The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
A naturally occurring opium alkaloid that is a centrally acting antitussive agent.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain isoquinoline alkaloids and triterpene glycosides.
A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains cleogynol and 15alpha-acetoxycleomblynol (dammaranes) and 1-epibrachyacarpone (a triterpene), and ISOTHIOCYANATES.
A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. There are no true petals; each flower has two to six sepals. They produce betacyanin and betaxanthin pigments and lack anthocyanins.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The root and shoots have been used for food.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
Asexual reproduction resulting in the formation of viable seeds from FLOWERS without fertlization (i.e. use of POLLEN). Progeny plants produced from apomictic seeds are perfect clones of the parent.
The evening primrose plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Flower parts are mostly in fours and the ovary is inferior.
Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole CHROMOSOMES, thereby inducing an ANEUPLOIDY.
Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes called the teasel family.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (1/1578)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

The modulation of DNA content: proximate causes and ultimate consequences. (2/1578)

The forces responsible for modulating the large-scale features of the genome remain one of the most difficult issues confronting evolutionary biology. Although diversity in chromosomal architecture, nucleotide composition, and genome size has been well documented, there is little understanding of either the evolutionary origins or impact of much of this variation. The 80,000-fold divergence in genome sizes among eukaryotes represents perhaps the greatest challenge for genomic holists. Although some researchers continue to characterize much variation in genome size as a mere by-product of an intragenomic selfish DNA "free-for-all" there is increasing evidence for the primacy of selection in molding genome sizes via impacts on cell size and division rates. Moreover, processes inducing quantum or doubling series variation in gametic or somatic genome sizes are common. These abrupt shifts have broad effects on phenotypic attributes at both cellular and organismal levels and may play an important role in explaining episodes of rapid-or even saltational-character state evolution.  (+info)

Cell cycle arrest mediated by hepatitis delta antigen. (3/1578)

Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is the only viral-encoded protein of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV). This protein has been extensively characterized with respect to its biochemical and functional properties. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for persistent HDV infection is not yet clear. Previously, we reported that overexpression of HDAg protects insect cells from baculovirus-induced cytolysis [Hwang, S.B. Park, K.-J. and Kim, Y.S. (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 244, 652-658]. Here we report that HDAg mediates cell cycle arrest when overexpressed in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. Flow cytometry analysis has shown that HDAg expression in Spodoptera frugiperda cells causes an accumulation of substantial amounts of polyploid DNA in the absence of cell division. This phenomenon may be partly responsible for the persistent infection of chronic HDV patients.  (+info)

Partial hepatectomy-induced polyploidy attenuates hepatocyte replication and activates cell aging events. (4/1578)

In understanding mechanisms of liver repopulation with transplanted hepatocytes, we studied the consequences of hepatic polyploidization in the two-thirds partial hepatectomy model of liver regeneration. Liver repopulation studies using genetically marked rodent hepatocytes showed that the number of previously transplanted hepatocytes did not increase in the liver with subsequential partial hepatectomy. In contrast, recipients undergoing partial hepatectomy before cells were transplanted showed proliferation in transplanted hepatocytes, with kinetics of DNA synthesis differing in transplanted and host hepatocytes. Also, partial hepatectomy caused multiple changes in the rat liver, including accumulation of polyploid hepatocytes along with prolonged depletion of diploid hepatocytes, as well as increased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase and p21 expression. Remnant hepatocytes in the partially hepatectomized liver showed increased autofluorescence and cytoplasmic complexity on flow cytometry, which are associated with lipofuscin accumulation during cell aging, and underwent apoptosis more frequently. Moreover, hepatocytes from the partially hepatectomized liver showed attenuated proliferative capacity in cell culture. These findings were compatible with decreased proliferative potential of hepatocytes experiencing partial hepatectomy compared with hepatocytes from the unperturbed liver. Attenuation of proliferative capacity and other changes in hepatocytes experiencing partial hepatectomy offer novel perspectives concerning liver regeneration in the context of cell ploidy.  (+info)

Elimination and rearrangement of parental rDNA in the allotetraploid Nicotiana tabacum. (5/1578)

Origin and rearrangement of ribosomal DNA repeats in natural allotetraploid Nicotiana tabacum are described. Comparative sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer (IGS) regions of Nicotiana tomentosiformis (the paternal diploid progenitor) and Nicotiana sylvestris (the maternal diploid progenitor) showed species-specific molecular features. These markers allowed us to trace the molecular evolution of parental rDNA in the allopolyploid genome of N. tabacum; at least the majority of tobacco rDNA repeats originated from N. tomentosiformis, which endured reconstruction of subrepeated regions in the IGS. We infer that after hybridization of the parental diploid species, rDNA with a longer IGS, donated by N. tomentosiformis, dominated over the rDNA with a shorter IGS from N. sylvestris; the latter was then eliminated from the allopolyploid genome. Thus, repeated sequences in allopolyploid genomes are targets for molecular rearrangement, demonstrating the dynamic nature of allopolyploid genomes.  (+info)

Low levels of nucleotide diversity at homoeologous Adh loci in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium L.). (6/1578)

Levels of genetic diversity within and among populations and species are shaped by both external (population-level) and internal (genomic and genic) evolutionary forces. To address the effect of internal pressures, we estimated nucleotide diversity for a pair of homoeologous Adh loci in an allotetraploid species, Gossypium hirsutum. These data represent the first such estimates for a pair of homoeologous nuclear loci in plants. Estimates of nucleotide diversity for AdhA in Gossypium are lower than those for any plant nuclear gene yet described. This low diversity appears to reflect primarily a history of repeated, severe genetic bottlenecks associated with both speciation and recent domestication, supplemented by an unusually slow nucleotide substitution rate and an autogamous breeding system. While not statistically supportable, the sum of the observations also suggest differential evolutionary dynamics at each of the homoeologous loci.  (+info)

Clinical details, cytogenic studies,and cellular physiology of a 69, XXX fetus, with comments on the biological effect of triploidy in man. (7/1578)

A triploid fetus, 69, XXX, aborted spontaneously at 26 weeks' gestation. It had multiple abnormalities including syndactyly of the hands and feet single palmar creases, hypoplasia of the adrenals and ovaries, hypertrophy of thigh muscles, and abnormalities of the brain. The placenta was large and showed hydatidiform degeneration. The pregnancy had been complicated by acute dyspnoea, pre-eclampsia, and postpartum haemorrhage. Detailed cytogenetic studies, using banding and fluorescence techniques, were performed on fetus and parents. Meiotic studies were made on the fetal ovaries. Muscle cell differentiation and electrophysiological relationships of cultured skin fibriblasts were examined in an attempt to study the way in which the extra haploid set of chromosomes exerts its effect on the phenotype. The antenatal diagnosis of late triploidy is discussed. The finding that 25 per cent of late triploids have spina bifida is further evidence that meningomyelocele has a genetic component and strongly suggests that this results from chromosomal imbalance or a regulatory gene disturbance.  (+info)

P53-dependent effects of RAS oncogene on chromosome stability and cell cycle checkpoints. (8/1578)

Mutations activating the function of ras proto-oncogenes are often observed in human tumors. Their oncogenic potential is mainly due to permanent stimulation of cellular proliferation and dramatic changes in morphogenic reactions of the cell. To learn more on the role of ras activation in cancerogenesis we studied its effects on chromosome stability and cell cycle checkpoints. Since the ability of ras oncogenes to cause cell transformation may be dependent on activity of the p53 tumor-suppressor the cells with different p53 state were analysed. Ectopic expression of N-ras(asp12) caused in p53-deficient MDAH041 cell line an augmentation in the number of chromosome breaks in mitogenic cells, significant increase in the frequency of metaphases showing chromosome endoreduplication and accumulation of polyploid cells. Similar effects were induced by different exogenous ras genes (N-ras(asp12), H-ras(leu12), N-ras proto-oncogene) in Rat1 and Rat2 cells which have a defect in p53-upstream pathways. In contrast, in REF52 and human LIM1215 cells showing ras-induced p53 up-regulation, ras expression caused only slight increase in the number of chromosome breaks and did not enhance the frequency of endoreduplication and polyploidy. Inactivation in these cells of p53 function by transduction of dominant-negative C-terminal p53 fragment (genetic suppressor element #22, GSE22) or mutant p53s significantly increased the frequency of both spontaneous and ras-induced karyotypic changes. In concordance with these observations we have found that expression of ras oncogene caused in p53-defective cells further mitigation of ethyl-metansulphonate-induced G1 and G2 cell cycle arrest, but did not abrogate G1 and G2 cell cycle checkpoints in cells with normal p53 function. These data indicate that along with stimulation of cell proliferation and morphological transformation ras activation can contribute to cancerogenesis by increasing genetic instability.  (+info)

What is the difference between Autopolyploidy and Allopolyploidy? Autopolyploidy and Allopolyploidy are two main types of polyploidy. Autopolyploidy is the...
Polyploidy was first discovered by Winkler in 1916 during his observations of a spontaneous autopolyploid induced by mechanically damaged tissue (Grant, 1971). Winge (1917) proposed an explanation for polyploidy using an arithmetic series he had observed in Chrysanthemum (2n=18, 36, 54, 72, and 90) and Chenopodium (2n=18, 36) (Grant, 1971). Winge hypothesized that polyploidy occurred by successive increases in the original somatic chromosome number. The most comprehensive work on polyploidy and its relationship to plant evolution is the book Plant Speciation by Vern Grant (1981). It has been estimated that 30% to 70% of angiosperms are polyploids (Grant, 1971). The broad range in estimates for angiosperm polyploidy is due to a lack of knowledge about whether these plants are ancient polyploids, or whether more recent events have caused the polyploidy we observe today. Furthermore, no one really knows the true base number of the angiosperms, making estimates of polyploidy for this large and ...
Fig. 1. Polyploid incidence and speciation frequencies across major groups of vascular plants. Polyploid speciation frequencies are the fractions of branching events that were accompanied by a ploidy shift across the studied phylogenetic trees for each group. The speciation frequencies reported here are based on an irreversible model of polyploid evolution. A binomial standard error follows each incidence and frequency estimate. See Fig. S1 for a diagrammatic explanation of estimation methods for polyploid speciation frequencies. Phylogenetic hypothesis/timescale modified from (13), and based on clades defined in refs. 13-16; clade species richness from refs. 13 and 34. The Higher Monocots are represented by Arecales, Commelinales, Poales, Proteales, Zingiberales; the Basal Monocots by Alistmatales, Asparagales, Dioscoreales, Liliales, Pandanales.. ...
ABSTRACT During the past decade there has been a tremendous resurgence of interest in polyploidy that has in large part been stimulated by the development of increasingly powerful genetic and genomic tools. The result has been numerous new insights into the genomic and genetic consequences of polyploidy. The plethora of new discoveries has dramatically reshaped traditional views and concomitantly revealed that polyploidy is a highly dynamic and ubiquitous process. These recent advances in our understanding of polyploidy have stimulated numerous reviews, most focused on the various genetic, epigenetic, and genomic consequences of polyploid evolution. Whereas genetic and genomic attributes of polyploidization have received considerable attention, other crucial areas of polyploid evolution have received much less (e.g., ecology, pollination biology, physiology). The focus of this paper is not to review again recent discoveries, but to emphasize what we do not yet know about polyploidy, which ...
In the past few years we have analysed alterations in genome structure and expression that occur in wheat upon allopolyploidization. Our major findings in natural and synthetic allopolyploid wheat are reviewed here. It was found that allopolyploidization brings about rapid genome evolution through the instantaneous generation of a variety of cardinal genetic and epigenetic alterations comprising: (1) non-random elimination of coding and non-coding DNA sequences, (2) epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation of coding and non-coding DNA leading, among others, to gene silencing, and (3) activation of retroelements, which in turn alters the expression of adjacent genes. These changes were reproducible, occurring in the F1 hybrids or in the first generation(s) of a series of nascent allopolyploids corresponding to various interspecific and intergeneric combinations. Moreover, these changes were similar to those that occurred twice in nature: first, at the transition from diploid to tetraploid wheat ...
Polyploidy, the doubling of genomic content, is a widespread feature, especially among plants, yet its macroevolutionary impacts are contentious. Traditionally, polyploidy has been considered an evolutionary dead end, whereas recent genomic studies suggest that polyploidy has been a key driver of macroevolutionary success. We examined the consequences of polyploidy on the time scale of genera across a diverse set of vascular plants, encompassing hundreds of inferred polyploidization events. Likelihood-based analyses indicate that polyploids generally exhibit lower speciation rates and higher extinction rates than diploids, providing the first quantitative corroboration of the dead-end hypothesis. The increased speciation rates of diploids can, in part, be ascribed to their capacity to speciate via polyploidy. Only particularly fit lineages of polyploids may persist to enjoy longer-term evolutionary success. ...
The majority of diploid organisms have polyploid ancestors. The evolutionary process of polyploidization (and subsequent re-diploidization) is poorly understood, but has frequently been conjectured to involve some form of genome shock - partly inspired by studies in crops, where polyploidy has been linked to major genomic changes such as genome reorganization and subgenome expression dominance. It is unclear, however, whether such dramatic changes would be characteristic of natural polyploidization, or whether they are a product of domestication. Here, we study polyploidization in Arabidopsis suecica (n = 13), a post-glacial allopolyploid species formed via hybridization of A. thaliana (n = 5) and A. arenosa (n = 8). We generated a chromosome-level genome assembly of A. suecica and complemented it with polymorphism and transcriptome data from multiple individuals of all species. Despite a divergence of ∼6 Mya between the two ancestral species and appreciable differences in their genome ...
Background: Whole genome duplication plays a central role in plant evolution. There are two main classes of polyploid formation: autopolyploids which arise within one species by doubling of similar homologous genomes; in contrast, allopolyploidy (hybrid polyploidy) arise via hybridization and subsequent doubling of nonhomologous (homoeologous) genomes. The distinction between polyploid origins can be made using gene phylogenies, if alleles from each genome can be correctly retrieved. We examined whether two closely related tetraploid Mediterranean shrubs (Medicago arborea and M. strasseri) have an allopolyploid origin - a question that has remained unsolved despite substantial previous research. We sequenced and analyzed ten low-copy nuclear genes from these and related species, phasing all alleles. To test the efficacy of allele phasing on the ability to recover the evolutionary origin of polyploids, we compared these results to analyses using unphased sequences. Results: In eight of the gene ...
True polyploidy rarely occurs in humans, although polyploid cells occur in highly differentiated tissue, such as liver parenchyma, heart muscle, placenta and in bone marrow.[1][48] Aneuploidy is more common. Polyploidy occurs in humans in the form of triploidy, with 69 chromosomes (sometimes called 69, XXX), and tetraploidy with 92 chromosomes (sometimes called 92, XXXX). Triploidy, usually due to polyspermy, occurs in about 2-3% of all human pregnancies and ~15% of miscarriages.[citation needed] The vast majority of triploid conceptions end as a miscarriage; those that do survive to term typically die shortly after birth. In some cases, survival past birth may be extended if there is mixoploidy with both a diploid and a triploid cell population present. There has been one report of a child surviving to the age of seven months with complete triploidy syndrome. He failed to exhibit normal mental or physical neonatal development, and died from a Pneumocystis carinii infection, which indicates a ...
BACKGROUND: Bread wheat is an allopolyploid species with a large, highly repetitive genome. To investigate the impact of selection on variants distributed among homoeologous wheat genomes and to build a foundation for understanding genotype-phenotype relationships, we performed population-scale re-sequencing of a diverse panel of wheat lines. RESULTS: A sample of 62 diverse lines was re-sequenced using the whole exome capture and genotyping-by-sequencing approaches. We describe the allele frequency, functional significance, and chromosomal distribution of 1.57 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and 161,719 small indels. Our results suggest that duplicated homoeologous genes are under purifying selection. We find contrasting patterns of variation and inter-variant associations among wheat genomes; this, in addition to demographic factors, could be explained by differences in the effect of directional selection on duplicated homoeologs. Only a small fraction of the homoeologous regions ...
Abstract: Allopolyploidy is a common feature in many angiosperm genera. The perennial wild relatives of soybean in the genus Glycine include at least nine recently formed (within the last million years) allopolyploid taxa. This study examined three allopolyploid and four diploid progenitor taxa using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and network analysis. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) was used to generate SNPs and results were compared with previous analyses from transcriptome data. Three lanes of Illumina sequencing produced genotypes for 70 accessions and an alignment of 22 806 SNPs across eight taxa with no missing data. The alignment combined with network analysis confirmed results from previous studies. In addition, the extended sampling made possible by GBS identified accessions that have either been misclassified or samples that came from mixed seed stocks. The most intriguing results are the discovery of previously unrecognized substructure within diploid taxa, and the ...
Polyploidy occurs in cells and organisms when there are more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. Most organisms are normally diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes - one set inherited from each parent. Polyploidy may occur due to abnormal cell division. It is most commonly found in plants, but it does sometimes happen in animals.[1] Some estimates suggest that 30-80% of living plant species are polyploid, and many lineages show evidence of ancient polyploidy (paleopolyploidy) in their genomes.[2] Huge increases in angiosperm (flowering plants) diversity have coincided with the timing of ancient genome duplications shared by many species.[3] 15% of angiosperm and 31% of fern speciation events are accompanied by ploidy increase.[4][5]. Polyploid plants arise spontaneously in nature. Many polyploids are fitter than their parental species, and may display novel variation or morphologies that contribute to speciation and eco-niche exploitation.[6][7][8]. Polyploidy may occur ...
Glycine subgenus Glycine, the sister group to the cultivated soybean and its progenitor, have received considerable study over several decades. The combination of biosystematic data and an extensive germplasm collection has provided a strong foundation for molecular systematic studies in the group, including those on allopolyploids. These studies have shown that the various polyploid taxa known from the subgenus are all part of a single large allopolyploid complex, linked by shared diploid genomes. Many elements of the complex have arisen recently, and most show evidence of recurrent origins. However, there are also many dissimilarities among even closely related polyploids. Polyploids differ from one another in such ways as number of origins, amount of allelic diversity harboured at different loci, bidirectional vs. unidirectional origins, retention of ribosomal gene homoeologues, success as measured by geographical range and abundance, and patterns of gene expression. © 2004 The Linnean ...
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. Most species whose cells have nuclei (Eukaryotes) are diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes-one set inherited from each parent. However, polyploidy is found in some organisms and is especially common in plants. In addition, polyploidy occurs in some tissues of animals that are otherwise diploid, such as human muscle tissues.[1] This is known as endopolyploidy. Species whose cells do not have nuclei, that is, Prokaryotes, may be polyploid organisms, as seen in the large bacterium Epulopiscium fishelsoni [1]. Hence ploidy is defined with respect to a cell. Most eukaryotes have diploid somatic cells, but produce haploid gametes (eggs and sperm) by meiosis. A monoploid has only one set of chromosomes, and the term is usually only applied to cells or organisms that are normally diploid. Male bees and other Hymenoptera, for example, are monoploid. Unlike animals, plants and ...
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. Most species whose cells have nuclei (Eukaryotes) are diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes-one set inherited from each parent. However, polyploidy is found in some organisms and is especially common in plants. In addition, polyploidy occurs in some tissues of animals that are otherwise diploid, such as human muscle tissues.[1] This is known as endopolyploidy. Species whose cells do not have nuclei, that is, Prokaryotes, may be polyploid organisms, as seen in the large bacterium Epulopiscium fishelsoni [1]. Hence ploidy is defined with respect to a cell. Most eukaryotes have diploid somatic cells, but produce haploid gametes (eggs and sperm) by meiosis. A monoploid has only one set of chromosomes, and the term is usually only applied to cells or organisms that are normally diploid. Male bees and other Hymenoptera, for example, are monoploid. Unlike animals, plants and ...
Citation: Pendinen, G., Gavrilenko, T., Jiang, J., Spooner, D.M. 2008. Evidence of Allopolyploid Speciation of Wild Tetraploid Mexican Species of Solanum Series Longipedicellata Obtained by In Situ Hybridization. Genome. 51(9):714-720. Interpretive Summary: Chromosomes are the structures in plant cells that contain the hereditary material called DNA. Polyploidy is a term referring to plants that have extra sets of chromosomes, and allopolyploidy refers to a plant having chromosomes obtained through the hybridization of different plant species. Some wild potato species are allopolyploid, and this study uses a technique called chromosome painting to examine the parents of allopolyploid Mexican potato species technically classified in Solanum series Longipedicellata. The results support prior ideas of the parents of these allopolyploid species being the diploid species S. verrucosum and the Mexican diploid species S. jamesii, or a species closely related to S. jamesii. The data are useful to potato ...
An allopolyploid is an individual having two or more complete sets of chromosomes derived from different species. Generation of allopolyploids might be rare because of the need to overcome limitations such as co-existing populations of parental lines, overcoming hybrid incompatibility, gametic non-reduction, and the requirement for chromosome doubling. However, allopolyploids are widely observed among plant species, so allopolyploids have succeeded in overcoming these limitations and may have a selective advantage. As techniques for making allopolyploids are developed, we can compare transcription, genome organization, and epigenetic modifications between synthesized allopolyploids and their direct parental lines or between several generations of allopolyploids. It has been suggested that divergence of transcription caused either genetically or epigenetically, which can contribute to plant phenotype, is important for the adaptation of allopolyploids.
Polyploid cells, which contain more than two genome copies, occur throughout nature. Beyond well-established roles in increasing cell size/metabolic output, polyploidy can also promote nonuniform genome, transcriptome, and metabolome alterations. Polyploidy also frequently confers resistance to envi …
Many plant species of agriculture importance are polyploid, having more than two copies of each chromosome per cell. In this paper, we describe statistical methods for genetic map construction in autopolyploid species with particular reference to the use of molecular markers. The first step is to determine the dosage of each DNA fragment (electrophoretic band) from its segregation ratio. Fragments present in a single dose can be used to construct framework maps for individual chromosomes. Fragments present in multiple doses can often be used to link the single chromosome maps into homologous groups and provide additional ordering information. Marker phenotype probabilities were calculated for pairs of markers arranged in different configurations among the homologous chromosomes. These probabilities were used to compute a maximum likelihood estimator of the recombination fraction between pairs of markers. A likelihood ratio test for linkage of multidose markers was derived. The information
The present study evaluates TE dynamics in divergent descendants (Zea and Tripsacum) of a common allopolyploid ancestor within a phylogenetic framework and in comparison to two diploid relatives (Urelytrum digitatum and Sorghum bicolor). The comparative analysis of repeat elements from Zea, Tripsacum, Urelytrum, and Sorghum provides insight into the contribution of retrotransposons to genome evolution after a shared polyploidization event. Inclusion of additional Zea and Tripsacum species provided an opportunity to assess genomic variability in repeat content among species within a genus.. As expected, LTR-retrotransposons account for the majority of the repeats in the genomes of all species included in this study. Individual clustering analyses indicate that diverse LTR-retrotransposons contribute to genome size variation in this taxonomic group. Based on our comparative and molecular clock analyses, the majority of retrotransposon families are common to the Zea - Tripsacum clade in comparison ...
Allopolyploidization (hybridization and whole-genome duplication) is a common phenomenon in plant evolution with immediate saltational effects on genome structure and gene expression. New technologies have allowed rapid progress over the past decade in our understanding of the consequences of allopolyploidy. A major question, raised by early pioneer of this field Leslie Gottlieb, concerned the extent to which gene expression differences among duplicate genes present in an allopolyploid are a legacy of expression differences that were already present in the progenitor diploid species. Addressing this question necessitates phylogenetically well-understood natural study systems, appropriate technology, availability of genomic resources and a suitable analytical framework, including a sufficiently detailed and generally accepted terminology. Here, we review these requirements and illustrate their application to a natural study system that Gottlieb worked on and recommended for this purpose: recent ...
The genus Nicotiana is ideally suited to study polyploidy because of its robust phylogenetic framework and the genus contains a large number of polyploid species (approx 40% are allopolyploids). Nicotiana attenuata is a diploid species which is thought to be involved in the formation of several of these allopolyploids, particularly in the formation of N. bigelovii and N. clevelandii (allotetraploid descendants of the ancestors of N. attenuata and N. trigonophylla). Our research focuses on understanding how the anti-herbivore defense system, as well as pollination, germination and growth systems modified after neo-polyploidization and polyploidy speciation, using synthetic and natural polyploids ...
Endopolyploidy (increased cell ploidy) occurs during normal development in many eukaryotes. In higher plants, endopolyploidy is usually the result of endoreduplication - endonuclear DNA replication that produces chromosomes with multivalent chromatids. According to the karyoplasmic ratio theory, a cells cytoplasmic volume is proportional to its nuclear DNA content. On p. 3817, Christian Chevalier and co-workers test this theory by analysing the structure of endoreduplicated nuclei in tomato fruit, which reach very high ploidy levels during their development. The researchers show that endopolyploidy in tomato pericarp (the fleshy part of the fruit) leads to the formation of polytene chromosomes. Pericarp nuclei, they report, have a complex structure in which numerous deep grooves are filled with mitochondria and in which there is a fairly constant ratio between nuclear surface area and the nuclear volume. Finally, they provide the first direct evidence that endoreduplication triggers enhanced ...
Historically, genetic maps in high-level autopolyploids have been constructed using only alleles present in one homolog, called single-dose or simplex markers (Wu et al. 1992; Sorrells 1992). In a full-sib population, these markers segregate in a 1:1 ratio (if they are present only in one parent), or in a 1:2:1 ratio (if present in both parents, also called double simplex). Given this level of simplification, it is possible to use the five-step procedure coupled with a standard software suitable for diploid populations. Nevertheless, it is well accepted that the use of single-dose markers imposes limitations on the construction of adequate genetic maps. These approaches sub-sample the genome (Hackett et al. 2013; Garcia et al. 2013), which precludes further consideration of multiallelic effects in models for QTL mapping and subsequent studies. Moreover, there is low statistical power to detect linkage when markers are in repulsion phase configurations (Wu et al. 1992; Ripol et al. 1999). ...
Polyploidy, increased sets of chromosomes, occurs during development, cellular stress, disease and evolution. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the physiological alterations that accompany polyploidy. We previously described ploidy-specific lethality, where a gene deletion that is not …
After aligning the sequences from all loci, (i) models of sequence evolution were determined for each locus. Gene trees were calculated for each locus with (ii) the sequences derived from the diploid taxa by Bayesian phylogenetic inference (BI), and (iii) sequences from all diploid plus, consecutively, single polyploid individuals were clustered by neighbor-joining analysis to determine phylogenetic affiliation (phasing) of the homoeologous gene copies found in polyploid taxa. Concatenated sequences from all loci (supermatrices) were used for BI of (iv) diploid and (v) diploid plus phased homoeologs of polyploid taxa. (vi) A MSC-based [multispecies coalescent] analysis was conducted to infer species trees from gene trees for the diploid individuals. (vii) To date nodes within the Hordeum phylogeny a molecular clock approach was conducted together with the MSC. (viii) A BCA [Bayesian concordance analysis] was conducted on the diploid taxa to estimate gene tree incongruences. Finally, (ix) ...
The induction of polyploidy is considered the reproductive end of cells, but there is evidence that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) contribute to cell repopulation during tumor relapse. However, the role of these cells in the development, progression and response to therapy in colon cancer remains undefined. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the generation of PGCCs in colon cancer cells and identify mechanisms of formation. Treatment of HCT-116 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells with the hypoxia mimic CoCl2 induced the formation of cells with larger cell and nuclear size (PGCCs), while the cells with normal morphology were selectively eliminated. Cytometric analysis showed that CoCl2 treatment induced G2 cell cycle arrest and the generation of a polyploid cell subpopulation with increased cellular DNA content. Polyploidy of hypoxia-induced PGCCs was confirmed by FISH analysis. Furthermore, CoCl2 treatment effectively induced the stabilization of HIF-1α, the differential
The main objective of the New Zealand hop breeding programme is to develop triploid cultivars with unique brewing properties. Created from crosses between diploid and tetraploid parents, these genotypes have the advantage of being seedless as well as high yielding. Population improvement procedures are used independently for both diploid and tetraploid populations. Restricted maximum likelihood statistical procedures are used for the selection of both male and female genotypes for tetraploid and diploid parental material. In this regard, particular emphasis is placed on identifying sexually derived tetraploids to widen the gene pool. Crosses using tetraploids, as both female and male parents, hybridised with diploid genotypes, are described. Gender segregation ratios from recent triploid seedling populations vary considerably. The statistical analysis of triploid seedling female genotypes from these populations for several key traits is presented. A summary of main chemistry features of New ...
To begin answering these questions, I flew west and hunted populations of all three species. Over the course of two field seasons I samples over 30 sites at key locations within the ranges of the two diploids and allopolyploid species in an effort to capture a significant degree of their niche breadth. Some of the things I collected were soil samples for pH, P, K, N, Mg, Ca, Ni, Zn, and Pb, and leaves for the exact same elements to understand soil resource utilization. Additionally, I conducted CO2 response curves with fluorescence in situ to estimate photosynthetic parameters including maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax), electron transport (Jmax), stomatal conductance (gs), mesophyll conductance (gm), and net photosynthesis (Amax). I also analyzes samples for water use efficiency from carbon isotopes (d13C), specific leaf area (SLA), stomatal traits (size and density), vein density (VLA), and the hydraulic anatomy of xylem supplying the leaves (Kth). Oh, and I collected spores to grow ...
The data show a peak of N cells, composed of G M and tetraploid G cells, at a time corresponding towards the population doubling time from the respective cell line followed by a peak of N cells about doubling time later; immediately after which the quantity of polyploid cells decreased, accompanied by an increase while in the fraction of N cells that could be explained by cytokinesis of your polyploid, AZD HPQAtreated cells. Improve within the sub G fraction remained when diploid cells reappeared. We assessed regardless of whether endoreplicated cells maintained the ability to repopulate plaque monolayers. To enrich polyploid cells, H cells had been exposed to two consecutive h AZD HPQA solutions at ICclone separated by replating at lower density and h culture with no AZD HPQA. The first AZD HPQA exposure resulted in N and eN cells, along with the second in and N and eN cells, respectively. Radioresponsiveness of these cells was analyzed inside the plaque monolayer assay inside the absence of ...
Background Great gene figures in herb genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. into paralogous protein families respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and Ritonavir 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis respectively. Furthermore a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology groups in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternate splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a ...
Polyploidy is a condition in which an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes. It is found naturally in several types of...
Robust relationships between organ size and their cell number have been reported for different plant species and many environmental scenarios, suggesting that a large part of plant development plasticity is related to changes in cell cycle activity. Endoreduplication is a variant of the cell cycle during which DNA replication occurs without mitosis. The role of endoreduplication in plant functioni ...
One of the key realizations of the genomics era is that all plants, including our major crop plants, have histories of genome duplication in which the DNA content inside cells is doubled (polyploidy). Although much has been learned about the consequences of genome doubling in recent years, many fundamental questions remain regarding how genome duplication contributes to plant biology and crop productivity. An important dimension of genome duplication is how the now-doubled nuclear genome interacts with other genomic compartments found within the plant cell, such as the mitochondria and plastids. The planned research will investigate this underexplored aspect of genome duplications, with implications for how cellular energetics, which play a key role in growth, reproduction, and yield, are altered in the wake of genome doubling events. The research will use a diverse panel of important crop systems and state-of-the-art genomics techniques. Project resources, data, and personnel will be used to ...
BACKGROUND AIMS: One of the classic examples of an allopolyploid is Iris versicolor, Blue Flag (2n = 108), first studied by Edgar Anderson and later popularized by George Ledyard Stebbins in cytogenetics and evolutionary text-books. It is revisited here using modern molecular and cytogenetic tools to investigate its putative allopolyploid origin involving progenitors of I. virginica (2n = 70) and I. setosa (2n = 38). METHODS: Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern hybridization with 5S and 18-26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes were used to identify the parental origin of chromosomes, and to study the unit structure, relative abundance and chromosomal location of rDNA sequences. KEY RESULTS: GISH shows that I. versicolor has inherited the sum of the chromosome complement from the two progenitor species. In I. versicolor all the 18-26S rDNA units and loci are inherited from the progenitor of I. virginica, those loci from the I. setosa progenitor ...
In this paper, we have presented a new algorithm for constructing a consensus MUL-tree(s) from a collection of MUL-trees, and illustrated its applicability using two examples. Both consisted of collections of gene trees that were constructed from sequence data of polyploid plants, including biparentally informative sequences. In both cases, we have also obtained networks that provide scenarios for how the plants evolved.. As a preprocessing procedure we provide a way to deal with the situation that some input trees might have missing or additional leaf labels. A key task in this context is to determine the multiset of labels that should appear in the consensus tree. The simplest possible approach would be to just take the union of the multisets over all input trees, that is, every label has the maximum multiplicity with which it occurs in an input tree. However, in practice we found that this tended to lead to an overestimation of the multiplicity of some labels, hence our use of a majority rule ...
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Most genes (,88%) were retained in both subgenomes, and the distribution of consecutive (more than two contiguous genes) retentions of syntenic blocks was not biased between them (P , 0.05; Fig. 3C and fig. S2C). The tracing of the gene loss by deletion showed 1737/2727/1677 M/P/shared losses in goldfish and indicated that subgenome P experienced more small-scale deletions of genes (11.53% of 23,652) than subgenome M (7.14% of 24,327; P , 0.01). In common carp, 1009/1409/1574 B/A/shared losses indicated more small-scale deletions in subgenome A (6.98% of 20,172) than B (4.81% of 20,977). Subgenome P tended to lose more genes related to pathways of amino acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, base repair, and homologous recombination (fig. S2C and data S4_1) than subgenome M. Genes lost across all subgenomes occurred in no more than two consecutive genes in all syntenic blocks of zebrafish (data S3_7). Analyses identified fewer pseudogenes in subgenome M (2.90%, 705/24,327) than P (4.33%, ...
Genomic and chromosomal instability has been suggested to participate in the progression of CML (6, 18-20). Defects in genome maintenance observed in cancer cells are usually a result of dysfunctions in cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. Here, we found that the Bcr-Abl impaired a SAC as well as a postmitotic checkpoint. Our data provide evidence that Bcr-Abl expression led to a substantial downregulation of the BRCA1 protein and decreased expression of the mitotic checkpoint components. Recent findings describe BRCA1 as one of the critical regulators of the spindle checkpoint in both mouse and human cells (9). In a model deficient for a full length of the Brca1 isoform, a number of genes involved in the spindle checkpoint regulation were decreased. BRCA1 knockdown in human prostate and breast cancer cells caused not only downregulation of genes implicated in the SAC but also centrosome malfunctioning, leading to aberrant mitoses (8, 21). Our data showing downregulation of mitotic genes ...
We and others have demonstrated that TIF1γ was a tumor suppressor (24, 27-29), whose mechanism of action has remained elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that stable Tif1γ inactivation resulted in SAC and postmitotic checkpoint attenuation, leading to the accumulation of severe chromosomal abnormalities. As a result, Tif1γ-inactivated cells present mitotic defects increasing their tumor aggressiveness in animal models. Finally, we observed that low TIF1γ expression was associated with increased CIN in different types of human tumors. Therefore, this work highlights an original mechanism by which TIF1γ behaves as a tumor suppressor through its role in the control of mitosis, whose impairment may represent a major tumor-suppressive process.. First of all, we revealed here that the immediate consequence of TIF1γ depletion in different cell types (primary and immortalized MEFs, transformed or immortalized epithelial cells) resulted in a proliferation arrest, mitotic blockade, accumulation ...
A cell nucleus containing four times the haploid number of chromosomes. Scientists have bred tetraploid plants in order to enhance specific qualities, s...
The workflow provides accurate analysis of polyploid organisms, copy number variations or gene dosage effects, giving you valuable insights into the contribution of specific genetic variances ...
Chapter 05: Principle of Inheritance and Variation of Biology Examplar Problems book - b. Form one linkage group c. Will not from any linkage groups d. Form interactive groups that affect the phenotype 2. Conditions of a karyotype 2n ± 1 and 2n ± 2 are called: a. Aneuploidy b. Polyploidy c. Allopolyploidy d. Monosomy 3. Distance between the genes and percentage of recombination shows: a. a direct ...
Polyploidy, the occurrence of more than two complete sets of chromosomes in a single nucleus, is an important process contributing to eukaryotic evolution. Polyploidy is also a widespread speciation mechanism and is common ...
The predominance of sexual reproduction despite its costs indicates that sex provides substantial benefits, which are usually thought to derive from the direct genetic consequences of recombination and syngamy. While genetic benefits of sex are certa
Polyploidy plays an important role in biological diversity, traitimprovement, and plant species survival. Understanding theevolutionary phenomenon of polyploidy is a key challenge for plantand crop scientists.
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Genotyping proved the expected parentage of all analyzed accessions of H. pallidiflorum and H. picroides and revealed that nearly all of them originated independently. Genome sizes and genome dosage largely corresponded to morphology, whereas the maternal origin of the allopolyploids had no discernable effect. Polyploid accessions of both parental species usually contained genetic material from other species. Given the phylogenetic distance of the parents, their chromosomes appeared only weakly differentiated in genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), as well as in overall comparisons of the repetitive fraction of their genomes. Furthermore, the repeatome of a phylogenetically more closely related species (H. umbellatum) differed significantly more ...
An increase in the copy number of the genome is common in plants and animals, occurring during the development of individuals. Polyploids have three or more complete sets of chromosomes in their nuclei instead of the two sets found in diploids. For example, in Arabidopsis, tissues of increasing age have an increase in polyploidy, reaching up to sixteen duplications ...
Looking for online definition of endopolyploid in the Medical Dictionary? endopolyploid explanation free. What is endopolyploid? Meaning of endopolyploid medical term. What does endopolyploid mean?
Hybridization coupled with whole-genome duplication (allopolyploidy) leads to a variety of genetic and epigenetic modifications in the resultant merged genomes. In particular, gene loss and gene silencing are commonly observed post-polyploidization. Here, we investigated DNA methylation as a potential mechanism for gene silencing in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae), a recent and recurrently formed allopolyploid. This species, which also exhibits extensive gene loss, was formed from the diploids T. dubius and T. pratensis. Comparative bisulfite sequencing revealed CG methylation of parental homeologs for three loci (S2, S18 and TDF-44) that were previously identified as silenced in T. miscellus individuals relative to the diploid progenitors. One other locus (S3) examined did not show methylation, indicating that other transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are likely responsible for silencing that homeologous locus. These results indicate that Tragopogon miscellus allopolyploids employ
Development of genome-specific primers for homoeologous genes in allopolyploid species: the waxy and starch synthase II genes in allohexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum L. as examples. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Polyploidy (i.e., whole genomic duplication) has played a significant role in the evolutionary history of all eukaryotes (1), and particularly in flowering plants (2). It is estimated that most flowering plants are polyploid, including most agricultural crops (3-7). Although all angiosperms have experienced at least one round of whole-genome duplication during their evolution, they have undergone diploidization (8-10). The structural evolution of genomes in ancient polyploids included reductions in chromosome number, chromosome fusions, and various types of chromosomal rearrangements (8, 11). Studies on newly resynthesized Brassica napus and recently formed polyploids of Tragopogon suggest that genomic changes occur rapidly following allopolyploidization in some plant species (12-14). Allopolyploidization can result in chromosomal rearrangements, DNA methylation changes, chromatin remodeling, changes in gene expression, and activation of transposable elements (13-22). Cytogenetic studies using ...
A mutated clone with different ploidy levels in epidermis cells, 5/74/2, of the haploid `Kleiner Liebling` of Pelargonium zonale was investigated to answer the question that how the different ploidy levels were generated. Such a variability did not appear in L2- and L3-derived cells. Consequently, clone 5/74/2 is a periclinal cytochimera with a mixed ploidy epidermis. This type of cytochimera with different ploidy levels in epidermis has not been reported up to now. The epidermis of the blistered leaf or of the hairy leaf is polyploid with different ploidy levels, like the epidermis of the shoots with blistered and hairy leaves. Epidermis cells of normal shoots are diploid. The morphologically blistered leaf surface seems to be the result of a somatic variability in epidermis. Histological investigations of clone 5/74/2 showed two different ways of development of the somatic variability: the cells of the L1 in the apical meristem were already polyploid and the cells in the apical meristem were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systemic endopolyploidy in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Galbraith, David W.. AU - Harkins, Kristi R.. AU - Knapp, Steven. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Microfluorometric analysis of the nuclear DNA contents of the somatic tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana has revealed extensive endoreduplication, resulting in tissues that comprise mixtures of polyploid cells. Endoreduplication was found in all tissues except those of the inflorescences and was developmentally regulated according to the age of the tissues and their position within the plant.. AB - Microfluorometric analysis of the nuclear DNA contents of the somatic tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana has revealed extensive endoreduplication, resulting in tissues that comprise mixtures of polyploid cells. Endoreduplication was found in all tissues except those of the inflorescences and was developmentally regulated according to the age of the tissues and their position ...
Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum) was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA) and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD), which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD). Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was
Systematics/Phytogeography / Taxonomie/ Section. Beck, James [1], Windham, Michael [1], Pryer, Kathleen M. [2]. Investigating the early stages of polyploid evolution in the star-scaled cloak ferns (Astrolepis).. Polyploidy, or the presence of more than two chromosome sets per nucleus, is a pervasive historical and contemporary feature of plant evolution. Most authors view the majority of angiosperms and up to 95% of the approximately 11,000 species of ferns to be polyploid. Although tremendous advances have been made in our understanding of the phylogenetic scope and genomic consequences of polyploidy, we still know relatively little about the initial stages of polyploid evolution in natural populations. Of particular interest are the adaptive potentials of new polyploid lineages. Do new polyploids occupy the same habitats as their parental species (thus implying immediate competition), or are they projected into novel niches? Do independently derived polyploid lineages occupy different niches? ...
Tetraploid cells are detected in some precancerous lesions such as Barretts oesophagus and cervical dysplasia, where their presence coexists with the loss of functional p53 (Heselmeyer et al, 1996; Maley et al, 2004). Owing to the increase in the number of chromosomes, perhaps coupled to changes in the geometry of the mitotic machinery (Storchova et al, 2006; Storchova and Kuffer, 2008), tetraploid cells frequently activate the DNA damage response and become genomically unstable. Thus, tetraploidy may be considered as a metastable state that links normal diploidy to cancer‐associated aneuploidy (Storchova and Pellman, 2004; Fujiwara et al, 2005; Margolis, 2005).. Numerous tumour suppressor genes including p53 (Margolis, 2005), BRCA1 (Schlegel et al, 2003), LATS2 (Aylon et al, 2006) and APC (Tighe et al, 2004) actively repress tetraploidy, meaning that their removal can either stimulate the spontaneous tetraploidization of cells or facilitate the survival of tetraploid cells generated upon ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cell division cycles and checkpoints are altered during both development and cancer. In this proposal, we focus on a developmental cell cycle variation called the endocycle (G/S cycle), which results in polyploid cells. Evidence suggests that an inappropriate switch into an endocycle contributes to genome instability and cancer. There is a large knowledge gap, however, in understanding how this alternative cell cycle is regulated and how it compromises genome integrity. Our overall objective is to define mechanisms in endocycling cells that repress apoptosis and contribute to aneuploidy when these cells return to mitosis. To achieve this goal, our proposal leverages the complementary expertise of the Calvi and Walczak labs in Drosophila endocycles and human cell mitosis respectively. Our central hypothesis is that a specific remodeling of the cell cycle transcriptome promotes endocycles, represses apoptosis, and causes genome instability. This hypothesis ...
Root nodule symbioses (nodulation) and whole genome duplication (WGD, polyploidy) are both important phenomena in the legume family (Leguminosae). Recently, it has been proposed that polyploidy may have played a critical role in the origin or refinement of nodulation. However, while nodulation and polyploidy have been studied independently, there have been no direct studies of mechanisms affecting the interactions between these phenomena in symbiotic, nodule-forming species. Here, we examined the transcriptome-level responses to inoculation in the young allopolyploid Glycine dolichocarpa (T2) and its diploid progenitor species to identify underlying processes leading to the enhanced nodulation responses previously identified in T2. We assessed the differential expression of genes and, using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), identified modules associated with nodulation and compared their expression between species. These transcriptomic analyses revealed patterns of non-additive
As with many grasses, polyploidy is common in wheat.[9] There are two wild diploid (non-polyploid) wheats, T. boeoticum and T. urartu. T. boeoticum is the wild ancestor of domesticated einkorn, T. monococcum.[10] Cells of the diploid wheats each contain 2 complements of 7 chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father (2n=2x=14, where 2n is the number of chromosomes in each somatic cell, and x is the basic chromosome number). The polyploid wheats are tetraploid (4 sets of chromosomes, 2n=4x=28), or hexaploid (6 sets of chromosomes, 2n=6x=42). The tetraploid wild wheats are wild emmer, T. dicoccoides, and T. araraticum. Wild emmer is the ancestor of all the domesticated tetraploid wheats, with one exception: T. araraticum is the wild ancestor of T. timopheevi.[11] There are no wild hexaploid wheats, although feral forms of common wheat are sometimes found. Hexaploid wheats developed under domestication. Genetic analysis has shown that the original hexaploid wheats were the result of a ...
Effects of polyploidisation on gene flow between natural populations are little known. Central European diploid and tetraploid populations of Arabidopsis arenosa and A. lyrata are here used to study interspecific and interploidal gene flow, using a combination of nuclear and plastid markers. Ploidal levels were confirmed by flow cytometry. Network analyses clearly separated diploids according to species. Tetraploids and diploids were highly intermingled within species, and some tetraploids intermingled with the other species, as well. Isolation with migration analyses suggested interspecific introgression from tetraploid A. arenosa to tetraploid A. lyrata and vice versa, and some interploidal gene flow, which was unidirectional from diploid to tetraploid in A. arenosa and bidirectional in A. lyrata. Interspecific genetic isolation at diploid level combined with introgression at tetraploid level indicates that polyploidy may buffer against negative consequences of interspecific hybridisation. The role of
One of the exciting opportunities stimulated by the convergence of modern genomic approaches with other areas of biology is that of resolving the enigmatic processes by which new phenotypes arise. Using a well-developed model system from the cotton genus (Gossypium) and multiple genomic resources, we are using comparative approaches combined with advanced population development to will reveal the steps and complexities involved in transforming primitive trichomes to the economically important fibers of modern cotton cultivars. Our goal is to understand the genetic causes and system-wide effects that underlie phenotypic change. An exciting dimension to our work is that it involves domestication at both the diploid and allopolyploid levels, permitting us to explore the possibility that polyploid formation created novel opportunities for phenotypic evolution. Also, because two different allopolyploid species were independently domesticated, we have an outstanding opportunity to evaluate ...
When a newly-arisen tetraploid (4n) plant tries to breed with its ancestral species (a backcross), triploid offspring are formed. These are sterile because they cannot form gametes with a balanced assortment of chromosomes. However, the tetraploid plants can breed with each other. So in one generation, a new species has been formed. Polyploidy even allows the formation of new species derived from different ancestors. In 1928, the Russian plant geneticist Karpechenko produced a new species by crossing a cabbage with a radish. Although belonging to different genera (Brassica and Raphanus respectively), both parents have a diploid number of 18. Fusion of their respective gametes (n=9) produced mostly infertile hybrids. However, a few fertile plants were formed, probably by the spontaneous doubling of the chromosome number in somatic cells that went on to form gametes (by meiosis). Thus these contained 18 chromosomes - a complete set of both cabbage (n=9) and radish (n=9) chromosomes. Fusion of ...
Knowledge of phylogenetic relationships among taxa is essential for comparative and evolutionary genomic research. Here, we report reconstruction of the phylogenetic tree of the genus Gossypium containing cultivated cottons of importance in agriculture by using variation of nuclear repetitive DNA sequences. Genomic DNA was isolated from 87 available accessions of 35 species representing all eight basic genome groups of the genus Gossypium and analyzed to infer phylogeny of the genus and genome origin of its polyploid species. Twenty-two interspersed repeated sequence clones derived from G. hirsutum, each representing a repeated sequence family, were hybridized to the genomic DNA of the 35 species, respectively. Southern hybridization showed that 15 of the repetitive DNA sequences could be detected in all of the eight diploid genome groups, five were A genome-specific, and two were detected in some of the non D-genome groups. A total of 642 major restriction bands of repeated sequences were used ...
Whole-cell catalysts overexpressing two enzymes for a double reduction cascade in which aliphatic α-branched α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are converted into Guerbet alcohols as a highly demanded class of lubricants were constructed and characterized. The reaction conditions were optimized to suppress by-product Enzyme catalysis in organic synthesis
The African clawed frogs (Silurana and Xenopus), model organisms for scientific inquiry, are unusual in that allopolyploidization has occurred on multiple occasions, giving rise to tetraploid, octoploid, and dodecaploid species. To better understand their evolution, here we estimate a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny from all described and some undescribed species. We examine the timing and location of diversification, and test hypotheses concerning the frequency of polyploid speciation and taxonomy. Using a relaxed molecular clock, we estimate that extant clawed frog lineages originated well after the breakup of Gondwana, about 63.7 million years ago, with a 95% confidence interval from 50.4 to 81.3 million years ago. Silurana and two major lineages of Xenopus have overlapping distributions in sub-Saharan Africa, and dispersal-vicariance analysis suggests that clawed frogs originated in central and/or eastern equatorial Africa. Most or all extant species originated before the Pleistocene; recent ...
Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., is a well documented paleopolyploid. What remains relatively under characterized is the level of sequence identity in retained homeologous regions of the genome. Recently, the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute and United States Department of Agriculture jointly announced the sequencing of the soybean genome. One of the initial concerns is to what extent sequence identity in homeologous regions would have on whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. Seventeen BACs representing ~2.03 Mb were sequenced as representative potential homeologous regions from the soybean genome. Genetic mapping of each BAC shows that 11 of the 20 chromosomes are represented. Sequence comparisons between homeologous BACs shows that the soybean genome is a mosaic of retained paleopolyploid regions. Some regions appear to be highly conserved while other regions have diverged significantly. Large-scale batch reassembly of all 17 BACs combined showed that even the most homeologous BACs with
Alejandro Thérèse Navarro is a first-year PhD student in the Laboratory of Plant Breeding at Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands, working on his thesis titled Molecular breeding and evolution in allopolyploids: novel and applied methodologies. He focuses on statistical tool development for the analysis of polyploid crops. His main interest is computational analysis of plant breeding data in order to understand the biological characteristics of crops. To that end, he has been studying polyploid genetic mapping. He obtained his MSc on Plant Biotechnology at the same laboratory with his thesis research: QTL mapping in Multiparental Polyploid Populations: Development of Computational Methods in R. During his PhD he continues to work on this topic. Polyploid quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis tools have been developed in recent years and remain limited in the population types they can accept. They tend to focus either on biparental crosses or diversity panels for genome-wide ...
WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms.This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within
Looking for diploidization? Find out information about diploidization. The process by which a tetraploid organism attains the diploid state, involving repeated chromosome loss Explanation of diploidization
Nearly four decades ago, Roose & Gottlieb (Roose & Gottlieb 1976 Evolution 30, 818-830. (doi:10.2307/2407821)) showed that the recently derived allotetraploids Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus combined the allozyme profiles of their diploid parents (T. dubius and T. porrifolius, and T. dubius and T. pratensis, respectively). This classic paper addressed the link between genotype and biochemical phenotype and documented enzyme additivity in allopolyploids. Perhaps more important than their model of additivity, however, was their demonstration of novelty at the biochemical level. Enzyme multiplicity-the production of novel enzyme forms in the allopolyploids-can provide an extensive array of polymorphism for a polyploid individual and may explain, for example, the expanded ranges of polyploids relative to their diploid progenitors. In this paper, we extend the concept of evolutionary novelty in allopolyploids to a range of genetic and ecological features. We observe that the dynamic nature of ...
Wild related species are a useful reservoir of valuable genes for widening the genetic base of wheat and for the reduction of the vulnerability of wheat cultivars to pathogens, fungal diseases and environmental hazards. In this work, the action of prezygotic and postzygotic incrossability barriers was characterized, determining the possibilities of direct introduction of Am - genome from Triticum monococcum and D-genome from Triticum. tauschii into T. aestivum cultivars, with elimination of commonly performed bridging hybridisation with tetraploid wheat. As gene recipient parents, Polish cultivars of hexaploid wheat cv. Omega, cv. Igna (spring) and cv. Tercja (winter) were used. Application of wheat cultivars as female parents in hybridisation with T. tauschii yielded a very low percentage of effective pollination (0-1.2%). In reciprocal crosses prezygotic incompatibility barriers were more weakly expressed, and percentages of effective pollination (i.e. pollination which initiates the first ...
Due to the high polymorphisms between synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) and common wheat, SHW has been widely used in genetic studies. The transferability of simple sequence repeats (SSR) among common wheat and its donor species, Triticum turgidum and Aegilops tauschii, and their SHW suggested the possibility that some SSRs, specific for a single locus in common wheat, might appear in two or more loci in SHWs. This is an important genetic issue when using synthetic hexaploid wheat population and SSR for mapping. However, it is largely ignored and never empirically well verified. The present study addressed this issue by using the well-studied SSR marker Xgwm261 as an example. The Xgwm261 produced a 192 bp fragment specific to chromosome 2D in common wheat Chinese Spring, but generated a 176 bp fragment in the D genome of Ae. tauschii AS60. Chromosomal location and DNA sequence data revealed that the 176 bp fragment also donated by 2B chromosome of durum wheat Langdon. These results indicated that ...
We review the cytological mechanisms underlying asexual reproduction, i.e. reproduction without fertilization, in animals. Asexuality or parthenogenesis has evolved many times and the cytological mechanisms to restore the parental chromosome number can vary between and even within species. In automictic or meiotic parthenogenesis, meiosis takes place but the chromosomal constitution of the mother is restored through one or several different mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms enforce homozygosity at all loci while some other mechanisms pass the genome of the mother intact to the offspring. In apomictic or mitotic parthenogenesis the eggs are formed through what is essentially a set of mitoses. Polyploidy, is in general incompatible with chromosomal sex determination and is a rare condition in animals. However, many asexual and hermaphroditic forms are polyploid to various degrees. Polyploidy is divided into allo- and autopolyploidy. In the former mode the chromosome sets are derived from two or ...
PubMed journal article: Heterochromatin differentiation and phylogenetic relationship of the A genomes in diploid and polyploid wheats. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Triticum turgidum (Rivet wheat). This species is an annual grass which has solid stems. The medium green leaves are flat and about 16mm. The glumes are yellow-brown.
Polyploidy has rarely been documented in rain forest trees but it has recently been found in African species of the genus Afzelia (Leguminosae), which is composed of four tetraploid rain forest species and two diploid dry forest species. The genus Afzelia thus provides an opportunity to examine how and when polyploidy and habitat shift occurred in Africa, and whether they are associated. In this study, we combined three plastid markers (psbA, trnL, ndhF), two nuclear markers (ribosomal ITS and the single-copy PEPC E7 gene), plastomes (obtained by High Throughput Sequencing) and morphological traits, with an extensive taxonomic and geographic sampling to explore the evolutionary history of Afzelia. Both nuclear DNA and morphological vegetative characters separated diploid from tetraploid lineages. Although the two African diploid species were well differentiated genetically and morphologically, the relationships among the tetraploid species were not resolved. In contrast to the nuclear markers, ...
Standing between us and global food shortage are high yielding varieties of wheat, oilseed rape, potato, maize and sugarcane. These come from diverse plant families, but share the fact that they have undergone recent hybridisation and whole genome duplication (that is, they are allopolyploids). How the possession of two complete sub-genomes from different parental species might contribute to their high yields is not fully understood, but it certainly does contribute to complexity in bioinformatic analyses of the genomes and transcriptomes of these crops (for example, Harper et al., 2012). Few laboratories have studied the complexities of allopolyploid crops as intently as the group of Jonathan Wendel at Iowa State University. Taking cotton as their study system over the past decade, the Wendel lab have applied a portfolio of newly emerging technologies to characterise patterns of gene expression in wild and cultivated species of diploid and allopolyploid cotton. Starting with single-stranded
For example, our recent work includes the development of methods for reconstructing phylogenetic networks directly from molecular data such as the NeighborNet algorithm [1] (which is available as part of the software package Splitstree4 , and the QNet algorithm [2]. We have also developed methods [3] for computing consensus networks, phylogenetic networks used to summarise, for example, collections of gene trees. In case the collection of gene trees is built from patchy data, more sophisticated tools are needed to summarise them. One approach [4] developed by members of our group is implemented in the Q-imputation algorithm.. Another software package developed by our group, called PADRE, aims to provide tools for constructing an explicit representation of the evolutionary history of polyploid organisms such as plants . PADRE is based on our work on modelling reticulate evolution [5, 6], which includes recent theoretical results [7] concerning the complexity of computing multi-labelled trees. ...
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An international team of scientists, including biologists from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, may have pinpointed cell polyploidy for the
Vasa is an essential gene for germ cell development belonging to the DEAD-box family. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the expression characteristics of vasa in diploids, triploids, and tetraploids. The sequences showed high similarity among these fish and other vertebrates, with characteristic domains. Tissue expression analysis revealed that vasa was expressed exclusively in the gonad of different ploidy fishes. During embryogenesis, vasa expression was lower in diploid than in triploid and tetraploid fish, caused by doubling of the genome of tetraploids and abnormal gonads in the triploid fish. In adults, vasa mRNA levels were significantly lower in the testes of sterile triploid fish compared with fertile diploids and tetraploids. In the ovaries, triploid fish showed consistently high expression from the non-breeding season to the breeding season. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting results also supported the abnormal expression of vasa in triploid gonads. This study ...
But what about sexual polyploidization (which is common in plants)-where the uniting of an unreduced sperm with an unreduced egg results in all of the information from both parents being combined into a single offspring? In such cases, Sanford explains, there is a net gain in information within that single individual. But there is no more total information within the population. The information within the two parents was simply pooled (p. 195). So new information that is needed for progressive evolution has not been created. Inter-kind or macroevolution has not occurred.. Symbiogenesis theory results in a similar effect. Some evolutionists believe that two separate, symbiotic organisms (e.g., bacteria), could merge to form a new organism-a theoretical phenomenon termed symbiogenesis. According to these evolutionists, symbiogenesis could be the primary means by which evolution occurs, rather than through the commonly accepted belief that random mutations provide the mechanism for evolutionary ...
Background Squalius alburnoides is an Iberian cyprinid fish resulting from an interspecific hybridisation between Squalius pyrenaicus females (P genome) and males of an unknown Anaecypris hispanica- like species (A genome). S. alburnoides is an allopolyploid hybridogenetic complex, which makes it a likely candidate for ploidy mosaicism occurrence, and is also an interesting model to address questions about gene expression regulation and genomic interactions. Indeed, it was previously suggested that in S. alburnoides triploids (PAA composition) silencing of one of the three alleles (mainly of the P allele) occurs. However, not a whole haplome is inactivated but a more or less random inactivation of alleles varying between individuals and even between organs of the same fish was seen. In this work we intended to correlate expression differences between individuals and/or between organs to the occurrence of mosaicism, evaluating if mosaics could explain previous observations and its impact on the ...
X. -ping Zhao, Si, Y., Hanson, R. E., Crane, C. F., H Price, J., Stelly, D. M., Wendel, J. F., and Paterson, A. H., Dispersed repetitive DNA has spread to new genomes since polyploid formation in cotton, Genome Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 479-492, 1998. ...
Storage roots enlarged 1-2(-4) cm from corms, (1.5-)2-5 cm. Leaves: basal 3-15, 8-40 cm × 0.5-9 mm, blade very narrowly linear to narrowly linear, margins denticulate, ciliate; cauline 0-3, (0.5-)1-9(-13) cm, blade long-acuminate in most specimens, the proximal not exceeding next node. Inflorescences 1-2, 0-1(-3)-branched, 20-60(-84) cm, wholly glabrous or scabrescent toward base. Flowers facing upward or away from scape; tepals elliptic, (7.5-)9-15 mm, outer 2-4 mm wide, inner 4-8.5 mm wide; filaments inserted in open pits, narrowly cylindric to narrowly clavate, 4-8.5 mm; anthers distinct, versatile, 1.5-3.5 mm; ovary 2-5 mm. Capsules broadly oblong to oblong, 7-16 × 3-6 mm. 2n = 16, 32, 48. Flowering (late May--) mid Jul--early Oct. Desert grasslands, pinyon-juniper woodlands, juniper-oak-pine woodlands, openings in yellow-pine and pine-fir-spruce forests; 1500--2900 m; Ariz., N.Mex., Tex.; Mexico. Echeandia flavescens is a highly variable polyploid complex. Most specimens from the flora ...
Tetraploids can be formed by crossing two diploids but this isnt thought to be a major source of tetraploids in cacti, at least not within the time that the family has existed as a coherent group. It is thought that Echinocereus are all descended from tetraploid plants and that some have reverted to diploids. Unfortunately, how this occurs isnt well understood so its hard to infer much from it. It could be that the many instances of very similar diploid and tetraploid Echinocereus are due to fairly recent diploidisation of ancient tetraploid forms. Or it may just be coincidental ...
Polyploidy is an important factor shaping the geographic range of a species. Clintonia udensis (Clintonia) is a primary perennial herb widely distributed in China with two karyotypic characteristics-diploid and tetraploid and thereby used to understand the ploidy and distribution. This study unraveled the patterns of genetic variation and spatiotemporal history among the cytotypes of C. udensis using simple sequence repeat or microsatellites. The results showed that the diploids and tetraploids showed the medium level of genetic differentiation; tetraploid was slightly lower than diploid in genetic diversity; recurrent polyploidization seems to have opened new possibilities for the local genotype; the spatiotemporal history of C ...
Other articles where Variation and Evolution in Plants is discussed: George Ledyard Stebbins, Jr.: The publication of his Variation and Evolution in Plants (1950) established Stebbins as one of the first biologists to apply this theory to plant evolution. Working with several species of flowering plants, Stebbins and his coworker, Ernest B. Babcock, studied polyploid plants, which are new species of plants that…
Background Grasses are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. IRI-like gene family. We also explored the hypothesis that the IRI-domain has evolved through repeated motif expansion buy 870281-34-8 and investigated the evolutionary relationship between a LRR-domain containing IRI coding gene in carrot and the Pooideae IRI-like genes. Our buy 870281-34-8 analysis showed that the main expansion of the IRI-gene family happened ~36 million years ago (Mya). In addition to IRI-like paralogs, wheat contained several sequences that likely were products of polyploidisation events (homoeologs). Through sequence analysis we identified two short motifs in the rice LRR-PSR gene highly similar to the repeat motifs of the IRI-domain in cold tolerant grasses. Finally we show that the LRR-domain of carrot and grass IRI proteins both share homology to an Arabidopsis thaliana LRR-trans membrane protein kinase (LRR-TPK). Conclusion The diverse IRI-like genes identified in this study tell a tale of a complex ...
Relationship between Tumor Cell Invasiveness and Polyploidization. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Project description: Polyploidy, or whole genome duplication (WGD), occurs in virtually all vascular plants and has played a major role in evolution. In your PhD project you will take advantage of the recent developments in sequencing technology and previous studies in the Capsella genus to characterize genomic and phenotypic changes associated to WGD in the shepherds purse (C. bursa-pastoris), a recently formed tetraploid weed. You will first conduct whole-genome resequencing and gene expression studies of accessions from Europe and from China. In a second step, the association between genomic variation and putative adaptive traits will be assessed through association and linkage mapping. These data, together with data in its diploid relatives, will be used to address questions about the genomic consequences of WGD between species and between groups of accessions within species and questions on the consequences of WGD for putative adaptive traits. Part of this work will be done in close ...
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Gramene genetic diversity database holds SSR and SNP allelic data and passport descriptions for rice, maize, and wheat germplasms.
Generalization for polyploidy[edit]. The Hardy-Weinberg principle may also be generalized to polyploid systems, that is, for ... The simple derivation above can be generalized for more than two alleles and polyploidy. ...
The effects of polyploidy between two different species causes hybridization and even greater evolution. Natural selection in ... In Genetics and the Origin of Species, polyploidy is considered as a type of mutation. Polyploid cells have a chromosome number ... In the seventh chapter, Dobzhansky discusses polyploidy, a condition (common in plants) where an organism has more than two ... Woodhouse, Margaret; Diana Burkart-Waco; Luca Comai (2009). "Polyploidy". Nature Education. 2 (1): 1. Eldredge, Niles (1985). ...
... suggesting that plants have a remarkably high tendency for polyploidy. There are several advantages to polyploidy, such as, ... Polyploidy is a class of mutation that results in a mitotic doubling and failure in cell division. It appears that this is very ... Polyploidy is more common in the perennial species and species with self-compatibility. The genus as a whole is vastly ... It is hypothesized that one of the causes of the variable polyploidy in this genus us due to the Pliocene and Pleistocene ...
Research topics include whole genome genetic mapping and physical mapping; polyploidy; ancient whole genome duplications; ...
... see polyploidy). Over 30% of the genus Cnemidophorus are parthenogenic. The genus Cnemidophorus (sensu stricto) contains the ...
Polyploidy common. Tulipeae remained a core group of the Liliaceae, containing the type genus, Lilium for most of its taxonomic ...
The genus is also known for its polyploidy, with some species having up to 12 sets of chromosomes. Xenopus laevis is a rather ... Schmid, M; Evans, BJ; Bogart, JP (2015). "Polyploidy in Amphibia". Cytogenet. Genome Res. 145 (3-4): 315-30. doi:10.1159/ ...
Doyle JJ (2012). "Polyploidy in legumes". In Soltis PS, Soltis DE (eds.). Polyploidy and genome evolution. Berlin, Heidelberg: ...
There is, however, evidence of polyploidy in organisms now considered to be diploid, suggesting that polyploidy has contributed ... The extreme in polyploidy occurs in the fern genus Ophioglossum, the adder's-tongues, in which polyploidy results in chromosome ... Though polyploidy in humans is not viable, mixoploidy has been found in live adults and children. There are two types: diploid- ... Polyploidy is the state where all cells have multiple sets of chromosomes beyond the basic set, usually 3 or more. Specific ...
Clausen, Roy Elwood (1941). "Polyploidy in Nicotiana". The American Naturalist. 75 (759): 291-306. doi:10.1086/280965. S2CID ...
PolyploidyEdit. Many angiosperms (flowering plants) can self-fertilise for several generations and suffer little from ... Polyploidy (having more than two paired sets of each chromosome), which is prevalent in angiosperms, ferns and a select few ...
The subspecies exhibits polyploidy. A typical adult nigorobuna attains 35 cm (14 in)length at maturity. Its shape resembles the ...
Otto, Sarah P.; Whitton, Jeannette (2000). "Polyploidy: incidence and evolution". Annual Review of Genetics. 34: 401-437. doi: ...
Lee HO, Davidson JM, Duronio RJ (November 2009). "Endoreplication: polyploidy with purpose". Genes & Development. 23 (21): 2461 ...
Brochmann C, Brysting AK, Alsos IG, Borgen L, Grundt HH, Scheen AC, Elven R (2004). "Polyploidy in arctic plants". Biological ... Segraves KA, Thompson JN (August 1999). "Plant Polyploidy and Pollination: Floral Traits and Insect Visits to Diploid and ... polyploidy) or not. Homoploid hybrid speciation Homoploid hybrid speciation is defined as the evolution of a new hybrid species ...
Polyploidy and aneuploidy are common phenomena in cancer cells. Given that oncogenesis and endoreplication likely involve ... Orr-Weaver, Terry L. (2015). "When bigger is better: the role of polyploidy in organogenesis". Trends in Genetics. 31 (6): 307- ... Ravid K; Lu J; Zimmet JM; Jones MR (2002). "Roads to polyploidy: The megakaryocyte example". Journal of Cell Physiology. 190 (1 ... This result suggests that endoreplication and polyploidy may be required for the maintenance of cell identity. Endoreplication ...
Current biology, 24(10), R435-R444 Lee, H. O., Davidson, J. M., & Duronio, R. J. (2009). Endoreplication: polyploidy with ...
Polyploidy, where there are more than two sets of homologous chromosomes in the cells, occurs mainly in plants. It has been of ... Polyploidy in animals is much less common, but it has been significant in some groups. Polyploid series in related species ... 8: Polyploidy in animals". In Gregory, T. Ryan (ed.). The Evolution of the Genome. Academic Press. pp. 427-517. ISBN 978-0-08- ... Adams KL, Wendel JF (April 2005). "Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants". Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 8 (2): 135-41. doi: ...
Gottlieb's further studies on polyploidy were concerned with the fates of those genes that were duplicated by an ... Soltis, Pamela S.; Liu, Xiaoxian; Marchant, D. Blane; Visger, Clayton J.; Soltis, Douglas E. (2014). "Polyploidy and novelty: ... Gottlieb, L. D. (2003). "Plant polyploidy: gene expression and genetic redundancy". Heredity. 91 (2): 91-92. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy ... Roose, M. L.; Gottlieb, L. D. (1976). "Genetic and Biochemical Consequences of Polyploidy in Tragopogon". Evolution. 30 (4): ...
Polyploidy induction by noscapine has been observed in vitro in human lymphocytes at high dose levels (>30 μM); however, low- ... The mechanism of polyploidy induction by noscapine is suggested to involve either chromosome spindle apparatus damage or cell ... Mitchell ID, Carlton JB, Chan MY, Robinson A, Sunderland J (1991). "Noscapine-induced polyploidy in vitro". Mutagenesis Weekly ... "Noscapine hydrochloride disrupts the mitotic spindle in mammalian cells and induces aneuploidy as well as polyploidy in ...
Polyploidy is pervasive in plants and some estimates suggest that 30-80% of living plant species are polyploid, and many ... They are also capable of polyploidy - where more than two chromosome sets are inherited from the parents. This allows ... All eukaryotes probably have experienced a polyploidy event at some point in their evolutionary history. See paleopolyploidy. ... Otto SP (November 2007). "The evolutionary consequences of polyploidy". Cell. 131 (3): 452-62. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.10.022. ...
Polyploidy is common in plants, but it has also occurred in animals, with two rounds of whole genome duplication (2R event) in ... Polyploidy is also a well known source of speciation, as offspring, which have different numbers of chromosomes compared to ... Polyploidy, or whole genome duplication is a product of nondisjunction during meiosis which results in additional copies of the ... Otto, Sarah P. (2007-11-02). "The evolutionary consequences of polyploidy". Cell. 131 (3): 452-462. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.10. ...
Polyploidy (most common in plants but not unknown in animals) is saltational: a significant change (in gene numbers) can result ... Speciation, such as by polyploidy in plants, can sometimes be achieved in a single and in evolutionary terms sudden step. ... Polyploidy, karyotypic fission, symbiogenesis and lateral gene transfer are possible mechanisms for saltational speciation. The ... Dufresne, France; Herbert, Paul D. N. (1994). "Hybridization and origins of polyploidy". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 258 ...
Polyploidy in Solanum Melongena Linn. CYTOLOGIA. Vol. 5 (1933-1934) No. 4 P 453-459 Doctor, Geeta. "Remembering Dr Janaki Ammal ... of plant speciation in the cold and humid northeast Himalayas as compared to the cold and dry northwest Himalayas to polyploidy ...
His PhD work in Delphinium was reported in an abstract in 1946, titled "Polyploidy in the Californian Delphiniums"; here he ... His PhD work in Delphinium was reported in an abstract in 1946, titled "Polyploidy in the Californian Delphiniums"; here he ... doi:10.1002/j.1537-2197.1945.tb05080.x. Lewis, Harlan (1946). "Polyploidy in the Californian Delphiniums". American Journal of ...
Soltis, Pamela S.; Liu, Xiaoxian; Marchant, D. Blaine; Visger, Clayton J.; Soltis, Douglas E. (5 August 2014). "Polyploidy and ...
Saltation at a variety of scales is agreed to be possible by mechanisms including polyploidy, which certainly can create new ... Dufresne, France; Herbert, Paul D. N. (1994). "Hybridization and origins of polyploidy". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 258 ...
Svartman, Marta; Stone, Gary; Stanyon, Roscoe (2005). "Molecular cytogenetics discards polyploidy in mammals". Genomics. 85 (4 ...
... transgenics and polyploidy". Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 6 (1): 2-16. doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2007. ...
Polyploidy events will result in higher levels of heterozygosity, and, over time, can lead to an increase in the total number ... Tang H, Bowers JE, Wang X, Paterson AH (January 2010). "Angiosperm genome comparisons reveal early polyploidy in the monocot ... Adams KL, Wendel JF (April 2005). "Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 8 (2): 135-41 ... Gene duplication Genomics Karyotype Ploidy Polyploidy Speciation Kellis M, Birren BW, Lander ES (April 2004). "Proof and ...
Polo-like kinase 4 inhibition produces polyploidy and apoptotic death of lung cancers Masanori Kawakami, Lisa Maria Mustachio, ...
The mission of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is to discover how the environment affects people in order to promote healthier lives.
Once considered a speciation process common only in plants, polyploidy is now recognized to have played a major role in the ... Polyploidy - whole-genome duplication (WGD) - is a fundamental driver of biodiversity with significant consequences for genome ... Because polyploidy is most common and best studied in plants, the book emphasizes plant models, but recent studies of ... Polyploidy - whole-genome duplication (WGD) - is a fundamental driver of biodiversity with significant consequences for genome ...
Extreme polyploidy in a large bacterium. Jennifer E. Mendell, Kendall D. Clements, J. Howard Choat, and Esther R. Angert ... DNA as a Phosphate Storage Polymer and the Alternative Advantages of Polyploidy for Growth or Survival ...
A polyploidy event occurred within the stem lineage of the teleost fishes. Polyploidy is frequent in plants, some estimates ... Polyploidy on Kimballs Biology Pages The polyploidy portal a community-editable project with information, research, education ... Polyploidy was induced in fish by Har Swarup (1956) using a cold-shock treatment of the eggs close to the time of fertilization ... Polyploidy is a condition in which the cells of an organism have more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. Most ...
Polyploidy provides a rapid route for species evolution and adaptation [1, 2]. Taxa arising from polyploidy are usually ... Among these 106 Pteris species, 60% exhibit polyploidy: 22% show intraspecific polyploidy and 38% result from polyploid ... Polyploidy and Speciation in Pteris (Pteridaceae). Yi-Shan Chao,1,2 Ho-Yih Liu,1 Yu-Chung Chiang,1 and Wen-Liang Chiou2 ... The first studies of polyploidy in Pteris focused mainly on ploidy differences and apogamy of P. cretica [22]. Walker [12] ...
Polyploidy is a condition in which an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes. It is found naturally in several types of ... A number of animals and plants naturally exhibit polyploidy, and it can also arise as a spontaneous mutation. Polyploidy should ... In the case of aneuploidy, there are extras of one or more chromosomes, while in polyploidy, there is an extra copy of an ... People may refer to polyploidy as whole genome duplication, emphasizing that it involves an entire extra copy of the genome. ...
Polyploidy isnt unique to plants, as it is common in some insects, fish, amphibians, and reptiles. If polyploidy is actually ... There are several environmental and biological phenomena associated with polyploidy. Polyploidy is more prevalent at high ... The role of polyploidy in the speciation of flowering plants Lecture © Marc A. McPherson. BIOL 606 Session, University of ... Frequency of polyploidy is also correlated with plants that have the ability to self-fertilize and / or enter into ...
Polyploidy is common in higher eukaryotes, especially in plants, but it is generally assumed that most prokaryotes contain a ... Regulated polyploidy in halophilic archaea PLoS One. 2006 Dec 20;1(1):e92. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000092. ... Polyploidy is common in higher eukaryotes, especially in plants, but it is generally assumed that most prokaryotes contain a ... Our results indicate that polyploidy might be more widespread in archaea (or even prokaryotes in general) than previously ...
Beyond well-established roles in increasing cell size/metabolic output, polyploidy can also promote nonuniform genome, ... The expanding implications of polyploidy J Cell Biol. 2015 May 25;209(4):485-91. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201502016. ... Polyploidy also frequently confers resistance to environmental stresses not tolerated by diploid cells. Recent progress has ... Beyond well-established roles in increasing cell size/metabolic output, polyploidy can also promote nonuniform genome, ...
Aneuploidy, polyploidy and ploidy reversal in the liver.. Duncan AW1.. Author information. 1. Department of Pathology, McGowan ... Polyploidy has been described in the liver for over 100 years. The frequency of polyploid hepatocytes varies by age and species ... Polyploidy and aneuploidy in the liver are closely linked, and the ploidy conveyor model describes this relationship. Diploid ... ... Keyword: polyploidy trnL-trnF. Keyword cloud * climate change ( ...
Since evolutionists need an increase in information in the genome to go from molecules to man, polyploidy is claimed to be a ... Polyploidy, though less common in animals than it is in plants, appears to have played a role in the speciation in animals. ... Animal polyploidy does exist, though it appears to be far less common than it is in plants. As in plants, polyploidy arises as ... Animal Polyploidy. It has been argued for decades that polyploidy is relatively uncommon in animals, though this has been ...
... Chen, Z. Jeffrey via (by zjchen from ... Postdoctoral Position in Polyploidy and Epigenetics at The University of Texas at Austin A postdoctoral fellow position is ... Successful candidates should have a Ph.D. in Genetics, Plant Biology, Biochemistry and/or ...
... polyploidy in English->English dictionary. Search nearly 14 million words and phrases in more than 470 language pairs. ... Results for: polyploidy. English. English. polyploidy. (Biology) state of having three or more times the normal number of ... polyploidy millionth onnettomuustapaus, katastrofi, onnettomuus, tuho, ahdinko, suuronnettomuus, haaksirikko Aishwarya Rai (u.E ...
The former chief of Eli Lilly USA is picked to replace Tom Price, who stepped down in September amid a controversy over the abuse of taxpayer-funded travel.. 0 Comments. ...
"What about polyploidy plants? It has been claimed that since some plants are polyploidy (having double the normal chromosome ... New species originated via polyploidy?. Posted on May 9, 2015. May 9, 2015. Author NewsComments(2) ... Polyploidy was my special area of study during my Ph.D. thesis. Interestingly, it makes a great deal of difference how a ... Polyploidy-the heritable condition of possessing more than two complete sets of chromosomes-has always been something of a ...
Clinical studies with polyploidy inducers, such as aurora kinase A inhibitors, are under way for a wide variety of malignancies ... Molecular pathways: induction of polyploidy as a novel differentiation therapy for leukemia.. Krause DS1, Crispino JD. ... Molecular Pathways: Induction of Polyploidy as a Novel Differentiation Therapy for Leukemia ...
Polyploidy and other changes at chromosomal level and in genome size: Its role in systematics and evolution exemplified by some ... Polyploidy is one of the major evolutionary forces in plants and in particular in the largest angiosperm family, the Asteraceae ... Keywords: ANEUPLOIDY; ARTEMISIA; CHEIROLOPHUS; COMPOSITAE; DYSPLOIDY; ECHINOPS; GENOME SIZE VARIATION; POLYPLOIDY; RHAPONTICUM ...
Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Tate JA (2003) Advances in the study of polyploidy since plant speciation. New Phytol 161:173-191CrossRef ... Ranney TG (2006) Polyploidy: From evolution to new plant development. Combined Proc Int Plant Propagators Soc 56:137-142Google ... We also investigated polyploidy effects on some primary and secondary metabolites. The results of biochemical analyzes showed ... Griesbach RJ, Bhat RN (1990) Colchicine-induced polyploidy in Eustoma grandiflorum. J Hort Sci 25:1284-1286Google Scholar ...
She has recently discovered a new healing mechanism, which she has termed wound-induced polyploidy (WIP). Losick collaborated ...
"Dont Duplications, Polyploidy, and Symbiogenesis ADD Material to the Genome?". by Jeff Miller, Ph.D.. ... Nevertheless, some allege that duplications, polyploidy, and symbiogenesis add information to an individuals genome and could ...
Here, we address possible phenotypic costs of a very common correlate of asexuality, polyploidy. We suggest that polyploidy ...
Summary: Citron kinase has been recently found to have new functions throughout the cell cycle and be involved in human disease. These findings and future perspectives are discussed in this Commentary. ...
C., Artificial induction of polyploidy in Alfalfa. American Journal of Botany 26 (1939): 65-76.Google Scholar ... The length of stomata as an indicator for polyploidy in rye-grasses. ...
Polyploidy Zea mays Chromosomes Meiosis Box Number: 1. Folder Number: 1. Unique Identifier: LLBBBF Document Type: Articles ... Polyploidy in Zea Mays L Description: In 1926, McClintock and Lowell Fitz Randolph published this note on a triploid maize ... Polyploidy in Zea Mays L. American Naturalist 60, (1926): 99-102. Article. 4 Images. Publisher: University of Chicago Press ...
Polyploidy is a key factor in the evolution of higher plants and plays an important role in the variation of plant genomes, ... M Neiman, A D Kay, A C Krist, Can resource costs of polyploidy provide an advantage to sex?, Heredity, 2013, 110, 2, 152. ... Genome size dynamics in Artemisia L. (Asteraceae): following the track of polyploidy. Authors. *. J. Pellicer,. * Laboratori de ... Polyploidy in Angiosperms: Genetic Insight to the Phenomenon, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B ...
1980) Polyploidy in angiosperms: monocotyledons. in Polyploidy, Biological Relevance. ed Lewis WH (Plenum Press, New York), pp ... POLYPLOIDY IS AN ONGOING PROCESS IN THE GRASSES. Polyploidy is not only widespread in the grasses, but it is also an ongoing ... Polyploidy in grasses as an ongoing process. The estimated number of years (Age) since polyploidy occurred is shown for various ... POLYPLOIDY AS A REVOLUTIONARY EVENT. Evolution under polyploidy comprises the events that take place early on, after ...
Origin of Polyploidy *Polyploidy and Speciation *Polyploidy in animals Polyploidy. Cells (and their owners) are polyploid if ... Polyploidy in plants. Polyploidy is very common in plants, especially in angiosperms. From 30% to 70% of todays angiosperms ... Polyploidy in animals. Polyploidy is much rarer in animals. It is found in some insects, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. ... Origin of Polyploidy. Polyploidy has occurred often in the evolution of plants. ...
  • Once considered a speciation process common only in plants, polyploidy is now recognized to have played a major role in the structure, gene content, and evolution of most eukaryotic genomes. (
  • Because polyploidy is most common and best studied in plants, the book emphasizes plant models, but recent studies of vertebrates and fungi are providing fresh perspectives on factors that allow polyploid speciation and shape polyploid genomes. (
  • Among these 106 Pteris species, 60% exhibit polyploidy: 22% show intraspecific polyploidy and 38% result from polyploid speciation. (
  • The most comprehensive work on polyploidy and its relationship to plant evolution is the book "Plant Speciation" by Vern Grant (1981). (
  • Polyploidy, though less common in animals than it is in plants, does appear to have played a role in the speciation in animals. (
  • Polyploidy is a key factor in the evolution of higher plants and plays an important role in the variation of plant genomes, leading to speciation in some cases. (
  • Polyploidy is popular for the speciation of angiosperms but the initial stage of allopolyploidization resulting from interspecific hybridization and genome duplication is associated with different extents of changes in genome structure and gene expressions. (
  • Hybridization and polyploidy are central processes in evolution and speciation. (
  • Polyploidy is thought to be an important driver of plant evolution by facilitating diversification and speciation, yet the mechanisms behind the ecological success of wild polyploid individuals remain poorly understood. (
  • Ferns are an ideal group in which to study polyploidy because over 31% of speciation events in ferns involve changes in ploidal level, compared to only 15% in angiosperms. (
  • Polyploidy and Speciation in Pteris Pteridaceae - Descarga este documento en PDF. (
  • Polyploidy generates new genomic interactions - initially resulting in "genomic and transcriptomic shock" - that must be resolved in a new polyploid lineage. (
  • However, some organisms are polyploid, and polyploidy is especially common in plants. (
  • This is also the most common pathway of artificially induced polyploidy, where methods such as protoplast fusion or treatment with colchicine, oryzalin or mitotic inhibitors are used to disrupt normal mitotic division, which results in the production of polyploid cells. (
  • In conclusion, the literature pertaining to the subject of polyploidy is voluminous, but our knowledge about the mechanisms involved in polyploid formation and establishment remains enigmatic. (
  • Using a loach (a type of fish) species, researchers were able to induce polyploidy in the lab by simple hybridization of two incompatible species, 4 i.e., the resultant polyploid offspring were unable to reproduce sexually. (
  • With all these polyploid animals that exist in the world, it is reasonable to consider whether polyploidy is a blessing or a curse. (
  • These recent advances in our understanding of polyploidy have stimulated numerous reviews, most focused on the various genetic, epigenetic, and genomic consequences of polyploid evolution. (
  • Plants seem to have been created with the capacity for spontaneous polyploidy and many of our most useful agricultural plants are polyploid (e.g. wheat). (
  • Polyploidy is more common in plants, and polyploid forms often survive to produce much larger cells and plant organs. (
  • [1] Some estimates suggest that 30-80% of living plant species are polyploid, and many lineages show evidence of ancient polyploidy (paleopolyploidy) in their genomes . (
  • Next, ablation experiments will be conducted in mutant diploid and precociously polyploid cardiomyocytes to examine the effect of polyploidy on tissue injury repair. (
  • The implications of these results for polyploidy-driven evolution and especially for targeted sequencing of gene-rich regions of a polyploid genome are discussed. (
  • Polyploidy is a condition in which the cells of an organism have more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. (
  • Polyploidy is a term which describes having more than two sets of chromosomes . (
  • In the case of aneuploidy, there are extras of one or more chromosomes, while in polyploidy, there is an extra copy of an entire set of chromosomes. (
  • Polyploidy is the heritable condition of possessing more than two complete sets of chromosomes. (
  • An international team of scientists, including biologists from the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill, may have pinpointed for the first time the mechanism responsible for cell polyploidy, a state in which cells contain more than two paired sets of chromosomes. (
  • But a cellular chromosome situation common in plants and in many insects is polyploidy, in which there are more - sometimes many more - than two sets of chromosomes. (
  • Polyploidy is a genetic condition in which a cell has one or more extra sets of chromosomes. (
  • Polyploidy may occur if chromosomes duplicate spontaneously, if a cell fails to divide after its chromosomes are duplicated, or if two sperm cells fertilize one egg during reproduction, which results in a fertilized egg with three sets of chromosomes (triploidy). (
  • Instead of having two identical chromosomes, an organism with polyploidy will have three identical chromosomes (triploidy) or four identical chromosomes (tetraploidy). (
  • According to Moran, almost all hybrids start off as sterile, but if they double their number of chromosomes through a process called polyploidy, "they automatically become fertile" (ibid. (
  • Triploid and tetraploid chromosomes are examples of polyploidy. (
  • Muller raised the possibility that the sex chromosomes serve as a barrier to polyploidy in most animals. (
  • Whole-genome duplication (WGD), or polyploidy, is the condition of having more than two homologous sets of chromosomes and can arise from the duplication of genomes within a species (autopolyploidy) or in hybrids between two different species (allopolyploidy). (
  • In spite of the fact that it is considered a kind of species with its very own faculties, Polyploidy is recognized as a deviation in your regular mutation and transformation of chromosomes. (
  • This sort of all Polyploidy may be your combination of the chromosomes of this host organism with another. (
  • Definition of Polyploidy in Biology can be done with two to five chromosomes in one organism. (
  • These are: Definition of Polyploidy in Biology that involves fusion of chromosomes and Definition of Polyploidy in Biology that involves fusion of DNA. (
  • Polyploidy occurs in cells and organism s when there are more than two homologous sets of chromosomes . (
  • but that these likely survived the ordinarily catastrophic effects of polyploidy in mammals by shedding (via translocation or some similar mechanism) the "extra" set of sex chromosomes gained at this doubling. (
  • Polyploidy refers to a numerical change in a whole set of chromosomes. (
  • Therefore the distinction between aneuploidy and polyploidy is that aneuploidy refers to a numerical change in part of the chromosome, whereas polyploidy refers to a numerical change in the whole set of chromosomes. (
  • Polyploidy is defined as containing more than two homologous sets of chromosomes. (
  • The key difference between aneuploidy and polyploidy is that the aneuploidy is a condition that happens due to a missing or an extra chromosome in the genome of an organism while the polyploidy is a condition when a cell contains more than two sets of chromosomes . (
  • Other than 2n and n, some organisms have more than two sets of chromosomes and are called polyploidy. (
  • Polyploidy is a condition when a cell contains more than two sets of chromosomes. (
  • Aneuploidy and polyploidy are two types of conditions that create an abnormal number of chromosomes in the genome of the cells. (
  • Polyploidy - whole-genome duplication (WGD) - is a fundamental driver of biodiversity with significant consequences for genome structure, organization, and evolution. (
  • People may refer to polyploidy as whole genome duplication, emphasizing that it involves an entire extra copy of the genome. (
  • The once controversial proposal that evolution moves forward through whole genome duplication ( Ohno, 1970 ) is gaining recognition thanks to sequence analysis that is more sensitive than the traditional methods (chromosome counting, analysis of meiotic chromosome pairing, and marker-based mapping) that have been used to assess polyploidy. (
  • Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) or polyploidy events have been studied extensively in plants. (
  • The International Conference on Polyploidy will present cutting edge research into the importance of polyploidy and whole genome duplication for genetics, evolution and ecology. (
  • The International Conference on Polyploidy will present a unique opportunity to meet and discuss with colleagues, get updated on the newest developments and insights into recent and ancient polyploidy and whole genome duplication, and will provide unique possibilities to network and discuss collaborations. (
  • Here we overview the distribution of WGD events across studied vertebrate taxa and argue that the most WGD-rich taxon is Acipenseriformes, where five whole genome polyploidy events occurred, and the process is still ongoing. (
  • Polyploidy (whole genome duplication) is a fundamental aspect of cardiac biology. (
  • Furthermore, the Xenopus genus includes species with multiple levels of polyploidy, thereby providing a unique model to study whole genome duplication and its effects thereof on individual genes. (
  • Winge hypothesized that polyploidy occurred by successive increases in the original somatic chromosome number. (
  • Polyploidy is common in higher eukaryotes, especially in plants, but it is generally assumed that most prokaryotes contain a single copy of a circular chromosome and are therefore monoploid. (
  • One scientist proposed that polyploidy is harder to maintain in animals because the extra Y chromosome in males tended to break down easily. (
  • Polyploidy is an evolutionary process whereby two or more genomes are brought together into the same nucleus, usually by hybridization followed by chromosome doubling. (
  • Polyploidy is detected through a chromosome analysis, or a karyotype. (
  • If polyploidy leaves two copies of each chromosome in a hybrid's cells, each chromosome gets a partner that is an exact duplicate of itself. (
  • In the most basic definition, polyploidy is a numerical increase in whole chromosome number. (
  • Polyploidy can be induced in cell culture by some chemicals: the best known is colchicine , which can result in chromosome doubling, though its use may have other less obvious consequences as well. (
  • Both polyploidy and aneuploidy show the abnormality of the chromosome number. (
  • The key difference between aneuploidy and polyploidy is that aneuploidy occurs due to altering particular chromosome or part of a chromosome such as 2n-1(monosomic), etc., while polyploidy occurs due to altering a set of chromosome number such as 2n, 3n, 5n, etc. (
  • Although the two members of each gene pair must originally have had identical transcription profiles, less than half of the pairs formed by the most recent polyploidy event still retain significantly correlated profiles. (
  • Many plant lineages have also undergone more recent polyploidy events ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • A recent polyploidy superimposed on older large-scale duplications in the Arabidopsis genome. (
  • To study the evolutionary effects of polyploidy on plant gene functions, we analyzed functional genomics data for a large number of duplicated gene pairs formed by ancient polyploidy events in Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • Other common crops such as wheat also demonstrate polyploidy, which would suggest that breeding plants has resulted in some fundamental changes to their genomes. (
  • In the past few years, molecular and computational tools have provided new ways to probe the history of genomes, leading to the discovery that polyploidy is even more widespread than previously thought. (
  • Polyploidy, that curious increase in a species' number of genomes, is now a well recognized force in the evolutionary history of plants and animals. (
  • The mosaic composition of glitch art provided me with a comparable visual reference to the mosaicism found in plant genomes that emerged from multiple rounds of polyploidy (genome doubling) events throughout the history of many plant species. (
  • Allopolyploidy is another type of polyploidy condition that occurs due to the combination of genomes of different species such as in hybrid species. (
  • Browse other questions tagged genetics genomes polyploidy or ask your own question . (
  • In this study, we focused on polyploidy displayed by a specific fern taxon, the genus Pteris L. (Pteridaceae), comprising over 250 species. (
  • Polyploidy provides a rapid route for species evolution and adaptation [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Another study demonstrated that new species of freshwater snails had arisen due to polyploidy. (
  • New species originated via polyploidy? (
  • Polyploidy even allows the formation of new species derived from different ancestors. (
  • The extent of genome redundancy exhibited by Brassica species provides a model to study the evolutionary fate of multi-copy genes and the effects of polyploidy in economically important crops. (
  • Hybridization between different species, and subsequently polyploidy, play an important role in plant genome evolution, as well as it is a widely used approach for crop improvement. (
  • Here we review how fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) have been applied to: 1) studies of interspecific hybridisation and polyploidy in nature, 2) analyses of phylogenetic relationships between species, 3) genetic mapping and 4) analysis of plant breeding materials. (
  • Polyploidy may, in fact, result in the creation of a new species, as in the case of the plant salsify, in which two new tetraploid species of this plant developed from combinations of the original three species. (
  • According to Moran, a large number of species have popped into existence through hybridization and polyploidy rather than through Darwinian evolution. (
  • Referring to the second volume ( Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms ) of the Flora of North America , published in 1993, which was the first scientific treatise on plants to include reticulograms, Moran wrote: "Of the 420 species of ferns and lycophytes described in the treatise, about a hundred originated as hybrids and later became fertile through polyploidy" (ibid. (
  • Often, however, polyploidy steps in to work with hybridization to create new species within the greater fern miyn . (
  • This fits in well with a Genesis framework: after the original creation of plants "according to their miyn /genus/kind," the fern miyn/genus began to spread across the globe, undergoing a combination of hybridization and polyploidy as the years progressed, with each new fern species spreading slightly farther than the geographical range of its parent species. (
  • Appearing in the fossil record, this would certainly create the impression that these new species sprang up as the result of evolution, when it could just as well have been what is still occurring today for scientists to witness and report on: the creation of new species through hybridization that produces viable offspring via polyploidy. (
  • This work aims to identify the extent to which variation in physiological traits are due to polyploidy and the impacts on species distribution and ecology. (
  • Polyploidy occurs in animals but is especially common among flowering plants , including both wild and cultivated species . (
  • Polyploidy occurs in some animal s, such as goldfish , salmon , and salamander s, but is especially common among fern s and flowering plant s, including both wild and cultivated species . (
  • Some plant species with certain types of polyploidy do not use sexual reproduction, but survive with asexual methods. (
  • There may, however, be many genetic changes in the species after polyploidy has taken place. (
  • Postdoctoral Position in Polyploidy and Epigenetics at The University of Texas at Austin A postdoctoral fellow position is available immediately to study genetic and epigenetic mechanisms for non-additive gene regulation in Arabidopsis allopolyploids that are derived from closely related progenitors A. thaliana and A. arenosa ( ). (
  • We study three aspects of polyploidy , focusing on members of the genus Arabidopsis . (
  • ABSTRACT During the past decade there has been a tremendous resurgence of interest in polyploidy that has in large part been stimulated by the development of increasingly powerful genetic and genomic tools. (
  • The broad range in estimates for angiosperm polyploidy is due to a lack of knowledge about whether these plants are ancient polyploids, or whether more recent events have caused the polyploidy we observe today. (
  • The importance of polyploidy was recognized early in the 20th century and for the past decades many studies have addressed the different categories of polyploids, their mode of formation, their cytogenetic behavior, the ecological implications, the impact of polyploidy on various population genetics aspects such as heterozygosity, mating mode, buffering of mutations, etc. (
  • We hypothesize that this might be connected to relaxed pachytene check point in this group and that this group represents a convenient model for studying the role of polyploidy in vertebrates. (
  • This proposal will develop the Drosophila heart as a model to uncover the conserved yet enigmatic role of polyploidy in heart development and tissue repair. (
  • The above proposed experiments will establish a genetically tractable model with conserved features of cardiac development to uncover the long-appreciated but poorly-understood role of polyploidy in cardiac biology. (
  • Defective cytokinesis was also observed which resulted in gross aneuploidy and polyploidy. (
  • Chen, XB & Regan, JW 2006, ' Activation of the human FP prostanoid receptor disrupts mitosis progression and generates aneuploidy and polyploidy ', Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences , vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 112-121. (
  • What are the Similarities Between Aneuploidy and Polyploidy? (
  • Thus, it is another difference between aneuploidy and polyploidy. (
  • Below is an infographic on the difference between aneuploidy and polyploidy. (
  • Aneuploidy and polyploidy are two chromosomal abnormalities that occur in plants and animals. (
  • Adams KL, Cronn R, Percifield R, Wendel JF (2003) Genes duplicated by polyploidy show unequal contributions to the transcriptome and organ-specific reciprocal silencing. (
  • Many cancer cells exhibit polyploidy, and laboratory studies in breast cancer cells have shown that suppression of these genes results in suppressed polyploidy. (
  • Geneticist Hermann Muller argued that polyploidy is more rare in animals than plants because animals have a more complex development, with more organ systems that are fine-tuned to dosages of genes. (
  • Polyploidy occurs in highly differentiated human tissues in the liver, heart muscle, bone marrow and the placenta. (
  • Polyploidy also occurs naturally in certain plant tissues . (
  • In humans, polyploidy most often occurs when two sperm cells fertilize one egg. (
  • Plant polyploidy happens in nature when an abnormality occurs in the cell division that produces spores. (
  • True polyploidy rarely occurs in humans, although it occurs in some tissues (especially in the liver). (
  • Polyploidy occurs in humans in the form of triploidy (69,XXX) and tetraploidy (92,XXXX), not to be confused with 47,XXX or 48, XXXX aneuploidy. (
  • Polyploidy may occur in one generation, and is an exception to the principle that evolution occurs gradually. (
  • However, little is known about when Drosophila cardiac polyploidization occurs, its regulation and function, and the interplay between physiological and injury-induced polyploidy. (
  • Polyploidy often occurs during cell fusion, abortive cell cycle, and endoreplication. (
  • A number of animals and plants naturally exhibit polyploidy, and it can also arise as a spontaneous mutation. (
  • This work is supported by the French National Research Agency (A.N.R.) biodiversity programme "effects of polyploidy on plant genome evolution and biodiversity", and by CNRS funds (UMR CNRS 6553 Ecobio, Centre Armoricain de Recherches en Environnement CAREN). (
  • The emerging paradigm is that polyploidy - through alterations in genome structure and gene regulation - generates genetic and phenotypic novelty that manifests itself at the chromosomal, physiological, and organismal levels, with long-term ecological and evolutionary consequences. (
  • This book by Soltis and Soltis can be fully recommended to students, teachers and advanced researchers or other professionals in all fields of plant science, and not only in evolutionary genetics, for whom it will provide a valuable overview of the recent advances made in the field of the polyploidy-based evolution of eukaryotes, and notably of angiosperms. (
  • Polyploidy is one of the major evolutionary forces in plants and in particular in the largest angiosperm family, the Asteraceae. (
  • Overall, we will try to learn from the grasses the causes for the formidable evolutionary success of polyploidy in nature. (
  • For the 2019 meeting, which will take place at the beautiful city of Ghent, we are trying to put together an exciting program focusing on many different aspects of polyploidy, such as the short- and long-term ecological and evolutionary consequence of polyploidy for plant and animal systems, but also polyploidy in somatic cells and clonal populations will be discussed. (
  • Why does polyploidy give an evolutionary advantage? (
  • Another example of benefits from polyploidy, this time not in an evolutionary, but in a more individual context, is the fenomenon called hybrid vigor or heterosis. (
  • Polyploidy is a widespread evolutionary strategy in angiosperms, and research on wheat has greatly contributed to the understanding of this important phenomenon. (
  • The highest frequency of polyploidy among plants is considered to occur in the Pteridophytes. (
  • Plants are especially prone to polyploidy, with some scientists estimating that up to 80% of flowering plants may have this trait. (
  • This may explain why plants in several families, which lack endosperm in their mature seeds, have a higher frequency of polyploidy than other taxa. (
  • From the start of the discussion, it was clear most people (including, it would appear, the authors of the focal paper) seemed to have difficulty articulating what the central questions of biological interest relating to polyploidy in plants really were. (
  • Animal polyploidy does exist, though it appears to be far less common than it is in plants. (
  • As in plants, polyploidy arises as a reproductive mistake. (
  • In plants, polyploidy was proposed to have occurred in the lineage of at least 70% of angiosperms ( Masterson, 1994 ) and in 95% of pteridophytes ( Grant, 1981 ). (
  • Polyploidy is very common in plants, especially in angiosperms . (
  • Polyploidy has occurred often in the evolution of plants. (
  • The co-occurrence of apomixis (asexual reproduction) and polyploidy in plants has been the subject of debate in regard to the origin and evolution of asexuality. (
  • In this view, advances on researching epigenetic change of hybrid and polyploidy in plants will be initially set out by summarizing the latest researches and the basic studies on epigenetic variations generated by hybridization. (
  • Polyploidy (i.e., genome duplication) is recognized as a common phenomenon in the evolution of plants ( Wendel, 2000 ) and some animal clades ( Ohno, 1970 ). (
  • alignments and trees of 9 sequenced genomesData from: Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms. (
  • Data from: Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms. (
  • Polyploidy can also occur through exposure some chemicals, including some used for chemotherapy in humans, and through exposure to colchicine in some plants. (
  • In plants, polyploidy can be induced through exposing the seeds of the plant to colchicine. (
  • Definition of Polyploidy in Biology includes the creation of hybrid offspring in the form of plants and animals. (
  • Polyploidy can be seen frequently in flowering plants including important crop plants but rarely in animals, except vertebrates and invertebrates. (
  • polyploidy can be seen in plants more common than aneuploidy. (
  • I have come across a few examples during my research of polyploidy, for example human adults' hearts contain 27% diploid, 71% tetraploid and 2% octaploid nuclei, Deinococcus radiodurans can have up to 10 copies of genome, and most of the plants consumed by humans have more than 2 copies. (
  • What are the advantages of polyploidy in plants? (
  • This review will focus mainly on the effect of polyploidy on genome evolution in grasses-a family that has contributed some of the best models to the study of polyploidy. (
  • The first studies of polyploidy in Pteris focused mainly on ploidy differences and apogamy of P. cretica [ 22 ]. (
  • The ubiquitous role of genome duplication in evolution is one of the important discoveries from the post-genomic era, explaining the renewed interest in polyploidy. (
  • Allozymic and Chloroplast DNA Analysis of Polyploidy in Polystichum. (
  • It is estimated that the highest frequency of polyploidy is exhibited in ferns. (
  • 75 Polyploidy is the state of a cell or organism having more than two paired (homologous) sets of. (
  • Molecular data and the dynamic nature of polyploidy. (
  • Molecular pathways: induction of polyploidy as a novel differentiation therapy for leukemia. (
  • Chen ZJ: Molecular mechanisms of polyploidy and hybrid vigor. (
  • My talk for the European Cytogeneticists Association meeting in Dublin is on Molecular Cytogenetics and polyploidy. (
  • Since evolutionists need an increase in information in the genome in order to go from molecules to man, polyploidy is postulated to be a mechanism to increase genetic information available to a population. (
  • The result has been numerous new insights into the genomic and genetic consequences of polyploidy. (
  • Recent studies of the last several years have demonstrated that, hybridization and subsequent genome doubling (polyploidy) often induce an array of variations that could not be explained by the conventional genetic paradigms. (
  • In Australia, CSIRO is investigating techniques to produce reproductively sterile, all-female shrimp populations through polyploidy, irradiation, or genetic engineering. (
  • Polyploidy also frequently confers resistance to environmental stresses not tolerated by diploid cells. (
  • It is assumed polyploidy facilitates the compensation for mutation accumulation, and hence, the rare occurrence of diploid apomixis indirectly supports this finding. (
  • Nevertheless, polyploidy is an efficient way to buffer deleterious mutations, but the flexibility of diploid apomicts of the genus Boechera for rare sexual events contributes to their success in nature. (
  • Polyploidy also appears in some tissues of otherwise diploid animals, including people - for example, in specialized organ tissue such as muscle, placenta, and liver. (
  • The research team may have identified for the first time the regulatory mechanism responsible for cell polyploidy. (
  • Animal Polyploidy: A Mechanism for Evolution? (
  • Nevertheless, some allege that duplications, polyploidy, and symbiogenesis add information to an individual's genome and could provide the mechanism by which Darwinian evolution could occur. (
  • Thus, polyploidy is one of the major processes that has driven and shaped the evolution of higher organisms. (
  • It will review the accumulating evidence of polyploidy as a trigger and/or facilitator for accelerated genome evolution in this family. (
  • It is therefore understandable that much effort has been made to understand the biological significance and evolution of polyploidy. (
  • Although polyploidy is fairly common in these and other "lower" organisms, polyploidy is rare in humans. (
  • Some instances of polyploidy do exist in humans, particularly in some tissues, such as the liver, and in some cancers. (
  • This entry was posted in Conferences , News and tagged cytogenetics , polyploidy . (
  • For a definition of many of the technical terms in this article, see the article on plant polyploidy . (
  • Polyploidy can also be induced in the plant-breeding laboratory by treating dividing cells with colchicine. (
  • Polyploidy influences plant-environment interactions in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. (
  • Polyploidy, which is common in aspen, can modify plant structure and function and therefore plant-environment interactions, but the influence of polyploidy on aspen physiology is still not well understood. (
  • 2017. (
  • Adams KL, Wendel JF (2004) Exploring the genomic mysteries of polyploidy in cotton. (
  • Definition of Polyploidy in Biology is not restricted to hybrids that have been created through hybridization. (
  • Induction of Polyploidy and Its Effect on Cannabis sativa L. (
  • C., Artificial induction of polyploidy in Alfalfa. (
  • In vitro induction of polyploidy by colchicine treatment in herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (
  • Polyploidy can be induced with chemicals such as colchicine, as O. J. Eigsti first demonstrated in 1935. (
  • Polyploidy also can be induced using various chemicals such as colchicine by inhibiting cell division. (
  • for example, Turner syndrome and Down syndrome, whereas polyploidy can be seen in some human muscle tissues. (
  • Polyploidy may occur due to abnormal cell division, either during mitosis, or commonly during metaphase I in meiosis. (
  • The polyploidy mutation rates of the control group and the other treatments were zero. (
  • The present study aimed at exploring an effective way to produce polyploidy using seeds or buds from three herbaceous peony cultivars ('Fen Yu Nu', 'Zhu Sha Pan' and 'Zhong Sheng Fen') by colchicine treatment. (
  • Polyploidy is related to tetraploidy and triploidy . (
  • As expected from this combination of defects, tetraploidy and polyploidy are consequences of APC inhibition in vitro and in vivo. (
  • polyploidy may occur due to abnormal cell division . (
  • Soltis, D.E. Review of the Application of Modern Cytogenetic Methods (FISH/GISH) to the Study of Reticulation (Polyploidy/Hybridisation). (
  • Taxa arising from polyploidy are usually characterized by divers gene expression [ 3 ]. (
  • And that might be important for, say, liver regeneration or liver diseases, where it's thought that polyploidy in liver cells may be important for liver function, either for liver detoxification or other aspects of liver biology. (
  • Definition of Polyploidy in Biology is defined as being a union of two or more gametes, meaning breeding which creates embryos, writing services sperm and eggs. (
  • Definition of Polyploidy in Biology can be performed in many different ways. (
  • Definition of Polyploidy in Biology can be divided into two basic methods. (
  • Here, we address possible phenotypic costs of a very common correlate of asexuality, polyploidy. (
  • Our results indicate that polyploidy might be more widespread in archaea (or even prokaryotes in general) than previously assumed. (
  • Does polyploidy confer an advantage to animals, is it neutral, or is it disadvantageous? (