A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.
An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.
Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A fused four ring compound occurring free or combined in galls. Isolated from the kino of Eucalyptus maculata Hook and E. Hemipholia F. Muell. Activates Factor XII of the blood clotting system which also causes kinin release; used in research and as a dye.
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. The common names of chokeberry or chokecherry are also used for some species of PRUNUS.
A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that is a small family with a single genus.
A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.
A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.
A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.
Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.
A genus in the family ROSACEAE of shrubs and small trees native to the North Temperate Zone. It is best known for a traditional medication for the heart.

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a polyphenolic fraction from green tea. (1/1083)

Identification of common dietary substances capable of affording protection or modulating the onset and severity of arthritis may have important human health implications. An antioxidant-rich polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (green tea polyphenols, GTPs) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties in experimental animals. In this study we determined the effect of oral consumption of GTP on collagen-induced arthritis in mice. In three independent experiments mice given GTP in water exhibited significantly reduced incidence of arthritis (33% to 50%) as compared with mice not given GTP in water (84% to 100%). The arthritis index also was significantly lower in GTP-fed animals. Western blot analysis showed a marked reduction in the expression of inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase 2, IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the arthritic joints in GTP-fed mice demonstrated only marginal joint infiltration by IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing cells as opposed to massive cellular infiltration and fully developed pannus in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice. The neutral endopeptidase activity was approximately 7-fold higher in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice in comparison to nonarthritic joints of unimmunized mice whereas it was only 2-fold higher in the arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Additionally, total IgG and type II collagen-specific IgG levels were lower in serum and arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Taken together our studies suggest that a polyphenolic fraction from green tea that is rich in antioxidants may be useful in the prevention of onset and severity of arthritis.  (+info)

Suppression of extracellular signals and cell proliferation by the black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3'-digallate. (2/1083)

Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), suppressed autophosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor induced by EGF in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of black tea polyphenols, including theaflavin (TF-1), a mixture (TF-2) of theaflavin-3-gallate (TF-2a) and theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF-2b), theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF-3) and the thearubigin fraction on the autophosphorylation of the EGF and PDGF receptors in A431 cells and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblast cells, respectively. First, we examined the effects of these polyphenols on the proliferation of A431 and NIH3T3 cells. Both EGCG and TF-3 strongly inhibited the proliferation of A431 and NIH3T3 cells more than the other theaflavins did. In cultured cells with pre-treatment of tea polyphenol, TF-3 was stronger than EGCG on the reduction of EGF receptor and PDGF receptor autophosphorylation induced by EGF and PDGF, respectively. Other theaflavins slightly reduced the autophosphorylation of the EGF and PDGF receptors; furthermore, TF-3 could reduce autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor (or PDGF receptor) even with co-treatment with EGF (or PDGF) and TF-3, but EGCG was inactive under these conditions. In addition, TF-3 was stronger than EGCG in blocking EGF binding to its receptor. These results suggest that not only the green tea polyphenol, EGCG, but also the black tea polyphenol, TF-3, have an antiproliferative activity on tumor cells, and the molecular mechanisms of antiproliferation may block the growth factor binding to its receptor and thus suppress mitogenic signal transduction.  (+info)

Prostate cancer chemoprevention by green tea: in vitro and in vivo inhibition of testosterone-mediated induction of ornithine decarboxylase. (3/1083)

Recently, we have shown that ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a rate-controlling enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCA) and prostatic fluid in humans (R. R. Mohan et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 5: 143-147, 1999). ODC is also characterized as an androgen-responsive gene, and the androgenic stimulation regulates the development and growth of both normal and tumorigenic prostate cells. Thus, chemopreventive approaches aimed toward the modulation of ODC could be effective against PCA. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) possess strong chemopreventive properties against a variety of animal tumor models and in some human epidemiological studies. At least two epidemiological studies have suggested that people who consume tea regularly may have a decreased risk of PCA. In this study, we investigated the effect of GTPs against testosterone-mediated induction of ODC in human prostate carcinoma cells, LNCaP as an in vitro model, and in Cpb:WU rats and C57BL/6 mice as in vivo models. Treatment of LNCaP cells with testosterone resulted in induction of ODC activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of the cells with GTPs resulted in a significant inhibition of testosterone-caused induction of ODC activity in a dose-dependent manner. Similar effects of GTPs were observed in anchorage-independent growth assay of LNCaP cells where pretreatment of the cells with GTP was found to result in dose-dependent inhibition of colony formation. Testosterone treatment of the cells resulted in a significant increase in the level of ODC mRNA, and this increase was almost completely abolished by prior treatment of the cells with GTPs. The administration of testosterone (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) to sham-operated and castrated Cpb:WU rats resulted in 2- and 38-fold increases in ODC activity, respectively, in the ventral prostate. Oral feeding of 0.2% GTPs in drinking water for 7 days before testosterone administration resulted in 20 and 54% decreases in testosterone-caused induction of ODC activity in sham-operated and castrated rats, respectively. Similar results were obtained with C57BL/6 mice, where testosterone treatment at similar dosage resulted in a 2-fold increase in ODC activity in the ventral prostate and prior oral feeding with 0.2% GTPs resulted in 40% inhibition in this induction.  (+info)

Histological analysis and ancient DNA amplification of human bone remains found in caius iulius polybius house in pompeii. (4/1083)

Thirteen skeletons found in the Caius Iulius Polybius house, which has been the object of intensive study since its discovery in Pompeii 250 years ago, have provided an opportunity to study either bone diagenesis by histological investigation or ancient DNA by polymerase chain reaction analysis. DNA analysis was done by amplifying both X- and Y-chromosomes amelogenin loci and Y-specific alphoid repeat locus. The von Willebrand factor (vWF) microsatellite locus on chromosome 12 was also analyzed for personal identification in two individuals showing alleles with 10/11 and 12/12 TCTA repeats, respectively. Technical problems were the scarcity of DNA content from osteocytes, DNA molecule fragmentation, microbial contamination which change bone structure, contaminating human DNA which results from mishandling, and frequent presence of Taq DNA polymerase inhibiting molecules like polyphenols and heavy metals. The results suggest that the remains contain endogenous human DNA that can be amplified and analyzed. The amplifiability of DNA corresponds to the bone preservation and dynamics of the burial conditions subsequent to the 79 A.D. eruption.  (+info)

Quinol-glutathione conjugate-induced mutation spectra in the supF gene replicated in human AD293 cells and bacterial MBL50 cells. (5/1083)

Hydroquinone is a nephrocarcinogen in rats but generally tests negative in standard mutagenicity assays. However, 2,3,5-tris-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, a potent nephrotoxic metabolite of hydroquinone, and 2-bromo-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, another cytotoxic quinol-glutathione (GSH) conjugate, cause extensive single strand breaks in DNA in a manner that is dependent on the formation of reactive oxygen species. We, therefore, investigated whether quinol-GSH conjugates have the potential to behave as genotoxicants. The shuttle vector pSP189, containing the supF gene, was treated with 2,3,5-tris-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone and replicated in both human AD293 cells and Escherichia coli MBL50 cells. The mutation frequency increased 4.6- and 2.6-fold in human AD293 and bacterial MBL50 cells, respectively. Base substitutions were the major type of mutations, and they occurred predominantly at G:C sites in both cell types. A high frequency of deletions (30%), including < 10- and > 10-bp deletions, were observed in AD293-replicated plasmids. The most common types of mutations in AD293 cells were G:C to A:T transitions (33.8%) and G:C to T:A (29.4%) and G:C to C:G (19.1%) transversions. In MBL50 cells, the major mutations were G:C to T:A (33.8%) and G:C to C:G (31.3%) transversions and G:C to A:T transitions (27.5%). The mutation spectra were similar to those reported for *OH-induced mutations, suggesting that *OH generated from polyphenolic-GSH conjugates not only plays a role in cytotoxicity but also provides a basis for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity.  (+info)

Dietary supplementation of grape polyphenols to rats ameliorates chronic ethanol-induced changes in hepatic morphology without altering changes in hepatic lipids. (6/1083)

Increase in oxidative stress after chronic ethanol consumption can result in hepatic injury. Because polyphenolic compounds can offer antioxidant protection to the cardiovascular system, this study was designed to investigate whether dietary supplementation of polyphenols from grapes may ameliorate hepatic injury resulting from chronic ethanol consumption. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the following diets for 2 mo: 1) Lieber-DeCarli (L-D) diet with isocaloric amount of maltose instead of ethanol (Basal), 2) the L-D diet with 50g/L ethanol (EtOH); 3) L-D diet with 50 mg/L of grape polyphenols (GP) and 4) ethanol diet with GP (EtOH + GP). Rats given EtOH or EtOH + GP diets had significantly more hepatic triacylglycerols (P < 0.0001) and lipid peroxidation products (P < 0.01) compared with those given the Basal and GP diets. In addition, ethanol ingestion also decreased significantly (P < 0.01) the proportion of 16:0 and increased 18:0 and 18:1 in hepatic phospholipids, suggesting a perturbation of the de novo fatty acid biosynthesis pathways. However, GP supplementation alone and GP added to the ethanol diet did not alter the lipid changes mediated by ethanol except for the levels of 22:6(n-3) which were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the EtOH + GP group than in the EtOH group. Despite a lack of gross lipid changes, histologic assessment showed significantly (P < 0.05) less hepatic damage in the GP + EtOH group compared with the EtOH group. These results clearly distinguished ethanol-mediated changes in hepatic morphology from the changes in hepatic lipids and further demonstrated the ability of GP to ameliorate hepatic damage resulting from chronic ethanol consumption.  (+info)

Polyphenol tannic acid inhibits hydroxyl radical formation from Fenton reaction by complexing ferrous ions. (7/1083)

Tannic acid (TA), a plant polyphenol, has been described as having antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant activities. Since it is a potent chelator of iron ions, we decided to examine if the antioxidant activity of TA is related to its ability to chelate iron ions. The degradation of 2-deoxyribose induced by 6 microM Fe(II) plus 100 microM H2O2 was inhibited by TA, with an I50 value of 13 microM. Tannic acid was over three orders of magnitude more efficient in protecting against 2-deoxyribose degradation than classical *OH scavengers. The antioxidant potency of TA was inversely proportional to Fe(II) concentration, demonstrating a competition between H2O2 and AT for reaction with Fe(II). On the other hand, the efficiency of TA was nearly unchanged with increasing concentrations of the *OH detector molecule, 2-deoxyribose. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity of TA is mainly due to iron chelation rather than *OH scavenging. TA also inhibited 2-deoxyribose degradation mediated by Fe(III)-EDTA (iron = 50 microM) plus ascorbate. The protective action of TA was significantly higher with 50 microM EDTA than with 500 microM EDTA, suggesting that TA removes Fe(III) from EDTA and forms a complex with iron that cannot induce *OH formation. We also provided evidence that TA forms a stable complex with Fe(II), since excess ferrozine (14 mM) recovered 95-96% of the Fe(II) from 10 microM TA even after a 30-min exposure to 100-500 microM H2O2. Addition of Fe(III) to samples containing TA caused the formation of Fe(II)n-TA, complexes, as determined by ferrozine assays, indicating that TA is also capable of reducing Fe(III) ions. We propose that when Fe(II) is complexed to TA, it is unable to participate in Fenton reactions and mediate *OH formation. The antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of TA, described elsewhere, may be explained (at least in part) by its capacity to prevent Fenton reactions.  (+info)

Red wine inhibits monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression and modestly reduces neointimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in cholesterol-Fed rabbits. (8/1083)

BACKGROUND: Wine consumption decreases the risk of myocardial infarction. Intimal hyperplasia contributes to restenosis after angioplasty. Local ethanol delivery inhibits intimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in rabbit iliac and pig coronary arteries. The effects of wine consumption on intimal response and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression were studied in cholesterol-fed rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male rabbits were fed a 2% cholesterol diet together with red wine (12.5% vol, 5 mL/kg body wt per day; n=7), white wine (13.3% vol, 5 mL/kg body wt per day; n=7), or no wine as a control (n=8) for 6 weeks. A balloon injury of the abdominal aorta was performed at the end of the third week. Abdominal aortas were harvested at the end of 6 weeks. Neointimal hyperplasia was measured morphometrically. MCP-1 expression was determined by Northern blot, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Rabbits fed red wine had significantly less neointimal hyperplasia than did control rabbits (intima/media area ratio 0.59+/-0.05 [red wine group] versus 0.79+/-0.07 [control group], P<0.05). However, rabbits fed white wine showed a trend (but not significant) toward less intimal response compared with control rabbits (intima/media area ratio 0.65+/-0.04 [white wine group] versus 0.79+/-0.07 [control group], P=0.165). Both red wine and white wine significantly reduced MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression in the aorta. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term consumption of red wine and white wine inhibits MCP-1 expression, and in the small number of animals studied, red wine modestly reduces neointimal hyperplasia. Since red wine exhibits higher antioxidant capacity than does white wine, the decreased intimal response might be partly attributed to its antioxidant effects.  (+info)

Polyphenols are a type of phytochemical, which are naturally occurring compounds found in plant-based foods. They contain multiple phenol units and can be classified into several subgroups, including flavonoids, stilbenes, tannins, and lignans. These compounds have been studied for their potential health benefits due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulating properties. They are found in a wide variety of foods such as fruits, vegetables, tea, wine, chocolate, and cereals.

Phenols, also known as phenolic acids or phenol derivatives, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon ring. In the context of medicine and biology, phenols are often referred to as a type of antioxidant that can be found in various foods and plants.

Phenols have the ability to neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can cause damage to cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Some common examples of phenolic compounds include gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and ellagic acid, among many others.

Phenols can also have various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. However, some phenolic compounds can also be toxic or irritating to the body in high concentrations, so their use as therapeutic agents must be carefully monitored and controlled.

Flavonoids are a type of plant compounds with antioxidant properties that are beneficial to health. They are found in various fruits, vegetables, grains, and wine. Flavonoids have been studied for their potential to prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer due to their ability to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress.

There are several subclasses of flavonoids, including:

1. Flavanols: Found in tea, chocolate, grapes, and berries. They have been shown to improve blood flow and lower blood pressure.
2. Flavones: Found in parsley, celery, and citrus fruits. They have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
3. Flavanonols: Found in citrus fruits, onions, and tea. They have been shown to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation.
4. Isoflavones: Found in soybeans and legumes. They have estrogen-like effects and may help prevent hormone-related cancers.
5. Anthocyanidins: Found in berries, grapes, and other fruits. They have antioxidant properties and may help improve vision and memory.

It is important to note that while flavonoids have potential health benefits, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or a healthy lifestyle. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tea" is not a medical term. It generally refers to a hot beverage made by infusing the leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) in hot water. There are various types of tea including black, green, white, oolong, and herbal teas, but these are not medical terms. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try to help if I can, but it would be helpful if you could provide more context or clarify what you're asking about.

A catechin is a type of plant phenol and antioxidant found in various foods and beverages, such as tea, cocoa, and certain fruits and vegetables. Chemically, catechins are flavan-3-ols, which are a subclass of flavonoids. They have several potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Catechins are known to have anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antidiabetic properties. They can also help improve oral health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria in the mouth. The most well-known catechin is epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is found in high concentrations in green tea and has been extensively studied for its potential health benefits.

In summary, a catechin is a type of antioxidant compound found in various plant-based foods and beverages that may have several health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases and improving oral health.

'Wine' is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of grape juice. It contains ethanol and can have varying levels of other compounds depending on the type of grape used, the region where it was produced, and the method of fermentation.

In a medical context, wine might be referred to in terms of its potential health effects, which can vary. Moderate consumption of wine, particularly red wine, has been associated with certain health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health. However, heavy or excessive drinking can lead to numerous health problems, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and an increased risk of various types of cancer.

It's important to note that while moderate consumption may have some health benefits, the potential risks of alcohol consumption generally outweigh the benefits for many people. Therefore, it's recommended that individuals who do not currently drink alcohol should not start drinking for health benefits. Those who choose to drink should do so in moderation, defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men.

Biflavonoids are a type of flavonoid, which are plant-based compounds with antioxidant properties. Biflavonoids are unique because they consist of two flavonoid molecules joined together. They can be found in various plants, including fruits, vegetables, and herbs. Some research suggests that biflavonoids may have potential health benefits, such as reducing inflammation and protecting against oxidative stress. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine the optimal dosages for human consumption.

'Camellia sinensis' is the scientific name for the plant that is used to produce tea. It is an evergreen shrub native to East Asia, particularly China and India, and has been cultivated for thousands of years for its leaves, which are used to make various types of tea, including black, green, oolong, and white teas.

The leaves of 'Camellia sinensis' contain a number of bioactive compounds, including caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, as well as polyphenols such as flavonoids and catechins, which are believed to have various health benefits. The processing method used on the leaves determines the type of tea produced and its color, flavor, and chemical composition.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Proanthocyanidins are a type of polyphenolic compound that are found in various plants, including fruits, vegetables, and bark. They are also known as condensed tannins or oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs). These compounds are characterized by their ability to form complex structures through the linkage of flavan-3-ol units.

Proanthocyanidins have been studied for their potential health benefits, which may include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protective effects. They have also been shown to have a positive impact on collagen stability, which may contribute to their potential role in promoting skin and joint health.

Foods that are rich in proanthocyanidins include grapes (and red wine), berries, apples, cocoa, and green tea. These compounds can be difficult for the body to absorb, but supplements containing standardized extracts of proanthocyanidins are also available.

It's important to note that while proanthocyanidins have shown promise in laboratory and animal studies, more research is needed to fully understand their potential health benefits and safety profile in humans. As with any supplement, it's always a good idea to talk to your healthcare provider before starting to take proanthocyanidins.

Gallic acid is an organic compound that is widely found in nature. It's a type of phenolic acid, which means it contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic ring. Gallic acid is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and alcohol.

In the medical field, gallic acid is known for its antioxidant properties. It has been shown to neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to aging and diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Gallic acid also has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal properties.

Gallic acid is found in a variety of plants, including tea leaves, grapes, oak bark, and sumac. It can be extracted from these plants and used in the production of pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics. In some cases, gallic acid may be used as a marker for the identification and authentication of plant-based materials.

It's important to note that while gallic acid has potential health benefits, it should not be taken as a substitute for medical treatment or advice from a healthcare professional.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

Quercetin is a type of flavonoid antioxidant that is found in plant foods, including leafy greens, tomatoes, berries, and broccoli. It has been studied for its potential health benefits, such as reducing inflammation, protecting against damage to cells, and helping to reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer. Quercetin is also known for its ability to stabilize mast cells and prevent the release of histamine, making it a popular natural remedy for allergies. It is available in supplement form, but it is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

"Vitis" is a genus name and it refers to a group of flowering plants in the grape family, Vitaceae. This genus includes over 70 species of grapes that are native to the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in North America and Asia. The most commonly cultivated species is "Vitis vinifera," which is the source of most of the world's table and wine grapes.

Therefore, a medical definition of 'Vitis' may not be directly applicable as it is more commonly used in botany and agriculture rather than medicine. However, some compounds derived from Vitis species have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as resveratrol found in the skin of red grapes, which has been investigated for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cardioprotective effects.

Hydrolyzable tannins are a type of tannin that can be broken down or hydrolyzed by water or weak acids into simpler components. They are polyphenolic compounds that can be found in various plants, including fruits, nuts, bark, and leaves. Hydrolyzable tannins are made up of a central core of glucose or other sugars, which are esterified with phenolic acids such as gallic acid or ellagic acid.

When hydrolyzable tannins come into contact with water or weak acids, they undergo hydrolysis, breaking down the ester bonds that link the phenolic acids to the sugar core. This results in the formation of various phenolic compounds, including gallic acid and ellagic acid, as well as sugars.

Hydrolyzable tannins have a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. They are also known to have potential health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, they can also have negative effects on human health, particularly when consumed in large quantities, as they can interfere with the absorption of nutrients and cause digestive problems.

Tannins, also known as tannic acid or gallotannins, are a type of polyphenolic biomolecule found in plants. They are most commonly known for their ability to bind to proteins and other organic compounds, forming insoluble complexes. This property is what gives tannins their characteristic astringent taste and is also the basis for their use in traditional medicine and industry.

In the context of human health, tannins have been studied for their potential beneficial effects on various physiological processes, such as antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effects, and inhibition of enzymes involved in cancer development. However, excessive consumption of tannins can also have negative health effects, including stomach irritation, nausea, and liver damage.

Tannins are found in a wide variety of plants, including fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, bark, leaves, and roots. They are particularly abundant in certain types of food and beverages, such as red wine, tea, coffee, chocolate, and some herbs and spices. In the medical field, tannins have been used topically for their astringent properties to treat wounds, burns, and skin irritations. However, it is important to note that the evidence supporting the health benefits of tannins is still limited and more research is needed to fully understand their effects on human health.

Chlorogenic acid is a type of polyphenolic compound that is found in various plants, including coffee, tea, and several fruits and vegetables. It is a ester of cinnamic acid and quinic acid. Chlorogenic acids are known to have antioxidant properties and may also play a role in regulating glucose metabolism and inhibiting the growth of certain types of cancer cells. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with chlorogenic acid consumption.

Anticarcinogenic agents are substances that prevent, inhibit or reduce the development of cancer. They can be natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the process of carcinogenesis at various stages, such as initiation, promotion, and progression. Anticarcinogenic agents may work by preventing DNA damage, promoting DNA repair, reducing inflammation, inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death), or modulating immune responses.

Examples of anticarcinogenic agents include chemopreventive agents, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and retinoids; phytochemicals found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods; and medications used to treat cancer, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies.

It is important to note that while some anticarcinogenic agents have been shown to be effective in preventing or reducing the risk of certain types of cancer, they may also have potential side effects and risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any anticarcinogenic agent for cancer prevention or treatment purposes.

Stilbenes are a type of chemical compound that consists of a 1,2-diphenylethylene backbone. They are phenolic compounds and can be found in various plants, where they play a role in the defense against pathogens and stress conditions. Some stilbenes have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. One well-known example of a stilbene is resveratrol, which is found in the skin of grapes and in red wine.

It's important to note that while some stilbenes have been shown to have potential health benefits in laboratory studies, more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness in humans. It's always a good idea to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Anthocyanins are a type of plant pigment that belong to the flavonoid group. They are responsible for providing colors ranging from red, purple, and blue to black in various fruits, vegetables, flowers, and leaves. Anthocyanins have been studied extensively due to their potential health benefits, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. They also play a role in protecting plants from environmental stressors such as UV radiation, pathogens, and extreme temperatures. Chemically, anthocyanins are water-soluble compounds that can form complex structures with other molecules, leading to variations in their color expression depending on pH levels.

The term "cacao" refers to the plant Theobroma cacao, which is native to tropical regions of Central and South America. It is a small evergreen tree that produces large, football-shaped fruits called pods. Each pod contains 20-60 seeds, also known as beans, which are used to make cocoa powder and chocolate.

Cacao beans contain several bioactive compounds, including flavonoids, theobromine, and caffeine, that have been shown to have potential health benefits. However, it is important to note that these benefits are typically associated with moderate consumption of cocoa products, rather than large amounts of chocolate or cacao beans themselves.

In summary, while "cacao" may be used interchangeably with "cocoa" in some contexts, the term technically refers to the plant and its seeds, rather than the processed powder or chocolate that is derived from them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malus" is not a medical term. It is a genus name in the plant kingdom, referring to the apple tree. If you have a different term or concept in mind, please provide it so I can give you an accurate definition or explanation.

Grape seed extract is not a medical term, but I can provide you with a general description and uses based on scientific and medical understanding.

Grape seed extract (GSE) is a dietary supplement derived from the ground-up seeds of grapes. It contains several bioactive compounds, including proanthocyanidins, which are potent antioxidants. GSE has been studied for its potential health benefits, such as:

1. Anti-inflammatory effects: GSE may help reduce inflammation by inhibiting the production of certain inflammatory molecules.
2. Cardiovascular health: Some research suggests that GSE could improve cardiovascular health by reducing blood pressure, increasing blood flow, and preventing platelet aggregation.
3. Antioxidant properties: The high antioxidant content in GSE helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.
4. Skin health: Topical application of GSE has been shown to improve skin hydration, elasticity, and reduce the appearance of wrinkles.
5. Neuroprotection: Preclinical studies indicate that GSE may have neuroprotective effects, potentially helping protect against age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's.

However, it is essential to note that while some research shows promising results, more high-quality clinical trials are needed to confirm these potential health benefits and establish appropriate dosages. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

Phytotherapy is the use of extracts of natural origin, especially plants or plant parts, for therapeutic purposes. It is also known as herbal medicine and is a traditional practice in many cultures. The active compounds in these plant extracts are believed to have various medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or sedative effects. Practitioners of phytotherapy may use the whole plant, dried parts, or concentrated extracts to prepare teas, capsules, tinctures, or ointments for therapeutic use. It is important to note that the effectiveness and safety of phytotherapy are not always supported by scientific evidence, and it should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

A beverage is a drink intended for human consumption. The term is often used to refer to any drink that is not alcoholic or, in other words, non-alcoholic beverages. This includes drinks such as water, juice, tea, coffee, and soda. However, it can also include alcoholic drinks like beer, wine, and spirits.

In a medical context, beverages are often discussed in relation to their impact on health. For example, sugary drinks like soda and energy drinks have been linked to obesity, diabetes, and other health problems. On the other hand, drinks like water and unsweetened tea can help to keep people hydrated and may have other health benefits.

It's important for individuals to be mindful of their beverage choices and to choose options that are healthy and support their overall well-being. This may involve limiting sugary drinks, choosing water or unsweetened tea instead of soda, and avoiding excessive caffeine intake.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

Ellagic acid is a type of polyphenol, which is a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of multiple phenol units. It is found in various fruits and vegetables, including raspberries, strawberries, pomegranates, and walnuts. Ellagic acid has been studied for its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish a clear medical definition of ellagic acid. It is not considered a medication or a treatment for any specific medical condition.

Rutin is a flavonoid, a type of plant pigment that is found in various plants and foods including citrus fruits, buckwheat, and asparagus. It has antioxidant properties and is known to help strengthen blood vessels and reduce inflammation. In medical terms, rutin may be mentioned in the context of discussing treatments for conditions related to these effects, such as varicose veins or hemorrhoids. However, it's important to note that while rutin has potential health benefits, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and proper dosages.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Photinia" is not a medical term. It is a genus of shrubs and small trees in the rose family, Rosaceae. The most commonly cultivated species is Photinia x fraseri, also known as Fraser photinia or Red Robin, which is often used in landscaping due to its attractive, glossy green leaves and clusters of white flowers followed by bright red berries.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help with those.

Pyrogallol is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to the field of pathology as a chemical reagent. Pyrogallol is an organic compound with the formula C6H3(OH)3. It is a type of phenol and can be used in histological stains to demonstrate the presence of certain enzymes or structures within tissue samples.

In a medical context, pyrogallol may be mentioned in pathology reports related to the use of this chemical in laboratory tests. However, it is not a condition or disease entity itself.

"Food analysis" is not a medical term per se, but it falls under the broader field of food science and nutrition. Food analysis refers to the laboratory methods and techniques used to determine the composition and quality of food products. This can include testing for nutrients (such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals), contaminants (like heavy metals, pesticides, or allergens), and other components that may affect the safety, quality, or authenticity of food.

The results of food analysis can be used to ensure compliance with regulatory standards, develop new food products, assess the nutritional value of diets, investigate food-borne illnesses, and monitor trends in food consumption. While not a medical definition, food analysis is an important tool for promoting public health and preventing diet-related diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Punicaceae" is not a recognized term in modern medicine or medical botany. It is possible that you may be referring to "Punica granatum," which is the scientific name for the pomegranate tree and its fruit. The pomegranate has been studied for its potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. However, I would need more context to provide a more specific definition or explanation.

Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound that is responsible for the yellow color of turmeric, a spice derived from the plant Curcuma longa. It has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for centuries due to its potential health benefits.

Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, and diabetes. It works by inhibiting the activity of several enzymes and proteins that play a role in inflammation and oxidative stress.

However, it is important to note that while curcumin has shown promise in laboratory and animal studies, its effectiveness in humans is still being researched. Moreover, curcumin has low bioavailability, which means that it is poorly absorbed and rapidly eliminated from the body, limiting its potential therapeutic use. To overcome this limitation, researchers are exploring various formulations and delivery systems to improve curcumin's absorption and stability in the body.

"Vaccinium macrocarpon" is the scientific name for the American cranberry, a type of evergreen shrub that produces berries which are commonly used in food and also have potential health benefits. The active ingredients in cranberries, including proanthocyanidins, are thought to help prevent urinary tract infections by preventing bacteria from adhering to the walls of the urinary tract. However, it is important to note that consuming cranberry products should not be considered a substitute for medical treatment for UTIs or any other health conditions.

Flavonols are a type of flavonoid, which is a class of plant and fungal metabolites. They are characterized by the presence of a 3-hydroxyflavone skeleton. Flavonols are found in a variety of plants and are known for their antioxidant properties. Some common dietary sources of flavonols include onions, kale, broccoli, apples, tea, and red wine. They have been studied for their potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Flavonols are also known to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antimicrobial properties.

Caffeic acids are a type of phenolic compounds that contain a catechol structure and a carboxylic acid group. They are found in various plants, including coffee, tea, fruits, and vegetables. The most common caffeic acid is caffeic acid itself, which is abundant in coffee. Caffeic acids have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects on human health.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hibiscus" is not a medical term. It is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. Some hibiscus species are used in traditional medicine and food products, but there isn't a single medical definition associated with the term "Hibiscus."

For example, Hibiscus sabdariffa, also known as roselle, is often used in herbal teas and has been studied for its potential health benefits. Some research suggests it may help lower blood pressure, but more studies are needed to confirm these findings and understand the mechanism of action.

If you're looking for information on a specific medical aspect related to hibiscus or its extracts, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate response.

A blueberry plant (Vaccinium spp.) is a shrub that belongs to the heath family (Ericaceae) and is known for its small, round, blue-purple berries. The term "blueberry plant" generally refers to several species within the genus Vaccinium that produce edible fruits, including highbush blueberries (V. corymbosum), lowbush blueberries (V. angustifolium), and rabbiteye blueberries (V. ashei). These plants are native to North America and can be found growing in woodlands, swamps, and sandy areas.

Blueberry plants have simple, elliptical leaves that are typically green in color but may turn red or yellow in the fall. The flowers of blueberry plants are bell-shaped and range in color from white to pink. The fruit is a small berry that contains numerous tiny seeds and is rich in antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals.

Blueberry plants are popular for their delicious fruits, which can be eaten fresh or used in a variety of culinary applications, such as pies, jams, and smoothies. The plants are also grown for ornamental purposes due to their attractive flowers and foliage. Blueberry plants prefer acidic soil with a pH between 4.0 and 5.5 and require consistent moisture and well-drained conditions to thrive.

'Crataegus' is a genus of plants in the family Rosaceae, commonly known as Hawthorns. These plants are native to Europe, Asia, and North America, and are characterized by their thorny branches and clusters of white or pink flowers that bloom in the spring. The fruit of these plants, which are small red or black berries, are often used in herbal medicine for treating heart-related conditions.

In a medical context, Crataegus is most commonly referred to as Hawthorn, and its medicinal uses are primarily related to cardiovascular health. Hawthorn extracts have been shown to improve circulation, lower blood pressure, and help regulate irregular heartbeats. It has also been used to treat anxiety and digestive issues.

It is important to note that while Hawthorn has a long history of use in traditional medicine, it should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical treatment. Before taking any herbal supplements, including Hawthorn, it is always best to consult with a healthcare provider.

The term polyphenol is not well-defined, but is generally agreed that they are natural products "having a polyphenol structure ... Polyphenols are also found in animals. In arthropods, such as insects, and crustaceans polyphenols play a role in epicuticle ... The most abundant polyphenols are the condensed tannins, found in virtually all families of plants. Larger polyphenols are ... Polyphenols were once considered as antioxidants, but this concept is obsolete. Most polyphenols are metabolized by catechol-O- ...
... (PPO; also polyphenol oxidase i, chloroplastic), an enzyme involved in fruit browning, is a tetramer that ... Polyphenol oxidase is an enzyme found throughout the plant and animal kingdoms, including most fruits and vegetables. PPO has ... In insects, cuticular polyphenol oxidases are present and their products are responsible for desiccation tolerance. Grape ... Plants make use of polyphenol oxidase as one in a suite of chemical defences against parasites. There are two types of ...
Ingestion of polyphenols occurs by consuming a wide array of plant foods.[citation needed] The regulation theory considers a ... A polyphenol antioxidant is a hypothetized type of antioxidant, in which each instance would contain a polyphenolic ... Gross, Paul (1 March 2009), New Roles for Polyphenols. A 3-Part Report on Current Regulations and the State of Science, ... Other possible effects may result from consumption of foods rich in polyphenols, but are not yet proved scientifically in ...
Natural polyphenols molecular formulas represent a class of natural aromatic organic compounds in which one or more hydroxy ...
Harborne, JB (January 1962). "Plant polyphenols. 5. Occurrence of azalein and related pigments in flowers of Plumbago and ...
Quideau, Stéphane (22 September 2009). "Why bother with Polyphenols". Groupe Polyphenols. Archived from the original on 10 ... Plant Polyphenols: 259-280. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-3476-1_15. ISBN 978-1-4613-6540-2. Plant Polyphenols: Synthesis, Properties ... The most abundant polyphenols are the condensed tannins, found in virtually all families of plants, and comprising up to 50% of ... Polyphenol Ferrell, Katie E.; Thorington, Richard W. (2006). Squirrels: the animal answer guide. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins ...
Liaison-Groupe Polyphenols. 14: 248-257. Portal: Biology v t e (EC 2.8.2, Enzymes of unknown structure, Quercetin, All stub ...
Primulin Yellow on chemicalregister.com J. B. Harborne; H. S. A. Sherratt (1961). "Plant Polyphenols: 3. Flavonoids in ...
Harborne, J.B. (1962). "Plant polyphenols: 5. Occurrence of azalein and related pigments in flowers of Plumbago and Rhododendro ...
Not like controlled test tube conditions, the fate of polyphenols in vivo shows they are poorly conserved (less than 5%), with ... The increase in antioxidant capacity of blood seen after the consumption of polyphenol-rich (ORAC-rich) foods is not caused ... As interpreted by the Linus Pauling Institute, EFSA and the USDA, dietary polyphenols have little or no direct antioxidant food ... Arts IC, Hollman PC (2005). "Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81 (1 Suppl): 317S-325S ...
The Effect of Polyphenols on Brain Aging and Diseases", Bioactive Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements in Neurological and ... "Polyphenols: antioxidants and beyond". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 81 (1): 215-217. doi:10.1093/ajcn/81.1.215S ...
Gross P (1 March 2009). "New Roles for Polyphenols. A 3-Part Report on Current Regulations and the State of Science". ... including a diverse class with non-nutrient status called polyphenols, which remain poorly understood as of 2017. ... whereas those without nutrient status are diverse polyphenols, flavonoids, resveratrol, and lignans that are present in ...
The fruits contain polyphenols. Treculia africana is a species of tree known in English as African breadfruit (Tanzania, Zambia ... The effect of a single oral dose of polyphenols obtained from the outercoat of the fruit of Treculia africana in protein- ...
Seasonal variation in polyphenol content of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. And Fucus vesiculosus (L.)". Journal of ... Ragan, Mark A.; Glombitza, K.-W. (1986). "Phlorotannins, brown algal polyphenols". Prog. Phycol. Res. 4: 129-241. Schoenwaelder ... "Chelation of divalent metal ions by brown algal polyphenols". Marine Chemistry. 7 (3): 265. Bibcode:1979MarCh...7..265R. doi: ...
There is a risk that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) degrades the phenolic content of the sample therefore there is a need to use PPO ... Gutfinger, T. (1981). "Polyphenols in olive oils". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 58 (11): 966-8. doi:10.1007/ ... F. Favaron, M. Lucchetta, S. Odorizzi, A. T. Pais da Cunha and L. Sella (2009). "The role of grape polyphenols on trans- ... Phenols Polyphenol Khoddami, A; et al. (2013). "Techniques for analysis of plant phenolic compounds". Molecules. 18 (2): 2328- ...
With the three phases oil decanter, a portion of the oil polyphenols is washed out due to the higher quantity of added water ( ... "Polyphenols in olive oils". T. Gutfinger, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, Volume 58, Number 11, 966-968, doi: ... In addition, the chemical content of the polyphenols, antioxidants, and vitamins present in the oil is reduced by higher ... Advantages Higher polyphenol content of oil Low temperature method Automated Low labor Oil/water separation step is not needed ...
Gross, P (2009). "New Roles for Polyphenols. A 3-Part report on Current Regulations & the State of Science". Nutraceuticals ...
Not like controlled test tube conditions, the fate of flavones or polyphenols in vivo shows they are poorly absorbed and poorly ... The increase in antioxidant capacity of blood seen after the consumption of polyphenol-rich (ORAC-rich) foods is not caused ... Spices, herbs, and essential oils are rich in polyphenols in the plant itself and shown with antioxidant potential in vitro. ... Flavonoids, a subset of polyphenol antioxidants, are present in many berries, as well as in coffee and tea. Examples: Myricetin ...
"Polyphenols in olive oils". T. Gutfinger, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, Volume 58, Number 11, 966-968, doi: ... Unfiltered olive oil initially has higher levels of phenolics that form a complex polyphenol-protein complex. This complex ...
Iwashina, T.; Ootani, S. (1995). "Polyphenols in Iris setosa var. canadensis and their chemotaxonomic comparisons with three ...
"Database on polyphenol content in foods, v. 3.6". Phenol Explorer. 2016. Hammerstone JF, Lazarus SA, Schmitz HH (August 2000 ... ISBN 978-0-412-11960-6. Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Rémésy C, Jiménez L (May 2004). "Polyphenols: food sources and ...
Plant Polyphenols: Synthesis, Properties, Significance. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 885. ISBN 978-0-306-44252-0. ...
Plant Polyphenols: Synthesis, Properties, Significance. Richard W. Hemingway, Peter E. Laks, Susan J. Branham (page 263) "28 ... Firstly, in the cell vacuoles where it is complexed with polyphenols. This caffeine probably is released into the mouth parts ... precipitates polyphenols and tannins. This property can be used in a quantitation method.[clarification needed] Around thirty ... and polyphenols that can form insoluble complexes with caffeine. Products containing caffeine include coffee, tea, soft drinks ...
Caffeine may not be the important component; polyphenols may be more important. Drinking two or more cups of coffee a day is ...
Polyphenols in Cereals and Legumes (1980) and Science, Agriculture, and Food Security (1995) are two other notable books ... Joseph H. Hulse (1980). Polyphenols in Cereals and Legumes. International Development Research Centre. p. 72. ISBN ... Joseph H. Hulse (1980). Polyphenols in Cereals and Legumes. International Development Research Centre. p. 72. ISBN ...
Polyphenols: ≥ 100 p.p.m. Italian products with protected designation of origin Olive oil regulation and adulteration Olive oil ...
... almost black pigmentation that arises from dense contents of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins. Total polyphenol content is ... "Total polyphenols in black chokeberry". Phenol-Explorer. 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. Wu X, Gu L, Prior RL, McKay S (2004). " ... Analysis of polyphenols in chokeberries has identified the following individual chemicals (among hundreds known to exist in the ... Breeding efforts aim to increase the content of polyphenol compounds while maintaining or increasing the fruit size. Further ...
"Antioxidative Polyphenols Isolated from Theobromacacao". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 46 (2): 454-457. doi: ...
"Polyphenols in green tea infusion". Phenol-Explorer, v 3.5. 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014. Pacheco-Palencia LA, Mertens- ... It belongs to the subgroup of polyphenols called flavonoids. The name of the catechin chemical family derives from catechu, ... Aprotosoaie AC, Miron A, Trifan A, Luca VS, Costache II (December 2016). "The Cardiovascular Effects of Cocoa Polyphenols-An ... "Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes". ...
Plant polyphenols: synthesis, properties, significance. ISBN 978-0-306-44252-0. Römpp CD 2006, Georg Thieme Verlag 2006 Etti, C ...
The term polyphenol is not well-defined, but is generally agreed that they are natural products "having a polyphenol structure ... Polyphenols are also found in animals. In arthropods, such as insects, and crustaceans polyphenols play a role in epicuticle ... The most abundant polyphenols are the condensed tannins, found in virtually all families of plants. Larger polyphenols are ... Polyphenols were once considered as antioxidants, but this concept is obsolete. Most polyphenols are metabolized by catechol-O- ...
There is no trouble so great that cannot be much diminished by a nice cup of tea" - Bernard-Paul Heroux ...
In summary, this study showed that tea polyphenols may be of interest for treating F. nucleatum-associated disorders. ... Control wells without tea polyphenols were used to determine 100% adherence values. The effect of tea polyphenols on the ... Tea polyphenols also attenuated the hemolytic activity of and H2S production by F. nucleatum. Our results suggested that green ... Tea polyphenols inhibit the growth and virulence properties of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Sci. Rep. 7, 44815; doi: 10.1038/ ...
Three different polyphenols, compounds found in wine, beer and tea, appear to significantly decrease breast cancer cells, ... Three different polyphenols, compounds found in wine, beer and tea, appear to significantly decrease breast cancer cells, ... Xanthohumol, found in beer, was the most potent polyphenol over breast cancer cell growth: it showed its effect more rapidly ... In one of the most well known examples, consumption of red wine, which contains the polyphenol resveratrol, has been associated ...
A recent study has revealed that bottled tea contain fewer polyphenols than a single cup of home-brewed tea. ... polyphenols - found in bottled tea beverages. Our analysis of tea beverages found that the polyphenol content is extremely low ... of polyphenols. The findings were discussed at the 240th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS).. Source: ANI ... Polyphenols Higher in Brewed Tea Than Bottled Tea Personalised Printable Document (PDF). Please complete this form and well ...
Among the health-promoting effects of tea and tea polyphenols, the cancer-chemopreventive effects in various animal model ... Mechanisms of hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects of tea and tea polyphenols Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006 Feb;50(2):211-7. doi: ... Among the health-promoting effects of tea and tea polyphenols, the cancer-chemopreventive effects in various animal model ... The experimental data indicated that the molecular mechanisms of fatty acid synthase gene suppression by tea polyphenols (EGCG ...
Nine polyphenol compounds were detected including 8 flavonoids and a nonflavonoid compound in the pods of all hybrids. The ... Except vanillic acid-derivative, dominant polyphenols increased or remained unchanged during ripening. As for vitamin C, its ... polyphenol, and vitamin C. The dynamics of ripening of 4 of the hybrids were also characterised. Seven capsaicinoids could be ... Determination of Polyphenols, Capsaicinoids, and Vitamin C in New Hybrids of Chili Peppers. Zsuzsa Nagy. ,1Hussein Daood. ,2 ...
The Swedish bilberry extract contains 25% polyphenols as anthocyanosides. The red grapeskin extract contains 25% polyphenols ... Jarrow Formulas Bilberry Plus Grapeskin Polyphenols -- 280 mg - 120 Veggie Caps * Shop all Jarrow Formulas ... Bilberry + Grapeskin Polyphenols is a synergistic blend of standardized flavonoid antioxidants. ...
... Study Abstract. Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of ... In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of dietary plant polyphenols as antioxidant. ... Here we present knowledge about the biological effects of plant polyphenols in the context of relevance to human health. ... studies and associated meta-analyses strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer ...
In this regard, green tea polyphenols (GrTPs) have been reported to possess properties that may increase the quality of male ... 4. Green Tea Polyphenols Improve Fertility. Tea is derived from the camellia sinensis plant in the form of green, black, and ... Rahman, S.U.; Huang, Y.; Zhu, L.; Feng, S.; Khan, I.M.; Wu, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, X. Therapeutic Role of Green Tea Polyphenols in ... Rahman, S.U.; Huang, Y.; Zhu, L.; Feng, S.; Khan, I.M.; Wu, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, X. Therapeutic Role of Green Tea Polyphenols in ...
A soy protein powder enriched with blueberry and green tea polyphenols may reduce exercise-induced susceptibility to viral ... Polyphenol-enriched protein powder shows immune benefits for athletes: Study. By Stephen DANIELLS 15-Dec-2014. - Last updated ... Cell samples from long-distance runners who ingested 40 grams per day of the polyphenol-enriched protein powder for 17 days ... On the other hand, significant anti-viral activity was observed with only the polyphenol group displaying a delay in the ...
Polyphenols are a big deal, especially to your gut health. Polyphenols are … ... Apples are super healthy for several reasons - they are low in calories, high in fiber and they contain polyphenols. ... polyphenols, preventing skin cancer, rosacea, skin, skin cancer, skin care, skin disease treatments, skin health, skin rashes, ...
E.J. BOROWSKA et al.: Polyphenols, Anthocyanins and Resveratrol in Cranberry, Food Technol. Biotechnol. 47 (1) 56-61 (2009) ... E.J. BOROWSKA et al.: Polyphenols, Anthocyanins and Resveratrol in Cranberry, Food Technol. Biotechnol. 47 (1) 56-61 (2009) ... E.J. BOROWSKA et al.: Polyphenols, Anthocyanins and Resveratrol in Cranberry, Food Technol. Biotechnol. 47 (1) 56-61 (2009) ... E.J. BOROWSKA et al.: Polyphenols, Anthocyanins and Resveratrol in Cranberry, Food Technol. Biotechnol. 47 (1) 56-61 (2009) ...
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Dietary polyphenols have gained public interest in recent times due to their roles in the prevention of various diseases that ... The findings from these data bases suggest that while dietary polyphenols may not replace the need for the existing therapies ... The findings from these data bases suggest that while dietary polyphenols may not replace the need for the existing therapies ... Dietary polyphenols have gained public interest in recent times due to their roles in the prevention of various diseases that ...
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... Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 5: 784-788. DOI: 10.3923/pjbs ... Therapeutic effects of tea polyphenols (TP) on rabbit Masugi nephritis induced by way of subcutaneous immunization were ... Effect of Tea Polyphenols on Masugi Nephritis of Rabbit table, th, td { border: 0px solid #ececec; border-collapse: collapse ...
The aim of our work was the study of the interaction of three red wine polyphenols-quercetin, resveratrol and caffeic acid- ... The measured antioxidant activity of individual polyphenols is not a constant value when other substances are present in the ... The obtained results indicate that the mutual interactions of tested polyphenols in their mixtures are markedly different from ... mixture with this polyphenol. Interactions can cause the finally observed synergy/antagonism/additive effects without any ...
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Hence, we discuss the effects of these polyphenols on a number of signaling pathways. We note that Mediterranean diet (MedDiet ... In this review, we highlight the impact of the most common polyphenols from Mediterranean foods on molecular mechanisms that ... MedDiet polyphenols are also effective in upregulating downstream effectors of several proteins, chiefly AMPK. ... Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Polyphenols Contained in Mediterranean Diet in Obesity: Molecular Mechanisms ...
The study results suggest that the palm polyphenols may slow the rate of blood sugar absorption. Palm polyphenols also may have ... Palm juice was provided as a drink or mixed into the diet to provide palm polyphenol intakes from 170 to 720mg gallic acid ... The protection was directly related to the palm polyphenol amount received. No negative effects on growth or energy intake were ... A clinical study just began in Malaysia to study the effect of palm polyphenols supplementation on pre-diabetics. Malaysian ...
The main outcomes were: (i) NADES were as effective as other conventional green solvents in the extraction of polyphenols with ... as sustainable green solvents for the extraction of polyphenols from spent coffee ground (SCG), a by-product of coffee ... NADES were as effective as other conventional green solvents in the extraction of polyphenols with the added advantage of ... as sustainable green solvents for the extraction of polyphenols from spend coffee ground (SCG), a by-product of coffee ...
Polyphenols and caffeine. Polyphenols were measured using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method [23]. Before ... Polyphenols compounds are well known as natural pesticides for plants [17]. For human health polyphenols are strong ... Total polyphenols. According to the data shown in Tables 1 and 2 the cultivation method, roasting degree, and storage have a ... Król, K., Gantner, M., Tatarak, A. et al. The content of polyphenols in coffee beans as roasting, origin and storage effect. ...
Acknowledging that polyphenols arent only present in wine, she said that a study looking at the key sources of these products ... Effects of Polyphenols on Thermogenesis and Mitochondrial Biogenesis. The nutritional composition of wine:. *Energy: 85kcal/ ... Polyphenols - which are present in high concentrations in red wine - can increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, and are ... Concluding, she said that "a higher intake of foods rich in polyphenols, such the ones that are present in red wine, seem to ...
Colon-available raspberry polyphenols exhibit anti-cancer effects on in vitro models of colon cancer. J Carcinog. 2007 April 18 ... The ORAC value of a given food is proportional to its polyphenol content. Fruits and vegetables with a higher ORAC value-or ... In a recent clinical study, a blend of complete açaí polyphenols increased antioxidant capacity three-fold in the blood of ... In a recent clinical study, a blend of complete açaí polyphenols increased antioxidant capacity three-fold in the blood of ...
Unveiling the Wonders of Polyphenols: Your Ultimate Guide to Benefits, Supplements, and More. Explore what they are, how they ... What Are Polyphenols?. Polyphenols are nutrients found in plants that are responsible for their health-promoting properties. ... Health Benefits of Polyphenols. Polyphenols offer plants protection against the suns radiation and help defend against disease ... Are You Getting Enough Polyphenols?. Despite the health benefits of polyphenols, only 1 out of 10 adults meets the recommended ...
Explore the sensory qualities of organic and conventional wines with varying polyphenol concentrations. Find out if health ... Discover the impact of dietary polyphenols on health and taste perception. ... In plants, polyphenols contribute to resistance to pathogens due to their potent astringency and function as phytoalexins. As a ... Since polyphenols also play an important role in the sensory qualities of fruits and wines particularly involving astringency ...
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  • Polyphenols include flavonoids, tannic acid, and ellagitannin, some of which have been used historically as dyes and for tanning garments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous experiments have shown that certain polyphenols, mainly flavonoids, can protect against heart disease and have anticancer, antiviral and antiallergic properties. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Nine polyphenol compounds were detected including 8 flavonoids and a nonflavonoid compound in the pods of all hybrids. (hindawi.com)
  • "The mechanism by which [polyphenol soy protein complex] and other flavonoids provide protection from virus infections remains to be determined," ​wrote Ahmed and her co-workers. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Polyphenol is an umbrella term that includes nutrients such as flavonoids, anthocyanins, catechins, lignans and many others. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • Over five thousand flavonoids have been identified, which comprise the most abundant group of plant Polyphenols next to Stilbenes (resveratrol, pinosylvin, isorhapontin), Lignans (nuts, seeds, and whole grain cereal sources), and Phenolic acids (found in a variety of foods). (acu-cell.com)
  • As a group with other polyphenols, flavonoids - and Bioflavonoid Complex Supplements - have been found to reduce the development of cardiovascular disease, [1] cancer, osteoporosis, and provide many other health benefits as a result of their antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and at times anti-allergenic properties. (acu-cell.com)
  • There are about 8,000 different forms of polyphenols, including flavonoids like quercetin and catechins found in fruits. (thebusinessresearchcompany.com)
  • Flavonoids, a class of polyphenols, have exhibited multifaceted implications against several diseases including cancer, without showing significant toxicity towards the normal cells. (lu.se)
  • It is high in flavonoids, polyphenols, and catechins. (msdmanuals.com)
  • citation needed] Polyphenols are reactive species toward oxidation, hence their description as antioxidants in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Li and colleagues measured the level of polyphenols - a group of natural antioxidants linked to anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties - of six brands of tea purchased from supermarkets. (medindia.net)
  • Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Polyphenols from fruits and berries are an abundant source of antioxidants in a healthy diet. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • Mesquite smoked grilled salmon, steamed asparagus and a crisp salad with shredded cabbage, mandarin, carrot and sesame, olive oil dressing is loaded with omega 3's and colorful polyphenols to boost heart health, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory support. (lifeupright.com)
  • Eating a rainbow of colorful veggies in your salads will boost your intake of Polyphenol antioxidants. (lifeupright.com)
  • Despite this, the current state of research is that polyphenols act as antioxidants in the human body. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • Malaysian palm oil is a rich source of polyphenols, including carotenes and tocotrienols . (mpoc.org.my)
  • Nut skins are considered to be a rich source of polyphenols and may be partially responsible for the numerous health effects associated with nut consumption. (nuthealth.org)
  • citation needed] Ellagic acid, a molecule at the core of naturally occurring phenolic compounds of varying sizes, is itself not a polyphenol by the WBSSH definition, but is by the Quideau definition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three different polyphenols, compounds found in wine, beer and tea, appear to significantly decrease breast cancer cells, according to new research from Portugal, which goes against previous findings showing that alcohol raises the risk of breast cancer. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The coffee beverage is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially polyphenols, such as phenolic acids, mostly chlorogenic (in green beans) and caffeic (occurring after roasting). (springer.com)
  • Polyphenols belong to one of the most interesting classes of compounds in nature with antioxidative potential. (teknoscienze.com)
  • Studies of plant extracts and compounds show that polyphenols can play a beneficial role in the prevention and the progress of chronic diseases related to inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, neurodegeneration, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases, among other conditions. (scienceopen.com)
  • This study investigated the effect of the molecular weight and stereochemistry of polyphenol compounds on two important properties of dentin, biomechanics, and biostability. (bjonnh.net)
  • Polyphenols are also referred to as aromatic compounds. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • At present, many thousands of compounds are referred to as polyphenols. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • In one of the most well known examples, consumption of red wine, which contains the polyphenol resveratrol, has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The aim of our work was the study of the interaction of three red wine polyphenols-quercetin, resveratrol and caffeic acid-alone and in their equimolar binary and ternary mixtures in different antioxidant/scavenging assays (inhibition of 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation by hydroxyl radical, FRAP, Fe(III) reducing power, DPPH, ABTS and NO scavenging, respectively). (mdpi.com)
  • Polyphenols used in skin treatment include tea polyphenols (like epicatechin), silymarin, quercetin, resveratrol and tannins (hydrolysable and condensed substances such as proanthocyanidins). (teknoscienze.com)
  • El resveratrol es una sustancia química que se encuentra principalmente en las uvas rojas y los productos elaborados con estas uvas (vino, jugo). (medlineplus.gov)
  • El resveratrol puede tener muchos efectos en el cuerpo, incluida la expansión de los vasos sanguíneos y la reducción de la coagulación de la sangre. (medlineplus.gov)
  • El uso de un aerosol nasal que contiene resveratrol tres veces al día durante 4 semanas parece reducir los síntomas de alergia en adultos con alergias estacionales. (medlineplus.gov)
  • La ingesta de resveratrol parece aumentar la pérdida de peso en adultos obesos y con sobrepeso. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Las personas que consumen mayores cantidades de resveratrol en la dieta no parecen tener un riesgo menor de enfermedad cardíaca en comparación con las personas que consumen cantidades más bajas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Además, tomar resveratrol por vía oral no parece mejorar los niveles de colesterol o grasas en sangre llamadas triglicéridos en personas con riesgo de enfermedad cardíaca. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tomar resveratrol por vía oral no parece reducir la presión arterial, el azúcar en la sangre o el colesterol en personas con síndrome metabólico. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tomar resveratrol por vía oral no parece mejorar la función hepática, las cicatrización del hígado o los niveles de colesterol en personas con EHGNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hay interés en usar el resveratrol para otros propósitos, pero no hay suficiente información confiable para decir si podría ser útil. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Las personas a menudo consumen resveratrol en pequeñas cantidades en los alimentos. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Los suplementos de resveratrol son posiblemente seguros cuando se toman por vía oral en dosis de hasta 1500 mg al día durante un máximo de 3 meses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Es probable que el resveratrol sea seguro cuando se usa en las cantidades que se encuentran en algunos alimentos. (medlineplus.gov)
  • El resveratrol se encuentra en la piel de la uva, el jugo de uva, el vino y otras fuentes alimenticias. (medlineplus.gov)
  • La gente suele consumir resveratrol en pequeñas cantidades en los alimentos. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each group evaluated the sensory qualities of a geographically paired organic (OW) and conventional wine (CW) and an artificially colored white wine placebo (PW) with significantly differing total polyphenol concentrations (TP). (scirp.org)
  • K. Martin and K. Rasmussen, "Comparison of Sensory Qualities of Geographically Paired Organic and Conventional Red Wines from the Southwestern US with Differing Total Polyphenol Concentrations: A Randomized Pilot Study," Food and Nutrition Sciences , Vol. 2 No. 10, 2011, pp. 1150-1159. (scirp.org)
  • The urinary excretion of these microbial metabolites was estimated to account for a larger proportion of the total polyphenol ingested than phase II metabolites of (epi) catechin, indicating the important role of intestinal bacteria in the metabolism of highly polymerized almond skin polyphenols. (nuthealth.org)
  • Active ingredients of plant origin such as polyphenols and phenolic acids are enjoying increased acceptance in both the food and cosmetics industries. (teknoscienze.com)
  • The experimental data indicated that the molecular mechanisms of fatty acid synthase gene suppression by tea polyphenols (EGCG, theaflavins) may invite down-regulation of EGFR/PI3K/Akt/Sp-1 signal transduction pathways. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol component of green tea, in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEpiC). (molvis.org)
  • In this study, a range of different microbes and an osteoblast-like cell line (human fetal osteoblast, hFOB) were used to assess the combined effect of: (1) green tea extract (GTE), rich in the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and (2) whey protein isolate (WPI), rich in bLG. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The polyphenols refer to micronutrients found naturally in plants. (thebusinessresearchcompany.com)
  • Polyphenols are micronutrients present in a variety of foods, which gained interest over the last 30 years due to their antioxidant properties and their emerging role in the prevention of several diseases linked to oxidative stress such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders [ 1 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The positive effect of polyphenols in the human body has not yet been researched enough to be able to definitively say that major effects are recognizable. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • The most relevant scientific evidence reporting the benefic effect of polyphenols on chronic disorders refers to the so-called French paradox [ 4 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Find out how these and other findings confirm berry polyphenols' unrivalled capacity to blunt free radical damage and thwart degenerative disease. (lifeextension.com)
  • A growing body of scientific evidence shows that berry polyphenols' antioxidant capacity powerfully targets numerous degenerative diseases, from cancer and atherosclerosis to impaired glucose control and blood lipid abnormalities. (lifeextension.com)
  • This is why fruits, especially berries, and vegetables are good sources of polyphenols. (zoneliving.com)
  • To give a sense of what 1,000mg of polyphenols per day looks like, it could be approximately 5 ½ cups of broccoli, 1 ½ cups of blueberries, 2 ¼ cups of strawberries or a combination of various fruits and vegetables. (zoneliving.com)
  • Despite the health benefits of polyphenols, only 1 out of 10 adults meets the recommended 5 to 9 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. (zoneliving.com)
  • Since most of us fall short on our intake of fruits and vegetables, let alone meet Dr. Sears' recommended 10 servings per day, supplementing with purified polyphenols is a great way to fill in the gaps. (zoneliving.com)
  • Only about 2-20% of the polyphenols in fruits and vegetables are absorbed into the body which is why you need higher intakes of fruits and vegetables (about 10 servings per day) to see significant health gains. (zoneliving.com)
  • A number of vegetables contain polyphenols, though not in as high concentrations as fruit. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • Polyphenols are found in many supplements and can easily get into the diet through fruits, vegetables, teas, and spices. (thebusinessresearchcompany.com)
  • abundant cereals, legumes, fruit, vegetables and wine) significantly increased the intake of antioxidant molecules, including polyphenols, which along with other factors may have modulated the cognitive evolution of humans. (unimi.it)
  • In order to absorb the full content of polyphenols, it is important that you also eat the skin or peel of fruits and vegetables, as this is where most of the polyphenols in these foods are found. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • In addition, polyphenols also contribute to the taste, smell and color of fruits and vegetables. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • Moreover, a Mediterranean dietary pattern composed of food rich in polyphenols, such as olive oil, legumes, fruits, and vegetables, is associated with a lower risk of CVD incidence and mortality [ 12 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The rest had small amounts of polyphenols that Li said probably would carry little health benefit, especially when considering the high sugar intake from tea beverages. (medindia.net)
  • Polyphenol intake and cardiovascular risk in the PREDIMED-Plus trial. (revespcardiol.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the profiles of both phase II and microbial-derived phenolic metabolites in plasma and urine samples before and after the intake of almond skin polyphenols by healthy human subjects (n = 2). (nuthealth.org)
  • Li pointed out that in addition to the low polyphenol content, bottled commercial tea contains other substances, including large amounts of sugar and the accompanying calories that health-conscious consumers may be trying to avoid. (medindia.net)
  • Polyphenols are naturally occurring substances that can only be found in plants. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • This means that the cells of the body are protected from harmful substances by the polyphenols. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • In addition, they also contain other healthy substances, such as polyphenols", says Anne Nilsson. (lu.se)
  • The water solubility of polyphenols is critical because if they don't get in your body, they can't activate AMPK, a gene transcription factor that controls how we generate energy and regulate our metabolism. (zoneliving.com)
  • Polyphenols are also secondary products of plant metabolism, whose main function is to protect organisms from damage by ultraviolet radiation and pathogens [ 2 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Coffee also has vasodilatory effects and contains antioxidant polyphenols, which reduce oxidative stress and modulate metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • However, there is a huge gap between the perception that tea consumption is healthy and the actual amount of the healthful nutrients - polyphenols - found in bottled tea beverages. (medindia.net)
  • Polyphenols are nutrients found in plants that are responsible for their health-promoting properties. (zoneliving.com)
  • But they also boast another class of nutrients called phytonutrients, of which a large percentage is known as polyphenols. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • Because polyphenols are generally not vital nutrients for humans, since they are not needed to sustain the human body. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • Phenolic acid include caffeic acid Lignans are polyphenols derived from phenylalanine found in Flax seed and other cereals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that polyphenols in pomegranates help inhibit the growth of cancer cells in different parts of the body. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • This establishes a conundrum where dietary polyphenols are healthful but potentially unpalatable.We recruited and randomized 18 female participants (21 - 50 y) to one of five groups (3 - 4 per group). (scirp.org)
  • There are two ways you can get amazing, healthful polyphenols into your system: foods and supplements. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • Chocoholics rejoice-your favorite treat is filled with healthful polyphenols! (thesynergycompany.com)
  • Along with a healthful diet, the right polyphenol-containing supplements can assist you with your health goals. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • In this regard, green tea polyphenols (GrTPs) have been reported to possess properties that may increase the quality of male and female gametes, mostly via the capability of catechins to reduce ROS production. (mdpi.com)
  • Swedish bilberry extract contains 25% polyphenols as anthocyanosides. (vitacost.com)
  • The red grapeskin extract contains 25% polyphenols including anthochyanins. (vitacost.com)
  • Purified Maqui Extract - supplies 120mg of polyphenols. (zoneliving.com)
  • High-potency Cocoa Polyphenol extract. (zoneliving.com)
  • High-potency Cocoa Polyphenol extract with purified Maqui extract. (zoneliving.com)
  • Polyphenols (PPs) are reactive metabolites abundant in plant derived foods, especially fruits, seeds and leaves. (bvsalud.org)
  • On the other hand, adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet is highly encouraged because of its healthy dietary pattern, which includes antioxidant nutraceuticals such as polyphenols. (nih.gov)
  • After consuming a blend of açaí polyphenols, researchers recorded a three-fold increase in antioxidant capacity in the blood of healthy human volunteers. (lifeextension.com)
  • Much research has identified polyphenols role in helping to maintain a healthy balance of cholesterol and blood pressure, and for enhancing the strength of your heart and blood vessels. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • Certain polyphenols can help offset this and support healthy memory and cognition. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • Polyphenols support the healthy microorganisms inside our gastrointestinal system that play a very important role in our overall state of health. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • Because the polyphenols, which are mainly found in the skin and in the kernels, are said to have a healthy effect on the human body. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • Are Polyphenols Healthy and Can They Help Cure Disease? (sundtsupplements.com)
  • Accordingly, a low to moderate consumption of alcoholic drinks rich of polyphenols, such as red wine, was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events [ 5 ] , and with a reduced mortality risk in healthy subjects, due to a decrease in coronary events, and also in patients with documented cardiovascular diseases (CVD) [ 6 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • In this review, we highlight the impact of the most common polyphenols from Mediterranean foods on molecular mechanisms that mediate obesity-related oxidative stress and inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • We note that Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) dietary polyphenols can de-regulate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) and NF-κB-mediated oxidative stress, and metabolic inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Polyphenols take on inflammation (and win! (thesynergycompany.com)
  • These are high purity, high-potency cocoa polyphenol extracts. (zoneliving.com)
  • Learn more about our polyphenol-rich, organic SuperPure® Extracts and Superfoods for optimal health. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • The study results suggest that the palm polyphenols may slow the rate of blood sugar absorption. (mpoc.org.my)
  • To the authors' knowledge this study constitutes the most complete report of the absorption of almond skin polyphenols in humans. (nuthealth.org)
  • Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation or aggression by pathogens. (wellnessresources.com)
  • In addition, numerous metabolites derived from further microbial degradation of hydroxyphenylvalerolactones, including hydroxyphenylpropionic, hydroxyphenylacetic, hydroxycinnamic, hydroxybenzoic, and hydroxy hippuric acids, registered major changes in urine after the consumption of almond skin polyphenols. (nuthealth.org)
  • The usage of herbal medicines and polyphenols or nutraceuticals is quickly expanding across the world, with many individuals increasingly turning to these products for the treatment of various health concerns in various national healthcare settings. (thebusinessresearchcompany.com)
  • Polyphenols are often larger molecules (macromolecules). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are over 8,000 identified polyphenols found in fruits, veggies, seeds, beans, spices, and herbs and in everything from wine and turmeric to grape seeds and olive oil. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • Researchers have found that many of the increasingly popular beverages included in the study contain fewer polyphenols than a single cup of home-brewed green or black tea. (medindia.net)
  • Our analysis of tea beverages found that the polyphenol content is extremely low," said Li. (medindia.net)
  • Coffee is one of the most polyphenol-rich beverages in the world. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • Mainly found in the fruit skins and seeds, high levels of polyphenols may reflect only the measured extractable polyphenol (EPP) content of a fruit which may also contain non-extractable polyphenols. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polyphenol content in pungent peppers is found to be influenced by genotype and the ripening process [ 18 - 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The objective of the present work is to investigate capsaicinoid, polyphenol, and vitamin C content in six hybrids of chili pepper (Bandai, Beibeihong, Lolo, Chili 3735, Fire Flame, and Star Flame) using recently developed liquid chromatographic method in the determinations. (hindawi.com)
  • The well-known antioxidant activity of red wine is explained mostly by its polyphenols content, where the final effect is based on the wine components' interaction. (mdpi.com)
  • The ORAC value of a given food is proportional to its polyphenol content. (lifeextension.com)
  • The more colorful the plant, generally the higher the polyphenol content. (zoneliving.com)
  • The global polyphenols market size grew from $1.87 billion in 2022 to $2.1 billion in 2023 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.3% . (thebusinessresearchcompany.com)
  • Polyphenols and Ischemic Stroke" Encyclopedia , https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/11184 (accessed December 07, 2023). (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Six hybrids were subjected to chromatographic analyses by HPLC for the determination of phytochemicals such as capsaicinoid, polyphenol, and vitamin C. The dynamics of ripening of 4 of the hybrids were also characterised. (hindawi.com)
  • In the last decade, there has been much interest in the potential health benefits of dietary plant polyphenols as antioxidant. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Here we present knowledge about the biological effects of plant polyphenols in the context of relevance to human health. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Polyphenols are a big deal, especially to your gut health. (janethull.com)
  • However, more bioavailability studies of nut skin polyphenols are needed to understand the health effects derived from nut consumption. (nuthealth.org)
  • Polyphenols have been claimed to have health-promoting effects like anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti-aging, anti-thrombotic and anti-allergic, also govern cellular processes and have metal chelating functions. (teknoscienze.com)
  • The polyphenols in coffee can help support your health in many ways. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • Polyphenols can aid in gut health and boost. (lifeupright.com)
  • Better knowledge of dietary polyphenols could offer a very economical public health intervention in maintaining oral health. (bvsalud.org)
  • Polyphenols (/ˌpɒliˈfiːnoʊl, -nɒl/) are a large family of naturally occurring phenols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optimization of the Extraction Methodology of Grape Pomace Polyphenols for Food Applications. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dietary polyphenols have gained public interest in recent times due to their roles in the prevention of various diseases that implicate free radicals/reactive oxygen species. (frontiersin.org)
  • 0.05) were reported as regards the mass fractions of polyphenols and anthocyanins in the fruit of the analysed cultivars. (researchgate.net)
  • Epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Glucuronide, O-methyl glucuronide, sulfate, and O-methyl sulfate derivatives of (epi) catechin, as well as the glucuronide conjugates of naringenin and glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of isorhamnetin, were detected in plasma and urine samples after consumption of almond skin polyphenols. (nuthealth.org)
  • Since consumption of a diet rich in polyphenols has been associated with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, we studied the effects of twenty-five stilbenoids isolated from Milicia excelsa, Morus alba, Gnetum africanum, and Vitis vinifera. (bjonnh.net)
  • Therapeutic effects of tea polyphenols (TP) on rabbit Masugi nephritis induced by way of subcutaneous immunization were determined by Dexamethasone as a control reagent. (scialert.net)
  • Hence, we discuss the effects of these polyphenols on a number of signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
  • I. Lesschaeve and A. Noble, "Polyphenols: Factors Influencing Their Sensory Properties and Their Effects on Food and Beverage Preferences," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 1, 2005, pp. 330S-335S. (scirp.org)
  • In the following article you will find out what polyphenols are and what positive effects they can have on your body. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • We will also show you how much research has been done on the effects of polyphenols and which foods contain many polyphenols. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • As you have already learned, polyphenols have various effects on the body. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • A soy protein powder enriched with blueberry and green tea polyphenols may reduce exercise-induced susceptibility to viral infection, says a new study from North Carolina. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Tea polyphenols are found in black and green tea leaves. (thesynergycompany.com)
  • Therefore, the rapid growth in awareness of herbal products is expected to boost demand for polyphenols during the forecast period. (thebusinessresearchcompany.com)
  • Figure 1 reports the most common polyphenols and their dietary sources. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Schematic representation of polyphenols and their related dietary sources. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Xanthohumol, found in beer, was the most potent polyphenol over breast cancer cell growth: it showed its effect more rapidly and at a lower concentration than the others. (nutraingredients.com)
  • It has been found in several studies that polyphenols make a positive contribution to the healing of cancer. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • Dans une étude cas-témoins non appariés en milieu hospitalier, 108 personnes atteintes d'un cancer et 105 témoins ont été interrogés sur leurs apports alimentaires en recourant à la version en langue arabe d'un questionnaire validé sur la fréquence de consommation alimentaire. (who.int)
  • K. R. Martin and C. Appel, "Polyphenols as Dietary Supplements: A Double-Edged Sword," Nutrition and Dietary Supplements, Vol. 2010, No. 2, 2009, pp. 1-12. (scirp.org)
  • She also told the audience why the term 'empty calories' was misleading when used to describe wine, which contains a range of beneficial minerals, vitamins and polyphenols. (thedrinksbusiness.com)
  • Rising awareness about the benefits of herbal products over synthetic drugs is significantly contributing to the growth of the polyphenols market. (thebusinessresearchcompany.com)
  • Although red wine contains polyphenols, other foods have significantly more polyphenols. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • The highest polyphenol mass fraction was determined in Ben Lear (374.2 mg per 100 g of fresh mass), while Early Richard was the richest source of anthocyanins (77.1 mg per 100 g of fresh mass). (researchgate.net)
  • Palm juice was provided as a drink or mixed into the diet to provide palm polyphenol intakes from 170 to 720mg gallic acid equivalents per kilogram of body weight. (mpoc.org.my)
  • Polyphenols regulate immunity by interfering with immune cell regulation, proinflammatory cytokines' synthesis, and gene expression. (scienceopen.com)
  • Thus, polyphenols support the killing of pathogens and help strengthen the immune system. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • A growing number of dietary intervention studies in humans and animals and in particular those using polyphenol-rich diets have been proposed to exert a multiplicity of neuroprotective actions within the brain, including a potential to protect neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins, an ability to suppress neuroinflammation and a potential to promote memory, learning, and cognitive functions. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Polyphenols exert preventive activity against infectious and degenerative diseases including oral diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • The researchers, led by Dr Maryam Ahmed from the Appalachian State University, recruited 31 long-distance runners and randomly assigned then to one of two groups: The first group received 40 grams per day of the polyphenol soy protein complex or placebo (soy protein plus colorings) for 17 days. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The findings from these data bases suggest that while dietary polyphenols may not replace the need for the existing therapies in the management of BPH, they hold promise in BPH management which could be explored by researchers working in this field. (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers worldwide are studying the effect of palm's polyphenols on diabetes, and so far, the results are very encouraging. (mpoc.org.my)
  • Hence, many larger polyphenols are biosynthesized in-situ from smaller polyphenols to non-hydrolyzable tannins and remain undiscovered in the plant matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyphenols protect the plant from "predators" or also attract insects for pollination. (sundtsupplements.com)
  • Since polyphenols also play an important role in the sensory qualities of fruits and wines particularly involving astringency and bitterness, there may be differences that affect sensory perceptions of wine. (scirp.org)
  • a cup of tea or coffee or a glass of red wine contains about 100 mg of polyphenols [ 3 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)