Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cycloparaffins: Alicyclic hydrocarbons in which three or more of the carbon atoms in each molecule are united in a ring structure and each of the ring carbon atoms is joined to two hydrogen atoms or alkyl groups. The simplest members are cyclopropane (C3H6), cyclobutane (C4H8), cyclohexane (C6H12), and derivatives of these such as methylcyclohexane (C6H11CH3). (From Sax, et al., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Hydrocarbons, Cyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic: Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.IminesAllyl CompoundsBoranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cycloaddition Reaction: Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.Hydrocarbons, Acyclic: Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.KetonesAcrylatesOxidative Coupling: The reaction of two molecular entities via oxidation usually catalyzed by a transition metal compound and involving dioxygen as the oxidant.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.EthersVinyl CompoundsOrganometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Xanthobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.TextbooksSolutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mandibular Reconstruction: The physical restoration of oromandibular defects.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.HydrocarbonsPharmacy and Therapeutics Committee: An advisory group composed primarily of staff physicians and the pharmacist which serves as the communication link between the medical staff and the pharmacy department.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.
Vinyl polymers contain no vinyl groups. Instead they are saturated. The following table gives some examples of vinyl polymers. ... Vinyl derivatives are alkenes. If activated by an adjacent group, the increased polarization of the bond gives rise to ... Those polymers are analogously referred to as polyvinylidenes and polyvinylenes, reflecting the monomeric precursors. ...
... including alkenes), which are reactive and thus more valuable. Alkenes are precursors to aldehydes, alcohols, polymers, and ... Light olefins, such as butenes, are important raw materials for the synthesis of polymers, gasoline additives and various other ...
Many polymers are often produced from the alkenes upon initiation with peroxydisulfate salts. In solution, peroxydisulfate ... that add further alkenes via formation of C-C bonds. Many styrene and fluoroalkene polymers are produced in this way. In atom ... Radical initiators are utilized in industrial processes such as polymer synthesis. Typical examples are halogen molecules, azo ... dissociates to give sulfate radicals: [O3SO-OSO3]2− ⇌ 2 [SO4]− The sulfate radical adds to an alkene forming radical sulfate ...
... polymers are also prepared by the addition of polysulfanes to alkenes. An idealized equation is: 2 RCH=CH2 + H2Sx ... The process of crosslinking the polymer chains in these polymers with sulfur is called vulcanization. The sulfur chains attach ... The polymers are called thiokols. In some cases, polysulfide polymers can be formed by ring-opening polymerization reactions. ... Polysulfide polymers are insoluble in water, oils, and many other organic solvents. Because of their solvent resistance, these ...
Chlorinated or fluorinated alkenes undergo polymerization. Important halogenated polymers include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and ... Especially versatile methods included the addition of halogens to alkenes, hydrohalogenation of alkenes, and the conversion of ... In hydrohalogenation, an alkene reacts with a dry hydrogen halide (HX) like hydrogen chloride (HCl) or hydrogen bromide (HBr) ... The double bond of the alkene is replaced by two new bonds, one with the halogen and one with the hydrogen atom of the ...
In more straightforward polymerization, alkenes form polymers through relatively simple radical reactions; in contrast, more ... Addition polymer Condensation polymer Cross-link Metallocene Plasma polymerization Polymer characterization Polymer physics ... Most step-growth polymers are also classified as condensation polymers, but not all step-growth polymers (like polyurethanes ... adjusted definition for condensation and addition polymers have been developed. A condensation polymer is defined as a polymer ...
Furthermore, Che and co-workers developed new methods for epoxidation, cyclopropanation, and aziridination of alkenes. His work ... Zhang, Jun-Long; Che, Chi-Ming (2002-05-01). "Soluble Polymer-Supported Ruthenium Porphyrin Catalysts for Epoxidation, ... Cyclopropanation, and Aziridination of Alkenes". Organic Letters. 4 (11): 1911-1914. doi:10.1021/ol0259138. ISSN 1523-7060. Che ...
A polymer molecule grows by numerous insertion reactions of C=C bonds of 1-alkene molecules into the Zr-C bond in the ion: Many ... This mechanism states that the polymer grows through alkene coordination at a vacant site at the titanium atom, which is ... The polymerization reaction of alkenes occurs similarly to the reactions in metallocene catalysts: LnTi-CH2−CHR-polymer + CH2= ... These catalysts polymerize propylene and other 1-alkenes to highly crystalline isotactic polymers. A second class of Ziegler- ...
The colourless gas was once used in the polymer industry. It is composed of both alkyne and alkene groups. Vinylacetylene is ... "Acetylene Polymers and their Derivatives. II. A New Synthetic Rubber: Chloroprene and its Polymers". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 53 (11 ...
It is a strong oxidizing agent that is used in polymer chemistry, as an etchant, and as a cleaning and bleaching agent. The ... In solution, the dianion dissociates to give radicals: [O3SO-OSO3]2− ⇌ 2 [SO4]•− The sulfate radical adds to the alkene to give ... Salts of sulfate are mainly used as radical initiators in the polymerization of certain alkenes. Commercially important ... polymers prepared using persulfates include styrene-butadiene rubber and polytetrafluoroethylene. ...
A very widely used product, cling wrap, or Saran was made from this polymer. During the 1990s research suggested that, in ... As with many other alkenes, 1,1-DCE can be polymerised to form polyvinylidene chloride. ...
An example is shown below: Proton (H+) adds (by working as an electrophile) to one of the carbon atoms on the alkene to form ... Polymer-bound chiral selenium electrophiles effect asymmetric selenenylation reactions. The reagents are aryl selenenyl ... These occur between alkenes and electrophiles, often halogens as in halogen addition reactions. Common reactions include use of ... There is an example of the isolation of the bromonium ion 2. Hydrogen halides such as hydrogen chloride (HCl) adds to alkenes ...
Almost all industrial processes involving alkene-derived polymers rely on organometallic catalysts. The world's polyethylene ... Zeise's salt is an example of a transition metal alkene complex. Trimethylaluminium is an organometallic compound with a ... Major industrial processes include hydrogenation, hydrosilylation, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, alkene polymerization, ... and alkenes as feedstocks and ligands. Recognition of organometallic chemistry as a distinct subfield culminated in the Nobel ...
The PTFE polymer cracks, and at a pressure below 5 Torr (670 Pa) exclusively C2F4 is obtained. At higher pressures the product ... It belongs to the family of fluorocarbons and is the simplest perfluorinated alkene. This gaseous species is used primarily in ... Polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene produces polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymers such as Teflon and Fluon. PTFE is one of ... the industrial preparation of polymers. Tetrafluoroethylene is a colorless, odorless gas. Like all unsaturated fluorocarbons it ...
They show greater tendency to polymerize or oligomerize than alkenes do. The resulting polymers, called polyacetylenes (which ... Alkynes are characteristically more unsaturated than alkenes. Thus they add two equivalents of bromine whereas an alkene adds ... The C≡C bond distance of 121 picometers is much shorter than the C=C distance in alkenes (134 pm) or the C-C bond in alkanes ( ... They are far more acidic than alkenes and alkanes, which have pKa values of around 40 and 50, respectively. The acidic hydrogen ...
Compounds with the empirical formula SnR2 are somewhat fragile and exist as rings or polymers when R is not bulky. The polymers ... In principle divalent tin compounds might be expected to form analogues of alkenes with a formal double bond. Indeed, compounds ... Diorganotin oxides (R2SnO) are polymers except when the organic substituents are very bulky, in which case cyclic trimers or, ... The fluorides tend to associate such that dimethyltin difluoride forms sheet-like polymers. Di- and especially triorganotin ...
In polymer chemistry, chain walking or chain running is a mechanism that operates during some alkene polymerization reactions. ... The positions of branches on the polymers are controlled by the choice of a catalyst. The potential applications of polymers ... β-Hydride elimination then occurs to give a hydride-alkene complex. Subsequent reinsertion of the M-H into the C=C bond, but in ... Chain walking occurs after the polymer chain has grown somewhat on the metal catalyst. The precursor is a 16 e− complex with ...
The ability of certain main group elements to catenate is currently the subject of research into inorganic polymers. The words ... Disilylenes are quite rare, unlike alkenes. Examples of disilynes, long thought to be too unstable to be isolated were reported ... Miller, R. D.; Michl, J. (1989). "Polysilane high polymers". Chemical Reviews. 89 (6): 1359. doi:10.1021/cr00096a006. Karni, M ...
Terminal alkenes isomerize to internal alkenes in the presence metal catalysts. This process is employed in the Shell higher ... chain walking is an isomerization process that introduces branches into growing polymers. "Trans-cis isomerism" is where, in ... In certain kinds of alkene polymerization reactions, ...
... s are usually prepared by treatment of an alkene with a halogen, in the presence of water. The reaction is a form of ... Megatons of some chlorohydrins, e.g. propylene chlorohydrin, are produced annually as precursors to polymers. Halohydrins may ... "Addition Reactions of Alkenes". Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry. Archived from the original on 2012-12-14. External link ...
... alkene). These ligands combine within the coordination sphere of the metal to form a polymer chain that is elongated by two ... mechanism in polymer chemistry is the main pathway for the formation of C-C bonds in the polymerization of alkenes. The ... The details of this mechanism can be used to explain the stereoregularity of the polymerisation of alkenes using Ziegler-Natta ... The coordination sphere of the metal ligands sterically influences which end of the propylene attaches to the growing polymer ...
Vinyl polymersEdit. Main article: Vinyl polymer. Vinyl groups can polymerize with the aid of a radical initiator or a catalyst ... Vinyl derivatives are alkenes. If activated by an adjacent group, the increased polarization of the bond gives rise to ... Vinyl polymers contain no vinyl groups. Instead they are saturated. The following table gives some examples of vinyl polymers. ... Those polymers are analogously referred to as polyvinylidenes and polyvinylenes, reflecting the monomeric precursors. ...
The carbon radical starts polymer chain formation with monomer for instance an alkene as in any ordinary radical polymerization ... Other alkynes, alkenes, nitriles or carbon monoxide can then insert themselves into the Co-C bond. Reaction types based on this ... The cobalt trapping reagent is called a persistent radical and the cobalt-capped polymer chain is said to be dormant. CMRP can ... This reaction is the basis of hydroformylation, the formation of aldehydes from an alkene, CO and hydrogen. A key intermediate ...
They are obtained by a photochemical cycloaddition from cinnamic acid, where the two trans alkenes react head-to-head. These ... "Cinnamic acid polymers obtained from the minor alkaloids of cocaine". Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. 21. ...
Polyketones are a family of thermoplastic polymers formed by the copolymerisation of carbon monoxide and one or more alkenes ( ... the energy barrier to inserting an alkene immediately following an alkene insertion is ~12 kJ mol−1 higher than barrier to ... a carbon monoxide insertion follows a carbon monoxide insertion or an alkene insertion follows an alkene insertion - these are ... the polymer chain is bound to the catalytic centre and grows by the sequential insertion of carbon monoxide and the alkene ...
Ozonolysis, and related dihydroxylation/oxidative sequences, cleave alkenes to give aldehydes or ketones, depending on alkene ... Isophorone, derived from acetone, is an unsaturated, asymmetrical ketone that is the precursor to other polymers. Muscone, 3- ... Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones. The most widely used member of this class of ... Ketones are produced on massive scales in industry as solvents, polymer precursors, and pharmaceuticals. In terms of scale, the ...
Removal and recovery of the polymer catalyst is a simple filtration at the end of reactions. ... Efficient Polymer-Supported Sharpless Alkene Epoxidation Catalyst. Jaana K. Karjalainen 1. , Osmo E.O. Hormi 1,* and David C. ... Karjalainen, J.K.; Hormi, O.E.; Sherrington, D.C. Efficient Polymer-Supported Sharpless Alkene Epoxidation Catalyst. Molecules ... "Efficient Polymer-Supported Sharpless Alkene Epoxidation Catalyst." Molecules 3, no. 3: 51-59. ...
... ratios indicates a preference for the propylene insertion regardless of the last inserted monomer unit in growing polymer chain ... Polymers 2015, 7, 2009-2016. AMA Style. Nyangoye BO, Li T, Chen L, Cai Z. Reactivity Comparison of ω-Alkenols and Higher 1- ... Alkenes in Copolymerization with Propylene Using An Isospecific Zirconocene-MMAO Catalyst. Polymers. 2015; 7(10):2009-2016. ... Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert ...
How do polymers compare to their respective monomers?. Chemistry for Engineering Students ... Interpretation: The given alkenes are to be named.. Concept introduction: Rules given by IUPAC should be followed to name an ... Interpretation: The given alkenes are to be named.. Concept introduction: Rules given by IUPAC should be followed to name an ... Interpretation: The given alkenes are to be named.. Concept introduction: Rules given by IUPAC should be followed to name an ...
... polymers with castor oil and steam-cracked petroleum distillates - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other ... Substance Name: Alkenes, ethylene-manuf.-byproduct dicyclopentadiene conc., polymers with castor oil and steam-cracked ... Alkenes, ethylene-manuf.-byproduct dicyclopentadiene conc., polymers with castor oil and steam-cracked petroleum distillates ...
Polymer production/processing. Formulation. Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all. ... PC 32: Polymer preparations and compounds. Substance supplied to that use in form of:. as such. in a mixture. ...
Polymer Degradation - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. ways for the poylmers ... Polymer Degradation Process which deteriorates polymer properties or their outward appearance Any process which inhibit or ... Any modification of a polymer which would prevent the initiation step of depropagation would stabilize the polymer eg. ... However, they do not have polymer specific enzymes. Polymers are to be initially broken down to smaller fractions ...
13.6 Reactions of Alkenes 13.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Margarine or Butter? 13.8 Polymers-The Fabric of Modern Society ... 13.1 Alkenes and Alkynes 13.2 Nomenclature of Alkenes and Alkynes 13.3 Cis-Trans Isomers 13.4 Interesting Alkenes in Food and ... 17.10 Synthetic Polymers in Modern Society-Polyamides and Polyesters 17.11 Focus on Health and Medicine: Penicillin. Chapter 18 ...
Alkenes are very useful to us in our daily life, but do you know what they are? ... Alkenes are from the family of hydrocarbons which also includes alkanes along with many other substances. ... Alkenes decolourise bromine water.. *Alkenes form polymers. This is because their double bonds open up to join other monomers, ... That is plastic! Alkenes form monomers and then join together to form polymers to make plastic. Polymers are made by the double ...
Alkenes and Forming Polymers. What structural properties allow alkenes to serve as good monomers for polymerization reactions? ... What are the primary types of chemical bond changes which occur during polymer synthesis employing alkenes monomers?. ...
Formation of a very long molecular chain (addition polymers), by repeated addition reactions of many unsaturated alkene ...
Instructor Document for Polymers by Alkene Chemistry. Instructor Document for Polymers by Alkene ChemistryDownload ... Slides for Students on Alkene Chemistry. Slides for Students on Polymers by Alkene ChemistryDownload ... Polymers: Synthesis by Alkene Chemistry. Content Developed by MACRO Curriculum Committee led by Dr Elizabeth Sterner. This ... The document is not intended for dissemination to students, but rather to bring the instructor, "up to speed" on this polymer ...
Natural rubber; Rubber; 5L-TP0203; AMA 7; Alkenes, polymers, rubber; Be Be Tex 1223; CS 700; CSV 1; CV 50; CV 60; Caoutchouc; ... polymers, rubber; IR 25; IR 68; ISNA 5; Impervia; India rubber; Iotex C 60; JLX 105; JLX 113; KDP 150; Kagetex FA 2005; LATZ ...
Alkenes. Alkynes. Benzene. Alcohols. Ethers. Aldehydes. Ketones. Carboxylic Acids. Esters. Amides. Amines. Polymers. Physical ...
13.6 Reactions of Alkenes 13.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Margarine or Butter? 13.8 Polymers-The Fabric of Modern Society ... 13.1 Alkenes and Alkynes 13.2 Nomenclature of Alkenes and Alkynes 13.3 Cis-Trans Isomers 13.4 Interesting Alkenes in Food and ... 13.1 Alkenes and Alkynes 13.2 Nomenclature of Alkenes and Alkynes 13.3 Cis-Trans Isomers 13.4 Interesting Alkenes in Food and ... 13.6 Reactions of Alkenes 13.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Margarine or Butter? 13.8 Polymers-The Fabric of Modern Society ...
Main-chain carbon polymers. poly(dienes), poly(alkenes),. poly(acrylics), poly(methacrylics),. ... and other conducting organic polymers such as those in the Handbook of Conducting Polymers (Handbook of Conducting Polymers, ... Certain conducting organic polymers can also be synthesized via a soluble precursor polymer. In these cases, blends between the ... Binary polymer blend sensors can be prepared from a variety of polymers at incrementally different blend stoichiometries. ...
In chemical compound: Alkenes. *polymerization* In hydrocarbon: Polymerization. * In chemistry of industrial polymers: ... This polymer is sometimes referred to as synthetic natural rubber. Another hydrocarbon elastomer starts with isobutylene (C4H8 ... starting with the unsaturated hydrocarbon isoprene (C5H8), a polymer can be made with the spatial arrangement of the atoms the ... polymer of 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (commonly called isoprene). Coordination polymerization conditions have been developed that ...
QUIZ 9 (9.1 9.10); Alkenes, Alkynes, Polymers M 11-15 10.1. Molecular Shape by VSEPR Mol. Wt. (#7D). ...
QUIZ 9 (9.1 9.10); Alkenes, Alkynes, Polymers. M. 11-13. 10.1. Molecular Shape by VSEPR ...
Alkenes are prepared by the hydroboration of enamines followed by an elimination reaction to form the alkene. This process has ... The compounds are generally useful in organic synthesis and in the preparation of polymers. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE ... Examples of alkenes produced include cyclic and acyclic alkenes, heterocyclic alkenes, terminal alkenes and dienes. When dienes ... acyclic alkenes, terminal alkenes, dienes and heterocyclic alkenes in which the heteroatom is oxygen, sulfur or substituted ...
C-) and alkenes (-C. C-) were observed at around 2202 and 1662 cm−1, respectively.29 The signals at 1480 and 1570 cm−1 can be ... 1e-h). The thickness of the polymer layer was estimated to be 80 nm (Fig. 1g). The amount of the polymer B-BT on the glass ... A conjugated nanoporous polymer film with a thickness of ca. 80 nm was fabricated via direct polymerization on the glass fiber ... N-S- groups of the BT units in the polymer backbone. The UV/Vis diffuse reflection (DR) spectrum of the B-BT-coated glass ...
Efficient and selective polymer supported Mo(VI) catalyst for alkene epoxidation in batch and continuous reactors. Journal ... Saha, B, Mohammed, ML and Mbeleck, R (2015). Efficient and selective polymer supported Mo(VI) catalyst for alkene epoxidation ... Greener and Sustainable Alkene Epoxidation Process. Saha, B, Mohammed, ML and Mbeleck, R (2016). Greener and Sustainable Alkene ... A review on polymer flooding in enhanced oil recovery under harsh conditions. Mahran, S, Attia, A and Saha, B (2018). A review ...
Polymer Technology In the same journal. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle ... Oxidation of FA with alkene or alkyne functionalities studied with chemiluminescence and real-time IR spectroscopy. Samuelsson ...
Vinyl polymers contain no vinyl groups. Instead they are saturated. The following table gives some examples of vinyl polymers. ... Vinyl derivatives are alkenes. If activated by an adjacent group, the increased polarization of the bond gives rise to ... Those polymers are analogously referred to as polyvinylidenes and polyvinylenes, reflecting the monomeric precursors. ...
They show greater tendency to polymerize or oligomerize than alkenes do. The resulting polymers, called polyacetylenes (which ... Alkynes are characteristically more unsaturated than alkenes. Thus they add two equivalents of bromine whereas an alkene adds ... The C≡C bond distance of 121 picometers is much shorter than the C=C distance in alkenes (134 pm) or the C-C bond in alkanes ( ... They are far more acidic than alkenes and alkanes, which have pKa values of around 40 and 50, respectively. The acidic hydrogen ...
22.2: Alkenes and Alkynes (20). *22.3: Aromatic Hydrocarbons (9). *22.4: Hydrocarbon Derivatives (31) ... 22.5: Polymers *22.6: Natural Polymers (1). *22: Concept Mastery (14). *22: Exercises (16) ...
  • Removal and recovery of the polymer catalyst is a simple filtration at the end of reactions. (mdpi.com)
  • Cai, Z. Reactivity Comparison of ω-Alkenols and Higher 1-Alkenes in Copolymerization with Propylene Using An Isospecific Zirconocene-MMAO Catalyst. (mdpi.com)
  • 15,27 However, due to the usually high absorption efficiency of the photoactive catalyst material, the light penetration path is limited within the monolithic photocatalyst, and a considerable part inside the polymer materials could not contribute to the photocatalytic reaction. (rsc.org)
  • A conjugated nanoporous polymer film with a thickness of ca. 80 nm was fabricated via direct polymerization on the glass fiber, with an effective catalyst content of ca. 3.2 wt% of the photoactive hybrid fiber. (rsc.org)
  • A notable industrial implementation of alkene epoxidation with TBHP was the Halcon process that employed soluble molybdenum(VI) as a catalyst for liquid phase epoxidation of propylene to propylene oxide. (lsbu.ac.uk)
  • However, homogenous catalysed alkene epoxidation has several drawbacks including deposition of catalyst on the reactor walls and increased difficulties in separation of catalyst from the reaction mixture. (lsbu.ac.uk)
  • Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of reaction temperature, feed molar ratio of alkene to TBHP and catalyst loading on the yield of 1,2-epoxyhexane and 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexane 1,2-epoxide (4-VCH 1,2-epoxide) to optimise the reaction conditions in a batch reactor. (lsbu.ac.uk)
  • A detailed evaluation of molybdenum (Mo) leaching from the polymer supported catalyst has been investigated by isolating any residue from reaction supernatant solutions and then using these residues as potential catalyst in epoxidation reactions. (lsbu.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, the efficiency of the heterogeneous catalyst for continuous epoxidation studies have been assessed using a FlowSyn continuous flow reactor by studying the effect of reaction temperature, feed molar ratio of alkene to TBHP and feed flow rate on the conversion of the oxidant and the yield of corresponding epoxide. (lsbu.ac.uk)
  • Vinyl groups can polymerize with the aid of a radical initiator or a catalyst, forming vinyl polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disclosed herein are processes for tandem alkene dehydrogenation/alkene dimerization using an iridium pincer complex catalyst on a support comprising magnesium. (patents.com)
  • Improved process for producing olefin polymer or copolymer characterized by using (I) a solid catalyst component (A) which is he product of reaction of (a) a magnesium compound in the liquid state having no reducing ability with (b) a titanium compound in the liquid state in the presence of an electron. (google.es)
  • This invention relates to an improved process for producing olefin polymers (sometimes used to denote both homopolymers and copolymers of olefins) by polymerizing (sometimes used to denote both homopolymerization and copolymerization) using a specified catalyst. (google.es)
  • Polymerization of alpha-olefins having at least 3 carbon atoms using this catalyst component can give highly stereospecific polymers with high catalytic activity. (google.es)
  • To visualize single-polymer growth in real time, we used magnetic tweezers (supplementary materials, materials and methods 1.1 to 1.4) ( 7 - 11 ) to monitor the lengthening of a polymer chain during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) catalyzed by the second-generation Grubbs' catalyst (G2) ( Fig. 1, A and B ) ( 12 , 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The dehydrogenation catalyst enables in-situ generation of alkenes from oligomers or solvent. (google.es)
  • No polymers were produced via ROMP of NBO or NB-FAME using Grubbs second-generation catalyst at 30 °C for 1 h. (springer.com)
  • The invention is also directed to methods of preparing the catalyst component slurry, the catalyst component solution and the catalyst compositions, to methods of controlling the properties of polymer products utilizing the catalyst compositions, and to polymers produced therefrom. (google.co.uk)
  • Oxidation is initiated in the amorphous phase of semi crystalline polymers and propagates to crystalline regions results in destruction of crystalline order Diffusion Incompact materials diffusion of oxygen is less. (scribd.com)
  • The resulting polymers, called polyacetylenes (which do not contain alkyne units) are conjugated and can exhibit semiconducting properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7. A process according to claim 1, wherein R 2 represents a group of formula: --CH 2 R' 5 , in which R' 5 represents H or a group (i), (ii) or (iii) with the proviso that R' 5 is not an aryl group, an alkyne group, or an alkene group. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Br 2 +Br 2 § When bromine (Br 2 ) is added to an alkene or alkyne, the red color of bromine disappears immediately. (coursehero.com)
  • Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural polyesters, that many organisms in the environment accumulate in the form of intracellular granules to store carbon and energy.1-3 They have a high degree of polymerisation, are highly crystalline, isotactic (only the enantiomer of absolute configuration R is present in these polymers) and insoluble in water. (redorbit.com)
  • In a first step PHB depolymerase degraded the PHB chains in the amorphous state on the surface of the films and subsequently eroded the PHB chains in the crystalline state.14 Furthermore, the rate of enzymatic erosion of PHB samples (obtained by chemical polymerisation) containing both (R) and (S) monomer units is strongly dependent on the stereocomposition of the polymers. (redorbit.com)
  • The reaction to make a polymer is called polymerisation . (getrevising.co.uk)
  • However, it should be possible to make use of some of the 'watch and wait' time for theoretical work, for example on addition polymerisation and addition polymers. (rsc.org)
  • Homogeneous linear poly(tartrate ester) ligands provide high chemical yields and enantiomeric excesses in the epoxidation of trans -hex-2-en-1-ol using Ti(OPr i ) 4 - tert -butyl hydroperoxide. (mdpi.com)
  • Branched poly(tartrate ester) can be use as heterogeneous ligands in the epoxidation of trans -hex-2-en-1-ol using Ti(OPr i ) 4 - tert -butyl hydroperoxide. (mdpi.com)
  • Alkenes can be used to make polymers such as poly(ethene) and poly(propene). (getrevising.co.uk)
  • In this study we describe a novel and simple method to couple covalently poly (maleic anhydride-alt-1-alkenes) to γ-alumina nanofiltration membranes for the first time. (wur.nl)
  • Here, we report on a fixed-bed photoreactor containing conjugated nanoporous polymer-coated glass fibers for visible light-promoted, heterogeneous photoredox reactions in a continuous flow system. (rsc.org)
  • The evaluation of the monomer reactivity ratios indicates a preference for the propylene insertion regardless of the last inserted monomer unit in growing polymer chain in all the copolymerizations. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been desired however to improve stereospecificity and catalytic activity, and also to provide polymer particles of such good flowability as to require no pelletization with a good reproducibility of quality. (google.es)
  • It also investigates the characterization of atomic arrangements in crystalline and amorphous solids: metals, ceramics, semiconductors, and polymers (including proteins). (verycd.com)
  • Internal mechanical stress stress as Sources of later mechanical deterioration Inititation of or assistants to various chemical attacks Contaminants Ingredients forms radical which may then attack the polymer Additives some undergo radical formation which may then attack polymer. (scribd.com)
  • and the other is the internal stabilization of the polymer by double‐bond formation. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • There has been considerable effort to develop alternative alkene epoxidation methods by employing an oxidant such as tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as it is environmentally benign, safer to handle and possesses good solubility in polar solvents. (lsbu.ac.uk)