membrane. Depletion or inhibition of ...
Background West Nile virus (WNV) is a growing threat to public health and a greater understanding of the immune response raised against WNV is important for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings In a reverse-immunology approach, we used bioinformatics methods to predict WNV-specific CD8+ T cell epitopes and selected a set of peptides that constitutes maximum coverage of 20 fully-sequenced WNV strains. We then tested these putative epitopes for cellular reactivity in a cohort of WNV-infected patients. We identified 26 new CD8+ T cell epitopes, which we propose are restricted by 11 different HLA class I alleles. Aiming for optimal coverage of human populations, we suggest that 11 of these new WNV epitopes would be sufficient to cover from 48% to 93% of ethnic populations in various areas of the World. Conclusions/Significance The 26 identified CD8+ T cell epitopes contribute to our knowledge of the immune response against WNV infection and greatly
The polyprotein and FAR lipid binding proteins of nematodes: shape and monomer/dimer states in ligand-free and bound forms. ... Kennedy MW (2000) The polyprotein lipid binding proteins of nematodes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1476:149-164PubMedGoogle Scholar ... These are the polyprotein allergens (NPA) and the FAR proteins. The solution properties of recombinant forms of these proteins ... Moore J, McDermott L, Price NC, Kelly SM, Cooper A, Kennedy MW (1999) Sequence-divergent units of the ABA-1 polyprotein array ...
... high MW polyprotein translational product of Snyder-Theilen feline sarcoma virus; posseses protein kinase activity with ... high MW polyprotein translational product of Snyder-Theilen feline sarcoma virus; posseses protein kinase activity with ... feline sarcoma virus high-molecular-weight polyprotein. Subscribe to New Research on feline sarcoma virus high-molecular-weight ... feline sarcoma virus high-molecular-weight polyprotein: ...
The processing of polyprotein(s) to form structural and non-structural components remains an enigma due to the non-existence of ... The processing of polyprotein(s) to form structural and non-structural components remains an enigma due to the non-existence of ... 1992), the polyprotein has been predicted to have the domains that code for the MeT, Hel, PCP, and RdRp. The study of the ... The processing of polyprotein(s) to form structural and non-structural components remains an enigma due to the non-existence of ...
The 3CL Pro of MNV-1 maps to amino acids 995 to 1177 of the polyprotein and processes the polyprotein at five cleavage sites, ... The MNV-1 ORF1 polyprotein is 1,687 aa in length and shows 59 to 64% similarity with the corresponding polyproteins of SHV, NV ... We cloned and expressed the sequence of the ORF1 polyprotein bordered by the newly determined 870E/G871 and 1177Q/G1178 ... 2C), which was consistent with cleavage of the ORF1 polyprotein at the 1177Q/G1178 site (Fig. 2C). Furthermore, mutagenesis of ...
The Ovhts polyprotein is cleaved to produce fusome and ring canal proteins required for Drosophila oogenesis ... The Ovhts polyprotein is cleaved to produce fusome and ring canal proteins required for Drosophila oogenesis ... The Ovhts polyprotein is cleaved to produce fusome and ring canal proteins required for Drosophila oogenesis ... The Ovhts polyprotein is cleaved to produce fusome and ring canal proteins required for Drosophila oogenesis ...
... and the core proteins from the gag-pol and gag polyprotein precursors. Utilizing gag polyprotein synthesized in vitro, we have ... Mutagenesis of protease cleavage sites in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag polyprotein.. R J Tritch, Y E Cheng, F H ... Mutagenesis of protease cleavage sites in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag polyprotein. ... Mutagenesis of protease cleavage sites in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag polyprotein. ...
The data indicate that the use of multiple antigens, some of which are in a single polyprotein, can be used to facilitate the ... These four proteins were also produced as a genetically fused polyprotein, which was tested with two additional antigens, DPEP ... Enhanced serodiagnostic utility of novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis polyproteins.. *Xiaoyan Feng, Bingshui Xiu, +13 authors ... Use of multiepitope polyproteins in serodiagnosis of active tuberculosis.. @article{Houghton2002UseOM, title={Use of ...
By using this assay, we showed that the protease PR from the gag-pol polyprotein is capable of autocatalytic self-cleavage and ... Furthermore, this complementation assay can be used to investigate the role of the gag domain in the gag-pol polyprotein by ... in which PR is encoded in the gag-pol polyprotein or in a separate reading frame as a gag-pro product. The consequence is that ... we developed an assay that measures complementation between the gag and the gag-pol polyproteins by expressing them from two ...
The consensus sequences of already identified or putative proteolytic cleavage sites in the viral polyprotein were changed by ... Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: genome organization and polyprotein processing of a calicivirus studied after transient ... us to identify novel cleavage sites in the polyprotein and revealed the first details regarding the order of polyprotein ...
... the nematode polyprotein allergens (NPAs). These are synthesized as large precursor proteins comprising repeating units of ...
Summary This report studies the Pol Polyprotein market status and... ... 126 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2018-2025 Pol Polyprotein Report on Global and United States Market, Status and ... 2 Pol Polyprotein Market Overview. 2.1 Pol Polyprotein Product Overview. 2.2 Pol Polyprotein Market Segment by Type. 2.2.1 ... 3.1 Pol Polyprotein Segment by Application/End Users. 3.1.1 Clinic. 3.1.2 Hospital. 3.1.3 Others. 3.2 Global Pol Polyprotein ...
"Comparison of complete polyprotein sequences of two isolates of salmon alphavirus (SAV) type I and their behaviour in a ... Comparison of complete polyprotein sequences of two isolates of salmon alphavirus (SAV) type I and their behaviour in a ... Comparison of complete polyprotein sequences of two isolates of salmon alphavirus (SAV) type I... Matejusova, Iveta; Lester, ... Comparison of complete polyprotein sequences of two isolates of salmon alphavirus (SAV) type I and their behaviour in a ...
Recombinant Protein and Replicase polyprotein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Replicase polyprotein 1a. Replicase polyprotein 1a ELISA Kit. Replicase polyprotein 1a Recombinant. Replicase polyprotein 1a ... Replicase polyprotein 1ab. Replicase polyprotein 1ab ELISA Kit. Replicase polyprotein 1ab Recombinant. Replicase polyprotein ... Replicase polyprotein 1TF. Replicase polyprotein 1TF ELISA Kit. Replicase polyprotein 1TF Recombinant. Replicase polyprotein ...
Recombinant Protein and Probable antibacterial peptide polyprotein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant ... Probable antibacterial peptide polyprotein. Probable antibacterial peptide polyprotein ELISA Kit. Probable antibacterial ... Below are the list of possible Probable antibacterial peptide polyprotein products. If you cannot find the target and/or ... peptide polyprotein Recombinant. Probable antibacterial peptide polyprotein Antibody. Has antibacterial activity in vitro.. ...
Amino acid differences in the N-terminal half of the polyprotein of Chinese turnip mosaic virus isolates affect symptom ... Amino acid differences in the N-terminal half of the polyprotein of Chinese turnip mosaic virus isolates affect symptom ...
To identify the subcellular forms and biochemical events induced in human cells after HCV polyprotein expression, we have used ... coding for a single polyprotein. The length of the polyprotein-encoding region varies according to the isolate and genotype of ... Various in vitro model systems have been developed to study the role of HCV polyprotein expression on host cell responses [4, 6 ... HCV polyprotein expression induced dysfunction of the mitochondria. A: HeLa cells uninfected or infected at 5 PFU/cell with the ...
... but no processing of the polyprotein has been observed. Based on these observations, it was proposed that the ORF1 polyprotein ... Processing of this ~192 kDa tagged ORF1 polyprotein and accumulation of lower molecular weight species took place in a time- ... We have studied ORF1 polyprotein expression and processing through a baculovirus expression vector system because of the high ... When expressed through baculovirus, the ORF1 polyprotein of HEV was processed into smaller proteins that correlated with their ...
Belongs to the picornaviridae polyprotein family. Contains 1 peptidase C3 domain. Contains 1 RdRp catalytic domain. Contains 1 ... Protein 3C is a cysteine protease that generates mature viral proteins from the precursor polyprotein. In addition to its ... Avian encephalomyelitis virus; Genome polyprotein; RNA-directed RNA polymerase 3D-PO; P3D-POL; POLG_AEVCA; AEVgp1 aev ... KLH conjugated synthetic peptide derived from AEV polyprotein, RNA-directed RNA polymerase 3D-POL:2001-2134/2134 ...
  • Kateus the oil price shot och avsnittSsong 7Ssong 3Ssong 4Ssong variant replicase gene encoding polyproteins. (simonaminns.com)
  • Of Ostrobothnia (historical province), comprising a variant replicase gene encoding polyproteins comprising a variant Ralli Mm gene encoding polyproteins comprising a large western and northern Ostrobothnia, including Oulu. (hackathonbythesea.com)
  • Sydmmellisemmin kuin sanat voivat lausua, ja… Hn valmistautuu ensimmiseen keilailun variant replicase Reginanranta encoding polyproteins on mukana vain kolme parasta heittj. (kusadasihotelsresorts.com)
  • Jul 23, 2015 · The present invention provides a live, attenuated coronavirus comprising a variant replicase gene encoding polyproteins comprising a mutation in one or more of non-structural protein(s) (nsp)-10, nsp-14, nsp-15 or nsp-16. (jeanphilippegras.fr)
  • The RNA encodes a single polyprotein that is subsequently processed into the functional products. (dpvweb.net)
  • The CoV replicase gene encodes two overlapping polyproteins, termed pp1a and pp1ab, which mediate viral replication and transcription. (expasy.org)
  • 1,2 At the 5' end of the genome, a single Orf encodes a polyprotein that auto-proteolytically cleaves into 16 non-structural proteins (Nsp1-16) that form the replicase-transcriptase complex. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • On 28 August, shortly before consult Test positivity rate and the disease from their late father, who became ill after overlapping polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab. (holidayspiritsbazaar.com)
  • It orchestrates viral assembly via targeting signals that direct the gag precursor polyprotein, p55, to the host cell membrane 1,5-7 and it interacts with the transmembrane protein, gp41, to retain the env-encoded proteins in the virus 8 . (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Once inside the cytoplasm of a cell, the viral RNA hijacks the host cell's protein-synthesizing machinery to synthesize its own chain of many proteins, called replicase polyprotein. (covid-gyan.in)
  • Papain-like proteinase (PLpro), encoded in nsp3, is responsible for the cleavages of N-terminus of the replicase polyprotein to release Nsp1, Nsp2 and Nsp3, which is essential for correcting virus replication and antagonizing the host's innate immunity. (biz.pl)
  • Expression and identification of hepatitis C virus polyprotein cleavage products. (x-pdf.ru)
  • This was mainly driven by academic research groups that identified polyprotein cleavage products and mechanisms, involved viral and cellular enzymes as well as RNA elements required for RNA translation and replication. (hepbcppa.org)
  • Polyproteins are important because they provide a clear mechanical fingerprint in experiments for monitoring the response of proteins to an applied mechanical force. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • The open reading frame translates into a 3000 amino acid polyprotein which is cleaved into structural (core, E1, E2) and non-structural (p7, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B) proteins. (amsj.org)
  • In addition to polyprotein 1ab 1 , polyprotein 1a and the four genes coding for major structural proteins spike (S), small envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N), six to eight additional proteins have been predicted depending upon the strain analyzed. (archive.org)
  • Our method also suggests that polyprotein 1ab, polyprotein 1a, S, M and N are proteins of viral origin and others are of prokaryotic. (archive.org)
  • Classically, this is the case for the viral polyprotein precursor proteins but in this set also for the polyketide synthase entry shown below. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 84, Last updated, Version 2) XX DE Cryphonectria hypovirus 4 strain NJ120-3 polyprotein R2 region gene, DE partial cds. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This has been achieved through the design of polyproteins, which contain a specific number and arrangement of protein domains. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • The Gag polyprotein orchestrates the assembly of HIV-1 and is the only viral protein required for the formation of non-infectious virus-like particles in vitro. (yu.edu)
  • It is derived from the polyprotein gp160, which besides contains the transmembrane protein gp41. (tbf-sa.co.za)
  • Once inside the cell, 2019-nCoV attaches to the host cell's ribosome - a cell's protein factory - where it overrides the cell's machinery to produce two polyproteins. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • Zinc possess several antiviral effects which are realized through the generating both innate and acquired (humoral) immune responses, facilitation of the normal functioning of innate immune system, stabilization of cell membrane inhibiting the entry of the virus, and inhibition of viral replication through interference with the viral genome transcription, protein translation, polyprotein processing, viral attachment, and uncoating. (healthrevivalpartners.com)
  • The automaten zocken genomes of potyviruses encode two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into 11 mature. (finanzenfragen.com)
  • RNA viruses in many families (including the coronavirus family) express their genomes using the synthesis and subsequent cleavage of precursor polyproteins within a host cell. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • My thesis focuses on the development of RNA aptamers raised against the Gag polyprotein of HIV-1 as inhibitors of viral replication. (yu.edu)
  • Characterisation of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) polyprotein processing. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • After the coronavirus' polyproteins are produced, two enzymes - specifically, coronavirus main proteinase (3CLpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro) - are known to participate in processing the polyproteins into smaller components used for producing new viruses. (advancedsciencenews.com)
  • This fellowship will deliver a platform for the production of polyprotein hydrogels that possess specific biological function capabilities, enabling dynamic changes in mechanical and structural properties in response to biomolecular cues. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • In summary, we have characterized the interactions of aptamers raised against a near-full-length Gag polyprotein, both in vitro and in vivo and demonstrate that they mediate significant inhibition of virus production. (yu.edu)
  • African swine fever virus polyprotein pp62 is essential for viral core development. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Picornaviral replication, especially the role of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus and processing of the viral polyprotein. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • Polyproteins can be described using polymer physics and can be manipulated using tools such as single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS), which provides information on their mechanical stability and softness. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • In particular, a recent exciting development is the use of polyproteins as building blocks in hydrogels. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • The hierarchical structures and intermolecular interactions present in polyproteins and the networks they form present new opportunities. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • This polyprotein is encoded by the env cistron, present in all retroviruses. (tbf-sa.co.za)