Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Relating to the size of solids.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.
(T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.
Synthetic polymers: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG)... Binders are classified according to their ... Occasionally, other coating materials are used, for example synthetic polymers, shellac, corn protein zein or other ... Examples include cellulose, methyl cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyethylene glycol. Tablet coatings protect tablet ... Examples of disintegrants include: Crosslinked polymers: crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone (crospovidone), crosslinked sodium ...
Polyethylene glycol was chosen as the polymer. In 1981 Davis and Abuchowski founded Enzon, Inc., which brought three PEGylated ... Evolution of polymer conjugation to proteins", Polymer-Protein Conjugates, Elsevier, pp. 3-22, doi:10.1016/b978-0-444-64081- ... The first step of the PEGylation is the suitable functionalization of the PEG polymer at one or both ends. PEGs that are ... In both vaccines, the bubbles are coated with a stabilizing molecule of polyethylene glycol. As of December 2020, there is some ...
... polymers can be mixed with a wide variety of additives to achieve many different property variations. Nylon polymers have ... Lakouraj, Moslem Mansour; Mokhtary, Masoud (2009-02-20). "Synthesis of polyamides from p-Xylylene glycol and dinitriles". ... It wasn't until the beginning of 1935 that a polymer called "polymer 6-6" was finally produced. Carothers' coworker, Washington ... In general linear polymers are the most useful, but it is possible to introduce branches in nylon by the condensation of ...
Additionally many nylon polymers are miscible with one another allowing the creation of blends. Production of polymers requires ... Additionally, polyamides can be synthesized from glycols and dinitriles using this method as well. Polyamide-imide Pyrrole- ... Polymers of amino acids are known as polypeptides or proteins. According to the composition of their main chain, synthetic ... The amine group and the carboxylic acid group can be on the same monomer, or the polymer can be constituted of two different ...
Ethylene glycol-prevents formation of scale deposits in the pipe. Borate salts-used for maintaining fluid viscosity during the ... Sodium chloride (salt)-delays breakdown of gel polymer chains. Polyacrylamide and other friction reducers decrease turbulence ... and ethylene glycol. Typical fluid types are: Conventional linear gels. These gels are cellulose derivative (carboxymethyl ...
... ethylene glycol)-protein conjugate drugs". Polymer Chemistry. 2 (7): 1442-1448. doi:10.1039/c1py00034a. Maynard, Heather D. ( ... "Polymer Chemistry Author of the Week - Heather Maynard - Polymer Chemistry Blog". Retrieved 2019-09-27. "Maynard, Heather D. - ... If polymers only contain side-chain trehalose, they can stabilise a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and degrade via ... Her research considers polymer materials, including arrays, films for patterning, bioactive proteins and new ways to develop ...
... ethylene glycol) methacrylates and clay". European Polymer Journal. 69: 472-482. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2015.03.072. Gaharwar ... These polymers need to be made up of equally spaced out, 30 nm in diameter, clay platelets that can swell and exfoliate in the ... A range of natural and synthetic polymers are used to design nanocomposite network. By controlling the interactions between ... The responsiveness of hydrogels is a result of their molecular structure and polymer networks. Hydrogel nanoparticles have a ...
"Molecular Layer Deposition of Alucone Polymer Films Using Trimethylaluminum and Ethylene Glycol". Chemistry of Materials. 20 ( ... "Molecular Layer Deposition of Alucone Polymer Films Using Trimethylaluminum and Ethylene Glycol". Chemistry of Materials. 20 ( ... Because glycerol has an additional hydroxyl group compared to ethylene glycol and is able to provide an extra reactive hydroxyl ... Yoshimura T, Kudo Y (16 January 2009). "Monomolecular-Step Polymer Wire Growth from Seed Core Molecules by the Carrier-Gas-Type ...
They join together to form short polymer chains called peptides or longer chains called either polypeptides or proteins. These ... ethylene glycol)". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 55 (4): 447-466. doi:10.1016/S0169-409X(03)00038-3. PMID 12706045. Drauz K, ... An interesting example of such materials is polyaspartate, a water-soluble biodegradable polymer that may have applications in ... Sanda F, Endo T (1999). "Syntheses and functions of polymers based on amino acids". Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics. 200 ( ...
Various polymers, typically acrylates, are the next major component, conferring gloss and holding the dyes in suspension. ... Fatty phosphate esters, emulsifiers, and glycols are also used. Pigments include titanium dioxide for whites and iron oxides ...
Subsequent studies demonstrated polymer electrolytes made from polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEDGA) and polytetrahydrofuran ( ... Polymer electrolytes have also been examined. One of the first samples of a polymer electrolyte was PVA/PVP complexed with ... ACS Applied Polymer Materials. 1 (7): 1837-1844. doi:10.1021/acsapm.9b00371. "Opening the door to liquid-free polymer ... Genier, Francielli S.; Burdin, Cameron V.; Biria, Saeid; Hosein, Ian D. (2019-02-28). "A novel calcium-ion solid polymer ...
The most common polymers used in bio-MEMS include PMMA, PDMS, OSTEmer and SU-8. Microscale manipulation and patterning of ... Various other surface treatments also exist, including polyethylene glycol, bovine serum albumin, and silicon dioxide. There ... Many polymers are also optically transparent and can be integrated into systems that use optical detection techniques such as ... Surface chemistry of polymers can also be modified for specific applications. Specifically, the surface of PDMSs can be ion- ...
EO/PO based defoamers contain polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol copolymers. They are delivered as oils, water ... Silicone-based defoamers are polymers with silicon backbones. These might be delivered as an oil or a water based emulsion. The ... The silicone compound might also contain silicone glycols and other modified silicone fluids. These are also heavy duty ... Commonly used agents are insoluble oils, polydimethylsiloxanes and other silicones, certain alcohols, stearates and glycols. ...
... containing styrene glycol units". European Polymer Journal. 36 (12): 2693-2698. doi:10.1016/S0014-3057(00)00057-4. Monvisade, ... Copolymerizing styrene glycol with adipic acid and ethylene glycol can result in phenyl side chains being added to PEA. Adding ... Regardless of the manner of banding, PEA polymer chains pack into a monoclinic crystal structure (some polymers may pack into ... Polymer. 51 (3): 807-815. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2009.11.065. Boztuğ, Ali; Basan, Satilmiş (March 2007). "The modification and ...
For example, cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM) can be added to the polymer backbone in place of ethylene glycol. Since this building ... Partial glycolysis (transesterification with ethylene glycol) converts the rigid polymer into short-chained oligomers that can ... For adjusting the viscosity, however, an addition of chain length modifier like ethylene glycol or diethylene glycol can also ... Polyester makes up about 18% of world polymer production and is the fourth-most-produced polymer after polyethylene (PE), ...
The surface can be functionalized first with a polymer resin such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Recent research has focused on ... Chitosan is a polymer obtained from chitin in arthropod shells, and has been used for its antibacterial properties for a while ... Assembly thickness and polymer-peptide interactions can affect the diffusion of peptide to bacterial contact. Further research ... In alternative, it is possible to functionalize a surface by adsorbing a polymer or polypeptide and/or by changing its micro ...
... ethylene glycol) Polymer Electrolyte". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 120 (48): 12696-12697. doi:10.1021/ja983183m. ...
... (GNA) is a polymer similar to DNA or RNA but differing in the composition of its "backbone". GNA is not ... The glycol unit has just three carbon atoms and still shows Watson-Crick base pairing. The Watson-Crick base pairing is much ... Zhang L, Peritz A, Meggers E (March 2005). "A simple glycol nucleic acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127 (12): ... DNA and RNA have a deoxyribose and ribose sugar backbone, respectively, whereas GNA's backbone is composed of repeating glycol ...
These PEG chains consist of about 225 ethylene glycol units each (10 kg/mol PEG). Dalbeth, N; Merriman, TR; Stamp, LK (22 ... Abraham J. Domb, Neeraj Kumar (2 August 2011). Biodegradable Polymers in Clinical Use and Clinical Development. John Wiley & ... Biggers, K; Scheinfeldt, N (2008). "Pegloticase, a polyethylene glycol conjugate of uricase for the potential intravenous ...
Gurunathan T, Mohanty S, Nayak SK (January 2016). "Hyperbranched polymers for coating applications: a review". Polymer-Plastics ... "Synthesis of elastic biodegradable polyesters of ethylene glycol and butylene glycol from sebacic acid". Acta Biomaterialia. 8 ... This means the polymer melt is directly converted into the textile fibers or filaments without the common step of pelletizing. ... To assemble a polymer, the water formed by the reaction must be continually removed by azeotrope distillation. When melting ...
... , also known as octamethylene glycol, is a diol with the molecular formula HO(CH2)8OH. 1,8-Octanediol is a white ... 1,8-Octanediol is used as a monomer in the synthesis of some polymers such as polyesters and polyurethanes. As with other fatty ... Ethylene glycol 1,2-Octanediol Noweck, Klaus; Grafahrend, Wolfgang (2006). "Fatty Alcohols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
EDOT is converted into the conducting polymer PEDOT by oxidation. The mechanism for this conversion begins with production of ... Representative is the reaction of 2,3-butanedione, trimethylorthoformate, and ethylene glycol to form the dioxane. ... EDOT is the precursor to the polymer PEDOT, which is found in electrochromic displays, photovoltaics, electroluminescent ... ISBN 978-1-4200-6912-9. Jonas, F.; Schrader, L. (1991). "Conductive Modifications of Polymers with Polypyrroles and ...
Now the team substituted diamines for glycols to produce a type of polymer called a polyamide. These substances were much more ... The synthesis of a polymer with a molecular weight of more than 4,200, the mass achieved by Dr. Emil Fischer, was his primary ... His efforts were soon met with great success when he produced a synthetic polymer with a molecular weight of about 12,000. The ... Bolton asked Carothers to examine the chemistry of an acetylene polymer with the goal of creating synthetic rubber. In April ...
This is most often achieved by poly-esterification using ethylene glycol. The resulting polymer is then combusted under ... therefore generating metal-oxo or metal-hydroxo polymers in solution. In both cases (discrete particles or continuous polymer ... Thus, a polymer is a huge molecule (or macromolecule) formed from hundreds or thousands of units called monomers. The number of ... Subsequently, a polymer network is formed to immobilize the chelated cations in a gel or resin. ...
... synthetic polymers such as polyethylene glycol, and carbon nanotubes. Antibody-drug conjugates such as Brentuximab vedotin and ... Thordarson, P.; Le Droumaguet, B.; Velonia, K. (2006). "Well-defined protein-polymer conjugates-synthesis and potential ...
Encyclopedia of polymer science and technology (3 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. 2013. p. 728. ISBN 9780470073698. Archived from the ... polyethylene glycol, and glycerol. Its stability in solution is much greater than that of tincture of iodine or Lugol's ... Povidone-iodine is a chemical complex of the polymer povidone (polyvinylpyrrolidone) and triiodide (I3−). It is soluble in cold ... Research has previously found that the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, povidone) can coil around individual carbon nanotubes ...
ECD studies of polyalkene glycols, polyamides, polyacrylates and polyesters are useful for understanding composition of polymer ... It has become a powerful technique to analyze structural information about precursor ions during MS/MS for synthetic polymers. ... ECD's single bond cleavage tendency makes the interpretation of product ion scans simple and easy for polymer chemistry. ... Hart-Smith, Gene (2014). "A review of electron-capture and electron-transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry in polymer ...
Additional acids and glycols are then added along with maleic anhydride and a new polymer is produced. The end product is ... Typical polyols used are glycols including ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and diethylene glycol; typical acids used are ... If a glycol-modified PET (PET-G) is used, exceptional properties can be imparted to the resin due to some of the exotic ... Polyesters are a classic example of step-growth polymer, in which a difunctional (or higher order) acid or acyl halide is ...
The sealant material consists of polyethylene glycol (PEG), a water-soluble, non-thrombogenic, conformable, bio-inert polymer. ...
"Controls on Polymer Molecular Weight May Be Used To Control the Size of Palmitoyl Glycol Chitosan Polymeric Vesicles". Langmuir ... She demonstrated that polymer molecular weight could be used to control the size of vesicles. She joined University College ... She has designed polymers that self-assemble into nanoparticles with the appropriate properties to transport drugs. She ... 2006-05-19). Polymers in Drug Delivery (1st ed.). Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. ISBN 9780849325335. Uchegbu, Ijeoma F.; ...
Polymer coated carbon[edit]. This is a process by which a porous carbon can be coated with a biocompatible polymer to give a ... ethanol or ethylene glycol.[6] Activated carbon will not prevent these chemicals from being absorbed into the human body.[7] It ... Activated carbon can be nitrogenated by natural products or polymers[43][44] or processing of carbon with nitrogenating ...
M. A. Brook "Silicon in Organic, Organometallic, and Polymer Chemistry" 2000, J. Wiley, New York. ISBN 0-471-19658-4. ...
... with ethylene glycol as the byproduct (the ethylene glycol is recycled in production). ... Polyethylene terephthalate (aka PET, PETE or the obsolete PETP or PET-P) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester ... Its monomer can be synthesized by the esterification reaction between terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol with water as a ... byproduct or the transesterification reaction between ethylene glycol and dimethyl terephthalate with methanol as a byproduct. ...
Threose nucleic acid (TNA) has also been proposed as a starting point, as has glycol nucleic acid (GNA), and like PNA, also ... molecule is needed to make nucleic acid polymers, represents the original form of life.[95] This theory is called RNA-peptide ... or glycol nucleic acid (GNA).[23][24] Despite their structural simplicity and possession of properties comparable with RNA, the ... as well as the need for RNA polymers of some length before seeing enzymatic activity, have led some to reject the RNA world ...
... or propylene glycol alginate or any combination thereof in an amount not exceeding 0.5 per cent,[2] monoglycerides, mono- and ... due to the formation of whey protein polymers.[23] ...
Proteins or Polypeptides are polymers of amino acids. A protein is created by ribosomes that "read" RNA that is encoded by ... propylene glycol, and urea.[22] These chemical denaturing agents lower the melting temperature (Tm) by competing for hydrogen ... Nucleic acids (including RNA and DNA) are nucleotide polymers synthesized by polymerase enzymes during either transcription or ... "Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012)" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 84 (2): ...
Poly(caprolactone-block-ethylene glycol)[7]. *Polyurethane[16]. These polymers are examples of the most used polymers, and a ... When comparing polymer melts and polymer solutions, the former are normally more viscous than polymer solutions, and elongated ... Polymers[edit]. Polymers exhibiting a melting point or glass transition temperature (Tg) are required for melt electrospinning ... a b L. Larrondo, R. S. J. Manley, Journal of Polymer Science Part B-Polymer Physics 1981, 19, 909. ...
2 to create ethylene oxide, which, in turn, is converted into ethylene glycol; the primary feeder material used to manufacture ... a host of products, including antifreeze and polyester polymers (the precursors of many plastics and fabrics).[62] ...
2 to create ethylene oxide, which, in turn, is converted into ethylene glycol; the primary feeder material used to manufacture ... a host of products, including antifreeze and polyester polymers (the precursors of many plastics and fabrics).[62] ...
... widely used as an automotive antifreeze as well as higher molecular weight glycols, glycol ethers and polyethylene ... Linear alpha-olefins, produced by oligomerization (formation of short polymers) are used as precursors, detergents, ... Clockwise from the upper right: its conversions to ethylene oxide, precursor to ethylene glycol; to ethylbenzene, precursor to ... Ethylene oxide is also hydrolyzed to produce ethylene glycol, ... a widely used plastic containing polymer chains of ethylene ...
Polymers in condensed formulas[edit]. For polymers in condensed chemical formulas, parentheses are placed around the repeating ...
Pressurized antifreeze systems use a mix of antifreeze (almost always non-toxic propylene glycol) and water mix for HTF in ... A third type of freeze protection is freeze-tolerance, where low pressure polymer water channels made of silicone rubber simply ... If the HTF gets too hot the glycol degrades into acid and then provides no freeze protection and begins to dissolve the solar ... The most common HTF is an antifreeze/water mix that typically uses non-toxic propylene glycol. After heating in the panels, the ...
... such as ethylene glycol[citation needed], propylene glycol and glycerol. Ethylene glycol is commonly used as automobile ... Conventional cryoprotectants are glycols (alcohols containing at least two hydroxyl groups), ... propylene glycol, and a colloid was for many years the most effective of all artificially created cryoprotectants. ... Conductive polymer. *Femtotechnology. *Fullerene. *Graphene. *High-temperature superconductivity. *High-temperature ...
At pressures of over 5 gigapascals, carbon monoxide converts into a solid polymer of carbon and oxygen. This is metastable at ... can be regarded as polymers of carbon monoxide. ... Ethylene glycol. *Ethyl formate. *Methyl acetate. *Methyl-cyano ... "Pressure-Induced Polymerization of Carbon Monoxide: Disproportionation and Synthesis of an Energetic Lactonic Polymer" ...
... s are used in firefighting and pipelines (liquid drag reducing agents). Alkali surfactant polymers are used to ... Octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether. *Pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether. Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs or APEOs)[edit]. ...
These polymers remain stable at ambient pressure and temperature once formed, and have remarkably interesting electronic and ... Conversion efficiencies up to 5.7% have been reported in C60-polymer cells.[43] ...
"Polymers for Advanced Technologies. 20: 58-65. doi:10.1002/pat.1280.. *↑ Morganti, P.; Tishchenko, G.; Palombo, M.; Kelnar, I ... "Preparation of chitosan-polyethylene glycol coated cotton membranes for wound dressings: preparation and characterization" ...
Mercury has properties of a bacteriostatic agent whereas certain methacrylate polymers (for example TEGMA, triethylene glycol ... polymer resinsEdit. Amalgam is tolerant to a wide range of clinical placement conditions and moderately tolerant to the ...
Sugar polymers include agar, carboxymethyl cellulose, pectin and carrageenan. Other thickening agents act on the proteins ... Thickening agents used in cosmetics or personal hygiene products include viscous liquids such as polyethylene glycol, synthetic ... Polyurethanes, acrylic polymers, latex, styrene/butadiene,. *PVA - polyvinyl alcohol, not polyvinylacetate which is used in ... polymers such as carbomer (a trade name for polyacrylic acid) and vegetable gums. Some thickening agents may also function as ...
engine coolant - ethylene glycol, water and inhibitor mixture. *polyesters - any of several polymers with ester linkages in the ... SBS Polymer Supply Outlook *^ Jean-Pierre Favennec (Editor) (2001). Petroleum Refining: Refinery Operation and Management. ... Olefins are the basis for polymers and oligomers used in plastics, resins, fibers, elastomers, lubricants, and gels.[2][3] ... Ethylene glycol (EG). Ethylene oxide (EO). Formaldehyde Moulding Compound (FMC). n-Hexene. Linear alkyl benzene (LAB). Methanol ...
... and still others contain large polymers such as polyethylene glycol that drive the molecule out of solution by entropic effects ... Characterization of textile fibers and polymers[edit]. Forensic examination of any trace evidence is based upon Locard's ...
... was founded in 1976 by royal decree to convert oil by-products into useful chemicals, polymers, and fertilizers.[7] The ... SABIC is a market leader in key products such as ethylene, ethylene glycol, methanol, MTBE and polyethylene.[3] SABIC's wholly ... It is currently the second-largest global ethylene glycol producer and is expected to top the list after the introduction of ... Standard & Poor's and Fitch Ratings claimed SABIC to be the world's largest producer of polymers and the Persian Gulf region's ...
In the gas phase, glycol yields glyoxal and ethanol yields acetaldehyde, while organic amines are dehydrated to nitriles.[115] ... Silver cyanide forms the linear polymer {Ag-C≡N→Ag-C≡N→}; silver thiocyanate has a similar structure, but forms a zigzag ... Chelating ligands are unable to form linear complexes and thus silver(I) complexes with them tend to form polymers; a few ...
Polymers like HTPB and PBAN are often used for rocket fuels. Other polymers used are e.g. polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride ... diethylene glycol dinitrate, triethylene glycol dinitrate, bis(2,2-dinitropropyl)formal, bis(2,2-dinitropropyl)acetal, 2,2,2- ... Used to harden the polymer component of composite rocket propellants. They include paraquinone dioxime, toluene-2,4- ... used in many military smoke compositions Organic polymers and resins, also sometimes serving as binders Teflon, Viton and other ...
... bonds are also found in many polymers. Esterification of carboxylic acids with alcohols[edit]. The classic synthesis is ... Poly(ethylene terephthalate) is produced by the transesterification of dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol:[12] ...
Certain additives, such as polyethylene glycol or polyethylenimine, can improve the aspect ratio of the ZnO nanowires.[42] ... Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 103: 412-416. doi:10.1002/app.24866.. ...
PVDC grades are available in 2 types of polymer: (I) the historic grades offering medium to high barrier properties and (II) a ... or glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate (PETg). Cyclic olefin resins are generally amorphous and are noted for good ... Cyclic olefin copolymers (COC) or polymers (COP) can provide moisture barrier to blister packs, typically in multilayered ...
One of the more common methods of antifouling comes from growing polymer chains from a surface, often by poly(ethylene glycol) ... such as peptidomimetic polymer (PMP1). PMP1 uses a repeat unit of N-substituted glycine instead of ethylene glycol to impart ... 2005). "New Peptidomimetic Polymers for Antifouling Surfaces". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (22): 7972-7973. doi:10.1021/ja0522534. ... Recent studies have looked into using a short chain of DOPA residues as an adhesive end-group for antifouling PEG polymers ...
"Polymers derived from the amino acid l-tyrosine: polycarbonates, polyarylates and copolymers with poly(ethylene glycol)". ... Sanda, Fumio; Endo, Takeshi (1999). "Feature Article Syntheses and functions of polymers based on amino acids". Macromolecular ... "Biodegradable Polymers for the Environment". Science 297 (5582): 803-807. doi:10.1126/science.297.5582.803 . PMID 12161646 ...
World War II era British agents (using purpose-made suicide pills), computer scientist Alan Turing, polymer chemist Wallace ...
... supramolecular polymers are gradually replaced by longer and longer conventional polymers. This paper concerns an estimation of ... Increasing the polymerization degree of polyethylene glycol (PEG), HO-(CH2CH2O-)nH, entails lowering the number of hydroxyl ... From supramolecular to conventional polymers: polyethylene glycol J. Świergiel and J. Jadżyn, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018, 20 ... supramolecular polymers are gradually replaced by longer and longer conventional polymers. This paper concerns an estimation of ...
The polymers covered in this review include cellulosic derivatives, starch, guar, pectin, and poly(ethylene glycol). ... 6. Poly(ethylene glycol). Although not a polysaccharide, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a water-soluble polymer that is used in ... The polymers covered in this review include cellulosic derivatives, starch, guar, pectin, and poly(ethylene glycol). ... Table 1. Typical water-soluble polymers and modification reactions. Polymers. Structural Modification. Enzymatic Reaction. ...
A novel stimuli-responsive polymer, based on oligo(ethylene glycol)... ... Stimuli-responsive polymers have received growing attention in recent years owing to their wide applications in diverse fields ... a temperature significantly above the low-VPTT of the polymer, in which polymer particles were formed. Though the polymer ... Preparation of Thermoresponsive Polymer Nanogels of Oligo(Ethylene Glycol) Diacrylate-Methacrylic Acid and Their Property ...
Monomer-Polymer & Dajac Laboratories Inc. is a manufacturer and supplier of specality monomers, speciality polyners, diagnoctic ... Poly(Propylene Glycol) Home / Search All Products / Polymers / Functional / Poly(Propylene Glycol). ...
The combination with the hydrophilic and low permeable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ethylene oxides) (PEO) should on ... Blends and new, chemically linked polymers were successfully formed into free standing dense membranes and measured in single ... the leading polymer of intrinsic microporosity PIM-1 has become quite famous for its high membrane permeability for many gases ... Keywords: polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1); poly(ethylene glycol); copolymers; gas separation; membranes polymers of ...
... Geng, S. Yao, Kun KTH, Skolan för ... The reinforcing effect of a small amount of nanocellulose materials on biodegradable and polymer-based nanocomposites remains ... To improve this, we grafted polyethylene glycol (PEG) on nanocellulose and produced composites of 0.1 wt% nanocellulose ... because of the poor dispersion of the nanomaterials and inefficient interaction between the nanocellulose and the polymer ...
... and excellent mechanical properties that cannot be achieved with conventional ceramic or polymer ion conductors. Small molecule ... Ceramic-polymer hybrids carry the promise of forming composite electrolytes with high ionic conductivity, good stability and ... a polymer Li-ion conductor, polyethylene oxide (PEO), and an additive, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME). All the Li ... Li-ion transport in a representative ceramic-polymer-plasticizer composite electrolyte: Li7La3Zr2O12-polyethylene oxide- ...
... ethylene glycol) derivative is disclosed that is activated with a sulfone moiety for selective attachment to thiol moieties on ... 7. The activated polymer of claim 1 wherein said polymer is poly(ethylene glycol). 8. The activated polymer of claim 1 wherein ... 5. The activated polymer of claim 1 wherein said polymer is poly(ethylene glycol) vinyl sulfone. 6. The activated polymer of ... 4. The activated polymer of claim 3 wherein said polymer is poly(ethylene glycol) and said at least one active sulfone moiety ...
Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) brushes are extremely protein resistant polymer coatings that can reduce ... Biofunctionalized protein resistant oligo(ethylene glycol)-derived polymer brushes as selective immobilization and sensing ... We found evidence that large macromolecules cannot infiltrate dense polymer brushes and that bulky antibody recognition occurs ... ethylene glycol) side chain affect streptavidin functionalization, but also immobilization of biotinylated antibodies, ...
Our specialty PEGs are premium functional PEGs that can serve as an essential bridge in research. Their high purity and low dispersity make them useful in sensitive applications requiring reproducible, quantitative results.. All materials in this category meet the following quality standards ...
Polyacrylonitrile/polyethylene glycol phase-change material fibres prepared with hybrid polymer blends and nano-SiC fillers via ... Herein, a simple centrifugal spinning without the drawbacks of electrospinning was applied to fabricate polyethylene glycol- ... N-dimethylformamide as the solvent to dissolve the polymers. Results demonstrate that the PCM fibres were formed by physical ...
... we report a novel reversible crosslinking-decrosslinking system consisting of a polymer bearing vicinal tricarbonyl moieties in ... its side chains and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). A... ... ethylene glycol) (PEG). A mixture of the tricarbonyl polymer ... Iwamura T, Sakaguchi M (2008) A novel de-cross-linking system from cross-linked polymer to linear polymer utilizing pressure or ... Endo T, Suzuki T, Sanda F, Takata T (1996) A novel network polymer ⇄ linear polymer reversible system. a new crosslinking ...
Poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (n ~22; also known as PEGDE) is a difunctional, water-soluble crosslinker for amine-, ...
... dimethicone/vinyl dimethicone cross polymer, glycerin, butylene - Answered by a verified Dog Veterinarian ... My dog just ate face primer that contains water, dimethicone/vinyl dimethicone cross polymer, glycerin, butylene glycol, ... My 6 month old pup 5.5kg has injected about a gram of face mask lotion contains the following ingredients Butylene glycol, ...
Influence of poly(ethylene glycol) grafting density and polymer length on liposomes: Relating plasma circulation lifetimes to ... The incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-conjugated lipids in lipid-based carriers substantially prolongs the ...
Glycol and Hard Fat-Based Mucoadhesive Tablets Containing Various Types of Polyvinyl Alcohols as Mucoadhesive Polymers for ... A mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and hard fat was used as the tablet base. Ethylcellulose was added to the base in an ...
Iranian Polymer Journal" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic ... "Shape-stable phenolic/polyethylene glycol phase change material: kinetics study and improvements in thermal properties of ... Performance evaluation of polymer/clay nanocomposite thermal protection systems based on polyethylene glycol phase change ... Copyright © 2018 by Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute. Subject. Chemistry; Polymer Sciences; Ceramics, Glass, Composites ...
Semipermeable poly(ethylene glycol) films: the relationship between permeability and molecular structure of polymer chains. ... Semipermeable poly(ethylene glycol) films: the relationship between permeability and molecular structure of polymer chains ... Semipermeable poly(ethylene glycol) films: the relationship between permeability and molecular structure of polymer chains. ... The permeation was dependent on the molecular weight of PEG and the different conformational preferences of the polymer chains ...
... and polyethelene glycol (PEG) as the solid fuel are proposed and the combust... ... Two types of hybrid rocket motors that use mixtures of glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) ... MOTS CLÉS: glycidyl azide polymer (GAP), poly ethylene glycol (PEG), hybrid rocket, gas hybrid, traditional hybrid, regression ... GLYCIDYL AZIDE POLYMER AND POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL MIXTURES AS HYBRID ROCKET FUELS. Keiichi Hori Institute of Space and ...
Investigations into the ex situ methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol permeabilities of alkaline polymer electrolyte membranes ... ethanol and ethylene glycol permeabilities of alkaline polymer electrolyte membranes Journal of Power Sources, 173 (1). pp. 194 ...
Precursor to polymers[edit]. In the plastic industry, ethylene glycol is an important precursor to polyester fibers and resins ... The glycol and water are separated, and the glycol recycled. Instead of removing water, ethylene glycol can also be used to ... The purity of glycol used for hydrate suppression (monoethylene glycol) is typically around 80%, whereas the purity of glycol ... See the article on propylene glycol for more information. The relative sweetness of ethylene glycol[22] and propylene glycol[23 ...
Explore detailed TOC, tables and figures of United States Polyethylene Glycol Polymer Market Report 2017. ... Request sample of market research report on United States Polyethylene Glycol Polymer Market Report 2017. ... 2.4.1 Polyethylene Glycol Polymer Market Concentration Rate. 2.4.2 Polyethylene Glycol Polymer Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 ... Figure Polyethylene Glycol Polymer Market Share of Top 3 Manufacturers. Figure Polyethylene Glycol Polymer Market Share of Top ...
Novel supramolecular hydrogels were formed between pyrene-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) star polymers and γ-cyclodextrin (γ- ... Supramolecular hydrogels formed by pyrene-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) star polymers through inclusion complexation of ... ethylene glycol) star polymers through inclusion complexation of pyrene dimers with γ-cyclodextrin. Chemical Communications 48 ...
... ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactic acid) amphiphilic di-block co-polymers. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 17 (7 ... Di-block co-polymers of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactic acid) (PEG-PLLA) were prepared by ring-opening polymerization, and ... Block co-polymer. Critical micelle concentration. Poly(ethylene glycol). Poly(L-lactic acid). Polymeric micelles. Self- ... The block co-polymers have the same block length of the hydrophilic PEG segment (Mn = 2000), but different chain lengths of the ...
Shining Light on Poly(ethylene glycol): From Polymer Modification to 3D Laser Printing of Water Erasable Microstructures. Houck ... Here, a straightforward but unique photoresist is introduced for the tailored fabrication of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) ...
... propylene glycol and trimethylolethane - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. ... Substance Name: Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, polymers with ethylene glycol, phthalic anhydride, propylene glycol and ... Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, polymers with ethylene glycol, phthalic anhydride, propylene glycol and trimethylolethane ...
Soybean oil, polymer with ethylene glycol, glycerol, maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride. 68918-53-6 , DTXSID50101753 ... Soybean oil, polymer with ethylene glycol, glycerol, maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride. ... No toxicity value data found for Soybean oil, polymer with ethylene glycol, glycerol, maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride. ... 68918-53-6 OR Soybean oil, polymer with ethylene glycol, glycerol, maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride. ...
Polyethylene glycol polymers are hydrogels that can be used for tissue sealing and adhesion. Polyethylene glycol polymers, ... Hydrogels Polyethylene Glycol Polymers. Fri, 30 Mar 2018 , Laparoscopic Urology Polyethylene glycol polymers are hydrogels that ... The authors found that (i) the polyethylene glycol polymer was adherent to the underlying tissue surface; (ii) the bleeding was ... Polyethylene glycol polymers, completely synthetic and bioabsorbable, are particularly desirable as tissue sealants because ...
  • The combination with the hydrophilic and low permeable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ethylene oxides) (PEO) should on the one hand reduce permeability, while on the other hand enhance selectivity, especially for the polar gas CO 2 by improving the hydrophilicity of the membranes. (
  • Filiz, V. Membranes of Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIM-1) Modified by Poly(ethylene glycol). (
  • Bengtson G, Neumann S, Filiz V. Membranes of Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIM-1) Modified by Poly(ethylene glycol). (
  • A poly(ethylene glycol) derivative is disclosed that is activated with a sulfone moiety for selective attachment to thiol moieties on molecules and surfaces. (
  • 1. A water soluble activated polymer that is stable against hydrolysis, said polymer being selected from the group consisting of poly(alkylene oxides), poly(oxyethylated polyols), and poly(olefinic alcohols) and having at least one active sulfone moiety. (
  • 5. The activated polymer of claim 1 wherein said polymer is poly(ethylene glycol) vinyl sulfone. (
  • 6. The activated polymer of claim 1 wherein said polymer is selected from the group consisting of poly(ethylene glycol), poly(propylene glycol), poly(oxyethylated glycerol), poly(oxyethylated sorbitol), poly(oxyethylated glucose), and poly(vinyl alcohol). (
  • Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) brushes are extremely protein resistant polymer coatings that can reduce nonspecific adsorption of proteins from complex mixtures such as blood, sera and plasma. (
  • In this article, we report a novel reversible crosslinking-decrosslinking system consisting of a polymer bearing vicinal tricarbonyl moieties in its side chains and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). (
  • The incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-conjugated lipids in lipid-based carriers substantially prolongs the circulation lifetime of liposomes. (
  • We describe size-selective semipermeable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) films which avoid the nonspecific absorption of large proteins but permit the passage of small target molecules. (
  • Shining Light on Poly(ethylene glycol): From Polymer Modificat. (
  • Here, a straightforward but unique photoresist is introduced for the tailored fabrication of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) materials that can be readily erased by water, even without the need for acidic or basic additives. (
  • An activated, substantially water soluble poly(ethylene glycol) is provided having of a linear or branched poly(ethylene glycol) backbone and at least one terminus linked to the backbone through a hydrolytically stable linkage, wherein the terminus is branched and has proximal reactive groups. (
  • The free reactive groups are capable of reacting with active moieties in a biologically active agent such as a protein or peptide thus forming conjugates between the activated poly(ethylene glycol) and the biologically active agent. (
  • 11. The method of claim 1 , wherein the polymer backbone is selected from the group consisting of linear or branched poly(alkylene oxide), linear or branched poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), linear or branched poly(vinyl alcohol), linear or branched polyoxazoline, and linear or branched poly(acryloylmorpholine). (
  • The effect of incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on thermomechanical and hydrophilicity properties of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was investigated. (
  • The sulfonated polyimides end-capped with maleic anhydride were self-crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate. (
  • The results show that the proton conductivity of the crosslinked sulfonated polyimides with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate increased with the increase in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate despite the fact that the ion exchange capacity was decreased. (
  • Poly(sebacic anhydride) was used to prepare poly(ethylene glycol)-sebacic acid polymers with carboxylic end groups and well defined molecular weight of poly(ethylene glycol). (
  • this was defiantly attributed to the poly(ethylene glycol) molecular weight differences in the prepared polymers. (
  • In the present work, two-dimensional systems based on biodegradable polymers such as poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and polylactic acid (PLA) are fabricated by means of a sustainable approach which consists in inducing phase separation in solutions of such polymers and "green" solvents, namely ethyl lactate (EL) and ethyl acetate (EA). (
  • An all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of a spherical micelle composed of amphiphilic N-acetylated poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(gamma-benzyl L-glutamate) (PEG-PBLG-Ac) block copolymers was performed in aqueous solution at 298.15 K and 1 atm. (
  • Here we show that it is possible to control the nonorthogonal peptides, designed to fold into four different coiled coil heterodimers with dissociation constants spanning from mu M to pM, were conjugated to star-shaped 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). (
  • 150793/1975 and 24651/1976, blood-compatible materials which are prepared from hydrogel obtained by crosslinking hydrophilic polymers such as poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and polyvinyl alcohol are disclosed. (
  • This invention relates to hydrolytically degradable gels of crosslinked poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) structures. (
  • This invention relates to poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels, precursors therefor, methods for making the precursors and hydrogels, and the use of the precursors and hydrogels. (
  • Efficient clearance of poly(ethylene glycol)-modified immunoenzyme with anti-PEG monoclonal antibody for prodrug cancer therapy. (
  • We describe the preparation of organic semiconducting nanofibers comprising a crystalline poly(di-n-hexylfluorene) core and a solvated, segmented corona consisting of polyethylene glycol in the center and polythiophene at the ends. (
  • Densely crosslinked semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were synthesized by photopolymerizing a melt of PEG of various molecular weights and end-group functionalities in neat trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). (
  • Drumheller, PD & Hubbell, JA 1995, ' Densely crosslinked polymer networks of poly(ethylene glycol) in trimethylolpropane triacrylate for cell-adhesion-resistant surfaces ', Journal of Biomedical Materials Research , vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 207-215. (
  • The family of poly(alkylene oxide) (PAO) polymers includes random, block, and branched structures, among which the ABA type triblocks copolymers of ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO) (commercially known as Pluronic) have received the greatest consideration. (
  • Not to be confused with Propylene glycol , Diethylene glycol , or Glycol . (
  • Precipitations (e.g., with 1,2-propylene glycol, as well as carboxylates or other materials) have been used since the early 1980's to separate the colored and odiferous components from desired products (such as enzymes) to obtain purified preparations. (
  • Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) has announced the successful start-up of its biobased propylene glycol facility in Decatur, IL. (
  • The facility began start-up operations in late March and is now producing industrial-grade, biobased propylene glycol. (
  • Wholesale Supplier of Glycols - Mono Ethylene Glycol: (Heat Transfer Media), Pre Inhibited Propylene Glycol, Diethylene Glycol (DEG) and Ethylene Glycol offered by Acuro Organics Limited, New Delhi, Delhi. (
  • Find here information of Propylene Glycol selling companies for your buy requirements. (
  • Contact verified Propylene Glycol Manufacturers, Propylene Glycol suppliers, Propylene Glycol exporters wholesalers, producers, retailers and traders in India. (
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  • Propylene Glycol manufacturers, service companies and distributors are listed in this trusted and comprehensive vertical portal. (
  • The comprehensive directory provides access to full contact and ability information for sourcing professionals, engineers and researchers wishing to get information on Propylene Glycol. (
  • Where to buy Propylene Glycol in Australia. (
  • We have compiled a list of Propylene Glycol suppliers in Australia. (
  • Including bulk propylene glycol suppliers. (
  • Polypropylene glycol or polypropylene oxide is the polymer of propylene glycol.Chemically it is a polyether.The term polypropylene glycol or PPG is reserved for low to medium range molar mass polymer when the nature of the end-group, which is usually a hydroxyl group, still matters. (
  • We are a renowned supplier of Propylene Glycol USP. (
  • Since both bacteria and yeasts can convert glucose (e.g., corn sugar) or other carbohydrates to glycerol, the process of the invention provided a rapid, inexpensive and environmentally responsible source of 1,3- propanediol monomer useful in the production of polyesters, polyethers, and other polymers. (
  • Thiobis phenolic antioxidants are efficiently dry or melt blended with a tree-resistant, crosslinkable polyethylene by first forming a blend, preferably a dry blend, of the antioxidant with a polyalkylene glycol (PAG), and then mixing the blend with the polyethylene. (
  • 1. An additive mixture comprising at least one thiobis phenolic antioxidant and at least one polyalkylene glycol (PAG) of a weight average molecular weight of at least 1,000. (
  • 15. A method of mixing a solid thiobis phenolic antioxidant with polyethylene, the method comprising the steps of (A) mixing the thiobis phenolic antioxidant with polyalkylene glycol (PAG) to form a blend, and (B) mixing the blend with polyethylene. (
  • The composition of Claim 1 in which the ethylene-based polymer is LDPE and the polyalkylene glycol is polyethylene glycol with a Mw of 1,000 to 50,000. (
  • Water-glycol hydraulic fluid formulations typically contain water (for fire protection), glycol (for freeze point protection), polyalkylene glycol (PAG) thickener, an additive package to provide corrosion and antiwear protection, antifoam/air release additive and dye for leak detection. (
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to removal of color bodies from polytrimethylene ether glycol using solid adsorbents. (
  • Homo and copolyethers of polytrimethylene ether glycol (hereinafter termed "PO3G") are examples of polyether polymers. (
  • Preparation of polytrimethylene ether glycol from purified diol gave APHA values of 30 - 40, however, the molecular weight of the polymers were not reported. (
  • A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. (
  • The major byproducts are the oligomers diethylene glycol , triethylene glycol , and tetraethylene glycol . (
  • Triethylene glycol, TEG, or triglycol is a colorless odorless viscous liquid with molecular formula HOCH2CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH. (
  • Triethylene glycol is a member of a homologous series of dihydroxy alcohols. (
  • Triethylene glycol is placed into contact with natural gas, and strips the water out of the gas. (
  • Triethylene glycol is heated to a high temperature and put through a condensing system, which removes the water as waste and reclaims the TEG for continuous reuse within the system. (
  • The waste TEG produced by this process has been found to contain enough benzene to be classified as hazardous waste (benzene concentration greater than 0.5 mg/L). Triethylene glycol is well established as a relatively mild disinfectant toward a variety of bacteria, influenza A viruses and spores of Penicillium notatum fungi. (
  • Much of the scientific work with triethylene glycol was done in the 1940s and 1950s, however that work has ably demonstrated the antimicrobial activity against airborne, solution suspension, and surface bound microbes. (
  • The ability of triethylene glycol to inactivate Streptococcus pneumoniae (original citation: pneumococcus Type I), Streptococcus pyogenes (original citation: Beta hemolytic streptococcus group A) and Influenza A virus in the air was first reported in 1943. (
  • Solutions of triethylene glycol are known to be antimicrobial toward suspensions of Penicillium notatum spores, Streptococcus pyogenes (original citation: Beta hemolytic streptococcus Group A ), Streptococcus pneumoniae (original citation: pneumococcus Type I), Streptococcus viridans, and Mycobacterium bovis (original citation: tubercle bacilli Ravenel bovine-type). (
  • The latter investigation suggests that triethylene glycol may prove to be a potent weapon against future influenza epidemics and pandemics. (
  • However, at least some viruses, including Pseudomonas phage phi6 become more infectious when treated with triethylene glycol. (
  • They were employed in studying the binary vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) of methane + methanol, monoethylene glycol (MEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG). (
  • Abstract Synthetic organic polymers-or plastics-did not enter widespread use until the 1950s. (
  • 16] [17] reported VLE of the binary systems of methane + MEG, diethylene glycol (DEG), and TEG and compared the experimental against predictions using PR-EOS. (
  • Ceramic-polymer hybrids carry the promise of forming composite electrolytes with high ionic conductivity, good stability and compatibility with electrodes, and excellent mechanical properties that cannot be achieved with conventional ceramic or polymer ion conductors. (
  • Whole bowel irrigation with polyethylene glycol and added electrolytes is used for bowel preparation before surgery or colonoscopy. (
  • Polyethylene glycol polymers are hydrogels that can be used for tissue sealing and adhesion. (
  • The hydrogels can be prepared by reacting two different PEG derivatives containing functional moieties at the chain ends that react with each other to form new covalent linkages between polymer chains. (
  • However, hydrogels-water-swollen networks of polymers-have emerged as the most promising option for cell culture ( Fig. 2 ) since they mimic salient elements of native extracellular matrices (ECMs), have mechanics similar to those of many soft tissues, and can support cell adhesion and protein sequestration 3 . (
  • PEO is used in the manufacture of Ethoxylates, Ethanolamines, PEGs, Glycol Ethers & Drug Intermediates. (
  • This SAE Standard covers motor vehicle brake fluids of the nonpetroleum type, based upon glycols, glycol ethers, and borates of glycolethers, and appropriate inhibitors, for use in the braking system of any motor vehicle such as a passenger car, truck, bus, or trailer. (
  • Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water and their ethers. (
  • NOTE: For all listings above which contain the word "compounds" and for glycol ethers, the following applies: Unless otherwise specified, these listings are defined as including any unique chemical substance that contains the named chemical (i.e., antimony, arsenic, etc.) as part of that chemical's infrastructure. (
  • R′ = R, H, or groups which, when removed, yield glycol ethers with the structure: R-(OCH2CH) n -OH. (
  • Show all 1 recent products that contain POLYPROPYLENE GLYCOL. (
  • 5. The process of claim 4, wherein the channeling agent is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, ethylene vinyl alcohol, polyvinyl alcohol and glycerin. (
  • 11. The method of claim 8 wherein said prepolymer comprises a composition selected from the group consisting of urethanes, polypropylene glycols, polypropylene glycols with polyethylene glycol units, polybutylene glycols with polyethylene glycol units, and silicones. (
  • Welcome to the premier industrial Polypropylene Glycol resource. (
  • A wide variety of manufacturers, distributors and service companies are featured in our extensive vertical directory to allow ease sourcing and research for Polypropylene Glycol. (
  • Find Polypropylene Glycol related suppliers, manufacturers, products and specifications on GlobalSpec - a trusted source of Polypropylene Glycol information. (
  • BP Chemical Ltd is supplier for Polypropylene glycols. (
  • Polypropylene (PP) is a 3D printable polymer that can tolerate many chemicals, and the authors of articles listed below have made reaction vessels and microfluidics applications from it. (
  • Ethylene glycol is produced from ethylene (ethene), via the intermediate ethylene oxide . (
  • The Fiber Intermediates Sector at Reliance consists of the Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA), Ethylene Glycols (EG) & Ethylene Oxide (EO) businesses. (
  • TEG is prepared commercially as a co-product of the oxidation of ethylene at high temperature in the presence of silver oxide catalyst, followed by hydration of ethylene oxide to yield mono(one)-, di(two)-, tri(three)- and tetraethylene glycols. (
  • In the ethylene glycol generation unit of petrochemical plants, first a reaction of ethylene oxide takes place which is then followed by other side reactions. (
  • Brontide is a natural, pure butylene glycol extracted from a sustainable and renewable sugar fermentation process. (
  • According to Genomatica, this product is ideal for personal care manufacturers seeking to develop new, natural, sustainable products, or looking to reformulate existing products by replacing petroleum-based glycol with a natural butylene glycol that delivers the same benefits. (
  • Moisturizing the scalp to enhance its defensive power is therefore critical, and polyols such as glycerin and 1,3-butylene glycol are known to effectively moisturize skin while also withstanding oxidation caused by PM 2.5 and UV, or decomposition by Malassezia . (
  • methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta) in patients with chr. (
  • This prospective observational study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of Mircera (methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta) in patients with chronic renal anemia on haemodialysis in m. (
  • On June 7, 2018, the Food and Drug Administration approved methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera, Vifor Pharma Inc.) for the treatment of pediatric patients 5 to 17 years of age on hemodialysis who are converting from another ESA after. (
  • Topical application of the hydrophilic polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) to isolated adult guinea pig spinal cord injuries has been shown to lead to the recovery of both the anatomical integrity of the tissue and the conduction of nerve impulses through the lesion. (
  • 125493/1974 and 125978/1976 disclose processes for improving blood compatibility by graft polymerizing the above mentioned hydrophilic polymer(s) onto the surface of a base material. (
  • Super Absorbent Polymer is a water-swollen high molecular polymer containing strong hydrophilic polymer groups, such as carboxyl, hydrox. (
  • This ring is then hydrolyzed with a base catalyst in a second step to produce mono-ethylene glycol in 98% selectivity. (
  • Blends and new, chemically linked polymers were successfully formed into free standing dense membranes and measured in single gas permeation of N 2 , O 2 , CO 2 and CH 4 by time lag method. (
  • A synthetic polymer that blends stearth-20 with one or more forms of methacrylic acid. (
  • The objective of this study is to provide a detailed analysis of engineering resins along with polymer alloys/blends. (
  • Traditional engineering resins and polymer alloys/blends have been "around" for decades and, yet, there are few studies that analyze in detail all of the major materials involved in terms of plant capacities, markets by application, new technologies and products, and rationales for anticipated growth. (
  • Polyethylene glycol polymers, completely synthetic and bioabsorbable, are particularly desirable as tissue sealants because inflammatory potential and risk of viral transmission are eliminated. (
  • Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH, PVA, or PVAl) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer. (
  • A synthetic, colorless, silicone-based polymer that. (
  • A synthetic polymer. (
  • A synthetic, non-aqueous polymer whose chief function is film-forming agent. (
  • A synthetic polymer and film-forming agent that also serves to thicken cosmetic formulas. (
  • A synthetic polymer (24) is provided for endocapsular lens (18) replacement in an eye (10). (
  • This work employs a representative composite comprising a ceramic Li-ion conductor, garnet-type Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZO), a polymer Li-ion conductor, polyethylene oxide (PEO), and an additive, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME). (
  • PPG-3 is a polymer of propylene oxide. (
  • Comparative toxicity of pristine graphene oxide and its carboxyl, imidazole or polyethylene glycol functionalized products to Daphnia magna: A two generation study. (
  • To investigate the chronic toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) and its functionalized products (GO-carboxyl, GO-imidazole and GO-polyethylene glycol), a two-generation study was conducted using the aquati. (
  • The term 'oxide' is used for high molar mass polymer when end-groups no longer affect polymer properties. (
  • 3. The activated polymer of claim 2 wherein said at least one active sulfone moiety is selected from the group consisting of vinyl sulfone, active ethyl sulfone, active derivatives of vinyl sulfone and ethyl sulfone, and combinations thereof. (
  • Reutenauer P, Buhler E, Boul PJ, Candau SJ, Lehn J-M (2009) Room temperature dynamic polymers based on Diels-Alder chemistry. (
  • Inglis AJ, Nebhani L, Altintas O, Schmidt FG, Barner-Kowollik C (2010) Rapid bonding/debonding on demand: reversibly cross-linked functional polymers via Diels-Alder chemistry. (
  • A collection of invited papers based on presentations at the 16th International Conference on Polymers and Organic Chemistry (POC-16), Hersonissos (near Heraklion), Crete, Greece, 13-16 June 2016. (
  • The Dow Chemical Company has been named a winner of the 2013 U.S. EPA Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award for its development of EVOQUE Pre-Composite Polymer Technology. (
  • In this study, 2017 has been considered as the base year and 2018 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Activated Polyethylene Glycol (PEG). (
  • Polyvinyl alcohol is the raw material to make polymers. (
  • In addition, the attached polymers may be selected from the group consisting of acrylamide polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, and dextran. (
  • 4. A material according to claim 1, wherein said polymers are selected from the group consisting of polyacrylamide, polydimethylacrylamide, polymethacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and dextran. (
  • Membranes of this kind are characterized by improved ionic conductivity, mechanical properties, pore and channel structures, and water retention capacity and by significantly enhanced selectivity of transport properties in comparison with organic polymer membranes. (
  • SPECIFIC POLYMERS last results will be presented during Polymer and Nanotechnology Congress - San Diego, California - USA, 17-20 December 2017. (
  • Global Activated Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) market size will increase to 180 Million US$ by 2025, from 150 Million US$ in 2017, at a CAGR of 2.6% during the forecast period. (
  • The reinforcing effect of a small amount of nanocellulose materials on biodegradable and polymer-based nanocomposites remains challenging because of the poor dispersion of the nanomaterials and inefficient interaction between the nanocellulose and the polymer matrix. (
  • This literature review is initially targeted at liquid chemicals which can "attack" 3D printed polymers. (
  • Herein, a simple centrifugal spinning without the drawbacks of electrospinning was applied to fabricate polyethylene glycol-based PCM fibres with nano-SiC as a highly conductive filler, polyacrylonitrile as the supporting material, and N,N-dimethylformamide as the solvent to dissolve the polymers. (
  • Conversely, the resulting networked polymer could be decrosslinked by treatment with water-containing solvent to recover the linear vicinal tricarbonyl polymer as its hydrate in 90 % yield. (
  • In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG), as a PCM, was shape-stabilized with low leakage in the novolac colloidal structure with no solvent and through a sol-gel in situ polymerization process. (
  • The results show that the morphological and crystalline properties of the films are strongly dependent on the choice of both the polymer/solvent system and the operating conditions during the drying step. (
  • A polymer system incorporated with PEG throughout a hydrophobic, densely crosslinked matrix, rather than as a blend or surface treatment, may be particularly useful for limiting biologic interactions when bulk material properties must be independent of the solvent environment and where surface abrasion may occur. (
  • Injectable hyaluronan-methylcellulose composite hydrogel crosslinked by polyethylene glycol for central nervous system tissue engineering. (
  • A novel stimuli-responsive polymer, based on oligo(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (OEGDA) and methacrylic acid (MAA), P(OEGDA-MAA), is prepared by precipitation polymerization and is shown to have a LCST-type VPTT (volume phase transition temperature) at 33 °C in water and a UCST-type VPTT at 43 °C in ethanol, all at concentration of 1 mg/mL. (
  • To improve this, we grafted polyethylene glycol (PEG) on nanocellulose and produced composites of 0.1 wt% nanocellulose materials and polylactic acid (PLA) matrix. (
  • Adipic Acid/Neopentyl Glycol/Trimellitic Anhydride Copolymer is a copolymer of adipic acid, neopentyl glycol and trimellitic anhydride monomers. (
  • propanediol by a preheating, preferably with heterogeneous acid catalysts such as perfluorinated ion exchange polymers. (
  • 2. The process of claim 1, wherein the polymer is selected from the group of functional polymers consisting of anhydride, amine, acid, cyanate, isocyanate and hydroxy functionalized polymers. (
  • 3. The process of claim 2, wherein the polymer is selected from the group consisting of propylene maleic anhydride, polyethylene maleic anydride, polyethylene acrylic acid, polyethylene-urethane, polyethylene-EVOH, polyethylene nylon, and polyamide. (
  • GCPQ was synthesised by acid degradation of glycol chitosan (GC), reaction with palmitic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide (PNS) and methylation. (
  • SPECIFIC POLYMERS synthesize a broad array of monomers and polymers of interest in this area. (
  • Agricultural potassium polyacrylate super absorbent polymer (SAP) for field crops, horticulture,gardening,trees planting etc. (
  • Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics , 43 (12), 1455-1464. (
  • It is now well known that VPTT or LCST of the OEG-based polymers can be adjusted by changing the experimental conditions of their syntheses, in order to change their structures, including for instance the molecular weight, the architecture and the length of EG segment, the ratio and the structure of the comonomers, and the nature of the end groups. (
  • The permeation was dependent on the molecular weight of PEG and the different conformational preferences of the polymer chains. (
  • 12. The method of claim 1 , wherein the polymer backbone has a molecular weight of about 100 to about 100,000 Da. (
  • The determination of the acidic and basic properties of the resulting "finished" polymer surfaces as well as of various low molecular weight additives such as fillers and plasticizers is not a trivial task. (
  • Among the various polymer design considerations, which include molecular weight of polymer, molecular weight of blocks, and length of blocks, the overall hydrophobic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is a critical parameter in defining the behavior of the polymer conjugates for gene delivery. (
  • SPECIFIC POLYMERS owns more than 500 customers over the world in more than 50 countries. (
  • Does SPECIFIC POLYMERS offer free samples? (
  • SPECIFIC POLYMERS is a SME acting as R&D service provider and scale up producer in the field of functional building-blocks, polymers and materials with high specificity. (
  • The main goal of the innovative products developed by SPECIFIC POLYMERS are to validate proof of concepts and to develop tomorrow's materials. (
  • The results of researches of a magnetic field effect on rheological properties of both paramagnetic, and diamagnetic polymer systems are described. (
  • Since PEG is a flexible, water-soluble polymer, it can be used to create very high osmotic pressures (on the order of tens of atmospheres). (
  • PEGs have been shown to provide improved water solubility and biocompatibility in drugs and other applications, and the ability to attach a variety of reactive functional groups to the terminal positions of these polymers has greatly increased their utility. (
  • also known as PEGDE) is a difunctional, water-soluble crosslinker for amine-, hydroxyl-, and carboxyl-functional polymers. (
  • Wurtz named his new compound "glycol" because it shared qualities with both ethyl alcohol (with one hydroxyl group) and glycerin (with three hydroxyl groups). (
  • Sanda F, Endo T (1998) Cationic equilibrium ring-opening polymerisation of bicyclic monomers and its application to chemical recycling of the new polymer material. (
  • This is a literature review for a study on the chemical resistance of 3D printable polymers. (
  • Hydraulic fluid performance, including water-glycols (W/G), depends on the chemical composition of the fluid and cleanliness. (
  • A simple chemical reduction method is used to prepare colloidal copper nanoparticles where polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) are used as stabiliser, size controller and capping agents. (
  • Ozigagu, C. and Duben, A. (2019) Sensitivity Analysis of Computations of the Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Methane + Methanol or Glycols at Gas Hydrate Formation Conditions. (
  • This work provides a novel way for the preparation of a new type of stimuli-responsive polymer with great potential for different applications, particularly those in biomedical areas because PEG-based stimuli-responsive polymers are known to be nontoxic and non-immunogenic. (
  • 1972). The preparation of the polymers was later described by Cook et al. (
  • Preparation of ethylene glycol phosphate linked oligodeoxyribonucleotides as phospholipase A2 inhibitors. (
  • The optimal bowel preparation intervals before colonoscopy: A randomized study comparing polyethylene glycol and low-volume solutions. (
  • The optimal duration of bowel preparation has only been assessed for polyethylene glycol (PEG). (
  • Same-Day Single Dose of 2 Liter Polyethylene Glycol is Not Inferior to The Standard Bowel Preparation Regimen in Low-Risk Patients: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. (
  • Split dose of 4 l polyethylene glycol (PEG) is currently the standard regimen for bowel preparation (BP). (
  • The infiltrating of histological specimens with plastics, including acrylic resins, epoxy resins and polyethylene glycol, for support of the tissues in preparation for sectioning with a microtome. (
  • Polyethylene glycol has a low toxicity and is used in a variety of products. (
  • 8. The activated polymer of claim 1 wherein said polymer is a substantially straight chain polymer suitable for biotechnological applications. (
  • 9. The activated polymer of claim 8 wherein said substantially straight chain polymer is not substantially substituted beyond the active sulfone moieties. (
  • A highly blood-compatible material comprising a polymeric base material and water-soluble and substantially nonionic polymer(s) directly attached to the surface of the base material in an amount of 1 to 100 μg/cm2. (
  • The oxidative carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl oxalate provides a promising approach to the production of C 1 -based ethylene glycol. (
  • N-palmitoyl-N-monomethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-6-O-glycolchitosan (GCPQ) is a self-assembling polymer, which enables the oral bioavailability of peptide and hydrophobic drugs. (
  • reacting the reactive end group of the first polymer with one of the at least three free groups of the branched reactive compound to form a hydrolytically stable linkage between the polymer backbone of the first polymer and the branched reactive compound, thereby forming a second polymer having at least two free reactive groups at a terminus thereof, each reactive group comprising a reactive moiety. (
  • However, the blood compatibility thereof is similar to those of the hydrophilic polymers. (