The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
A naturally occurring opium alkaloid that is a centrally acting antitussive agent.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain isoquinoline alkaloids and triterpene glycosides.
A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains cleogynol and 15alpha-acetoxycleomblynol (dammaranes) and 1-epibrachyacarpone (a triterpene), and ISOTHIOCYANATES.
A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. There are no true petals; each flower has two to six sepals. They produce betacyanin and betaxanthin pigments and lack anthocyanins.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The root and shoots have been used for food.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
Asexual reproduction resulting in the formation of viable seeds from FLOWERS without fertlization (i.e. use of POLLEN). Progeny plants produced from apomictic seeds are perfect clones of the parent.
The evening primrose plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Flower parts are mostly in fours and the ovary is inferior.
Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole CHROMOSOMES, thereby inducing an ANEUPLOIDY.
Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes called the teasel family.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (1/1578)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

The modulation of DNA content: proximate causes and ultimate consequences. (2/1578)

The forces responsible for modulating the large-scale features of the genome remain one of the most difficult issues confronting evolutionary biology. Although diversity in chromosomal architecture, nucleotide composition, and genome size has been well documented, there is little understanding of either the evolutionary origins or impact of much of this variation. The 80,000-fold divergence in genome sizes among eukaryotes represents perhaps the greatest challenge for genomic holists. Although some researchers continue to characterize much variation in genome size as a mere by-product of an intragenomic selfish DNA "free-for-all" there is increasing evidence for the primacy of selection in molding genome sizes via impacts on cell size and division rates. Moreover, processes inducing quantum or doubling series variation in gametic or somatic genome sizes are common. These abrupt shifts have broad effects on phenotypic attributes at both cellular and organismal levels and may play an important role in explaining episodes of rapid-or even saltational-character state evolution.  (+info)

Cell cycle arrest mediated by hepatitis delta antigen. (3/1578)

Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is the only viral-encoded protein of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV). This protein has been extensively characterized with respect to its biochemical and functional properties. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for persistent HDV infection is not yet clear. Previously, we reported that overexpression of HDAg protects insect cells from baculovirus-induced cytolysis [Hwang, S.B. Park, K.-J. and Kim, Y.S. (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 244, 652-658]. Here we report that HDAg mediates cell cycle arrest when overexpressed in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. Flow cytometry analysis has shown that HDAg expression in Spodoptera frugiperda cells causes an accumulation of substantial amounts of polyploid DNA in the absence of cell division. This phenomenon may be partly responsible for the persistent infection of chronic HDV patients.  (+info)

Partial hepatectomy-induced polyploidy attenuates hepatocyte replication and activates cell aging events. (4/1578)

In understanding mechanisms of liver repopulation with transplanted hepatocytes, we studied the consequences of hepatic polyploidization in the two-thirds partial hepatectomy model of liver regeneration. Liver repopulation studies using genetically marked rodent hepatocytes showed that the number of previously transplanted hepatocytes did not increase in the liver with subsequential partial hepatectomy. In contrast, recipients undergoing partial hepatectomy before cells were transplanted showed proliferation in transplanted hepatocytes, with kinetics of DNA synthesis differing in transplanted and host hepatocytes. Also, partial hepatectomy caused multiple changes in the rat liver, including accumulation of polyploid hepatocytes along with prolonged depletion of diploid hepatocytes, as well as increased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase and p21 expression. Remnant hepatocytes in the partially hepatectomized liver showed increased autofluorescence and cytoplasmic complexity on flow cytometry, which are associated with lipofuscin accumulation during cell aging, and underwent apoptosis more frequently. Moreover, hepatocytes from the partially hepatectomized liver showed attenuated proliferative capacity in cell culture. These findings were compatible with decreased proliferative potential of hepatocytes experiencing partial hepatectomy compared with hepatocytes from the unperturbed liver. Attenuation of proliferative capacity and other changes in hepatocytes experiencing partial hepatectomy offer novel perspectives concerning liver regeneration in the context of cell ploidy.  (+info)

Elimination and rearrangement of parental rDNA in the allotetraploid Nicotiana tabacum. (5/1578)

Origin and rearrangement of ribosomal DNA repeats in natural allotetraploid Nicotiana tabacum are described. Comparative sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer (IGS) regions of Nicotiana tomentosiformis (the paternal diploid progenitor) and Nicotiana sylvestris (the maternal diploid progenitor) showed species-specific molecular features. These markers allowed us to trace the molecular evolution of parental rDNA in the allopolyploid genome of N. tabacum; at least the majority of tobacco rDNA repeats originated from N. tomentosiformis, which endured reconstruction of subrepeated regions in the IGS. We infer that after hybridization of the parental diploid species, rDNA with a longer IGS, donated by N. tomentosiformis, dominated over the rDNA with a shorter IGS from N. sylvestris; the latter was then eliminated from the allopolyploid genome. Thus, repeated sequences in allopolyploid genomes are targets for molecular rearrangement, demonstrating the dynamic nature of allopolyploid genomes.  (+info)

Low levels of nucleotide diversity at homoeologous Adh loci in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium L.). (6/1578)

Levels of genetic diversity within and among populations and species are shaped by both external (population-level) and internal (genomic and genic) evolutionary forces. To address the effect of internal pressures, we estimated nucleotide diversity for a pair of homoeologous Adh loci in an allotetraploid species, Gossypium hirsutum. These data represent the first such estimates for a pair of homoeologous nuclear loci in plants. Estimates of nucleotide diversity for AdhA in Gossypium are lower than those for any plant nuclear gene yet described. This low diversity appears to reflect primarily a history of repeated, severe genetic bottlenecks associated with both speciation and recent domestication, supplemented by an unusually slow nucleotide substitution rate and an autogamous breeding system. While not statistically supportable, the sum of the observations also suggest differential evolutionary dynamics at each of the homoeologous loci.  (+info)

Clinical details, cytogenic studies,and cellular physiology of a 69, XXX fetus, with comments on the biological effect of triploidy in man. (7/1578)

A triploid fetus, 69, XXX, aborted spontaneously at 26 weeks' gestation. It had multiple abnormalities including syndactyly of the hands and feet single palmar creases, hypoplasia of the adrenals and ovaries, hypertrophy of thigh muscles, and abnormalities of the brain. The placenta was large and showed hydatidiform degeneration. The pregnancy had been complicated by acute dyspnoea, pre-eclampsia, and postpartum haemorrhage. Detailed cytogenetic studies, using banding and fluorescence techniques, were performed on fetus and parents. Meiotic studies were made on the fetal ovaries. Muscle cell differentiation and electrophysiological relationships of cultured skin fibriblasts were examined in an attempt to study the way in which the extra haploid set of chromosomes exerts its effect on the phenotype. The antenatal diagnosis of late triploidy is discussed. The finding that 25 per cent of late triploids have spina bifida is further evidence that meningomyelocele has a genetic component and strongly suggests that this results from chromosomal imbalance or a regulatory gene disturbance.  (+info)

P53-dependent effects of RAS oncogene on chromosome stability and cell cycle checkpoints. (8/1578)

Mutations activating the function of ras proto-oncogenes are often observed in human tumors. Their oncogenic potential is mainly due to permanent stimulation of cellular proliferation and dramatic changes in morphogenic reactions of the cell. To learn more on the role of ras activation in cancerogenesis we studied its effects on chromosome stability and cell cycle checkpoints. Since the ability of ras oncogenes to cause cell transformation may be dependent on activity of the p53 tumor-suppressor the cells with different p53 state were analysed. Ectopic expression of N-ras(asp12) caused in p53-deficient MDAH041 cell line an augmentation in the number of chromosome breaks in mitogenic cells, significant increase in the frequency of metaphases showing chromosome endoreduplication and accumulation of polyploid cells. Similar effects were induced by different exogenous ras genes (N-ras(asp12), H-ras(leu12), N-ras proto-oncogene) in Rat1 and Rat2 cells which have a defect in p53-upstream pathways. In contrast, in REF52 and human LIM1215 cells showing ras-induced p53 up-regulation, ras expression caused only slight increase in the number of chromosome breaks and did not enhance the frequency of endoreduplication and polyploidy. Inactivation in these cells of p53 function by transduction of dominant-negative C-terminal p53 fragment (genetic suppressor element #22, GSE22) or mutant p53s significantly increased the frequency of both spontaneous and ras-induced karyotypic changes. In concordance with these observations we have found that expression of ras oncogene caused in p53-defective cells further mitigation of ethyl-metansulphonate-induced G1 and G2 cell cycle arrest, but did not abrogate G1 and G2 cell cycle checkpoints in cells with normal p53 function. These data indicate that along with stimulation of cell proliferation and morphological transformation ras activation can contribute to cancerogenesis by increasing genetic instability.  (+info)

Polyploidy is a condition in which a cell or an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, unlike the typical diploid state where there are only two sets (one from each parent). Polyploidy can occur through various mechanisms such as errors during cell division, fusion of egg and sperm cells that have an abnormal number of chromosomes, or through the reproduction process in plants.

Polyploidy is common in the plant kingdom, where it often leads to larger size, increased biomass, and sometimes hybrid vigor. However, in animals, polyploidy is less common and usually occurs in only certain types of cells or tissues, as most animals require a specific number of chromosomes for normal development and reproduction. In humans, polyploidy is typically not compatible with life and can lead to developmental abnormalities and miscarriage.

Ploidy is a term used in genetics to describe the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell or an organism. The ploidy level can have important implications for genetic inheritance and expression, as well as for evolutionary processes such as speciation and hybridization.

In most animals, including humans, the normal ploidy level is diploid, meaning that each cell contains two sets of chromosomes - one set inherited from each parent. However, there are also many examples of polyploidy, in which an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes.

Polyploidy can arise through various mechanisms, such as genome duplication or hybridization between different species. In some cases, polyploidy may confer evolutionary advantages, such as increased genetic diversity and adaptability to new environments. However, it can also lead to reproductive isolation and the formation of new species.

In plants, polyploidy is relatively common and has played a significant role in their evolution and diversification. Many crop plants are polyploids, including wheat, cotton, and tobacco. In some cases, artificial induction of polyploidy has been used to create new varieties with desirable traits for agriculture and horticulture.

Overall, ploidy is an important concept in genetics and evolution, with implications for a wide range of biological processes and phenomena.

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

Triploidy is a genetic condition characterized by the presence of three sets of chromosomes in a cell instead of the typical two sets (two sets from each parent), resulting in a total of 69 chromosomes rather than the usual 46. This extra set of chromosomes can arise due to errors during fertilization, such as when an egg or sperm with an extra set of chromosomes is involved, or during early embryonic development.

Triploidy can lead to various developmental abnormalities and growth delays, and it is often incompatible with life. Many pregnancies with triploidy result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or early neonatal death. In some cases, infants with triploidy may be born alive but have severe medical issues, including developmental delays, physical abnormalities, and organ dysfunction.

Triploidy is not typically inherited from parents and is usually a random event during conception or early embryonic development. It can also occur in some forms of cancer, where cells may acquire extra sets of chromosomes due to genetic instability.

Diploidy is a term used in genetics to describe the state of having two sets of chromosomes in each cell. In diploid organisms, one set of chromosomes is inherited from each parent, resulting in a total of 2 sets of chromosomes.

In humans, for example, most cells are diploid and contain 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. This includes 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (XX in females or XY in males). Diploidy is a characteristic feature of many complex organisms, including animals, plants, and fungi.

Diploid cells can undergo a process called meiosis, which results in the formation of haploid cells that contain only one set of chromosomes. These haploid cells can then combine with other haploid cells during fertilization to form a new diploid organism.

Abnormalities in diploidy can lead to genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which occurs when an individual has three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the typical two. This extra copy of the chromosome can result in developmental delays and intellectual disabilities.

Ferns are a group of vascular plants that reproduce by means of spores rather than seeds. They are characterized by their frond-like leaves and lack of flowers or fruits. Ferns have been around for millions of years, with some fossilized ferns dating back to the Devonian period, over 360 million years ago.

Ferns are an important part of many ecosystems, particularly in tropical rainforests where they provide habitat and food for a variety of animals. They also play a role in soil erosion control and nutrient cycling.

Medically, some ferns have been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments, such as bracken fern which has been used to treat wounds, burns, and skin diseases. However, it is important to note that not all ferns are safe for consumption or use as medicines, and some can be toxic if ingested or applied topically. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant-based remedies.

Chromosomes in plants are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, DNA, and proteins. They are present in the nucleus of every cell and are inherited from the parent plants during sexual reproduction. Chromosomes come in pairs, with each pair consisting of one chromosome from each parent.

In plants, like in other organisms, chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance, development, and reproduction. They carry genetic information that determines various traits and characteristics of the plant, such as its physical appearance, growth patterns, and resistance to diseases.

Plant chromosomes are typically much larger than those found in animals, making them easier to study under a microscope. The number of chromosomes varies among different plant species, ranging from as few as 2 in some ferns to over 1000 in certain varieties of wheat.

During cell division, the chromosomes replicate and then separate into two identical sets, ensuring that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information. This process is critical for the growth and development of the plant, as well as for the production of viable seeds and offspring.

Tetraploidy is a genetic condition where an individual has four sets of chromosomes in their cells instead of the typical two sets (two from each parent). This means that the person has twice the normal number of chromosomes, resulting in a total of 92 chromosomes compared to the usual 46.

Tetraploidy can occur as a result of errors during cell division, such as during fertilization when two sperm fertilize a single egg, or during mitosis when an abnormal number of chromosomes are distributed unevenly between two daughter cells.

Tetraploidy is often associated with developmental delays, intellectual disability, physical abnormalities, and increased risk of certain medical conditions. However, the severity of symptoms can vary widely depending on the specific genetic makeup of the individual and the degree to which the extra chromosomes are present in different cells throughout the body.

It is important to note that tetraploidy is a rare condition, and its diagnosis typically requires specialized genetic testing and evaluation by medical professionals with expertise in genetics and developmental disorders.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

Genome size refers to the total amount of genetic material, or DNA, contained within the cell of an organism. It is usually measured in terms of base pair (bp) length and can vary greatly between different species. The genome size includes all the genes, non-coding DNA, and repetitive elements present in the genome.

It's worth noting that genome size does not necessarily correlate with the complexity of an organism. For example, some plants have much larger genomes than humans, while some bacteria have smaller genomes. Additionally, genome size can also vary within a single species due to differences in the amount of repetitive DNA or other genetic elements.

Gene duplication, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to an event where a segment of DNA that contains a gene is copied, resulting in two identical copies of that gene. This can occur through various mechanisms such as unequal crossing over during meiosis, retrotransposition, or whole genome duplication. The duplicate genes are then passed on to the next generation.

Gene duplications can have several consequences. Often, one copy may continue to function normally while the other is free to mutate without affecting the organism's survival, potentially leading to new functions (neofunctionalization) or subfunctionalization where each copy takes on some of the original gene's roles.

Gene duplication plays a significant role in evolution by providing raw material for the creation of novel genes and genetic diversity. However, it can also lead to various genetic disorders if multiple copies of a gene become dysfunctional or if there are too many copies, leading to an overdose effect.

Noscapine is a natural alkaloid compound found in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and some other plants. It has been used medically as a cough suppressant and antitussive agent, acting on the cough center in the brain to reduce the cough reflex. Noscapine is not habit-forming and does not have the same addictive properties as other opium derivatives like morphine or codeine. It also has some anti-inflammatory and mild pain-relieving effects, although it is not typically used for pain management. In addition, noscapine has been studied for its potential anticancer properties, particularly in relation to its ability to inhibit the formation of blood vessels that feed tumors (angiogenesis).

"Achillea" is the genus name for a group of flowering plants commonly known as yarrows. These plants belong to the family Asteraceae and are native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The name "Achillea" comes from Achilles, the legendary Greek hero of the Trojan War, who was said to have used the plant to treat wounds on the battlefield.

Yarrows are hardy herbaceous plants that typically grow to a height of 1-2 feet. They have feathery, aromatic leaves and produce clusters of small flowers in shades of white, yellow, pink, or red. The flowers are popular with bees and butterflies, making yarrows a good choice for pollinator gardens.

Yarrows have a long history of use in traditional medicine. The leaves and flowers can be made into teas, tinctures, or salves to treat a variety of ailments, including wounds, cuts, bruises, and inflammation. Some studies suggest that certain species of yarrow may have antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties, although more research is needed to confirm these effects.

It's worth noting that some people may experience allergic reactions to yarrow, particularly if they are sensitive to plants in the Asteraceae family. If you are considering using yarrow for medicinal purposes, it's a good idea to consult with a healthcare provider first to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for your needs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Thalictrum" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, also known as meadow rue. These plants are native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and have diverse ornamental uses due to their showy flowers. If you have any questions about a medical condition or term, I'd be happy to try to help with that instead!

I apologize, but "Cleome" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of plants commonly known as spider flowers or cleomes. These plants are not associated with any specific medical conditions or definitions. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

Endoreduplication is a process of cell cycle regulation where duplicate copies of chromosomes are produced within the nucleus of a single cell without subsequent separation into daughter cells. This results in an increase in the ploidy level, or the number of sets of chromosomes, within the cell. It is a form of genome amplification that can occur through repeated rounds of DNA replication during the G2 phase of the cell cycle, without cytokinesis or cell division.

Endoreduplication is a natural process in some tissues and organisms, such as plants and insects, where it plays a role in growth, development, and differentiation. In cancer cells, endoreduplication can contribute to genomic instability, tumor progression, and drug resistance.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

"Gossypium" is the scientific name for the cotton plant. It belongs to the Malvaceae family and is native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The cotton plant produces soft, fluffy fibers that are used to make a wide variety of textiles, including clothing, bedding, and other household items.

The medical community may use the term "Gossypium" in certain contexts, such as when discussing allergic reactions or sensitivities to cotton products. However, it is more commonly used in botany and agriculture than in medical terminology.

Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed within an ovary. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek words "angeion," meaning "case" or "capsule," and "sperma," meaning "seed." This group includes the majority of plant species, with over 300,000 known species.

Angiosperms are characterized by their reproductive structures, which consist of flowers. The flower contains male and female reproductive organs, including stamens (which produce pollen) and carpels (which contain the ovules). After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed, while the ovary matures into a fruit, which provides protection and nutrition for the developing embryo.

Angiosperms are further divided into two main groups: monocots and eudicots. Monocots have one cotyledon or embryonic leaf, while eudicots have two. Examples of monocots include grasses, lilies, and orchids, while examples of eudicots include roses, sunflowers, and legumes.

Angiosperms are ecologically and economically important, providing food, shelter, and other resources for many organisms, including humans. They have evolved a wide range of adaptations to different environments, from the desert to the ocean floor, making them one of the most diverse and successful groups of plants on Earth.

Mitosis is a type of cell division in which the genetic material of a single cell, called the mother cell, is equally distributed into two identical daughter cells. It's a fundamental process that occurs in multicellular organisms for growth, maintenance, and repair, as well as in unicellular organisms for reproduction.

The process of mitosis can be broken down into several stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible, and the nuclear envelope breaks down. In prometaphase, the nuclear membrane is completely disassembled, and the mitotic spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes at their centromeres.

During metaphase, the chromosomes align at the metaphase plate, an imaginary line equidistant from the two spindle poles. In anaphase, sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers and move toward opposite poles of the cell. Finally, in telophase, new nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes decondense and become less visible.

Mitosis is followed by cytokinesis, a process that divides the cytoplasm of the mother cell into two separate daughter cells. The result of mitosis and cytokinesis is two genetically identical cells, each with the same number and kind of chromosomes as the original parent cell.

Duplicate genes refer to two or more identical or very similar copies of a gene that have the same function or very similar functions in an organism's genome. These genes arise through various genetic processes such as gene duplication events, including whole-genome duplications, segmental duplications, and unequal crossing over during meiosis.

Duplicate genes can be classified into two main categories:

1. Ohnologs: These are genes that result from whole-genome duplications (WGD), also known as autotetraploidization or polyploidization events, where the entire genome is duplicated. Ohnologs typically retain their original function and are often retained in the genome because they can provide evolutionary advantages, such as allowing for functional innovation and adaptability.

2. Paralogs: These are genes that result from smaller-scale gene duplication events, such as segmental duplications or unequal crossing over during meiosis. Paralogs may undergo various evolutionary fates, including neofunctionalization (one copy acquires a new function), subfunctionalization (both copies share the original function but become specialized in different aspects of it), or pseudogenization (one copy becomes non-functional).

Duplicate genes play an essential role in genome evolution and adaptation by providing raw material for functional innovation, allowing organisms to respond to environmental changes, and contributing to phenotypic diversity.

Genetic hybridization is a biological process that involves the crossing of two individuals from different populations or species, which can lead to the creation of offspring with new combinations of genetic material. This occurs when the gametes (sex cells) from each parent combine during fertilization, resulting in a zygote with a unique genetic makeup.

In genetics, hybridization can also refer to the process of introducing new genetic material into an organism through various means, such as genetic engineering or selective breeding. This type of hybridization is often used in agriculture and biotechnology to create crops or animals with desirable traits, such as increased disease resistance or higher yields.

It's important to note that the term "hybrid" can refer to both crosses between different populations within a single species (intraspecific hybrids) and crosses between different species (interspecific hybrids). The latter is often more challenging, as significant genetic differences between the two parental species can lead to various reproductive barriers, making it difficult for the hybrid offspring to produce viable offspring of their own.

Chloroplast genes refer to the genetic material present within chloroplasts, which are specialized organelles in plant and algal cells that conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts have their own DNA, separate from the nuclear DNA of the cell, and can replicate independently. The chloroplast genome is relatively small and contains codes for some of the essential proteins required for photosynthesis and chloroplast function.

The chloroplast genome typically includes genes for components of the photosystems, such as Psa and Psb genes that encode for subunits of Photosystem I and II respectively, as well as genes for the large and small ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and transfer RNAs (tRNA) required for protein synthesis within the chloroplast. However, many chloroplast proteins are actually encoded by nuclear genes and are imported into the chloroplast after their synthesis in the cytoplasm.

It is believed that chloroplasts originated from ancient photosynthetic bacteria through endosymbiosis, where the bacterial cells were engulfed by a eukaryotic cell and eventually became permanent organelles within the host cell. Over time, much of the bacterial genome was either lost or transferred to the host cell's nucleus, resulting in the modern-day chloroplast genome.

Aneuploidy is a medical term that refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of cells that contain genetic information in the form of genes.

In humans, the normal number of chromosomes in a cell is 46, arranged in 23 pairs. Aneuploidy occurs when there is an extra or missing chromosome in one or more of these pairs. For example, Down syndrome is a condition that results from an extra copy of chromosome 21, also known as trisomy 21.

Aneuploidy can arise during the formation of gametes (sperm or egg cells) due to errors in the process of cell division called meiosis. These errors can result in eggs or sperm with an abnormal number of chromosomes, which can then lead to aneuploidy in the resulting embryo.

Aneuploidy is a significant cause of birth defects and miscarriages. The severity of the condition depends on which chromosomes are affected and the extent of the abnormality. In some cases, aneuploidy may have no noticeable effects, while in others it can lead to serious health problems or developmental delays.

Portulacaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to the purslane family of flowering plants, which contains around 20-30 genera and about 400-500 species. Some members of this family have been used in traditional medicine, such as Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), which has been used to treat various ailments including gastrointestinal disorders and skin conditions. However, it's important to note that the use of plants for medicinal purposes should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have potential side effects or interact with other medications.

"Tragopogon" is the genus name for a group of flowering plants commonly known as "salsify" or "goat's-beard." These plants belong to the family Asteraceae and are native to Europe and Asia. The name "Tragopogon" comes from the Greek words "tragos," meaning goat, and "pogon," meaning beard, which refers to the bristly, beard-like appearance of the flowers' styles.

There is no specific medical definition associated with "Tragopogon." However, some species of this plant have been used in traditional medicine for their purported health benefits. For example, the roots of the greater salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius) and the black salsify (Tragopogon dubius) are edible and have been used as a vegetable in various cuisines. They are rich in nutrients like inulin, fiber, and antioxidants, which may contribute to their potential health benefits.

It is important to note that while some species of Tragopogon have been used in traditional medicine, there is limited scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness for specific medical conditions. Moreover, consuming any plant material can carry risks, such as allergic reactions or interactions with medications, so it's essential to consult a healthcare professional before incorporating new plants into your diet or using them for medicinal purposes.

Nocodazole is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a pharmacological agent used in medical research and clinical settings. It's a synthetic chemical compound that belongs to the class of drugs known as microtubule inhibitors. Nocodazole works by binding to and disrupting the dynamic assembly and disassembly of microtubules, which are important components of the cell's cytoskeleton and play a critical role in cell division.

Nocodazole is primarily used in research settings as a tool for studying cell biology and mitosis, the process by which cells divide. It can be used to synchronize cells in the cell cycle or to induce mitotic arrest, making it useful for investigating various aspects of cell division and chromosome behavior.

In clinical settings, nocodazole has been used off-label as a component of some cancer treatment regimens, particularly in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Its ability to disrupt microtubules can interfere with the proliferation of cancer cells and enhance the effectiveness of certain anti-cancer drugs. However, its use is not widespread due to potential side effects and the availability of alternative treatments.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Aurora kinases are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in the regulation of cell division. There are three members of the Aurora kinase family, designated as Aurora A, Aurora B, and Aurora C. These kinases are involved in the proper separation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis, and their dysregulation has been implicated in various types of cancer.

Aurora A is primarily located at the centrosomes and spindle poles during cell division, where it regulates centrosome maturation, bipolar spindle formation, and chromosome segregation. Aurora B, on the other hand, is a component of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) that localizes to the centromeres during prophase and moves to the spindle midzone during anaphase. It plays essential roles in kinetochore-microtubule attachment, chromosome alignment, and cytokinesis. Aurora C is most similar to Aurora B and appears to have overlapping functions with it, although its specific roles are less well understood.

Dysregulation of Aurora kinases has been associated with various types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, colon, and lung cancers. Overexpression or amplification of Aurora A is observed in many cancers, leading to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy. Inhibition of Aurora kinases has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment, with several small molecule inhibitors currently under investigation in clinical trials.

Aurora Kinase B is a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell division and mitosis. It is a member of the Aurora kinase family, which includes three different isoforms (Aurora A, B, and C). Among these, Aurora Kinase B is specifically involved in the proper alignment and separation of chromosomes during cell division.

During mitosis, Aurora Kinase B forms a complex with other proteins to form the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), which plays a critical role in ensuring accurate chromosome segregation. The CPC is responsible for regulating various events during mitosis, including the attachment of microtubules to kinetochores (protein structures that connect chromosomes to spindle fibers), the correction of erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments, and the regulation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which targets specific proteins for degradation during mitosis.

Dysregulation of Aurora Kinase B has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer. Overexpression or amplification of this kinase can lead to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, contributing to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. As a result, Aurora Kinase B is considered a promising target for the development of anti-cancer therapies, with several inhibitors currently being investigated in preclinical and clinical studies.

Apomixis is a form of asexual reproduction in plants that involves the development of a seed without fertilization. It occurs through various mechanisms, such as agamospermy or parthenogenesis, where the embryo develops from an unfertilized egg cell or other cells within the ovule. This process bypasses the formation of gametes and meiosis, resulting in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent plant.

In agamospermy, the embryo sac develops without fertilization, and the chromosome number is maintained through mitotic divisions. In parthenogenesis, the egg cell develops into an embryo without being fertilized by a sperm cell. Apomixis can be advantageous for plant breeding as it allows for the rapid propagation of desirable traits and hybrids without the need for time-consuming and expensive traditional breeding methods. However, apomictic plants may also exhibit reduced genetic diversity, which can make them more susceptible to diseases and pests.

Onagraceae is a scientific name for a family of flowering plants, also known as the evening primrose family. It consists of around 650 species, distributed across 21 genera. The plants in this family are characterized by their four-petaled flowers and simple or compound leaves. They can be annuals, biennials, or perennials, and can be found in a variety of habitats worldwide, with the majority of the species native to North and South America.

Some common examples of plants in this family include the evening primrose (Oenothera biennis), the sun drop (Oenothera fruticosa), and the fireweed (Chamaenerion angustifolium). The seeds, leaves, and roots of some Onagraceae species are used in traditional medicine, and some have been found to contain compounds with potential medicinal properties. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants for medicinal purposes should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can also contain potentially toxic compounds.

Aneugens are chemical or physical agents that can cause aneuploidy, which is a condition characterized by an abnormal number of chromosomes in the cells of an organism. Aneuploidy can result from errors in cell division, such as nondisjunction, during which chromosome pairs fail to separate properly during mitosis or meiosis.

Exposure to aneugens can increase the risk of aneuploidy by interfering with the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, the cellular structure responsible for separating chromosomes during cell division. Aneugens can cause errors in chromosome segregation by disrupting the attachment of chromosomes to the spindle or by affecting the dynamics of spindle microtubules.

Examples of aneugens include certain chemotherapeutic drugs, such as colchicine and vincristine, which are used in cancer treatment but can also cause fetal abnormalities if taken during pregnancy. Other aneugens include environmental toxins, such as pesticides and industrial chemicals, which have been linked to increased risks of birth defects and reproductive problems.

Reproductive isolation is a concept in reproductive biology and evolutionary biology that refers to the mechanisms that prevent interbreeding between two populations of organisms, leading to their genetic separation and potential speciation. These mechanisms can be prezygotic (preventing the formation of a viable zygote) or postzygotic (preventing the successful development of offspring). Prezygotic isolation includes temporal isolation (different mating times), behavioral isolation (different courtship behaviors), mechanical isolation (physical incompatibility between gametes), and gametic isolation (inviable or non-functional gametes when crossed). Postzygotic isolation includes hybrid inviability (hybrid offspring die early) and hybrid sterility (hybrid offspring are unable to reproduce). Reproductive isolation is crucial for the formation of new species and the maintenance of biodiversity.

Asexual reproduction in a medical context refers to a type of reproduction that does not involve the fusion of gametes (sex cells) or the exchange of genetic material between two parents. In asexual reproduction, an organism creates offspring that are genetically identical to itself. This can occur through various mechanisms, such as budding, binary fission, fragmentation, or vegetative reproduction. Asexual reproduction is common in some plants, fungi, and unicellular organisms, but it also occurs in certain animals, such as starfish and some types of flatworms. This mode of reproduction allows for rapid population growth and can be advantageous in stable environments where genetic diversity is not essential for survival.

Megakaryocytes are large, specialized bone marrow cells that are responsible for the production and release of platelets (also known as thrombocytes) into the bloodstream. Platelets play an essential role in blood clotting and hemostasis, helping to prevent excessive bleeding during injuries or trauma.

Megakaryocytes have a unique structure with multilobed nuclei and abundant cytoplasm rich in organelles called alpha-granules and dense granules, which store various proteins, growth factors, and enzymes necessary for platelet function. As megakaryocytes mature, they extend long cytoplasmic processes called proplatelets into the bone marrow sinuses, where these extensions fragment into individual platelets that are released into circulation.

Abnormalities in megakaryocyte number, size, or function can lead to various hematological disorders, such as thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), thrombocytosis (high platelet count), and certain types of leukemia.

Gametogenesis in plants refers to the process of formation and development of gametes or sex cells (male: sperm and female: egg) through meiotic cell division. This process occurs within specialized reproductive organs called anthers (in male gametophyte) and ovules (in female gametophyte).

In the case of male gametogenesis, also known as microsporogenesis, diploid microspore mother cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid microspores. These microspores further develop into mature pollen grains through a process called pollen grain development or maturation.

Female gametogenesis, also known as megasporogenesis, involves the formation of megaspore mother cells within the ovule sac. The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid megaspores. Only one of these megaspores survives and develops into a multicellular female gametophyte, also known as an embryo sac. This embryo sac contains several cells, including the egg cell, two synergids, three antipodal cells, and two polar nuclei.

These male and female gametes are involved in fertilization to form a zygote, which eventually develops into a new plant through the process of embryogenesis.

Genomic instability is a term used in genetics and molecular biology to describe a state of increased susceptibility to genetic changes or mutations in the genome. It can be defined as a condition where the integrity and stability of the genome are compromised, leading to an increased rate of DNA alterations such as point mutations, insertions, deletions, and chromosomal rearrangements.

Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells and can also be observed in various other diseases, including genetic disorders and aging. It can arise due to defects in the DNA repair mechanisms, telomere maintenance, epigenetic regulation, or chromosome segregation during cell division. These defects can result from inherited genetic mutations, acquired somatic mutations, exposure to environmental mutagens, or age-related degenerative changes.

Genomic instability is a significant factor in the development and progression of cancer as it promotes the accumulation of oncogenic mutations that contribute to tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying genomic instability is crucial for developing effective strategies for cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Acanthaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes around 2,500 species distributed across 220-400 genera. These plants are primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, with some extending into temperate zones. The family is characterized by the presence of stiff, spiny bracts, which are often colorful and modified to attract pollinators.

The plants in Acanthaceae can vary widely in form, from herbaceous annuals and perennials to shrubs and trees. They have simple or opposite leaves that may be entire or lobed. The flowers are typically bisexual, with a two-lipped calyx and corolla, and four stamens.

Some well-known members of Acanthaceae include the garden plants Shrimp Plant (Justicia brandegeeana) and Whorled Tubelet (Lepidagathis formosa), as well as the medicinal plant Indian Snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina).

In a medical context, some species of Acanthaceae have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions, fevers, and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants should be done with caution and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can also contain toxic compounds.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rosa" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name for the genus of plants that includes roses. If you have a question about a medical condition or term, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information.

Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process (mitosis or meiosis) in which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells. It usually begins after telophase, and it involves the constriction of a contractile ring composed of actin filaments and myosin motor proteins that forms at the equatorial plane of the cell. This results in the formation of a cleavage furrow, which deepens and eventually leads to the physical separation of the two daughter cells. Cytokinesis is essential for cell reproduction and growth in multicellular organisms, and its failure can lead to various developmental abnormalities or diseases.

Dipsacaceae is a family of plants commonly known as the teasel or teazle family. It includes annual, biennial, and perennial herbs, as well as some shrubs and small trees. The plants in this family are characterized by their opposite leaves that often clasp the stem, and their distinctive flower heads that contain both disk and ray flowers.

The family Dipsacaceae has been merged with several other plant families in recent classifications, including Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family) and Valerianaceae (valerian family). Therefore, some modern sources may not recognize Dipsacaceae as a separate family. Instead, the plants that were once classified in Dipsacaceae are now often included in the expanded family Caprifoliaceae.

"Solanaceae" is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in biology, referring to the Nightshade family of plants. This family includes several plants that have economic and medicinal importance, as well as some that are toxic or poisonous. Some common examples of plants in this family include:

- Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)
- Solanum tuberosum (potato)
- Capsicum annuum (bell pepper and chili pepper)
- Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)
- Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade)
- Hyoscyamus niger (henbane)

While Solanaceae isn't a medical term itself, certain plants within this family have medical significance. For instance, some alkaloids found in these plants can be used as medications or pharmaceutical precursors, such as atropine and scopolamine from Atropa belladonna, hyoscine from Hyoscyamus niger, and capsaicin from Capsicum species. However, it's important to note that many of these plants also contain toxic compounds, so they must be handled with care and used only under professional supervision.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

An ecotype is a population of a species that is adapted to specific environmental conditions and exhibits genetic differences from other populations of the same species that live in different environments. These genetic adaptations allow the ecotype to survive and reproduce more successfully in its particular habitat compared to other populations. The term "ecotype" was first introduced by botanist John Gregor Mendel in 1870 to describe the variation within plant species due to environmental factors.

Ecotypes can be found in various organisms, including plants, animals, and microorganisms. They are often studied in ecology and evolutionary biology to understand how genetic differences arise and evolve in response to environmental pressures. Ecotypes can differ from each other in traits such as morphology, physiology, behavior, and life history strategies.

Examples of ecotypes include:

* Desert and coastal ecotypes of the lizard Uta stansburiana, which show differences in body size, limb length, and reproductive strategies due to adaptation to different habitats.
* Arctic and alpine ecotypes of the plant Arabis alpina, which have distinct flowering times and cold tolerance mechanisms that help them survive in their respective environments.
* Freshwater and marine ecotypes of the copepod Eurytemora affinis, which differ in body size, developmental rate, and salinity tolerance due to adaptation to different aquatic habitats.

It is important to note that the concept of ecotype is not always clearly defined or consistently applied in scientific research. Some researchers use it to describe any population that shows genetic differences related to environmental factors, while others reserve it for cases where there is strong evidence of local adaptation and reproductive isolation between populations.

Synteny, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to the presence of two or more genetic loci (regions) on the same chromosome, in the same relative order and orientation. This term is often used to describe conserved gene organization between different species, indicating a common ancestry.

It's important to note that synteny should not be confused with "colinearity," which refers to the conservation of gene content and order within a genome or between genomes of closely related species. Synteny is a broader concept that can also include conserved gene order across more distantly related species, even if some genes have been lost or gained in the process.

In medical research, synteny analysis can be useful for identifying conserved genetic elements and regulatory regions that may play important roles in disease susceptibility or other biological processes.

Genetic speciation is not a widely used term in the scientific literature, but it generally refers to the process by which new species arise due to genetic differences and reproductive isolation. This process can occur through various mechanisms such as mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, natural selection, or chromosomal changes that lead to the accumulation of genetic differences between populations. Over time, these genetic differences can result in the development of reproductive barriers that prevent interbreeding between the populations, leading to the formation of new species.

In other words, genetic speciation is a type of speciation that involves the evolution of genetic differences that ultimately lead to the formation of new species. It is an essential concept in the field of evolutionary biology and genetics, as it explains how biodiversity arises over time.

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

'Brassica rapa' is the scientific name for a species of plant that includes various types of vegetables such as turnips, Chinese cabbages, and bok choy. It is a member of the Brassicaceae family, also known as the mustard or cabbage family. The plants in this species are characterized by their broad leaves and branching stem, and they are native to Europe and Central Asia.

Turnips, which are one of the most common vegetables in this species, are cool-season root crops that are grown for their enlarged taproot. They have a white or yellowish flesh that is crisp and tender with a sweet, slightly bitter flavor. Turnips can be eaten raw or cooked and are often used in soups, stews, and casseroles.

Chinese cabbages, also known as Napa cabbages, are another type of vegetable in the 'Brassica rapa' species. They have elongated, pale green leaves that form a compact head, and they are often used in Asian cuisine. Chinese cabbages have a mild flavor and can be eaten raw or cooked.

Bok choy, also known as pak choi, is another type of vegetable in the 'Brassica rapa' species. It has dark green leaves and white stems, and it is often used in stir-fries and soups. Bok choy has a mild flavor and a crisp texture.

Overall, 'Brassica rapa' is an important species of plant that includes many nutritious and delicious vegetables that are popular around the world.

The spindle apparatus is a microtubule-based structure that plays a crucial role in the process of cell division, specifically during mitosis and meiosis. It consists of three main components:

1. The spindle poles: These are organized structures composed of microtubules and associated proteins that serve as the anchoring points for the spindle fibers. In animal cells, these poles are typically formed by centrosomes, while in plant cells, they form around nucleation sites called microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs).
2. The spindle fibers: These are dynamic arrays of microtubules that extend between the two spindle poles. They can be categorized into three types: kinetochore fibers, which connect to the kinetochores on chromosomes; astral fibers, which radiate from the spindle poles and help position the spindle within the cell; and interpolar fibers, which lie between the two spindle poles and contribute to their separation during anaphase.
3. Regulatory proteins: Various motor proteins, such as dynein and kinesin, as well as non-motor proteins like tubulin and septins, are involved in the assembly, maintenance, and dynamics of the spindle apparatus. These proteins help to generate forces that move chromosomes, position the spindle, and ultimately segregate genetic material between two daughter cells during cell division.

The spindle apparatus is essential for ensuring accurate chromosome separation and maintaining genomic stability during cell division. Dysfunction of the spindle apparatus can lead to various abnormalities, including aneuploidy (abnormal number of chromosomes) and chromosomal instability, which have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and developmental disorders.

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

Contig mapping, short for contiguous mapping, is a process used in genetics and genomics to construct a detailed map of a particular region or regions of a genome. It involves the use of molecular biology techniques to physically join together, or "clone," overlapping DNA fragments from a specific region of interest in a genome. These joined fragments are called "contigs" because they are continuous and contiguous stretches of DNA that represent a contiguous map of the region.

Contig mapping is often used to study large-scale genetic variations, such as deletions, duplications, or rearrangements, in specific genomic regions associated with diseases or other traits. It can also be used to identify and characterize genes within those regions, which can help researchers understand their function and potential role in disease processes.

The process of contig mapping typically involves several steps, including:

1. DNA fragmentation: The genomic region of interest is broken down into smaller fragments using physical or enzymatic methods.
2. Cloning: The fragments are inserted into a vector, such as a plasmid or bacteriophage, which can be replicated in bacteria to produce multiple copies of each fragment.
3. Library construction: The cloned fragments are pooled together to create a genomic library, which contains all the DNA fragments from the region of interest.
4. Screening and selection: The library is screened using various methods, such as hybridization or PCR, to identify clones that contain overlapping fragments from the region of interest.
5. Contig assembly: The selected clones are ordered based on their overlapping regions to create a contiguous map of the genomic region.
6. Sequencing and analysis: The DNA sequence of the contigs is determined and analyzed to identify genes, regulatory elements, and other features of the genomic region.

Overall, contig mapping is an important tool for studying the structure and function of genomes, and has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetic variation and disease mechanisms.

Artificial bacterial chromosomes (ABCs) are synthetic replicons that are designed to function like natural bacterial chromosomes. They are created through the use of molecular biology techniques, such as recombination and cloning, to construct large DNA molecules that can stably replicate and segregate within a host bacterium.

ABCs are typically much larger than traditional plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can also replicate in bacteria but have a limited capacity for carrying genetic information. ABCs can accommodate large DNA inserts, making them useful tools for cloning and studying large genes, gene clusters, or even entire genomes of other organisms.

There are several types of ABCs, including bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs), and yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). BACs are the most commonly used type of ABC and can accommodate inserts up to 300 kilobases (kb) in size. They have been widely used in genome sequencing projects, functional genomics studies, and protein production.

Overall, artificial bacterial chromosomes provide a powerful tool for manipulating and studying large DNA molecules in a controlled and stable manner within bacterial hosts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Panicum" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of plants, including many types of grasses, commonly known as panicgrass or switchgrass. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

Cyclin D3 is a type of cyclin protein that regulates the cell cycle, particularly during the G1 phase. It forms a complex with and acts as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, which are cyclin-dependent kinases. This complex plays a crucial role in phosphorylating and inactivating the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), leading to the release of E2F transcription factors that promote the expression of genes required for DNA replication and cell cycle progression into the S phase.

Cyclin D3 is primarily expressed in activated lymphocytes and is essential for normal immune function, as well as in certain tissues during development. Alterations in CYCLIN D3 gene expression or function have been implicated in several types of cancer, such as leukemias and lymphomas, due to their role in uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Organophosphates are a group of chemicals that include insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases. They work by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which normally breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapse between nerves. This leads to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as muscle twitching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, confusion, and potentially death due to respiratory failure. Organophosphates are highly toxic and their use is regulated due to the risks they pose to human health and the environment.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Thysanoptera" is not a medical term. It is an order of small, thin-bodied insects, also known as thrips. Thysanoptera species are typically less than 2 mm long and have delicate fringed wings. They are commonly found in various environments such as flowers, leaves, and even soil. While they can be plant pests and occasionally transmit plant viruses, they do not have a direct relevance to human medicine.

'Brassica napus' is the scientific name for a species of plant that includes both rapeseed and canola. It is a type of cruciferous vegetable that is widely cultivated for its seeds, which are used to produce oil, as well as for its leaves and stems, which are eaten as vegetables in some parts of the world.

Rapeseed oil, which is produced from the seeds of 'Brassica napus', has historically been used as a source of industrial lubricant and as a fuel for diesel engines. However, modern canola oil, which is also produced from 'Brassica napus' but has been bred to have lower levels of erucic acid and glucosinolates, is more commonly used as a food oil due to its mild flavor and high smoke point.

The leaves and stems of 'Brassica napus' are also edible and are commonly consumed in parts of Europe and Asia. They can be prepared in a variety of ways, including boiling, steaming, or stir-frying. The plant is also sometimes used as a cover crop or green manure due to its ability to improve soil health and reduce erosion.

Chromosomal instability is a term used in genetics to describe a type of genetic alteration where there are abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes within cells. Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain our genetic material, and they usually exist in pairs in the nucleus of a cell.

Chromosomal instability can arise due to various factors, including errors in DNA replication or repair, problems during cell division, or exposure to environmental mutagens. This instability can lead to an increased frequency of chromosomal abnormalities, such as deletions, duplications, translocations, or changes in the number of chromosomes.

Chromosomal instability is associated with several human diseases, including cancer. In cancer cells, chromosomal instability can contribute to tumor heterogeneity, drug resistance, and disease progression. It is also observed in certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, where an extra copy of chromosome 21 is present, and in some rare inherited syndromes, such as Bloom syndrome and Fanconi anemia, which are characterized by a high risk of cancer and other health problems.

Gene dosage, in genetic terms, refers to the number of copies of a particular gene present in an organism's genome. Each gene usually has two copies (alleles) in diploid organisms, one inherited from each parent. An increase or decrease in the number of copies of a specific gene can lead to changes in the amount of protein it encodes, which can subsequently affect various biological processes and phenotypic traits.

For example, gene dosage imbalances have been associated with several genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), where an individual has three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the typical two copies, leading to developmental delays and intellectual disabilities. Similarly, in certain cases of cancer, gene amplification (an increase in the number of copies of a particular gene) can result in overexpression of oncogenes, contributing to tumor growth and progression.

A polyploidy event occurred within the stem lineage of the teleost fish. Polyploidy is frequent in plants, some estimates ... Polyploidy on Kimball's Biology Pages The polyploidy portal a community-editable project with information, research, education ... Polyploidy was induced in fish by Har Swarup (1956) using a cold-shock treatment of the eggs close to the time of fertilization ... Polyploidy is a condition in which the cells of an organism have more than one pair of (homologous) chromosomes. Most species ...
The effects of polyploidy between two different species causes hybridization and even greater evolution. Natural selection in ... In Genetics and the Origin of Species, polyploidy is considered as a type of mutation. Polyploid cells have a chromosome number ... Woodhouse, Margaret; Diana Burkart-Waco; Luca Comai (2009). "Polyploidy". Nature Education. 2 (1): 1. Eldredge, Niles (1985). ... Dobzhansky discusses polyploidy, a condition (common in plants) where an organism has more than two complete sets of ...
Research topics include whole genome genetic mapping and physical mapping; polyploidy; ancient whole genome duplications; ...
... see polyploidy). Over 30% of the genus Cnemidophorus are parthenogenic. The genus Cnemidophorus (sensu stricto) contains the ...
Polyploidy common. Tulipeae remained a core group of the Liliaceae, containing the type genus, Lilium for most of its taxonomic ...
The genus is also known for its polyploidy, with some species having up to 12 sets of chromosomes. Xenopus laevis is a rather ... Schmid M, Evans BJ, Bogart JP (2015). "Polyploidy in Amphibia". Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 145 (3-4): 315-330. doi: ...
Doyle JJ (2012). "Polyploidy in legumes". In Soltis PS, Soltis DE (eds.). Polyploidy and genome evolution. Berlin, Heidelberg: ...
There is, however, evidence of polyploidy in organisms now considered to be diploid, suggesting that polyploidy has contributed ... The extreme in polyploidy occurs in the fern genus Ophioglossum, the adder's-tongues, in which polyploidy results in chromosome ... Though polyploidy in humans is not viable, mixoploidy has been found in live adults and children. There are two types: diploid- ... Polyploidy is the state where all cells have multiple sets of chromosomes beyond the basic set, usually 3 or more. Specific ...
Clausen, Roy Elwood (1941). "Polyploidy in Nicotiana". The American Naturalist. 75 (759): 291-306. doi:10.1086/280965. S2CID ...
The subspecies exhibits polyploidy. A typical adult nigorobuna attains 35 cm (14 in)length at maturity. Its shape resembles the ...
Otto, Sarah P.; Whitton, Jeannette (2000). "Polyploidy: incidence and evolution". Annual Review of Genetics. 34: 401-437. doi: ...
Lee HO, Davidson JM, Duronio RJ (November 2009). "Endoreplication: polyploidy with purpose". Genes & Development. 23 (21): 2461 ...
Brochmann C, Brysting AK, Alsos IG, Borgen L, Grundt HH, Scheen AC, Elven R (2004). "Polyploidy in arctic plants". Biological ... Segraves KA, Thompson JN (August 1999). "Plant Polyploidy and Pollination: Floral Traits and Insect Visits to Diploid and ... polyploidy) or not. Homoploid hybrid speciation is defined as the evolution of a new hybrid species with reproductive isolation ...
Polyploidy and aneuploidy are common phenomena in cancer cells. Given that oncogenesis and endoreplication likely involve ... Orr-Weaver, Terry L. (2015). "When bigger is better: the role of polyploidy in organogenesis". Trends in Genetics. 31 (6): 307- ... Ravid K; Lu J; Zimmet JM; Jones MR (2002). "Roads to polyploidy: The megakaryocyte example". Journal of Cellular Physiology. ... However it remains to be determined whether endoreplication and polyploidy contribute to cell differentiation or vice versa. ...
Current biology, 24(10), R435-R444 Lee, H. O., Davidson, J. M., & Duronio, R. J. (2009). Endoreplication: polyploidy with ...
Polyploidy, where there are more than two sets of homologous chromosomes in the cells, occurs mainly in plants. It has been of ... Polyploidy in animals is much less common, but it has been significant in some groups. Polyploid series in related species ... 8: Polyploidy in animals". In Gregory, T. Ryan (ed.). The Evolution of the Genome. Academic Press. pp. 427-517. ISBN 978-0-08- ... Adams KL, Wendel JF (April 2005). "Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants". Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 8 (2): 135-41. doi: ...
Gottlieb's further studies on polyploidy were concerned with the fates of those genes that were duplicated by an ... Soltis, Pamela S.; Liu, Xiaoxian; Marchant, D. Blane; Visger, Clayton J.; Soltis, Douglas E. (2014). "Polyploidy and novelty: ... Gottlieb, L.D. (2003). "Plant polyploidy: gene expression and genetic redundancy". Heredity. 91 (2): 91-92. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy. ... Roose, M.L.; Gottlieb, L.D. (1976). "Genetic and Biochemical Consequences of Polyploidy in Tragopogon". Evolution. 30 (4): 818- ...
Polyploidy induction by noscapine has been observed in vitro in human lymphocytes at high dose levels (>30 μM); however, low- ... The mechanism of polyploidy induction by noscapine is suggested to involve either chromosome spindle apparatus damage or cell ... Mitchell ID, Carlton JB, Chan MY, Robinson A, Sunderland J (November 1991). "Noscapine-induced polyploidy in vitro". ... "Noscapine hydrochloride disrupts the mitotic spindle in mammalian cells and induces aneuploidy as well as polyploidy in ...
Polyploidy is pervasive in plants and some estimates suggest that 30-80% of living plant species are polyploid, and many ... They are also capable of polyploidy - where more than two chromosome sets are inherited from the parents. This allows ... All eukaryotes probably have experienced a polyploidy event at some point in their evolutionary history. See paleopolyploidy. ... Otto SP (November 2007). "The evolutionary consequences of polyploidy". Cell. 131 (3): 452-62. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.10.022. ...
Polyploidy is common in plants, but it has also occurred in animals, with two rounds of whole genome duplication (2R event) in ... Polyploidy is also a well known source of speciation, as offspring, which have different numbers of chromosomes compared to ... Polyploidy, or whole genome duplication is a product of nondisjunction during meiosis which results in additional copies of the ... Otto, Sarah P. (2007-11-02). "The evolutionary consequences of polyploidy". Cell. 131 (3): 452-462. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.10. ...
Polyploidy (most common in plants but not unknown in animals) is saltational: a significant change (in gene numbers) can result ... Speciation, such as by polyploidy in plants, can sometimes be achieved in a single and in evolutionary terms sudden step. ... Polyploidy, karyotypic fission, symbiogenesis and lateral gene transfer are possible mechanisms for saltational speciation. The ... Dufresne, France; Herbert, Paul D. N. (1994). "Hybridization and origins of polyploidy". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 258 ...
Polyploidy in Solanum Melongena Linn. CYTOLOGIA. Vol. 5 (1933-1934) No. 4 P 453-459 Doctor, Geeta. "Remembering Dr Janaki Ammal ... of plant speciation in the cold and humid northeast Himalayas as compared to the cold and dry northwest Himalayas to polyploidy ...
His PhD work in Delphinium was reported in an abstract in 1946, titled "Polyploidy in the Californian Delphiniums"; here he ... His PhD work in Delphinium was reported in an abstract in 1946, titled "Polyploidy in the Californian Delphiniums"; here he ... doi:10.1002/j.1537-2197.1945.tb05080.x. Lewis, Harlan (1946). "Polyploidy in the Californian Delphiniums". American Journal of ...
Soltis, Pamela S.; Liu, Xiaoxian; Marchant, D. Blaine; Visger, Clayton J.; Soltis, Douglas E. (5 August 2014). "Polyploidy and ...
Saltation at a variety of scales is agreed to be possible by mechanisms including polyploidy, which certainly can create new ... Dufresne, France; Herbert, Paul D. N. (1994). "Hybridization and origins of polyploidy". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 258 ...
There is some evidence that evolution within the family may have resulted from polyploidy. The red viscacha rat, Tympanoctomys ... Svartman, Marta; Stone, Gary; Stanyon, Roscoe (2005). "Molecular cytogenetics discards polyploidy in mammals". Genomics. 85 (4 ...
Svartman, Marta; Stone, Gary; Stanyon, Roscoe (2005). "Molecular cytogenetics discards polyploidy in mammals". Genomics. 85 (4 ...
... transgenics and polyploidy". Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 6 (1): 2-16. doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2007. ...
Polyploidy events will result in higher levels of heterozygosity, and, over time, can lead to an increase in the total number ... Tang H, Bowers JE, Wang X, Paterson AH (January 2010). "Angiosperm genome comparisons reveal early polyploidy in the monocot ... Adams KL, Wendel JF (April 2005). "Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 8 (2): 135-41 ... There are two major divisions of polyploidy, allopolyploidy and autopolyploidy. Allopolyploids arise as a result of the ...
Polyploidy is very common in plants. Polyploidization plays an important role in plant evolution, it is commonly used in ...
A polyploidy event occurred within the stem lineage of the teleost fish. Polyploidy is frequent in plants, some estimates ... Polyploidy on Kimballs Biology Pages The polyploidy portal a community-editable project with information, research, education ... Polyploidy was induced in fish by Har Swarup (1956) using a cold-shock treatment of the eggs close to the time of fertilization ... Polyploidy is a condition in which the cells of an organism have more than one pair of (homologous) chromosomes. Most species ...
Integrating networks, Phylogenomics, and population genomics for the study of polyploidy. Read our blog about seriously cool ...
Genome downsizing after polyploidy: mechanisms, rates and selection pressures.. The Plant Journal 107: 1003-1015. ...
Revisiting ancestral polyploidy in plants.. Science Advances 3 (7), e1603195 (2017). Schwahn, K.; Beleggia, R.; Omranian, N.; ...
Hybridization and polyploidy common; polyploid forms may have separate ranges or be more or less identifiable within ...
Determination of polyploidy: Frequency of polyploid cells. OTHER: None.. Evaluation criteria:. A positive response was recorded ...
The team made a genetic mutation in Myc that caused cells to fail to achieve polyploidy in mouse placenta. "Based on the ... The study revealed the modified cell cycle controlling polyploidy is governed by a regulatory gene called Myc which is found in ... "The placenta may be the most polyploid organ in a pregnant female mouse, but more research into polyploidy is warranted." ... outcome, we speculate that if human placental cells do not achieve polyploidy, for instance due to environmental toxins like ...
Adams, K. L., Wendel, J. F. (2005). Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 8 (2), 135-141. doi: ... Soltis, P. S., Marchant, D. B., Van de Peer, Y., Soltis, D. E. (2015). Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants. Curr. Opin. ... Polyploidy and whole genome duplication have been recognized as major evolutionary processes in plants (Soltis et al., 2015; ... Levy, A. A., Feldman, M. (2002). The impact of polyploidy on grass genome evolution. Plant Physiol. 130, 1587-1593. doi: ...
All GCTs are aneuploid most likely because of early establishment of polyploidy. Polyploidy causes genomic instability with ...
Polyploidy as a Factor in the Evolution of the Bouteloua curtipendula Complex (Poaceae: Chloridoideae) ... In this paper we assess the impact of polyploidy and hybridization in the Bouteloua curtipendula species complex (BCC). The BCC ... We tested for evolutionary signatures of hybridization and polyploidy in the BCC by obtaining 77 chromosome counts from anther ...
the ecology, genetics and evolution of polyploidy, especially in its interaction with the sexual system; ...
2022). Polyploidy is notably less common than in monilophytes and angiosperms, although. Ephedra and Juniperus are exceptions, ...
Analysis of Paralogs in Target Enrichment Data Pinpoints Multiple Ancient Polyploidy Events in Alchemilla s.l. (Rosaceae)  ...
Mosieniak, G.; Sliwinska, M.A.; Alster, O.; Strzeszewska, A.; Sunderland, P.; Piechota, M.; Was, H.; Sikora, E. Polyploidy ...
Because of its recent history, hexaploid wheat is a good model plant species for studying polyploidy, the major factor driving ... Genomic and expression plasticity of polyploidy. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2010;13:153-9. ... generated gene copies and the ancient genes is an interesting issue that may be correlated with the advantages of polyploidy. ...
The paper also reports that the avocado went through two ancient polyploidy events. Many of the duplicated genes were ...
Permanent variations may arise due to mutations, polyploidy, endopolyploidy, chromosomal aberrations.. It is significant that ...
Hybridity, polyploidy and change in breeding system in a Ruellia hybrid. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 39:133-140. ...
Polyploidy (number of sets of chromosomes increases). 46. Sympatric Speciation*Polyploidy (number of sets of chromosomes ...
Polyploidy in bisexual Lepidoptera species (Insecta: Lepidoptera): old hypotheses and new data Vol 48, Page 313 ...
The incidence of polyploidy is comparable among control and treated groups. Fifty-nine percent of the animals in the first ...
Polyploidy is unknown in mammals, although hybridization is still possible. Take mules, for instance, which are a hybrid ...
Polyploidy and angiosperm diversification. DE Soltis, VA Albert, J Leebens‐Mack, CD Bell, AH Paterson, C Zheng, ... ...
Formin-2, polyploidy, hypofertility and positioning of the meiotic spindle in mouse oocytes ...
Intraspecific polyploidy is found to occur in two species, S. nitidum and S. plumosum.. 5. A brief review of the geographical ... rather than mechanisms such as aneuploidy or polyploidy, were involved in the evolutionary divergence of these Primate species. ...
... polyploidy and so on.. What Behe says he wants to see but is never done, population geneticists have been doing for over half a ... polyploidy and so on.. Wasnt Behes calculation supposed to make us conclude that the evolution of chloroquine resistance is ...
Moreover, if polyploidy turns out to be a prerequisite for apomixis and the seed industry turns exclusively to polyploid seeds ... Yet the fact that apomixis only happens in polyploid plants suggests that polyploidy might be a prerequisite for apomixis ... If apomixis is linked to polyploidy, then developing apomictic maize or pearl millet would only be possible after radically ...
  • The placenta may be the most polyploid organ in a pregnant female mouse, but more research into polyploidy is warranted. (
  • Polyploidy is unknown in mammals, although hybridization is still possible. (
  • The stressful habitat may result in high biodiversity through mechanisms such as niche differentiation, hybridization, polyploidy and apomixis. (
  • Polyploidy is a condition in which the cells of an organism have more than one pair of (homologous) chromosomes. (
  • Polyploidy may occur due to abnormal cell division, either during mitosis, or more commonly from the failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis or from the fertilization of an egg by more than one sperm. (
  • While all plants are known to have whole genome duplications within their ancestry, one or more post cretaceous-tertiary (K-T) polyploidy events have been found in about half of species, including crops and wild plants. (
  • Intraspecific polyploidy is found to occur in two species, S. nitidum and S. plumosum . (
  • This cycle can occur repeatedly so that placental cells grow to gigantic proportions with hundreds of chromosome copies, a characteristic called polyploidy. (
  • Genome downsizing after polyploidy: mechanisms, rates and selection pressures. (
  • The study revealed the modified cell cycle controlling polyploidy is governed by a regulatory gene called Myc which is found in organisms as diverse as fruit flies, mice, and humans. (
  • Analysis of Paralogs in Target Enrichment Data Pinpoints Multiple Ancient Polyploidy Events in Alchemilla s.l. (
  • The team made a genetic mutation in Myc that caused cells to fail to achieve polyploidy in mouse placenta. (
  • Based on the outcome, we speculate that if human placental cells do not achieve polyploidy, for instance due to environmental toxins like alcohol or cigarette smoke, the placenta will not be able to do its jobs and support a healthy pregnancy," said Gerton. (
  • 17. Centrosomes, polyploidy and cancer. (
  • Extreme polyploidy consisting of cytomegalic hepatocytes with very large nuclei as well as cytomegalic hepatocytes with several diploid nuclei is seen in these images from a mouse treated with chlordane for 18 months. (
  • Genetic analyses on mitochondrial genome are complicated by the peculiarities of the mitochondrial genetic system that features maternal inheritance, polyploidy, and amitotic segregation. (
  • Abnormalities in fetal movement are suggestive of primary neurologic abnormalities or may be in association with a genetic syndrome, such as polyploidy. (
  • Hybridization and polyploidy are major forces in plant evolution. (
  • abstract = "Whole-genome duplication (WGD), or polyploidy, followed by gene loss and diploidization has long been recognized as an important evolutionary force in animals, fungi and other organisms, especially plants. (
  • Homoploid hybrids are common but evolutionary dead ends, whereas polyploidy is not linked to hybridization in a group of Pyrenean saxifrages. (