Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Relating to the size of solids.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (1/6663)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (2/6663)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

Lactic acid polymers as biodegradable carriers of fluoroquinolones: an in vitro study. (3/6663)

A biodegradable polymer of DL-dilactide that facilitates release of ciprofloxacin or pefloxacin at levels exceeding MICs for the causative microorganisms of chronic osteomyelitis is described. Duration and peak of release were found to depend on the molecular weight of the polymer. Its characteristics make it promising for treating chronic bone infections.  (+info)

Quantitative study of polymer conformation and dynamics by single-particle tracking. (4/6663)

We present a new method for analyzing the dynamics of conformational fluctuations of individual flexible polymer molecules. In single-particle tracking (SPT), one end of the polymer molecule is tethered to an immobile substratum. A microsphere attached to the other end serves as an optical marker. The conformational fluctuations of the polymer molecule can be measured by optical microscopy via the motion of the microsphere. The bead-and-spring theory for polymer dynamics is further developed to account for the microsphere, and together the measurement and the theory yield quantitative information about molecular conformations and dynamics under nonperturbing conditions. Applying the method to measurements carried out on DNA molecules provides information complementary to recent studies of single DNA molecules under extensional force. Combining high precision measurements with the theoretical analysis presented here creates a powerful tool for studying conformational dynamics of biological and synthetic macromolecules at the single-molecule level.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of rat hippocampal CA3-dendritic spines associated with mossy fiber terminals. (5/6663)

We report a revised and improved isolation procedure for CA3-dendritic spines, most of them still in association with mossy fiber terminals resulting in a 7.5-fold enrichment over nuclei and a 29-fold enrichment over myelin. Additionally, red blood cells, medullated fibers, mitochondria and small synaptosomes were significantly depleted. We show by high resolution electron microscopy that this subcellular fraction contains numerous dendritic spines with a rich ultrastructure, e.g. an intact spine apparatus, membranous organelles, free and membrane-bound polyribosomes, endocytic structures and mitochondria. This improved experimental system will allow us to study aspects of post-synaptic functions at the biochemical and molecular level.  (+info)

Adaptation of bulk constitutive equations to insoluble monolayer collapse at the air-water interface. (6/6663)

A constitutive equation based on stress-strain models of bulk solids was adapted to relate the surface pressure, compression rate, and temperature of an insoluble monolayer of monodendrons during collapse at the air-water interface. A power law relation between compression rate and surface pressure and an Arrhenius temperature dependence of the steady-state creep rate were observed in data from compression rate and creep experiments in the collapse region. These relations were combined into a single constitutive equation to calculate the temperature dependence of the collapse pressure with a maximum error of 5 percent for temperatures ranging from 10 degrees to 25 degrees C.  (+info)

Actin polymerization: Where the WASP stings. (7/6663)

How do extracellular signals induce actin polymerization, as required for many cellular responses? Key signal transducers, such as the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac, have now been shown to link via proteins of the WASP family to the Arp2/3 complex, which nucleates actin polymerization.  (+info)

Structure and anticoagulant activity of sulfated fucans. Comparison between the regular, repetitive, and linear fucans from echinoderms with the more heterogeneous and branched polymers from brown algae. (8/6663)

Sulfated fucans are among the most widely studied of all the sulfated polysaccharides of non-mammalian origin that exhibit biological activities in mammalian systems. Examples of these polysaccharides extracted from echinoderms have simple structures, composed of oligosaccharide repeating units within which the residues differ by specific patterns of sulfation among different species. In contrast the algal fucans may have some regular repeating structure but are clearly more heterogeneous when compared with the echinoderm fucans. The structures of the sulfated fucans from brown algae also vary from species to species. We compared the anticoagulant activity of the regular and repetitive fucans from echinoderms with that of the more heterogeneous fucans from three species of brown algae. Our results indicate that different structural features determine not only the anticoagulant potency of the sulfated fucans but also the mechanism by which they exert this activity. Thus, the branched fucans from brown algae are direct inhibitors of thrombin, whereas the linear fucans from echinoderms require the presence of antithrombin or heparin cofactor II for inhibition of thrombin, as reported for mammalian glycosaminoglycans. The linear sulfated fucans from echinoderms have an anticoagulant action resembling that of mammalian dermatan sulfate and a modest action through antithrombin. A single difference of one sulfate ester per tetrasaccharide repeating unit modifies the anticoagulant activity of the polysaccharide markedly. Possibly the spatial arrangements of sulfate esters in the repeating tetrasaccharide unit of the echinoderm fucan mimics the site in dermatan sulfate with high affinity for heparin cofactor II.  (+info)

A coordination polymer is an inorganic or organometallic polymer structure containing metal cation centers linked by organic ligands. More formally a coordination polymer is a coordination compound with repeating coordination entities extending in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions. It can also be described as a polymer whose repeat units are coordination complexes. Coordination polymers contain the subclass coordination networks that are coordination compounds extending, through repeating coordination entities, in 1 dimension, but with cross-links between two or more individual chains, loops, or spiro-links, or a coordination compound extending through repeating coordination entities in 2 or 3 dimensions. A subclass of these are the metal-organic frameworks, or MOFs, that are coordination networks with organic ligands containing potential voids. Coordination polymers are relevant to many fields such as organic and inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, materials science, electrochemistry, and pharmacology, ...
The fabrication of electronic devices, such as gas sensors on flexible polymer substrates, enables the use of electronics in applications where conventional devices on stiff substrates could not be used. We demonstrate the development of a new intra-tube electronic-nose (e-nose) gas sensor device with multiple sensors fabricated and integrated on a flexible substrate. For this purpose, we developed a new method of fabricating a sensor array of four gas sensors on a flexible polymer substrate. The method allowed the use of lithography techniques to pattern different polymers with a broad range of solubility parameters. Conductive polymer composites were used as a gas sensitive layer due to the high stretchability of the material. Each of the 30 e-nose devices on one substrate was designed to fit on a polymer strip with a width of 2 mm. A single e-nose strip was successfully integrated into the inlet tube of a gas-measurement apparatus with an inner-tube diameter of 3 mm. Using the e-nose, we were able to
A polarizer is formed with an arrangement of polymer fibers substantially parallel within a polymer matrix. The polymer fibers are formed of at least first and second polymer materials. At least one of the polymer matrix and the first and second polymer materials is birefringent, and provides a birefringent interface with the adjacent material. Light is reflected and/or scattered at the birefringent interfaces with sensitivity to the polarization of the light. In some embodiments, the polymer fibers are formed as composite fibers, having a plurality of scattering polymer fibers disposed within a filler to form the composite fiber. In other embodiments, the polymer fiber is a multilayered polymer fiber. The polymer fibers may be arranged within the polymer matrix as part of a fiber weave.
The present invention concerns blends comprising at least one shape memory polymer and at least one thermoplastic polymer, wherein this thermoplastic polymer does not show shape memory properties. The present invention furthermore concerns methods for preparing such blends and the use of these blends in various applications, including additional products, household equipment etc.
0063] As indicated above, the shape memory polymer may be a copolymer network including the reaction product of a free radically polymerizable siloxane having greater than one functional free radically polymerizable group and at least one (meth)acrylate monomer. The reaction may include, for example, polymerization via curing. Curing may be carried out in an oxygen-free, e.g., in an inert atmosphere such as nitrogen gas or by utilizing a barrier of radiation-transparent material having low oxygen permeability. Curing can also be carried out under an inerting fluid such as water. When visible or ultraviolet radiation is used for curing, the reaction may also contain a photoinitiator. Suitable photoinitiators include benzoin ethers, benzophenone and derivatives thereof, acetophenone derivatives, camphorquinone, and the like. Some examples of commercially available photoinititaors include DARACUR 1173, DAROCUR 4265, IRGACURE 651, IRGACURE 1800, IRGACURE 369, IRGACURE 1700, and IRGACURE 907, ...
Described are fixed and removable orthodontic appliances and components thereof fabricated from shape memory polymer compositions. The preparation and use of such appliances are also disclosed.
Functionalization of nanoparticles can significantly influence their properties and potential applications. Although researchers can now functionalize metal, metal oxide, and organic polymer nanoparticles with a high degree of precision, controlled surface functionalization of nanoscale coordination polymer particles (CPPs) has remained a significant challenge. The lack of methodology is perhaps one of the greatest roadblocks to the advancement of CPPs into high added-value drug delivery applications. Here, we report having achieved this goal through a stepwise formation and functionalization protocol. We fabricated robust nanoparticles with enhanced thermal and colloidal stabilities by incorporation of carboxyl groups and these surface carboxyl groups could be subsequently functionalized through well-known peptide coupling reactions. The set of chemistries that we employed as proof-of-concept enabled a plethora of new functional improvements for the application of CPPs as drug delivery ...
0024] In various embodiments, the components of the dry adhesive or the components of the shape memory polymer may include a rigid epoxy and a flexible epoxy. The range of possible crosslinking chemistries which may be used to achieve a dry adhesive or shape memory polymer may include alpha, omega-diaminoalkanes, organic multi-carboxylic acid, anhydride, or catalytic (as in imidazole type) crosslinking reactions. There are many different ways to achieve the appropriate relationships between the molecular properties. For example, the dry adhesives or shape memory polymers may include a rigid epoxy, an epoxy extender, and a crosslinking agent; or a rigid epoxy, a flexible crosslinking agent, and a flexible epoxy; or a rigid epoxy, a rigid crosslinking agent, and a flexible epoxy; or a rigid epoxy, a flexible epoxy, and a catalytic curing agent; or a rigid epoxy, a crosslinking agent, and a diluent; or a flexible epoxy, a crosslinking agent, and a diluent; or a rigid epoxy and a flexible ...
Long fiber-reinforced polymer structures offer lightweight design potential. However, there is still a need for methods that consider the complex material behavior in the design process. This contribution discusses the integration of the local, anisotropic material properties of long fiber-reinforced polymer structures into the calculation of bead patterns and bead geometries. A workflow to calculate the resulting component stiffness is presented. To this end, mold filling simulations using Moldflow are coupled with a bead calculation process, which uses Abaqus for the structural calculations. This requires a mapping process to provide the results of the mold filling simulation for the bead calculation. As commercial tools do not allow independently modifying the bead parameters height, width, base radius, head radius and flange angle, an algorithm is used to calculate the bead geometry and to generate more degree of design freedom ...
A polymer based circuit production method provides a polymer based circuit by exposing a surface of a polymer substrate to ultraviolet radiation resulting in an adhesion promoted polymer substrate surface. A circuit is fabricated on the polymer substrate surface and a coating material is applied to at least a portion of the adhesion promoted polymer substrate surface. A portion of the circuit fabricated on the polymer substrate surface may be encapsulated. The polymer based circuit resulting from the method includes a polymer substrate having an ultraviolet radiation treated surface, a circuit formed on the polymer substrate surface, and a coating material encapsulating at least a portion of the at least one circuit between the polymer substrate and the coating material.
The invention aims at providing polylactic acid compositions having specific thermal characteristics and gas barrier properties; stretched polylactic acid films excellent in surface smoothness, transparency, heat resistance and toughness; and moldings of a polylactic acid composition comprising PLLA and PDLA. Moldings of a polylactic acid composition which is characterized by exhibiting a peak of 30mJ/mg or above in the DSC when cooled at a temperature fall rate of 10 DEG C/min after the exposure to 250 DEG C for 10 min and preferably by exhibiting a peak(1)/peak (2) ratio of 0.5 or below wherein the peak (1)and the peak (2) are peaks observed in a Tm range of 150 to 180 DEG C and in a Tm range of 200 to 240 DEG C respectively in the DSC in the second heating (conducted at a temperature rise rate of 10 DEG C/min from 0 DEG C after the exposure to 250 DEG C for 10 min and the cooling at a rate of 10 DEG C/min); and moldings of a polylactic acid composition as described above which further contains
Inherently conductive polymers (ICPs) are finally about to leap from the laboratory into the commercial world.. Invented in 1977, ICPs have been around for a while, but their true commercial potential has never been realised.. Brian Balmer Industry Analyst at Frost & Sullivan explains, until now, ICPs have been aimed at the traditional conductive polymer markets of electrostatic discharge packaging and anti corrosive coatings. However, they found it difficult to compete on price with existing conductive polymers which are produced by incorporating materials such as carbon black, carbon fibre or fragments of stainless steel into the base polymer. Hence their performance in these markets has been poor. But, new cutting edge technologies such as organic light emitting diodes for flat screen displays, dimmable windows and fuel cells will see sales of ICPs rocket over the next 6 years.. The fastest growth area for the use of conductive polymers is that of Organic Light Emitting Diodes OLEDs, which ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Lithium ion conductive polymer electrolytes by side group rotation(II). AU - Satou, Akira. AU - Nishimura, Shin. AU - Urabe, Syuuichi. AU - Yamamoto, Hitoshi. AU - Ueyama, Norikazu. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - In order to improve ionic conductivity of lithium ion conductive polymer at low temperature, novel styrene derivatives (1-4) were synthesized and their ionic conductivities were measured. An ionic conductivity of polymer 1, was above 10-5 S/cm, even at -60°C. Its activation energy below 20°C exhibited 11 kJ/mol. On the other hand, that of poly(ethylene oxide) electrolyte exhibited 105 kJ/mol. The difference of the activation energy implied that lithium ion transfers in polymer electrolytes was promoted by rotation motion of the dimethoxyphenyl side group instead of segmental motion of polymer main chain.. AB - In order to improve ionic conductivity of lithium ion conductive polymer at low temperature, novel styrene derivatives (1-4) were synthesized and their ...
Polymer chemistry, polymer synthesis, polymer physics, polymer physical chemistry, polymer materials, polymer self-assembly, supramolecular polymer, polymer surface interface, polymer nanomaterials, energy polymer materials, biomedical polymer, ecological environment polymer, optoelectronic polymer, polymer processing and high grade Hydrogel, Zhang Xi, macromolecule, macromolecule Journal
Polymer Films Market Report includes a complete analysis of the present industry status offering basic Polymer Films impression and then goes into each and every fact. Covid-19 Impact on 2021-2026 Global and Regional Polymer Films Industry Production, Sales and Consumption Status and Prospects Professional Market Research Report Standard Version Polymer Films market size 2021 will grow from XXX in 2019 to XXX by 2026, at an estimated CAGR of XX. The base year considered for the study is 2019, and the market size 2021 is projected from 2021 to 2026.. Get a sample copy of the Polymer Films market report 2021. research team projects that the Polymer Films market size will grow from XXX in 2019 to XXX by 2026, at an estimated CAGR of XX. The base year considered for the study is 2019, and the market size is projected from 2021 to 2026.The prime objective of this report is to help the user understand the market in terms of its definition, segmentation, market potential, influential trends, and the ...
The large research effort focused on enhancing nonviral transfection vectors has clearly demonstrated that their macromolecular structure has a significant effect on their transfection efficacy. The 3D branched polymeric structures, such as dendrimers, have proved to be a very effective structure for polymeric transfection vectors; however, so far the dendritic polymers have not delivered on their promise. This is largely because a wide range of dendritic polymer materials with tailored multifunctional properties and biocompatibility required for such applications are not yet accessible by current routes. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of new 3D Single Cyclized polymeric gene vectors with well-defined compositions and functionalities via a one-step synthesis from readily available vinyl monomers. We observe that this polymer structure of a single chain linked to itself interacts differently with plasmid DNA compared to conventional vectors and when tested over a range of cell ...
A variety of water-soluble polymers, when attached to a liposome, substantially increase liposome circulation half-life in animals. However, in certain conditions, liposomes modified with the most widely used polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG), induce an IgM response resulting in an accelerated blood clearance (ABC) of the liposome upon the second injection. Modification of liposomes with other water-soluble polymers: HPMA (poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide]), PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)), PMOX (poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)), PDMA (poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide)), and PAcM (poly(N-acryloyl morpholine)), increase circulation times of liposomes; but a precise comparison of their ability to promote long circulation or induce the ABC effect has not been reported. To obtain a more nuanced understanding of the role of polymer structure/MW to promote long circulation, we synthesized a library of polymer diacyl chain lipids with low polydispersity (1.04-1.09), similar polymer molecular weights ...
Purpose. Crosslinked, degradable derivatives of low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (PEI) are relatively efficient and non-cytotoxic gene delivery agents. To further investigate these promising materials, a new synthetic approach was developed using a poly(4-vinylpyridine)-supported Fe(III) catalyst (PVP(Fe(III))) that provides more facile synthesis and enhanced control of polymer molecular weight.. Methods. Biodegradable polymers (D.PEI) comprising 800-Da PEI crosslinked with 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate and exhibiting molecular weights of 1.2, 6.2, and 48 kDa were synthesized utilizing the PVP(Fe(III)) catalyst. D.PEI/DNA polyplexes were characterized using gel retardation, ethidium bromide exclusion, heparan sulfate displacement, and dynamic light scattering. In vitro transfection, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of the polyplexes were tested in human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231).. Results. D.PEIs tightly complexed plasmid DNA and formed 320- to ...
When a laboratory is producing vascular stents made from memory polymer, theyll need to have the right selection of methods to deliver a quality product.
Polymers represent the leading and versatile type of biomaterials being extensively applied in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, nano-medicine, medical devices etc.. The versatility of polymers for biomedical uses is attributed to the relative ease with which polymers can be designed with a range of architecture, functionality and appropriate physical, chemical and biological properties.. Functional polymers are special class of polymers where the polymer chains contain one or more reactive groups attached at the chain end or to the backbone. In biomedical applications, functional polymers are used as building blocks to design complex structures such as nanoparticles, bioconjugation, biocompatible surfaces, scaffolds, hydrogels etc.. ...
Polymers with shape memory properties have been prepared using heparin-inspired segments. The polymers have been prepared as films and foams. Both films and foams demonstrate good shape memory behavior as evidenced by fixity and recovery values. The materials properties of the foams can easily be tuned by va Pioneering Investigators
Cationic polymer/DNA complexes are widely used for gene delivery, although the influence of the cationic polymer on the biophysical properties of the resulting complex is poorly understood. Here, several series of cationic polymers have been used to evaluate the influence of structural parameters on properties of DNA complexes. Parameters studied included the length of side chain, charge type (primary versus tertiary and quaternary), polymer molecular weight, and charge spacing along the polymer backbone. Cationic polymers with short side chains (such as polyvinylamine) formed small complexes, resistant to destabilization by polyanions, with low surface charge, limited transfection activity, and efficient intranuclear transcription. Conversely, cationic polymers with long side chains (e.g., poly[methacryloyl-Gly-Gly-NH-(CH(2))(6)-NH(2))] showed inefficient complex formation, high positive surface charge, and better transfection activity. The effects of molecular weight varied between polymers, for
Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers. From the utility point of view they can be classified into three main categories: thermoplastics, elastomers and synthetic fibers. They are found commonly in a variety of consumer products such as honey, glue, etc. A wide variety of synthetic polymers are available with variations in main chain as well as side chains. The back bones of common synthetic polymers such as polythene, polystyrene and poly acrylates are made up of carbon-carbon bonds, whereas hetero chain polymers such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, polysulfides and polycarbonates have other elements (e.g. oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen) inserted along to the backbone. Also silicon forms similar materials without the need of carbon atoms, such as silicones through siloxane linkages; these compounds are thus said to be inorganic polymers. Coordination polymers may contain a range of metals in the backbone, with non-covalent bonding present. Some familiar household synthetic polymers ...
To investigate the effect of polymer molecular weight (MW) on rhBMP-2 delivery by thermoreversible polymers, four polymers with similar lower critical solution temperatures (20 degrees -22 degrees C) but different MWs were studied. Thermoreversible polymers were based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAM), ethyl methacrylate (EMA), and N-acryloxysuccinimide (NASI), and had MWs of either approximately 49 kDa or approximately 400 kDa. The NASI content was either 0 or 1-1.6%. High MW polymers, irrespective of their NASI content, formed a stable gel with significantly lower water uptake and exhibited a dense micelle with average pore size smaller than the low MW polymers. NiPAM/EMA polymers without NASI did not conjugate with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). NiPAM/EMA polymers containing NASI, however, gave conjugation with rhBMP-2. For polymers without NASI, a high MW was essential for rhBMP-2 retention when injected intramuscularly in Sprague-Dawley rats. For NASI-containing polymers,
Preface. List of Contributors.. Polymer Brushes: On the Way to Tailor-Made Surfaces (Jürgen Rühe).. 1 Growth of Polymer Molecules at Surfaces: Introductory Remarks.. 2 Coatings: From First Principles to High-Tech Applications.. 3 Surface-Coating Techniques.. 4 Surface-Attached Polymers.. 5 Polymer Brushes: General Features.. 6 Theory of Polymer Brushes.. 7 Synthesis of Polymer Brushes.. 8 Polymer Brushes as Functional Materials.. 9 Microstructured Polymer Brushes.. 10 Surface-Initiated Polymerization: The Overall Picture.. Part I Synthesis.. 1 Recent Advances in Polymer Brush Synthesis (Anthony M. Granville and William J. Brittain).. 1.1 Introduction.. 1.2 Grafting To Synthesis Technique.. 1.3 Grafting From Synthesis Technique.. 2 Polymer Brushes by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (Jeffrey Pyun, Tomasz Kowalewski, and Krzysztof Matyjaszewski).. 2.1 Introduction.. 2.2 Polymer Brushes on Flat Surfaces.. 2.3 Polymer Brushes from Particles.. 2.4 Molecular Brushes.. 3 Polymer Brushes by ...
Five new metal-organic coordination polymers ([Cu{sub 3}(μ{sub 2}-OH){sub 2}(atrz){sub 2}(nph){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1), ([Cu{sub 2}(μ{sub 3}-OH)(atrz)(1,2,4-btc)]·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (2), ([Cu{sub 2}(μ{sub 3}-OH)(atrz)(1,2,4-btc)(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3), [Cu(dth){sub 0.5}(nph)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4) and [Cu(dth)(Hnip){sub 2}]{sub n} (5) [atrz=4-amino-1,2,4-triazole, dth=N,N-di(4H-1,2,4-triazole)hexanamide, H{sub 2}nph=3-nitrophthalic acid, 1,2,4-H{sub 3}btc=1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid and H{sub 2}nip=5-nitroisophthalic acid] were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Polymer 1 shows a one-dimensional (1D) chain. Polymers 2 and 3 exhibit similar tetranuclear Cu{sup II}{sub 4} cluster-based three-dimensional (3D) frameworks with the same components. Polymer 4 possesses a 3D framework with a 4{sup 12}·6{sup 3}-pcu topology. Polymer 5 displays a 3D framework with a 4{sup 4}·6{sup 10}·8-mab topology. The magnetic properties of 1-4 ...
Novel temperature- and pH-responsive ABA-type triblock copolymers, P(DEAEMA-co-MEO2MA-co-OEGMA)-b-PEG-b-P(DEAEMA-co-MEO2MA-co-OEGMA), composed of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) middle block and temperature- and pH-sensitive outer blocks, were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The composition and structure of the copolymer were characterized by 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The temperature- and pH-sensitivity, micellization, and the sol-gel transitions of the triblock copolymers in aqueous solutions were studied using transmittance measurements, surface tension, viscosity, fluorescence probe technique, dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the triblock copolymer, which contains a small amount of a weak base group, (N,N-diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA), can be tuned precisely and reversibly by changing the solution pH. When the copolymer
A polymer is a molecule, made from joining together many small molecules called monomers. The word polymer can be broken down into poly (meaning many in Greek) and mer (meaning unit). This shows how the chemical composition of a polymer consists of many smaller units (monomers) bonded together into a larger molecule. A chemical reaction bonding monomers together to make a polymer is called polymerization. Some polymers are natural and made by organisms. Proteins have polypeptide molecules, which are natural polymers made from various amino acid monomer units. Nucleic acids are huge natural polymers made up of millions of nucleotide units. Cellulose and starch (two types of carbohydrate) are also natural polymers made up of glucopyranose monomer bonded together in different ways. Rubber is a mixture of polymers. Plastics are man-made polymers. Many fibers are made of polymers. If the units called monomers in a polymer are all the same, then the polymer is called a homopolymer. ...
Many pathogens that infect humans use cell surface carbohydrates as receptors to facilitate cell-cell adhesion. The hallmark of these interactions is their multivalency, or the simultaneous occurrence of multiple interactions. We have used a carbohydrate-functionalized fluorescent polymer, which displays many carbohydrate ligands on a single polymer chain, to allow for multivalent detection of pathogens. Incubation of a mannose-functionalized polymer with Escherichia coli yields brightly fluorescent aggregates of bacteria. These results show that carbohydrate-functionalized fluorescent polymers are a versatile detection method for bacteria. Future design of detectors for other pathogens only requires information on the carbohydrates bound by the organisms, which has been exhaustively reported in the literature.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interfacial tension governs the formation of self-organized honeycomb-patterned polymer films. AU - Fukuhira, Yukako. AU - Yabu, Hiroshi. AU - Ijiro, Kuniharu. AU - Shimomura, Masatsugu. PY - 2009/6/29. Y1 - 2009/6/29. N2 - Hexagonally packed water droplets condensed on a polymer solution are potential templates for the formation of honeycomb-patterned porous polymer films. A small number of surface-active molecules is indispensable for the stabilization of water droplets during solvent evaporation. Biocompatible surfactants; e.g., phospholipids, are required for the fabrication of biodegradable honeycomb-patterned polymer films, which can be used as novel biomedical materials, mainly in vivo. Among various kinds of phospholipids, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) has been reported to be the most suitable surfactant for the formation of honeycomb-patterned PLA films. Interfacial tension between a water droplet and the polymer solution is largely dependent on the chemical ...
April 1, 2019-Polymer composites are projected to increase in the automotive industry, MarketWatch reports. Polymer composites are materials with the combination of a polymer matrix and a reinforcing agent, mainly fibers (usually carbon, glass or natural fibers). The research report on Global Automotive Polymer Composites Market 2019 keenly analyzes significant features of the industry. The analysis servers market size, latest trends, drivers, threats, opportunities, as well as key market segments. It is based on past data and present market needs. Also, involve distinct business approaches accepted by the . . .
Thermal (or pressure) induced demixing of partially miscible binary polymer mixtures is a simple and controlled approach to inducing well-defined polymeric structures. By understanding the role of polymer architecture (tacticity, chain length and polydispersity) on the blend thermodynamics, the demixing pathway can be chosen to yield nanostructured materials with precise control of length scale and connectivity with application in membranes, scaffolds and photovoltaics. We probe the thermodynamics and morphological evolution of polymer blend films with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), light scattering and optical microscopy and compare our experimental results to existing theoretical descriptions of polymer blend thermodynamics and demixing kinetics.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Precise grafting of macrocyclics and dendrons to a linear polymer chain. AU - Amir, Faheem. AU - Hossain, Md D.. AU - Jia, Zhongfan. AU - Monteiro, Michael J.. PY - 2016/8/31. Y1 - 2016/8/31. N2 - Sequential growth of multifunctional telechelic polymer chains was used here to produce three, four or seven HO-functionalities equally spaced along the polymer backbone. The telechelic building block consisted of a halide group on one end and both a hydroxyl and alkyne group on the other end. The key was to maintain the halide end-group on the telechelic polymer chain during the CuAAC coupling reaction after each sequential growth. This was accomplished by using the combination of the PMDETA ligand and toluene as a solvent to produce significantly faster rates of CuAAC coupling reaction over halide abstraction. The HO-functionalities were then converted to azide groups allowing further CuAAC reactions with either alkyne polymeric dendrons or cyclics to produce equally spaced grafts ...
The work presented in this thesis concerns surface energy modification and patterning of the surfaces of conjugated polymers. Goniometry and Wilhelmy Balance techniques were used to evaluate the surface energy or wettability of a polymers surface; infrared reflectionabsorption spectroscopy (IRAS) was used to analyse the residuals on the surface as modified by a bare elastomeric stamp poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The stamp was found to be capable of modifying a polymer surface. Patterning of a single and/or double layer of conjugated polymers on the surface can be achieved by surface energy controlled dewetting. Modification of a conjugated polymer film can also be carried out when a sample is subjected to electrochemical doping in an aqueous electrolyte. The dynamic surface energy changes during the process were monitored in-situ using the Wilhelmy balance method.. This thesis also concerns studies of conjugated polymer-based optoelectronics, including light-emitting diodes (PLEDs), that ...
The direct reaction between copper nitrate, thymine-1-acetic acid, and 4,4′-bipyridine in water leads to the formation of a blue colloid comprising uniform crystalline nanoribbons (length >1 mum; width ca. 150-185 nm; diameter ca. 15-60 nm) of a coordination polymer. The polymer displays a thymine-based structure freely available for supramolecular interactions. These nanostructures show significant selective interaction with single-stranded oligonucleotides based on adenine. Remarkably, they present low cell toxicity in three cell lines-despite the copper(II) content-and can be used as nanocarriers of oligonucleotides. These results suggest the potential of these types of nanostructures in several biological applications ...
This invention includes malleable, biodegradable, fibrous compositions for application to a tissue site in order to promote or facilitate new tissue growth. One aspect of this invention is a fibrous component that provides unique mechanical and physical properties. The invention may be created by providing a vessel containing a slurry, said slurry comprising a plurality of natural or synthetic polymer fibers and at least one suspension fluid, wherein the polymer fibers are substantially evenly dispersed and randomly oriented throughout the volume of the suspension fluid; applying a force, e.g., centrifugal, to said vessel containing said slurry, whereupon said force serves to cause said polymer fibers to migrate through the suspension fluid and amass at a furthest extent of the vessel, forming a polymer material, with said polymer material comprising polymer fibers of sufficient length and sufficiently viscous, interlaced, or interlocked to retard dissociation of said polymer fibers.
A composite is formed wherein particles of a conductive polymer are uniformly distributed within a processable non-conductive polymer. In the method of the invention, an inverted emulsion is formed by dispersing an aqueous solution of oxidant in an organic solvent comprising a host polymer and an oil-soluble surfactant. A monomer whose polymerization yields a conductive polymer which is dissolved in a solvent miscible with the organic solvent of the emulsion is then added dropwise to the emulsion with agitation. The composite is separated from the emulsion and the precipitate is washed and dried.
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phdthesis{d217f1f6-5ffd-404d-8913-770a926a130e, abstract = {Most polymeric materials used today are not simple homopolymers, but consist of more than one polymer, which lead to morphologies of different length scale and shape. It is important to receive knowledge of the morphologies because the properties of the materials change depending on the structure. This thesis describes methods developed to study polymer morphologies by electron microscopy and also how to make a correct interpretation of the result. TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) are described for studying morphologies in PVC (polyvinyl chloride) resin, polymer blends, compatibilizer in polymer blends, latex particles, latex films and bitumen/polymer blends. Following polymer blends were studied: Carbon black filled NBR/EPDM (nitril butadiene rubber/ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer), PP/PA (polypropylene/polyamid) Modified with SEBS-MA ...
Jul 31 2009 ·The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the technology and applications of shape‐memory materials (SMMs). This paper initially considers various classes of SMMs and their properties. It then discusses applications and concludes with a brief review of recent research and future prospects. SMMs include shape‐memory alloys (SMAs) ferromagnetic SMAs (FSMAs) and shape Chat Online ...
A process for producing a substantially dry polymer particle powder. A mixture of polymerization reagents is formed from a mixture of at least one monomer source and a solvent selected from the group consisting essentially of water and organic solvents and an initiator source. The mixture of polymerization reagents is sprayed into a heated, controlled atmosphere, forming droplets of the mixture which are allowed to fall through the heated, controlled atmosphere for a sufficient period of time to obtain a desired degree of polymerization. The solvent is continuously evacuated from the atmosphere during the polymerization process.
Zinc-porphyrin dye molecules were incorporated into the backbone of a conjugated polymer material by a method, which allowed for the incorporation of only one zinc-porphyrin dye molecule into the backbone of each conjugated polymer molecule. The electronic properties of the homopolymer were established using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) for the determination of the electronic energy levels and the injection barrier for holes into the valence band. Pulse radiolysis time resolved microwave conductivity (PR-TRMC) was used to determine the sum of charge carrier mobilities. Electroluminescent devices of the homopolymer itself and of the zinc-porphyrin containing polymer were prepared and the nature of the electroluminescence was characterized. The homopolymer segments were found to optically pump the emission of the zinc-porphyrin dye moities. The homopolymer exhibits blue-green emission and the zinc-porphyrin linked homopolymers emit near-infrared/infrared light. This was ...
In this study, the outstanding ability of the coordination polymer [Pt2(nBuCS2)4I]n (nBu = n-butyl) (1) to reversibly self-organize from solution was demonstrated. This feature allowed us to generate highly electrical conductive structures located upon demand on technologically relevant surfaces, by easy-to-
The global Water Soluble Polymer Market size is expected to value at USD 43.79 billion by 2022. The market is subject to witness a substantial growth due to the rise in the number of application of water soluble polymers in drilling, enhanced oil recovery, mining, wastewater treatment, and food. Increasing adoption of water-soluble polymers as stabilizing agents, thickeners, film formation agent, emulsifiers, rheology modifiers, lubricity aids, and conditioners, are expected to fuel market demand for water soluble polymers over the forecast period. Globally, the water soluble polymers industry is predicted to grow at higher CAGR in the forecast period, providing numerous opportunities for market players to invest for research and development in the water soluble polymers market.. Water soluble polymers are vital for production of various household products, detergents, personal care, and paints & coatings. Increasing adoption of water soluble polymers in food & beverages industry, building & ...
CHEM 5384 Polymer Characterization II Lab 1: Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of styrene Mengfang Li 01/29/2012 Introduction: In this experiment we were introduced the method to control a radical process to prepare well- defined and functionalizable polymers. Over 100 billion pounds of synthetic polymers were produced each year in United alone. Chain polymerization accounts 80% of these and by far free radical polymerization is the most commonly used reaction method in this category [1] . Radicals are very reactive and add quickly across the double bond to form polymers. This process will terminate if the chain end reacts with another radical. This can be observed by plotting the molecular weight as a function of conversion of monomer into polymer. As shown in Figure 1 for conventional method, high molecular weights are obtained at low conversion and remain at approximately same level throughout the reaction. The initiator (eg. BPO or AIBN) decomposes ...
A photorefractive (PR) device comprises of a layer of a novel photorefractive polymer composite sandwiched inbetween two transparent electrodes. The PR polymer composite comprises a photoconducting polymer, a photosensitizer, a novel second-order, non-linear optical chromophore, and a plasticizer in an amount sufficient to provide the PR polymer composite with a glass transition temperature below about 45 C. The PR polymer composite is capable of internally storing image patterns generated by interfering two coherent light beams inside the material. The PR polymer composite shows high diffraction efficiencies (near 100%) and high net two-coupling gain (|200 cm-1). The writing of information is reversible. Consequently, the device is suitable for read/write holographic storage and real-time image processing applications, and is capable of being poled at essentially room temperature. The light source is an integrated semiconductor laser and the detector is a commercial Si photodiode or a CCD camera.
TY - GEN. T1 - Structural properties and photoinduced electron processes in polymer films of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl) on the surface of silver island films. AU - Zeinidenov, A. K.. AU - Ibrayev, N. Kh. AU - Afanasyev, D. A.. PY - 2016/11/28. Y1 - 2016/11/28. N2 - Influence of surface plasmon resonance of silver island films on photoinduced electronic processes in polymer films of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) was studied in this work. Fabrication of P3HT on the surface of the plasmon silver island films increases intensity of the absorption and fluorescence of the polymer film about 4 times. The increase in absorption and fluorescence intensity of P3HT is associated with an increase of the rate of absorption transitions in the polymer films through the influence of the local electromagnetic field near the surface of the silver island films. A formation of disordered polymer structures occurs on the surface of the silver island films. This is determined from the ...
A polymer scaffold is provided comprising an extensively interconnected macroporous network. The polymer scaffold embodies macropores having a diameter in a range of 0.5-3.5 mm, and preferably in a range of about 1.0-2.0 mm. The polymer scaffold is prepared using a novel process which advantageously combines the techniques of particulate leaching and phase inversion to render a process that provides amplified means by which to control the morphology of the resulting polymer scaffold. The polymer scaffold has utility in the area of tissue engineering, particularly as a scaffold for both in vitro and in vivo cell growth. The polymer scaffold may be produced using pure polymer or alternatively a composite material may be formed consisting of a macroporous polymer scaffold and osteoclast-resorbable calcium phosphate particles with a binding agent binding the calcium phosphate particles to the polymer scaffold.
A growing number of players are capitalizing on the opportunities arising out of the substantial popularity of biodegradable plastics and bioplastics where lactic acid and polylactic acid are used as raw materials for their production. Some of the leading players in the global lactic acid market and polylactic acid market are Futerro SA, Teijin Ltd., Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Synbra Technology BV, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Henan Jindan Lactic Acid Technology Co., Ltd., NatureWorks LLC, and Corbion NV., notes Transparency Market Research (TMR).. The global lactic acid market stood at US$1,130.4 Mn in 2014 and is estimated to reach US$3,381.8 Mn by the end of 2023. This represents the market to rise at robust CAGR of 13.0% during 2015-2023. On the other hand, the global polylactic acid market stood at US$400.1 Mn in 2014 and is projected to reach a worth of US$1,358.1 Mn by 2023 end. Polylactic acid market is projected to proliferate at a CAGR of 14.6% during the same forecast ...
The chemist Hermann Staudinger first proposed that polymers consisted of long chains of atoms held together by covalent bonds, which he called macromolecules. His work expanded the chemical understanding of polymers and was followed by an expansion of the field of polymer chemistry during which such polymeric materials as neoprene, nylon and polyester were invented. Before Staudinger, polymers were thought to be clusters of small molecules (colloids), without definite molecular weights, held together by an unknown force. Staudinger received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1953. Wallace Carothers invented the first synthetic rubber called neoprene in 1931, the first polyester, and went on to invent nylon, a true silk replacement, in 1935. Paul Flory was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1974 for his work on polymer random coil configurations in solution in the 1950s. Stephanie Kwolek developed an aramid, or aromatic nylon named Kevlar, patented in 1966. Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta ...
Preface. Acknowledgments.. List of Contributors.. List of Figures.. List of Tables.. Editor Biographies.. PART I: FUNDAMENTALS OF SUPRAMOLECULAR POLYMERS.. 1. A Brief Introduction to Supramolecular Chemistry in a Polymer Context1 (Raymond J. Thibault and Vincent M. Rotello).. 1.1 Introduction and Background.. 1.2 Main-chain versus Side-chain Supramolecular Polymers.. References.. 2. Molecular Recognition Using Amphiphilic Macromolecules (Malar A Azagarsamy, K. Krishnamoorthy, and S. Thayumanavan).. 2.1 Introduction.. 2.2 Amphiphilic Block Copolymers.. 2.2.1 Non-Specific Interactions.. 2.2.2 Specific Interactions.. 2.3 Amphiphilic Homopolymers.. 2.3.1 Container Properties.. 2.4 Amphiphilic Dendrimers.. 2.5 Conclusions.. 2.6 Acknowledgements.. References.. 3. Supramolecular Control of Mechanical Properties in Single Molecules, Interfaces and Macroscopic Materials (David M. Loveless, Farrell R. Kersey and Stephen L. Craig).. 3.1 Introduction and Background.. 3.2 Mechanical Properties of Linear ...
A method for producing a polylactic acid of the present invention includes the steps of (a) polymerizing a lactide used as a main starting material in a molten state to give a polylactic acid; and (b) further polymerizing the polylactic acid obtained in step (a) in a solid phase by heating at a temperature lower than a melting point of a final polymer product.
This dissertation reports the synthesis and characterization of nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) for anticancer drug delivery. Nanoparticles have been explored in order to address the limitations of small molecule chemotherapeutics. NCPs have been investigated as drug delivery vehicles as they can exhibit the same beneficial properties as the bulk metal-organic frameworks as well as interesting characteristics that are unique to nanomaterials. Gd-MTX (MTX = methotrexate) NCPs with a MTX loading of 71.6 wt% were synthesized and stabilized by encapsulation within a lipid bilayer containing anisamide (AA), a small molecule that targets sigma receptors which are overexpressed in many cancer tissues. Functionalization with AA allows for targeted delivery and controlled release to cancer cells, as shown by enhanced efficacy against leukemia cells. The NCPs were doped with Ru(bpy) (bpy = 2,2-bipyridine), and this formulation was utilized as an optical imaging agent by confocal microscopy. NCPs ...
CRG has unveiled a new shape memory 3D printing filament called Essemplex that has been designed to provide users with a 3D printing filament that combines the
The invention relates to radiopaque shape memory foam compositions and methods of using the compositions. In certain embodiments, the compositions are used in neurovascular occlusion applications.
Structures and properties of three new homobinuclear nanosized supramolecular copper coordination polymers derived from carboxylate type ligands and benzimidazole
Functional polymer thin films find uses in wide range of energy applications as separation membranes for fuel cells or as electrodes in batteries. Low costs, flexible nature and tailored functionalities make the polymer thin films better alternatives compared to their metal counterparts. Our research efforts focus mainly on conductive polymer thin films and selectively permeable ultra thin functional polymers.
The proton conductivity of a dense coordination polymer (CP) was investigated under high-pressure conditions. Impedance measurements under high pressures revealed that the proton conductivity of the CP decreased more than 1000-fold at pressures of 3-7 GPa and that the activation energy for proton conduction almost doubled compared with that at ambient pressure. A synchrotron X-ray study under high pressure identified the amorphization process of the CP during compression, which rationally explains the decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy. This phenomenon is categorized as reversible pressure-induced amorphization of a dense CP and is regarded as a demonstration of the coupling of the mechanical and electrical properties of a CP. ...
Sabu Thomas, PhD, is a Professor of Polymer Science and Engineering at the School of Chemical Sciences and Director of the International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India. The research activities of Professor Thomas include surfaces and interfaces in multiphase polymer blend and composite systems; phase separation in polymer blends; compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends; thermoplastic elastomers; phase transitions in polymers; nanostructured polymer blends; macro-, micro- and nanocomposites; polymer rheology; recycling; reactive extrusion; processing-morphology-property relationships in multiphase polymer systems; double networking of elastomers; natural fibers and green composites; rubber vulcanization; interpenetrating polymer networks; diffusion and transport; and polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering. He has supervised 68 PhD theses, 40 MPhil theses, and 45 Masters thesis. He has three patents to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polyphosphate exerts differential effects on blood clotting, depending on polymer size. AU - Smith, Stephanie A.. AU - Choi, Sharon H.. AU - Davis-Harrison, Rebecca. AU - Huyck, Jillian. AU - Boettcher, John. AU - Reinstra, Chad M.. AU - Morrissey, James H.. PY - 2010/11/18. Y1 - 2010/11/18. N2 - Polyphosphate, a linear polymer of inorganic phosphate, is secreted by activated platelets and accumulates in many infectious microorganisms. We recently showed that polyphosphate modulates the blood coagulation cascade at 3 steps: it triggers the contact pathway, it accelerates factor V activation, and it enhances fibrin polymerization. We now report that polyphosphate exerts differential effects on blood clotting, depending on polymer length. Very long polymers (≥ 500mers, such as those present in microorganisms) were required for optimal activation of the contact pathway, while shorter polymers (∼ 100mers, similar to the polymer lengths released by platelets) were sufficient to ...
This dissertation developed novel microfabrication techniques of conductive polymer nanocomposite and utilized this material as a functional element for various physical sensor applications. Microstructures of nanocomposite were realized through novel microcontact printing and laser ablation assisted micropatterning processes. Prototype devices including large-strain strain sensor and highly-sensitive pressure sensor were demonstrated showing distinct advantages over existing technologies. The polymer nanocomposite used in this work comprised elastomer poly(dimexylsiloxane) (PDMS) as polymer matrix and multi-walled carbon nananotubes (MWCNTs) as a conductive nanofiller. To achieve uniform distribution of carbon nanotubes within the polymer, an optimized dispersion process was developed, featuring a strong organic solvent-chloroform, which dissolved PDMS base polymer easily and allowed monodispersion of MWCNTs. Following material preparation, three novel approaches were employed to pattern
Pages that link to Electrospun polymer membrane activated with room temperature ionic liquid: Novel polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel temperature-step method to determine the glass transition temperature of ultrathin polymer films by liquid dewetting. AU - Wang, Jinhua. AU - McKenna, Gregory B.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/9/15. Y1 - 2013/9/15. N2 - A novel temperature-step experimental method that extends the Bodiguel-Fretigny liquid dewetting method of investigating polymer thin films is described and results presented from an investigation of thickness effects on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of ultrathin polystyrene (PS) films. Unlike most other methods of thin film investigation, this procedure promises a rapid screening tool to determine the overall profile of T g versus film thickness for ultrathin polymer films using a limited number of samples. Similar to our prior observations and other literature data, with this new method obvious Tg depression was observed for PS thin films dewetting on both glycerol and an ionic liquid. The results ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Temperature-responsive smart packing materials utilizing multi-functional polymers. AU - Ayano, Eri. AU - Kanazawa, Hideko. PY - 2014/1. Y1 - 2014/1. N2 - Polymers that respond to small changes in environmental stimuli with large, sometimes discontinuous changes in their physical state or properties, are often called smart polymers. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAAm, is one of the most representative smart polymer that exhibits a thermally reversible soluble-insoluble change in the vicinity of its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 32°C in aqueous solution. Temperature-responsive chromatography for the separation of biomolecules utilizing the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-modified stationary phase is performed with an aqueous mobile phase without using an organic solvent. The surface properties and function of the stationary phase are controlled by external temperature changes without changing the mobile-phase composition. The separation of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - All-star polymer multilayers as pH-responsive nanofilms. AU - Kim, Byeong Su. AU - Gao, Haifeng. AU - Argun, Avni A.. AU - Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof. AU - Hammond, Paula T.. PY - 2009/1/13. Y1 - 2009/1/13. N2 - Star polymers with globular architecture and multiple arms are among the simplest forms of polymers with branched topologies. The combination of their unique architecture and high local densities of active functional groups makes star polymers unique candidates for a diverse range of applications. In this article, we describe the synthesis of star polymers with precisely controlled structures via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using the one-pot arm-first method. Specifically, two types of highly defined, high charge density star polymers with oppositely charged arm structures were prepared: poly[2-(dimefliylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) star and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) star polymers with cross-linked cores. By exploiting the electrostatic interactions ...
The paper presents influence of diverse shapes and dimensions of carbon nanostructures on physical properties of polymer composites. Graphene nanoplatelets, carbon nanotubes, graphite nanofibers, and graphite microflakes have been investigated as fillers in polymethacrylate resin. Layers were deposited with printing techniques used in printed electronics technology such as screen printing and spray coating, both elaborated in our earlier works. Different sets of measurements have been performed for obtained layers with particular carbon nanofillers. Thickness and topography have been examined using optical profilometer. Morphology of nanostructures has been observed with scanning electron microscope. Moreover, sheet resistivity and optical transmission in visible wavelength have been measured. Also mechanical properties have been characterized for each polymer composite by conducting fatigue test which consisted of multiple bending cycles ...
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) is a class of polymeric materials that are capable of changing shapes under an external stimulus such as heat, light, solvents and electromagnetic induction. In this dissertation, we explore both the bulk and surface shape memory effect of polymers, understand the material properties, and develop potential applications. In the first case (Chapter 2, Chapter 3, and Chapter 4), wrinkles were developed utilizing the surface SM effect and were applied for cell culture. Wrinkling has been generally understood as a stress-driven instability phenomenon. In our bilayer system, the wrinkle formation is enabled by compressive buckling of a gold coating that is first applied to an SMP that has been fixed with a temporary uniaxial strain. The bilayer system is then recovered thermally to generate the wrinkles. The fundamentals of wrinkle characteristics and formation were investigated in Chapter 2. Gold film thickness and applied prestrain of the SMP substrate show a direct impact on
Report provides the brief overview about the demand and growth of the lactic and polylactic acid worldwide . Its also contain global market scenario of lactic and polylactic acid including Some of the...
A series of water-soluble, stimuli-responsive (co)polymers was synthesized via the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The end group of a RAFT polymer, poly(N -isopropylacrylamide), was modified to ene or yne function via thiol-ene click chemistry. The ene or yne end group subsequently underwent thiol-ene or thiol-yne addition affording mono- or di-functional end group. First, three methacrylic monomers containing 2 or 3 pendent tertiary amine functional groups, 1,3-bis(dimethylamino)propan-2-ylmethacrylate ( M1 ), 1-(bis(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)amino)propan-2-yl methacrylate (M2 ), and 2-((2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)ethyl)methylamino)ethyl acrylate (M3 ), were synthesized via an acylation reaction between methacryloyl chloride and the corresponding aminoalcohol. All of these three monomers were successfully homopolymerized under RAFT conditions with 1-methyl-l-cyanoethyl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as chain transfer agent (CTA). For each monomer, homopolymerization using
TY - JOUR. T1 - In Situ Surface-Selective Modification of Uniform Size Macroporous Polymer Particles with Temperature-Responsive Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide. AU - Hosoya, Ken. AU - Sawada, Etsuko. AU - Kimata, Kazuhiro. AU - Araki, Takeo. AU - Tanaka, Nobuo. AU - Frechet, Jean. PY - 1994/7/1. Y1 - 1994/7/1. N2 - A new in situ surface-selective modification procedure for the incorporation of temperature-responsive poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (poly-NIPAM) into porous polymer beads has been developed. This procedure allows the incorporation of the poly-NIPAM either on the internal surface of the macroporous beads or on their external surface selectively. The process involves the addition of NIPAM monomer and a water-soluble radical initiator to a polymerizing mixture consisting of uniformly sized monomer and porogen particles prepared by a two-step swelling and polymerization method. NIPAM polymerizes in the aqueous phase but soon precipitates out because the upper critical solution temperature of ...
Purchase List of Standard Abbreviations (Symbols) for Synthetic Polymers and Polymer Materials 1974 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780080223711, 9781483182025
Author(s): Wu, Tao | Advisor(s): Feng, Pingyun | Abstract: Zeolites have played essential roles in a number of industrial processes and technological applications. The intensive research in crystalline microporous materials has successfully extended such traditional inorganic zeolites to semiconducting open-framework metal chalcogenides and hybrid porous coordination polymers. Our research group has made a number of key advances in the development of metal chalcogenide clusters and their self-assembled open frameworks. Some of these key advances resulted from this thesis work and are described here. This dissertation also deals with the synthesis of some unique families of porous frameworks based on coordination polymers. Porous zeolitic metal imidazolate frameworks can be considered as integrating features of both traditional inorganic zeolites and porous coordination polymers because the Si-O-Si angle in zeolites is coincident with that of the bridging angle formed by the Metal-Imidazolate-Metal
We characterize the structure and mechanical properties of 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide (BTA) supramolecular polymers using correlative AFM and fluorescence imaging. AFM allows for nanoscale structural investigation but we found that statistical analysis is difficult because these structures are easily disrupted by the AFM tip. We therefore correlate AFM and fluorescence microscopy to couple nanoscale morphological information to far-field optical images. A fraction of the immobilized polymers is in a clustered or entangled state, which we identify based on diffraction limited fluorescence images. We find that clustered and entangled polymers exhibit a significantly longer persistence length that is broader distributed than single unentangled polymers. By comparison with numerical simulations we find significant heterogeneity in the persistence length of single unentangled polymers, which we attribute to polymer-substrate interactions and the presence of structural diversity within the polymer. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Injectable cartilage using polyethylene oxide polymer substrates. AU - Sims, C. Derek. AU - Butler, Peter E.M.. AU - Casanova, Rene. AU - Lee, Betty T.. AU - Randolph, Mark A.. AU - Lee, W. P.Andrew. AU - Vacanti, Charles A.. AU - Yaremchuk, Michael J.. PY - 1996/10. Y1 - 1996/10. N2 - This study demonstrates that polyethylene oxide gels, which are biocompatible and biodegradable synthetic polymers, can be utilized for the encapsulation of isolated chondrocytes and maintenance of three-dimensional spatial support for new tissue development. Chondrocytes isolated from the glenohumeral and humeroradioulnar joints of a calf were added to a 20% polyethylene oxide solution in Hams F-12 medium to generate a final cellular density of 10 x 106/ml. The polymer-chondrocyte constructs were injected through a 22-gauge needle in 500-μl aliquots subcutaneously in 12 nude mice and incubated for 6 and 12 weeks in vivo. Histologic and biochemical analyses including deoxyribonucleic acid and ...
3Institut für Makromolekulare Chemie, Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Much insight into crystallization of long chain polymers can be gained by studying mono-lamellar single crystals. Because of the kinetically determined lamellar thickness and the corresponding variations in melting temperature, polymer crystals allow for self-seeding, i.e., crystals can be re-grown from a melt, which contains a few thermodynamically stable remnants of pre-existing crystals acting as seeds. Employing such a self-seeding approach, we demonstrated that large single crystals can be grown even from long poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) chains, with a control over the number density, size, and internal structure of these crystals exhibiting monoclinic form II with interdigitated hexyl side groups [1].. We also studied bulky substituted poly(3-(2,5-dioctylphenyl)thiophene) (PDOPT) where weakened interchain interactions lead to a much lower melting temperature as compared to P3HT [2]. Using absorption and ...
High-intensity near-IR fluorescence in semiconducting polymer dots achieved by cascade FRET strategy :Near-IR (NIR) emitting semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) with ultrabright fluorescence have been prepared for specific cellular targeting. A series of π-conjugated polymers were synthesized to form water dispersible multicomponent Pdots by an ultrasonication-assisted co-precipitation method. By optimizing cascade energy transfer in Pdots, high-intensity NIR fluorescence (Φ = 0.32) with tunable excitations, large absorption-emission separation (up to 330 nm), and narrow emission bands (FWHM = 44 nm) have been achieved. Single-particle fluorescence imaging show that the as-prepared NIR Pdots were more than three times brighter than the commercially available Qdot705 with comparable sizes under identical conditions of excitation and detection. Because of the covalent introduction of carboxylic acid groups into polymer side chains, the bioconjugation between NIR-emitting Pdots and streptavidins ...
The polymer melt is produced from the raw materials, and then from the polymer finisher directly pumped to the spinning mill. ... If the polymer is a thermoplastic then it can undergo melt spinning. The molten polymer is extruded through a spinneret ... This may be done while the polymer is still solidifying or after it has completely cooled. Spinneret (polymers) Manufacturing: ... the polymer must undergo solution spinning techniques for fiber formation. The polymer is first dissolved in a solvent forming ...
... as opposed to other polymer architectures including branched and crosslinked polymers that are formed by two or more polymer ... Polymer architecture Branching (polymer chemistry) Zheng, Yu; Cao, Hongliang; Newland, Ben; Dong, Yixiao; Pandit, Abhay; Wang, ... "Polymer tied in celtic knots". chemistry world. Retrieved 28 May 2013. "Polymers Branch Out". Chemical Processing. Retrieved 23 ... Single Chain Cyclized/Knotted Polymers are a new class of polymer architecture with a general structure consisting of multiple ...
"MBA Polymer Articles of Incorporation CA Secretary of State". "MBA Polymers". MBA Polymers. "Amended articles of Incorporation ... "MBA Polymers". MBA Polymers. Retrieved 23 August 2019. "Forbes, "Where does it go?", by Kerry A. Dolan, 31st October 2005" (PDF ... "Locations • MBA Polymers". MBA Polymers. Retrieved 23 August 2019. "[node:Title]". "Dr Mike Biddle to receive ... The highly automated polymer separation technology developed and patented by MBA Polymers encompasses over 20 complex ...
A spinneret is a device used to extrude a polymer solution or polymer melt to form fibers. Streams of viscous polymer exit via ... The individual polymer chains tend to align in the fiber because of viscous flow. This airstream liquid-to-fiber formation ... Electrospinning Hollow fiber membrane Spinning (polymers) Textiles Thermal cleaning Spinneret Li, Norman N. (2008). Advanced ... the spinneret into air or liquid leading to a phase inversion which allows the polymer to solidify. ...
... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers the entire scope of carbohydrate polymers and the ... "Carbohydrate Polymers". 2021 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate. 2022. Official website v t e ( ... "Abstracting & indexing - Carbohydrate Polymers , by Elsevier". Retrieved 2022-08-24. " ... The journal is abstracted and indexed in several databases including: Science Citation Index Web of Science Polymer Contents ...
Polymer Chemistry Section Polymer Analysis Section Polymer Physics Section Polymer Theory and Simulation Section Polymer ... Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers Section Polymer Recycling Section Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites Section Green and ... Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access scientific journal of polymer science that provides an interdisciplinary ... Sustainable Chemistry in Polymer Science Section Polymers. WorldCat "Polymers". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science ( ...
... , or polymer topology, could refer to a single polymeric chain with topological information or a polymer ... between each of the polymer chain. On the other hand, topology also determines the hierarchical structures within a polymer ... Topological polymers may refer to a polymeric molecule that possesses unique spatial features, such as linear, branched, or ... It could also refer to polymer networks that exhibit distinct topologies owing to special crosslinkers. When self-assembling or ...
... or Low-Ceiling Temperature Polymers refer to polymeric materials that can undergo depolymerization to ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Polymers, All stub articles, Polymer stubs). ... Closely related to depolymerizable polymers, self-immolative polymers can also irreversibly disassemble into their constituent ... depolymerizable polymers and closely related self-immolative polymers can be triggered by stimuli to break fast under moderate ...
... including polymers and other polymers with specific chemical reactivity or other functionality. The journal publishes both ... Reactive & Functional Polymers is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal, established in 1982 and published by Elsevier. It ... "Reactive & Functional Polymers". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science OR Social Sciences ed.). Clarivate ... "Reactive & Functional Polymers". MIAR: Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals. University of Barcelona. Retrieved 2019 ...
... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers the field of polymer chemistry, in particular ... "Polymer Science". "Journals Ranked by Impact: Polymer Science". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Sciences ed.). ... molecular structure/processability/property relationships of high performance polymers such as liquid crystalline polymers. It ...
Post polymerization, the polymer chains can be cross-linked to one another thus forming a larger polymer network. The chain ... Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 51: 5230-5238. doi: 10.1002/pola.26953 Hartman, J., et al. "Embolectomy ... Heparin-mimicking polymers can be designed to exhibit shape memory behavior. Heparin mimicking polymers can be characterized by ... glucose modified diamine with pedant monosaccharides are examples of heparin mimicking polymers. Heparin mimicking polymers can ...
Liquid crystal polymer Modeling of polymer crystals Andrew Keller (1952). "Morphology of crystallizing polymers". Nature. 169 ( ... Polymers are composed of long molecular chains which form irregular, entangled coils in the melt. Some polymers retain such a ... Polymers can crystallize through a variety of different regimes and unlike simple molecules, the polymer crystal lamellae have ... Progress in Polymer Science. (2014). 921-958 Bowden, P.B., Young, R.J. Deformation Mechanisms in Crystalline Polymers. Journal ...
Ladder polymers are a subclass of polymers made with aromatic cycles or heterocycles. Ladder polymers generally have one of two ... One type of ladder polymer links two polymer chains with periodic covalent bonds. In another type, the ladder polymer consists ... Fire-safe polymers are polymers that are resistant to degradation at high temperatures. There is need for fire-resistant ... The amount of access that oxygen has to the surface of the polymer also plays a role in polymer combustion. Oxygen is better ...
"Creep failure time prediction of polymers and polymer composites" Robert Oboigbaotor Ebewele,"CRC Press,2000" "polymer science ... In reinforced polymers, crack initiation usually occurs at the interface of polymer fiber and the matrix. Fatigue performances ... Chain scission occurs in a polymer as a result of intense localized heat. the chemical bond in a polymer backbone may be broken ... Unlike metals and other materials, polymer do not cyclic harden; rather, polymers perform cyclic softening for most of the time ...
Often, these polymers are structured as a copolymer where each polymer displays one type of response. pH sensitive polymers ... as will star polymers and branched polymers. However, star and branched polymers can form rod or worm-shaped micelles rather ... Repulsions between like charges cause the polymers to change shape. Polyacids, also known as anionic polymers, are polymers ... pH sensitive polymers have been considered for use in membranes. A change in pH could change the ability of the polymer to let ...
Claussen, K. U.; Giesa, R.; Schmidt, H. W., Longitudinal polymer gradient materials based on crosslinked polymers. Polymer 2014 ... Claussen, K. U.; Giesa, R.; Schmidt, H. W., Longitudinal polymer gradient materials based on crosslinked polymers. Polymer 2014 ... Porosity can be used to decrease the modulus of a polymer as seen in polymer foams, and as seen in bone, a change in porosity ... Polymer gradient materials (PGM) are a class of polymers with gradually changing mechanical properties along a defined ...
Silyl-modified polymers (SMP; also silane-modified polymers, modified-silane polymers, MS polymers, silane-terminated polymers ... Jeffrey D. Umpleby "Polymer composition" U.S. patent 4574133. 1986. Michael Ravers. "MS Polymer™-Based PSA technology". Afera. ... MS polymers consist of a polyether backbone with dimethoxy-silyl or trimethoxy-silyl ends, with trimethoxy-silyl groups being ... Typically the sealant products manufactured with silyl-modified polymers have good adhesion on a wide range of substrate ...
The frost line is a term used in plastic film manufacturing by extrusion. It refers to the point beyond the die where the temperature of the molten plastic falls below the softening point and the diameter of the extruded plastic bubble stabilizes. The term was borrowed from the notion of "frost line" in soil science and refers to the frosted appearance of the plastic film above the "frost line". The distance from the die is called the height of the frost line. It depends on various factors, including the melt temperature, the speed of cooling, the extrusion speed, and the diameter of the bubble. The notion is important, since the higher the frost line, the more difficult to control the uniformity of the film thickness. For example, a higher frost line due to higher melt temperature and/or lower cooling rate means a longer time to solidify, and a more smooth and transparent film is produced. (Articles lacking sources from December 2009, All articles lacking sources, Plastics industry ...
In polymers, such as plastics, thermal degradation refers to a type of polymer degradation where damaging chemical changes take ... 3.0.CO;2-G. Thermal Degradation of Polymers - The Zeus Polymer Minute Liden, David R. (2018). "Thermal and Oxidative ... Thermal degradation of natural polymers. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 67 (2002) 295~303 (Polymer chemistry ... Autoxidation Photo-oxidation of polymers Weather testing of polymers Environmental stress cracking Pielichowski, Krzysztof ( ...
IUPAC definition Artificial polymer: Man-made polymer that is not a biopolymer. Note 1: Artificial polymer should also be used ... The common PET bottles are made of a synthetic polymer, polyethylene terephthalate. The plastic kits and covers are mostly made ... Some familiar household synthetic polymers include: Nylons in textiles and fabrics, Teflon in non-stick pans, Bakelite for ... However, due to the environmental issues created by these synthetic polymers which are mostly non-biodegradable and often ...
Common additives and filler will often alter the weldability of polymers. These additions can make the weld process more ... Tappe, P., & Potente, H. (December 1989). "New Results on the Spin Welding of Plastics". Polymer Engineering and Science. 29 ( ... Heat is generated until the glass transition temperature, for amorphous polymers or the melting temperature, for ... The spin welding process can adequately join almost all thermoplastic polymers. Typical with friction welding applications, ...
The binding polymer is often a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester ... Carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (American English), carbon-fibre-reinforced polymers (Commonwealth English), carbon-fiber- ... Carbon fiber is sometimes referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP is less common ... Carbon nanotube reinforced polymer (CNRP) is several times stronger and tougher than CFRP and is used in the Lockheed Martin F- ...
Thermoresponsive polymers can be used as stationary phase in liquid chromatography. Here, the polarity of the stationary phase ... This results in a formation of a polymer-enzyme conjugate which can be reversibly precipitated and dissolved by changing the ... The scope of this study was limited to isothermal conditions and attaching polymer chains to glass beads. The results, however ... In place of solvent gradient elution, thermoresponsive polymers allow the use of temperature gradients under purely aqueous ...
Light emitting polymers in OLEDs Conductive polymer Electroluminescence Heeger, Alan J. (2001). "Semiconducting and Metallic ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Organic polymers, Conductive polymers, Chemistry ... Pei, Qibing (2007). "Light-Emitting Polymers". SigmaAldrich. Retrieved 1 September 2015. McCullough, Richard ... new insights on structure-property relationships in conducting polymers". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 115 (11): ...
... is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1990 by John Wiley & Sons. It ... "Polymers for Advanced Technologies". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate Analytics. 2021. ... covers research on polymer science and technology. The journal is abstracted and indexed in Chemical Abstracts Service, Scopus ...
Forensic polymer engineering Photodegradation Polymer degradation Stress corrosion cracking Thermal degradation of polymers ... In polymer chemistry photo-oxidation (sometimes: oxidative photodegradation) is the degradation of a polymer surface due to the ... ISBN 978-3-446-40801-2. Feldman, D. (1 October 2002). "Polymer Weathering: Photo-Oxidation". Journal of Polymers and the ... Initiation generates radical-carbons on the polymer chain, sometimes called macroradicals (P•). Chain initiation Polymer ⟶ P ...
The amount of laser energy absorbed by a polymer is a function of the laser wavelength, polymer absorptivity, polymer ... Through transmission laser welding of polymers is a method to create a joint at the interface between two polymer components ... can have a negative impact on the laser weldability of a polymer. The titanium dioxide provides a white coloring to polymers ... Laser welding of polymers is a set of methods used to join polymeric components through the use of a laser. It can be performed ...
Accelerated photo-ageing of polymers in SEPAP units is the controlled polymer degradation and polymer coating degradation under ... "Polymer Reactions, vol 6" in Comprehensive Polymer Science, Pergamon press, 1989, ISBN 0-08-036210-9 Olivier Haillant, "Polymer ... These elementary chemical reactions lead more or less quickly to a deterioration of the physical properties of polymer ... These acceleration factors have indeed been determined in very specific cases of polymers of well-defined formulations and ...
... (PIMs) are a unique class of microporous material developed by research efforts led by Neil ... In order to maintain permanent microporosity the rotation along the polymer chain must be prohibited through the use of fused ... Due to the presence of intrinsic microporosity these polymers have high-free volume, high internal surface area, and have a ... Classified as a porous organic polymer, PIMs generate porosity from their rigid and contorted macromolecular chains that do not ...
Types of branched polymers include star polymers, comb polymers, polymer brushes, dendronized polymers, ladder polymers, and ... Polymers are studied in the fields of polymer science (which includes polymer chemistry and polymer physics), biophysics and ... Catenation Inorganic polymer Important publications in polymer chemistry Oligomer Polymer adsorption Polymer classes Polymer ... Polymer degradation is a change in the properties-tensile strength, color, shape, or molecular weight-of a polymer or polymer- ...
Noble Polymers updates and more at Business Standard news. , Page 1 ... Noble Polymers Ltd. (NOBLEPOLYMERS) - News Sector. * Adani group shares extend fall; Adani Total Gas tanks 51% in five days. ... Quick Links for Noble Polymers:. * News. Announcements Brokerage Reports Business Earnings Sector ...
Polymer degradation. Much of the literature about degradation of plastic polymers has been authored by polymer engineers. From ... Degradation of plastic polymers floating in the marine environment will take place. For the polymers with a carbon backbone (PE ... Degradation of plastic polymers can lead to low molecular weight polymer fragments, like monomers and oligomers, and formation ... 20-23 Free radicals are formed when UV-light breaks C-H bonds on the polymer backbone.16,24 In the propagation step the polymer ...
The polymer melt is produced from the raw materials, and then from the polymer finisher directly pumped to the spinning mill. ... If the polymer is a thermoplastic then it can undergo melt spinning. The molten polymer is extruded through a spinneret ... This may be done while the polymer is still solidifying or after it has completely cooled. Spinneret (polymers) Manufacturing: ... the polymer must undergo solution spinning techniques for fiber formation. The polymer is first dissolved in a solvent forming ...
Estimating the Permeation Resistance of Nonporous Barrier Polymers to Sulfur Mustard (HD) and Sarin (GB) Chemical Warfare ... Estimating the Permeation Resistance of Nonporous Barrier Polymers to Sulfur Mustard (HD) and Sarin (GB) Chemical Warfare ...
... official journal of the Society of Polymer Science, Japan publishes high quality papers in all areas of polymer and ... Polymer Journal received an Impact Factor of 3.135 Submit to Polymer Journal and benefit from: - Impact Factor(2021) of 3.135 ... Bridging polymer chemistry and cryobiology This review outlines the research across the areas of polymer chemistry and ... Special issue on 2022 Rising Stars in Polymer Science The November 2021 issue of Polymer Journal is a special issue on 2021 ...
A head-to-head comparison of a new biodegradeable polymer-based sirolimus-eluting stent showed the stent was superior to a ... MIAMI - A head-to-head comparison in a small study of a new biodegradable polymer-based sirolimus-eluting stent (SES), MiStent ... The biodegradable polymer is designed to overcome the late failures of drug-eluting stents that have been attributed to their ... He added that these types of stents, with a biodegradeable polymer and reversion back to a bare-metal stent, represent the ...
Conductive Polymer Electrolytic Capacitors*Conductive Polymer Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors (SP-Cap). *Conductive Polymer ...
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It also continued to be used as a film-forming polymer in some solvent-based clear coatings and paints and in fingernail ... With the introduction of newer polymers beginning in the 1930s and 40s, however, cellulose acetate plastic went into decline. ... and the new vinyl polymers. By the end of the 20th century the only unique application of note for cellulose nitrate was in ...
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Selection from Multifunctional and Nanoreinforced Polymers for Food Packaging [Book] ... Recent developments in multifunctional and nanoreinforced polymers have provided the opportunity to produce high barrier, ... Multifunctional and nanoreinforced polymers for food packaging provides a comprehensive review of novel polymers and polymer ... Provides a comprehensive review of novel polymers and polymer nanocomposites for use in food packaging ...
Advanced Materials and Polymers The department has an internationally recognized research program in structural, functional, ...
Wayne W. Barrett "[Polymers as Self-Avoiding Walks]: Discussion," The Annals of Probability, Ann. Probab. 9(4), 555-556, ( ...
The roadshow Polymer Membranes shows two interesting projects from the research of the group Membrane Materials and Processes ( ...
Can any of you out there , ,offer some helpful suggestions? Just to clarify, I am not talking about , ,the polymers as surface ... My current work involves the use of polymers as drug treatments and we , ,are just getting into the anti-infective field. It ... However through web surfing I have found a number of , ,commercial companies out there that manufacture polymers and use them , ... Biofilm Treatment with Polymers. gerne at gerne at Sun Jul 11 04:16:12 EST 1999 *Previous message: ...
These are polymers that expand and contract on contact with water. This smart material is sometimes used in toys that can ... The toy duck, shown below, has been manufactured from a hydromorphic polymer.. It has been designed to float on water like ... Many similar toys are manufactured from hydromorphic polymers. For instance, some joke shops sell items that will expand when ... Kitchen sponges made from hydromorphic polymers, absorb water and are useful for mopping up spills.. ...
Learn how mechanical analysis can be used on polymer powder to detect the glass transition. ... Another way to measure the glass transition in polymers. Learn how mechanical analysis can be used on polymer powder to detect ... Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) is a key technique in polymer characterisation.. The glass transition in a polymer is a ... It is of utmost interest for polymer processing and use: polymers are often processed above the glass transition where they are ...
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Poling of polymers by an electric field has been used in electret synthesis as well as in the synthesis of non-linear optical ... Our group uses elastomer composites containing polar polable polymer nanoparticles having a high Tg. We orient and freeze the ...
We call inactive polymer a polymer which has no effect on the flow, which is the case when the values of the polymer properties ... The polymer model which is used is similar to the one implemented in Eclipse model, see tutorial polymer note, and Eclipse ... The complete schedule as well as the fluid properties can be found in POLYMER.DATA. The second one without polymer. Below we ... The first one with polymer injection with maximum polymer concentration at the injectors. ...
The Nordic Master in Polymer Technology gives the student a background in polymer chemistry and polymer physics. The Nordic ... Polymer Technology (Nordic Five Tech) The Nordic Master in Polymer Technology gives the student a background in polymer ... In each study track the students acquire expertise in polymer chemistry and polymer physics. ... Depending on the study track the students get specific skills in their chosen innovative polymer technology engineering topic. ...
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New polymer membrane tech improves efficiency of CO2 capture Peer-Reviewed Publication North Carolina State University ... "Our next steps are to see the extent to which the techniques we developed here could be applied to other polymers to get ... The research team, from the U.S. and Norway, addressed this problem by growing chemically active polymer chains that are both ... New polymer membrane tech improves efficiency of CO2 capture. North Carolina State University ...
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  • The Global Emulsion Polymers Market Size accounted for USD 44.9 Billion in 2021 and is estimated to achieve a market size of USD 78.4 Billion by 2030 growing at a CAGR of 6.6% from 2022 to 2030. (
  • Global emulsion polymers market revenue is estimated to expand by USD 78.4 billion by 2030, with a 6.6% CAGR from 2022 to 2030. (
  • Méthodologie: Entre septembre 2021 et février 2022, des écouvillonnages oropharyngés et/ou nasopharyngés de travailleurs symptomatiques COVID-19 et apparemment en bonne santé sélectionnés consécutivement du site minier de Wahgnion dans le sud-ouest du Burkina Faso qui ont consenti à l'étude ont été prélevés selon les deux programme de quart de semaines et testé pour le SRAS-CoV-2 à l'aide d'un test RT-PCR. (
  • The roadshow Polymer Membranes shows two interesting projects from the research of the group Membrane Materials and Processes (MM/P). Kitty Nijmeijer and Zandrie Borneman manage some fifteen applied research projects that focuses on the creation, characterization, and application of membranes for a variety of applications. (
  • General knowledge on synthesis/modification, characterization, processing and applications of synthetic and biobased polymers and in-depth knowledge in the selected specialization. (
  • The objective of the Polymer Analysis Division will be to promote the development and exchange of skills and knowledge in the analysis and characterization of polymers. (
  • Part four examines nanotechnology in sustainable plastics with chapters examining the food packaging applications of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), starch-based polymers, chitosan and carragenan polysaccharides and protein-based resins for packaging gluten (WG)-based materials. (
  • Oxford Polymers, an engineering plastics compounder in New Britain, Conn., has completed a major expansion only a year after moving into a new facility. (
  • We use polymers every day, for example in the form of plastics, coatings and paper, and in products such as nappies and shampoos. (
  • For the quarter ended June 30 (Q2), Kraton Performance Polymers missed estimates on revenues and missed estimates on earnings per share. (
  • Kraton Performance Polymers tallied revenue of $334.5 million. (
  • Among 14 CAPS All-Star picks (recommendations by the highest-ranked CAPS members), 14 give Kraton Performance Polymers a green thumbs-up, and give it a red thumbs-down. (
  • Of Wall Street recommendations tracked by S&P Capital IQ, the average opinion on Kraton Performance Polymers is outperform, with an average price target of $25.25. (
  • Looking for alternatives to Kraton Performance Polymers? (
  • Add Kraton Performance Polymers to My Watchlist. (
  • The article Kraton Performance Polymers Misses on Both Revenue and Earnings originally appeared on (
  • Poling of polymers by an electric field has been used in electret synthesis as well as in the synthesis of non-linear optical materials. (
  • The research team has bypassed the breakdown-synthesis process by developing a one-step cross-linking method that maintains DNA's function as a polymer without breaking its chemical bonds. (
  • Topologically interesting cyclic polymers can be prepared by metathesis polymerization, but their precise synthesis has suffered from the catalyst's vulnerability and inseparability. (
  • With the help of customized glassware (a cyclic polymer dispenser), the use of this quarantined catalyst enables a continuous circular process of in situ polymerization, polymer separation, and catalyst recovery, giving a scalable process for the synthesis of cyclic polycyclopentene. (
  • Cyclic polymers are topologically interesting and envisioned as a lubricant material, but methods for the scalable synthesis of pure cyclic polymers are currently elusive. (
  • As has been reported previously, the durable polymer with drug-eluting stents has been blamed for everything from chronic inflammation and localized hypersensitivity reactions to positive remodeling and acquired incomplete stent apposition. (
  • CHICAGO, IL - Two new studies testing first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) with a bioabsorbable polymer have shown that the two stents are noninferior compared with a durable-polymer DES. (
  • After presenting the results of BASKET-PROVE II at the American Heart Association (AHA) 2014 Scientific Sessions , Dr Christoph Kaiser (University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland) told heart wire there is absolutely no late advantage in using the biodegradable-polymer Nobori stent over the everolimus stent with a durable polymer. (
  • In the second study [ 3 ] , EVOLVE II , presented by Dr Dean Kereiakes (Christ Hospital Heart and Vascular Center, Cincinnati, OH), the group compared a second-generation bioabsorbable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent ( Synergy , Boston Scientific) and with a durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent ( Promus Element Plus , Boston Scientific) in 1684 patients. (
  • Scientists at Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT) mixed glass particles, 40 nm each, with a liquid polymer. (
  • Susan has long experimented with combining liquid polymer and gauze ( here and here ). (
  • MIAMI - A head-to-head comparison in a small study of a new biodegradable polymer-based sirolimus -eluting stent (SES), MiStent (Micell Technologies), showed the stent was superior to the zotarolimus -eluting stent (ZES) Endeavor (Medtronic) in terms of preventing late lumen loss. (
  • The biodegradable polymer is designed to overcome the late failures of drug-eluting stents that have been attributed to their durable polymers. (
  • In that study, the use of a stent with a biodegradable polymer (BioMatrix, Biosensors Europe) in patients with ST-elevation MI (STEMI) resulted in an almost 50% lower rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) compared with use of a bare-metal stent. (
  • In the per-protocol efficacy analysis, in which patients were mostly excluded because of dual-antiplatelet-therapy protocol violations, the biodegradable-polymer DES failed to meet the statistical definition of noninferiority compared with Xience Prime. (
  • For highly pure quartz glass, the researchers remove the polymers in the composite by heating the lenses in a furnace at 500 to 600 °C, causing the polymer to be burned to CO 2 . (
  • With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors Multifunctional and nanoreinforced polymers for food packaging proves a valuable resource for researchers in packaging in the food industry and polymer scientists interested in multifunctional and nanoreinforced materials. (
  • The purpose of this workshop is to bring together leading experts and new researchers in random polymers and algebraic combinatorics to help build further bridges between these areas. (
  • To improve the resolution of biological samples at the cellular level, researchers inflate tissues with "swellable polymers" so that they're easier to see under the microscope. (
  • Our group uses elastomer composites containing polar polable polymer nanoparticles having a high T g . (
  • The November 2021 issue of Polymer Journal is a special issue on 2021 Rising Stars in Polymer Science. (
  • Degradation of plastic polymers can lead to low molecular weight polymer fragments, like monomers and oligomers, and formation of new end groups, especially carboxylic acids. (
  • Use patented methods to characterize polymer properties and molecular-weight distributions. (
  • A general prerequisite for all of my weekly tutorials is that you have a good understanding of the polymer clay basics, including: conditioning clay, using a pasta machine, clay blade and other simple tools, making Skinner Blends or Teardrop Blends, baking clay, as well as sanding and finishing. (
  • Properties of polystyrene/poly(dimethyl siloxane) blends partially compatibilized with star polymers containing a gamma-cyclodextrin core and polystyrene arms. (
  • Read Gera's project in Polymer Clay Global Perspectives to learn her process. (
  • Second prize is a copy of the book, Polymer Clay Global Perspectives and third prize is Protect Your Memories sealant. (
  • I always appreciate all your knowledge when it comes to polymer clay and canes. (
  • Handmade polymer clay beads. (
  • Spring is in the air… so this weeks video lesson will show you all how to make some fabulous Daisy Flower pendants and embellishments… made with polymer clay of course. (
  • Coming up tomorrow (Friday, May 18, 2012) in the Vol-048-3 members video at the Polymer Clay Tutor Library , I'll be showing a fun and easy way to create your own Polymer Daisies, no matter what color you decide to use. (
  • If you need help in these areas, my Polymer Clay Beginners Course will get you up to speed quickly. (
  • I'm new to polymer clay creations, and your videos are helping a tremendous amount. (
  • I was intrigued by an offer from another polymer clay instructor and paid $36 for a 40 minute video… which YOU would have easily, and I mean easily, covered in 9 minutes flat. (
  • Emulsion polymers are obtained through the combination of monomers, surfactants, and water. (
  • The cover shows cyclopentene monomers undergoing ring-expansion metathesis polymerization to form cyclic polymers. (
  • Improve production rates, yield and quality through rigorous optimization of the polymer process. (
  • The platinum-chromium stent pairs a bioabsorbable PLGA polymer with an everolimus drug formulation. (
  • The growing use of the products in coatings, paints, and adhesives is likely to boost the emulsion polymers market growth. (
  • Furthermore, increasing the application of adhesives in the automobile coating sector is predicted to considerably contribute to the emulsion polymer market value in the coming years. (
  • Oil and water-based are the most commonly used emulsion polymers. (
  • Emulsion polymers are majorly used for paints & coatings, and automotive applications as they exhibit low VOC. (
  • Regulations such as REACH and the clean air act are the major factors driving the emulsion polymer market. (
  • The major driving factor for the emulsion polymers market is the upsurge in demand for emulsion polymers from the paints & coatings industry. (
  • Moreover, the stringent regulations by the government towards VOC emission also support the growth of the emulsion polymers market globally. (
  • In addition, the growing awareness regarding green buildings is also one of the driving factors for the emulsion polymer market. (
  • However, the volatility in the raw material cost is likely to restrict the growth of emulsion polymers during the forecast period. (
  • Also, the manufacturing of cost-effective emulsion polymers is one of the major challenges faced by manufacturers. (
  • Nevertheless, the increasing adoption of bio-based emulsion polymers globally offers huge growth opportunities for emulsion polymer manufacturers during the forecast period. (
  • Superior features such as binders, adhesion, as well as film forming, in addition to the widespread use of vinyl acetate in textiles, bookbinding, on-site building, and cardboard packaging, should drive the market size of emulsion polymers. (
  • The polymer emulsion total market is expected to be driven by an application perspective in the coatings and paints industry due to lower carbon dioxide and energy emissions during the manufacturing method. (
  • Multifunctional and nanoreinforced polymers for food packaging provides a comprehensive review of novel polymers and polymer nanocomposites for use in food packaging. (
  • Recent advances in the field of nanotechnology led several groups to recognize the promise of recruiting nanocomposities to the ongoing battle against pathogenic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and metal-polymer nanocomposites are a typical example. (
  • In addition, a thermal annealing treatment markedly reduced signal- noise for one of the key benzene and naphthalene sensitive polymer-nanocomposites, vastly improving sensitivity for this application. (
  • Styrene is primarily used in the production of polystyrene polymers. (
  • Polymers (and oligomers) can be treated as solids below their melting points- allowing users to model the entire polymer process including drying and dewatering. (
  • When heteroatoms are present in the main chain of a polymer, degradation proceeds by photo-oxidation, hydrolysis, and biodegradation. (
  • The research team, from the U.S. and Norway, addressed this problem by growing chemically active polymer chains that are both hydrophilic and CO 2 -philic on the surface of existing membranes. (
  • The paper, " An Integrated Materials Approach to Ultrapermeable and Ultraselective CO 2 Polymer Membranes ," is published in the journal Science . (
  • Thus, the inorganic nanoparticles incorporated into a polymer matrix provide novel functionalities to hydrogels and tunable properties. (
  • A new technology could make it possible to produce and use high-quality glass materials in place of polymers. (
  • The design of smart materials based on different natural and synthetic polymers represents one of the most attractive research areas over the last several years. (
  • This book reviews recent advances and developments of various classes of stimuli responsive polymer materials, different type of hydrogels for biomedical and pharmaceutical devices, scaffolds for tissue regeneration, and stimuli-responsive sensors or separation processes. (
  • Surface modification of carbon materials with polymers is useful for engineering surface properties and adding functionality to carbon materials. (
  • In energy storage technologies, polymer-based dielectric materials are crucial due to their low cost and great thermal as well as electrical properties. (
  • In the 1920s and '30s celluloid began to be replaced in most of its applications by less flammable and more versatile materials such as cellulose acetate, Bakelite, and the new vinyl polymers. (
  • Insight into current research front in polymer technology including the role of polymeric materials in sustainable society. (
  • Compared with the other two polymer acceptor materials, PY-Se exhibits higher crystallinity, which can be attributed to the stronger intermolecular interaction between PY-Se molecules. (
  • In addition, an all-polymer system is considered to be one of the most potential application materials for wearable electronic devices. (
  • Polymers are one of the most versatile materials with unlimited uses and applications. (
  • Polymers are extensively used as packaging materials owing to their outstanding barrier properties against diffusing small molecules such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapors. (
  • Sepoong Polymer will lead the way in localization of various materials through constant research and development and develop together with our customers. (
  • Chapters assess the transport and high barrier properties of food packaging polymers such as ethylene-norbornene copolymers and advanced single-site polyolefins, nylon-MXD6 resins and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers before going on to explore recent advances in various plastic packaging technologies such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), nanoscale inorganic coatings and functional barriers against migration. (
  • Polypropylene random copolymers are thermoplastic resins produced through the polymerization of propylene, with ethylene or butene bonds introduced in the polymer chain. (
  • Here, we propose a graph-based Bayesian multi-task learning model to inherently capture the relation between multiple properties for a given polymer candidate. (
  • Structural Order in Polymers presents the increasing importance of the relationships between order in the chemical constitution and in the steric structure of the macromolecules and physical and chemical properties of the polymers. (
  • The complete schedule as well as the fluid properties can be found in POLYMER.DATA . (
  • We call inactive polymer a polymer which has no effect on the flow, which is the case when the values of the polymer properties are set as in LABPOLYMER2.DATA . (
  • In addition to the readily tunable structural, optical, and electrochemical properties, all-polymer organic solar cells (all-OSCs), based on polymer donors and polymer acceptors, have unique advantages, such as excellent stability and robustness compared with their counterparts based on fullerenes or small molecules non-fullerenes. (
  • Systematic investigation shows that electron linker engineering significantly affects the physicochemical properties, intermolecular interactions, and charge transport properties of polymer acceptors. (
  • Compared with the small-molecule non-fullerene system, the all-polymer system has better mechanical properties, which can be mainly attributed to the entanglement of polymer chains. (
  • Our in silico approach employs a series of quantitative structure-property relationship models that facilitate rapid virtual screening of polymers based on relevant properties such as the refractive index, glass transition and thermal decomposition temperatures, and solubility in standard solvents. (
  • There are three main grades of polypropylene resin allowing for changes in specific properties as determined by the composition of the polymer chain. (
  • In this webinar you will learn not only learn the techniques to enhance barrier properties of the polymer but also learn the active and intelligent food packing systems that give actual information of the food quality based on the thermal and UV exposure history of the food content. (
  • 12 spaces and address the getting properties for the download basics of polymers : fabrication and is such( likelihood) and unchanged( bitcoin). (
  • Early in Phase I, we discovered that the temperatures required for melt-extrusion were sufficiently high as to destroy the chemical sensing properties of the majority of the polymers. (
  • The MiStent SES system contains a stent coating that includes sirolimus and the absorbable polymer. (
  • He added that these types of stents, with a biodegradeable polymer and reversion back to a bare-metal stent, represent the future workhorse stents in interventional cardiology. (
  • Boston Scientific is also in the biodegradeable polymer market with its Synergy stent. (
  • The idea is that you get rid of the polymer and then you'd basically have a bare-metal stent, which we thought would be safer in later stages," he said. (
  • We explored whether the multipotency of adipose derived stem cells (AdSCs) is maintained when they are removed from injectable polymer (IP) hydrogels with various degrees of cross-linking and induced to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. (
  • DCM is used primarily as a solvent in paint removers, degreasers, aerosol products and the manufacture of foam polymers. (
  • In comparison to the ubiquity of their chalcogenic thiophene analogs, selenophene-incorporated conjugated polymers are relatively scarce in the organic electronics literature. (
  • In this focus review, we discuss the key developments in selenophene-based conjugated polymer research from the early polyselenophene investigations, through the detailed study of regioregular poly(3-hexylselenophene), to the state-of-the-art donor-acceptor polymers that have enabled advancements in the performance and functionality of various optoelectronic devices. (
  • Organized into three parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the structural regularity as a primary requisite for the crystallization of a polymer. (
  • This text then examines the structure of cellulose, which is the most significant structural stereoregular polymer. (
  • Polymers consist of large molecules made up of repeating structural units. (
  • Recent developments in multifunctional and nanoreinforced polymers have provided the opportunity to produce high barrier, active and intelligent food packaging which can help ensure, or even enhance, the quality and safety of packaged foods. (
  • Some attention has been drawn to additives and persistent organic pollutants that sorb to the plastic surface, but so far the chemicals generated by degradation of the plastic polymers themselves have not been well studied from an environmental perspective. (
  • Professor Park Chi-Young's team successfully developed an atypical porous polymer material that can completely remove phenolic organic contaminants in water at ultra-high speeds. (
  • In BFS process, a polymer resin is melted into a parison, which is blown into a mould, filled, and sealed, all in a continuous process within a single piece of equipment. (
  • In the first activity, students aged 13-15 investigate the diffusion of liquids through different types of polymer membrane ( Worksheet 1 ). (
  • UV-radiation and oxygen are the most important factors that initiate degradation of polymers with a carbon-carbon backbone, leading to chain scission. (
  • The Nordic Master in Polymer Technology gives the student a background in polymer chemistry and polymer physics. (
  • In each study track the students acquire expertise in polymer chemistry and polymer physics. (
  • The topic of polymers is often limited to chemistry lessons. (
  • Polymer Engineering and Science, 50 (4), 747-755. (
  • Polymer Engineering and Science, 50 (4), 756-761. (
  • Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 117 (3), 1394-1404. (
  • In Phase I of this SBIR program, Seacoast Science investigated the feasibility developing chemical vapor sensitive threads from a polymer-nanocomposite using the highly conduct nature of graphene and the selectivity of certain polymers toward specific chemical targets. (
  • Journal of polymer science. (
  • download basics of polymers : fabrication and: GOOGLE CONSUMER BAROMETER, JANUARY 2018. (
  • However the process, in which polysaccharides such as cellulose are broken down and converted to polymers, is very energy intensive. (
  • The polymer acts like a bonding agent, maintaining the matrix of glass particles and thus the shape of the material. (
  • Recently, breakthroughs in material design and optimized device techniques have driven the efficiency of OSCs exceeding 19% when using the non-fullerene small molecule acceptors and polymer donors system. (
  • Google Polymer is a new framework for building web applications based on Web Components , and it promises to bring support for all the latest HTML5 standards and all the evergreen browsers by using polyfills to compensate for missing functionality in any of them. (
  • Occupation exposure occurs through its use as a degreaser, paint remover, aerosol propellant, blowing agent for polymer foam, and as a solvent in the textile industry, photographic film production (cellulose triacetate). (
  • The Balance Sheet Page of Bhansali Engineering Polymers Ltd. presents the key ratios, its comparison with the sector peers and 5 years of Balance Sheet. (
  • Injection molded from a proprietary reinforced composite for enhanced strength and durability, our M-LOK Polymer Rail Sections are light weight and feature beveled ends to reduce snagging and eliminate sharp corners and edges. (
  • Phase I focused on the determining what characteristics of polymers are necessary to fabricate robust sensing threads, and how to best process these threads for optimal sensitivity and durability. (
  • Random polymers models are the subject of intense research within probability theory and mathematical physics, with increasingly strong connections to algebraic combinatorics, representation theory and integrable systems. (
  • however this change is small and often disturbed by other effects: polymer aging, heat transfer, crystallinity, etc. (
  • As a result, this strategy of precise modification of electron linkers can be a practical way to simultaneously actualize molecular crystallinity and phase miscibility for improving the performance of all-polymer solar cells, showing practical significance. (
  • The potential degradation pathways and products depend on the polymer type. (
  • Polymer-based products are widely used in our daily lives in various forms such as packaging, automobiles, etc. (
  • NAPCO, Ltd. (North American Polymer Company), a national manufacturer of refinishing products, training, and equipment, has expanded its product guarantee to include 100 percent customer service satisfaction for all NAPCO customers. (
  • Nova Polymers is the largest manufacturer and distributor of photopolymer sign products in the United States, Canada, Europe, The Middle East and Australia. (
  • Manufacturer Details for Avon Polymer Products, Ltd. (
  • The final products of amylase digestion include maltose, maltotriose, and higher residues of glucose polymers. (
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