Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Molecular Imprinting: A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.PolyvinylsPolyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Acrylic ResinsMaterials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Fluorocarbon PolymersDrug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)AcrylatesSolubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Biodegradable Plastics: Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.PolysaccharidesSilicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Mechanical Phenomena: The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Polyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Electrophoresis, Microchip: A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biofouling: Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.PeptidoglycanMethylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.PolyaminesMicrotubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].

Gibberellic acid stabilises microtubules in maize suspension cells to cold and stimulates acetylation of alpha-tubulin. (1/6663)

Gibberellic acid is known to stabilise microtubules in plant organs against depolymerisation. We have now devised a simplified cell system for studying this. Pretreatment of a maize cell suspension with gibberellic acid for just 3 h stabilised protoplast microtubules against depolymerisation on ice. In other eukaryotes, acetylation of alpha-tubulin is known to correlate with microtubule stabilisation but this is not established in plants. By isolating the polymeric tubulin fraction from maize cytoskeletons and immunoblotting with the antibody 6-11B-1, we have demonstrated that gibberellic acid stimulates the acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This is the first demonstrated link between microtubule stabilisation and tubulin acetylation in higher plants.  (+info)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (2/6663)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

Lactic acid polymers as biodegradable carriers of fluoroquinolones: an in vitro study. (3/6663)

A biodegradable polymer of DL-dilactide that facilitates release of ciprofloxacin or pefloxacin at levels exceeding MICs for the causative microorganisms of chronic osteomyelitis is described. Duration and peak of release were found to depend on the molecular weight of the polymer. Its characteristics make it promising for treating chronic bone infections.  (+info)

Quantitative study of polymer conformation and dynamics by single-particle tracking. (4/6663)

We present a new method for analyzing the dynamics of conformational fluctuations of individual flexible polymer molecules. In single-particle tracking (SPT), one end of the polymer molecule is tethered to an immobile substratum. A microsphere attached to the other end serves as an optical marker. The conformational fluctuations of the polymer molecule can be measured by optical microscopy via the motion of the microsphere. The bead-and-spring theory for polymer dynamics is further developed to account for the microsphere, and together the measurement and the theory yield quantitative information about molecular conformations and dynamics under nonperturbing conditions. Applying the method to measurements carried out on DNA molecules provides information complementary to recent studies of single DNA molecules under extensional force. Combining high precision measurements with the theoretical analysis presented here creates a powerful tool for studying conformational dynamics of biological and synthetic macromolecules at the single-molecule level.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of rat hippocampal CA3-dendritic spines associated with mossy fiber terminals. (5/6663)

We report a revised and improved isolation procedure for CA3-dendritic spines, most of them still in association with mossy fiber terminals resulting in a 7.5-fold enrichment over nuclei and a 29-fold enrichment over myelin. Additionally, red blood cells, medullated fibers, mitochondria and small synaptosomes were significantly depleted. We show by high resolution electron microscopy that this subcellular fraction contains numerous dendritic spines with a rich ultrastructure, e.g. an intact spine apparatus, membranous organelles, free and membrane-bound polyribosomes, endocytic structures and mitochondria. This improved experimental system will allow us to study aspects of post-synaptic functions at the biochemical and molecular level.  (+info)

Adaptation of bulk constitutive equations to insoluble monolayer collapse at the air-water interface. (6/6663)

A constitutive equation based on stress-strain models of bulk solids was adapted to relate the surface pressure, compression rate, and temperature of an insoluble monolayer of monodendrons during collapse at the air-water interface. A power law relation between compression rate and surface pressure and an Arrhenius temperature dependence of the steady-state creep rate were observed in data from compression rate and creep experiments in the collapse region. These relations were combined into a single constitutive equation to calculate the temperature dependence of the collapse pressure with a maximum error of 5 percent for temperatures ranging from 10 degrees to 25 degrees C.  (+info)

Actin polymerization: Where the WASP stings. (7/6663)

How do extracellular signals induce actin polymerization, as required for many cellular responses? Key signal transducers, such as the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac, have now been shown to link via proteins of the WASP family to the Arp2/3 complex, which nucleates actin polymerization.  (+info)

Structure and anticoagulant activity of sulfated fucans. Comparison between the regular, repetitive, and linear fucans from echinoderms with the more heterogeneous and branched polymers from brown algae. (8/6663)

Sulfated fucans are among the most widely studied of all the sulfated polysaccharides of non-mammalian origin that exhibit biological activities in mammalian systems. Examples of these polysaccharides extracted from echinoderms have simple structures, composed of oligosaccharide repeating units within which the residues differ by specific patterns of sulfation among different species. In contrast the algal fucans may have some regular repeating structure but are clearly more heterogeneous when compared with the echinoderm fucans. The structures of the sulfated fucans from brown algae also vary from species to species. We compared the anticoagulant activity of the regular and repetitive fucans from echinoderms with that of the more heterogeneous fucans from three species of brown algae. Our results indicate that different structural features determine not only the anticoagulant potency of the sulfated fucans but also the mechanism by which they exert this activity. Thus, the branched fucans from brown algae are direct inhibitors of thrombin, whereas the linear fucans from echinoderms require the presence of antithrombin or heparin cofactor II for inhibition of thrombin, as reported for mammalian glycosaminoglycans. The linear sulfated fucans from echinoderms have an anticoagulant action resembling that of mammalian dermatan sulfate and a modest action through antithrombin. A single difference of one sulfate ester per tetrasaccharide repeating unit modifies the anticoagulant activity of the polysaccharide markedly. Possibly the spatial arrangements of sulfate esters in the repeating tetrasaccharide unit of the echinoderm fucan mimics the site in dermatan sulfate with high affinity for heparin cofactor II.  (+info)

A coordination polymer is an inorganic or organometallic polymer structure containing metal cation centers linked by organic ligands. More formally a coordination polymer is a coordination compound with repeating coordination entities extending in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions. It can also be described as a polymer whose repeat units are coordination complexes. Coordination polymers contain the subclass coordination networks that are coordination compounds extending, through repeating coordination entities, in 1 dimension, but with cross-links between two or more individual chains, loops, or spiro-links, or a coordination compound extending through repeating coordination entities in 2 or 3 dimensions. A subclass of these are the metal-organic frameworks, or MOFs, that are coordination networks with organic ligands containing potential voids. Coordination polymers are relevant to many fields such as organic and inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, materials science, electrochemistry, and pharmacology, ...
The fabrication of electronic devices, such as gas sensors on flexible polymer substrates, enables the use of electronics in applications where conventional devices on stiff substrates could not be used. We demonstrate the development of a new intra-tube electronic-nose (e-nose) gas sensor device with multiple sensors fabricated and integrated on a flexible substrate. For this purpose, we developed a new method of fabricating a sensor array of four gas sensors on a flexible polymer substrate. The method allowed the use of lithography techniques to pattern different polymers with a broad range of solubility parameters. Conductive polymer composites were used as a gas sensitive layer due to the high stretchability of the material. Each of the 30 e-nose devices on one substrate was designed to fit on a polymer strip with a width of 2 mm. A single e-nose strip was successfully integrated into the inlet tube of a gas-measurement apparatus with an inner-tube diameter of 3 mm. Using the e-nose, we were able to
A polarizer is formed with an arrangement of polymer fibers substantially parallel within a polymer matrix. The polymer fibers are formed of at least first and second polymer materials. At least one of the polymer matrix and the first and second polymer materials is birefringent, and provides a birefringent interface with the adjacent material. Light is reflected and/or scattered at the birefringent interfaces with sensitivity to the polarization of the light. In some embodiments, the polymer fibers are formed as composite fibers, having a plurality of scattering polymer fibers disposed within a filler to form the composite fiber. In other embodiments, the polymer fiber is a multilayered polymer fiber. The polymer fibers may be arranged within the polymer matrix as part of a fiber weave.
The present invention concerns blends comprising at least one shape memory polymer and at least one thermoplastic polymer, wherein this thermoplastic polymer does not show shape memory properties. The present invention furthermore concerns methods for preparing such blends and the use of these blends in various applications, including additional products, household equipment etc.
0063] As indicated above, the shape memory polymer may be a copolymer network including the reaction product of a free radically polymerizable siloxane having greater than one functional free radically polymerizable group and at least one (meth)acrylate monomer. The reaction may include, for example, polymerization via curing. Curing may be carried out in an oxygen-free, e.g., in an inert atmosphere such as nitrogen gas or by utilizing a barrier of radiation-transparent material having low oxygen permeability. Curing can also be carried out under an inerting fluid such as water. When visible or ultraviolet radiation is used for curing, the reaction may also contain a photoinitiator. Suitable photoinitiators include benzoin ethers, benzophenone and derivatives thereof, acetophenone derivatives, camphorquinone, and the like. Some examples of commercially available photoinititaors include DARACUR 1173, DAROCUR 4265, IRGACURE 651, IRGACURE 1800, IRGACURE 369, IRGACURE 1700, and IRGACURE 907, ...
Described are fixed and removable orthodontic appliances and components thereof fabricated from shape memory polymer compositions. The preparation and use of such appliances are also disclosed.
Functionalization of nanoparticles can significantly influence their properties and potential applications. Although researchers can now functionalize metal, metal oxide, and organic polymer nanoparticles with a high degree of precision, controlled surface functionalization of nanoscale coordination polymer particles (CPPs) has remained a significant challenge. The lack of methodology is perhaps one of the greatest roadblocks to the advancement of CPPs into high added-value drug delivery applications. Here, we report having achieved this goal through a stepwise formation and functionalization protocol. We fabricated robust nanoparticles with enhanced thermal and colloidal stabilities by incorporation of carboxyl groups and these surface carboxyl groups could be subsequently functionalized through well-known peptide coupling reactions. The set of chemistries that we employed as proof-of-concept enabled a plethora of new functional improvements for the application of CPPs as drug delivery ...
0024] In various embodiments, the components of the dry adhesive or the components of the shape memory polymer may include a rigid epoxy and a flexible epoxy. The range of possible crosslinking chemistries which may be used to achieve a dry adhesive or shape memory polymer may include alpha, omega-diaminoalkanes, organic multi-carboxylic acid, anhydride, or catalytic (as in imidazole type) crosslinking reactions. There are many different ways to achieve the appropriate relationships between the molecular properties. For example, the dry adhesives or shape memory polymers may include a rigid epoxy, an epoxy extender, and a crosslinking agent; or a rigid epoxy, a flexible crosslinking agent, and a flexible epoxy; or a rigid epoxy, a rigid crosslinking agent, and a flexible epoxy; or a rigid epoxy, a flexible epoxy, and a catalytic curing agent; or a rigid epoxy, a crosslinking agent, and a diluent; or a flexible epoxy, a crosslinking agent, and a diluent; or a rigid epoxy and a flexible ...
Long fiber-reinforced polymer structures offer lightweight design potential. However, there is still a need for methods that consider the complex material behavior in the design process. This contribution discusses the integration of the local, anisotropic material properties of long fiber-reinforced polymer structures into the calculation of bead patterns and bead geometries. A workflow to calculate the resulting component stiffness is presented. To this end, mold filling simulations using Moldflow are coupled with a bead calculation process, which uses Abaqus for the structural calculations. This requires a mapping process to provide the results of the mold filling simulation for the bead calculation. As commercial tools do not allow independently modifying the bead parameters height, width, base radius, head radius and flange angle, an algorithm is used to calculate the bead geometry and to generate more degree of design freedom ...
A polymer based circuit production method provides a polymer based circuit by exposing a surface of a polymer substrate to ultraviolet radiation resulting in an adhesion promoted polymer substrate surface. A circuit is fabricated on the polymer substrate surface and a coating material is applied to at least a portion of the adhesion promoted polymer substrate surface. A portion of the circuit fabricated on the polymer substrate surface may be encapsulated. The polymer based circuit resulting from the method includes a polymer substrate having an ultraviolet radiation treated surface, a circuit formed on the polymer substrate surface, and a coating material encapsulating at least a portion of the at least one circuit between the polymer substrate and the coating material.
Inherently conductive polymers (ICPs) are finally about to leap from the laboratory into the commercial world.. Invented in 1977, ICPs have been around for a while, but their true commercial potential has never been realised.. Brian Balmer Industry Analyst at Frost & Sullivan explains, until now, ICPs have been aimed at the traditional conductive polymer markets of electrostatic discharge packaging and anti corrosive coatings. However, they found it difficult to compete on price with existing conductive polymers which are produced by incorporating materials such as carbon black, carbon fibre or fragments of stainless steel into the base polymer. Hence their performance in these markets has been poor. But, new cutting edge technologies such as organic light emitting diodes for flat screen displays, dimmable windows and fuel cells will see sales of ICPs rocket over the next 6 years.. The fastest growth area for the use of conductive polymers is that of Organic Light Emitting Diodes OLEDs, which ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Lithium ion conductive polymer electrolytes by side group rotation(II). AU - Satou, Akira. AU - Nishimura, Shin. AU - Urabe, Syuuichi. AU - Yamamoto, Hitoshi. AU - Ueyama, Norikazu. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - In order to improve ionic conductivity of lithium ion conductive polymer at low temperature, novel styrene derivatives (1-4) were synthesized and their ionic conductivities were measured. An ionic conductivity of polymer 1, was above 10-5 S/cm, even at -60°C. Its activation energy below 20°C exhibited 11 kJ/mol. On the other hand, that of poly(ethylene oxide) electrolyte exhibited 105 kJ/mol. The difference of the activation energy implied that lithium ion transfers in polymer electrolytes was promoted by rotation motion of the dimethoxyphenyl side group instead of segmental motion of polymer main chain.. AB - In order to improve ionic conductivity of lithium ion conductive polymer at low temperature, novel styrene derivatives (1-4) were synthesized and their ...
A variety of water-soluble polymers, when attached to a liposome, substantially increase liposome circulation half-life in animals. However, in certain conditions, liposomes modified with the most widely used polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG), induce an IgM response resulting in an accelerated blood clearance (ABC) of the liposome upon the second injection. Modification of liposomes with other water-soluble polymers: HPMA (poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide]), PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)), PMOX (poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)), PDMA (poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide)), and PAcM (poly(N-acryloyl morpholine)), increase circulation times of liposomes; but a precise comparison of their ability to promote long circulation or induce the ABC effect has not been reported. To obtain a more nuanced understanding of the role of polymer structure/MW to promote long circulation, we synthesized a library of polymer diacyl chain lipids with low polydispersity (1.04-1.09), similar polymer molecular weights ...
Purpose. Crosslinked, degradable derivatives of low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (PEI) are relatively efficient and non-cytotoxic gene delivery agents. To further investigate these promising materials, a new synthetic approach was developed using a poly(4-vinylpyridine)-supported Fe(III) catalyst (PVP(Fe(III))) that provides more facile synthesis and enhanced control of polymer molecular weight.. Methods. Biodegradable polymers (D.PEI) comprising 800-Da PEI crosslinked with 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate and exhibiting molecular weights of 1.2, 6.2, and 48 kDa were synthesized utilizing the PVP(Fe(III)) catalyst. D.PEI/DNA polyplexes were characterized using gel retardation, ethidium bromide exclusion, heparan sulfate displacement, and dynamic light scattering. In vitro transfection, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of the polyplexes were tested in human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231).. Results. D.PEIs tightly complexed plasmid DNA and formed 320- to ...
When a laboratory is producing vascular stents made from memory polymer, theyll need to have the right selection of methods to deliver a quality product.
Polymers represent the leading and versatile type of biomaterials being extensively applied in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, nano-medicine, medical devices etc.. The versatility of polymers for biomedical uses is attributed to the relative ease with which polymers can be designed with a range of architecture, functionality and appropriate physical, chemical and biological properties.. Functional polymers are special class of polymers where the polymer chains contain one or more reactive groups attached at the chain end or to the backbone. In biomedical applications, functional polymers are used as building blocks to design complex structures such as nanoparticles, bioconjugation, biocompatible surfaces, scaffolds, hydrogels etc.. ...
Polymers with shape memory properties have been prepared using heparin-inspired segments. The polymers have been prepared as films and foams. Both films and foams demonstrate good shape memory behavior as evidenced by fixity and recovery values. The materials properties of the foams can easily be tuned by va Pioneering Investigators
Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers. From the utility point of view they can be classified into three main categories: thermoplastics, elastomers and synthetic fibers. They are found commonly in a variety of consumer products such as honey, glue, etc. A wide variety of synthetic polymers are available with variations in main chain as well as side chains. The back bones of common synthetic polymers such as polythene, polystyrene and poly acrylates are made up of carbon-carbon bonds, whereas hetero chain polymers such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, polysulfides and polycarbonates have other elements (e.g. oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen) inserted along to the backbone. Also silicon forms similar materials without the need of carbon atoms, such as silicones through siloxane linkages; these compounds are thus said to be inorganic polymers. Coordination polymers may contain a range of metals in the backbone, with non-covalent bonding present. Some familiar household synthetic polymers ...
To investigate the effect of polymer molecular weight (MW) on rhBMP-2 delivery by thermoreversible polymers, four polymers with similar lower critical solution temperatures (20 degrees -22 degrees C) but different MWs were studied. Thermoreversible polymers were based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAM), ethyl methacrylate (EMA), and N-acryloxysuccinimide (NASI), and had MWs of either approximately 49 kDa or approximately 400 kDa. The NASI content was either 0 or 1-1.6%. High MW polymers, irrespective of their NASI content, formed a stable gel with significantly lower water uptake and exhibited a dense micelle with average pore size smaller than the low MW polymers. NiPAM/EMA polymers without NASI did not conjugate with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). NiPAM/EMA polymers containing NASI, however, gave conjugation with rhBMP-2. For polymers without NASI, a high MW was essential for rhBMP-2 retention when injected intramuscularly in Sprague-Dawley rats. For NASI-containing polymers,
Preface. List of Contributors.. Polymer Brushes: On the Way to Tailor-Made Surfaces (Jürgen Rühe).. 1 Growth of Polymer Molecules at Surfaces: Introductory Remarks.. 2 Coatings: From First Principles to High-Tech Applications.. 3 Surface-Coating Techniques.. 4 Surface-Attached Polymers.. 5 Polymer Brushes: General Features.. 6 Theory of Polymer Brushes.. 7 Synthesis of Polymer Brushes.. 8 Polymer Brushes as Functional Materials.. 9 Microstructured Polymer Brushes.. 10 Surface-Initiated Polymerization: The Overall Picture.. Part I Synthesis.. 1 Recent Advances in Polymer Brush Synthesis (Anthony M. Granville and William J. Brittain).. 1.1 Introduction.. 1.2 "Grafting To" Synthesis Technique.. 1.3 "Grafting From" Synthesis Technique.. 2 Polymer Brushes by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (Jeffrey Pyun, Tomasz Kowalewski, and Krzysztof Matyjaszewski).. 2.1 Introduction.. 2.2 Polymer Brushes on Flat Surfaces.. 2.3 Polymer Brushes from Particles.. 2.4 Molecular Brushes.. 3 Polymer Brushes by ...
Five new metal-organic coordination polymers ([Cu{sub 3}(μ{sub 2}-OH){sub 2}(atrz){sub 2}(nph){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1), ([Cu{sub 2}(μ{sub 3}-OH)(atrz)(1,2,4-btc)]·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (2), ([Cu{sub 2}(μ{sub 3}-OH)(atrz)(1,2,4-btc)(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3), [Cu(dth){sub 0.5}(nph)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4) and [Cu(dth)(Hnip){sub 2}]{sub n} (5) [atrz=4-amino-1,2,4-triazole, dth=N,N-di(4H-1,2,4-triazole)hexanamide, H{sub 2}nph=3-nitrophthalic acid, 1,2,4-H{sub 3}btc=1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid and H{sub 2}nip=5-nitroisophthalic acid] were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Polymer 1 shows a one-dimensional (1D) chain. Polymers 2 and 3 exhibit similar tetranuclear Cu{sup II}{sub 4} cluster-based three-dimensional (3D) frameworks with the same components. Polymer 4 possesses a 3D framework with a 4{sup 12}·6{sup 3}-pcu topology. Polymer 5 displays a 3D framework with a 4{sup 4}·6{sup 10}·8-mab topology. The magnetic properties of 1-4 ...
Novel temperature- and pH-responsive ABA-type triblock copolymers, P(DEAEMA-co-MEO2MA-co-OEGMA)-b-PEG-b-P(DEAEMA-co-MEO2MA-co-OEGMA), composed of a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) middle block and temperature- and pH-sensitive outer blocks, were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The composition and structure of the copolymer were characterized by 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The temperature- and pH-sensitivity, micellization, and the sol-gel transitions of the triblock copolymers in aqueous solutions were studied using transmittance measurements, surface tension, viscosity, fluorescence probe technique, dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the triblock copolymer, which contains a small amount of a weak base group, (N,N-diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA), can be tuned precisely and reversibly by changing the solution pH. When the copolymer
A polymer is a molecule, made from joining together many small molecules called monomers. The word "polymer" can be broken down into "poly" (meaning "many" in Greek) and "mer" (meaning "unit"). This shows how the chemical composition of a polymer consists of many smaller units (monomers) bonded together into a larger molecule. A chemical reaction bonding monomers together to make a polymer is called polymerization. Some polymers are natural and made by organisms. Proteins have polypeptide molecules, which are natural polymers made from various amino acid monomer units. Nucleic acids are huge natural polymers made up of millions of nucleotide units. Cellulose and starch (two types of carbohydrate) are also natural polymers made up of glucopyranose monomer bonded together in different ways. Rubber is a mixture of polymers. Plastics are man-made polymers. Many fibers are made of polymers. If the "units" called monomers in a polymer are all the same, then the polymer is called a "homopolymer". ...
Many pathogens that infect humans use cell surface carbohydrates as receptors to facilitate cell-cell adhesion. The hallmark of these interactions is their multivalency, or the simultaneous occurrence of multiple interactions. We have used a carbohydrate-functionalized fluorescent polymer, which displays many carbohydrate ligands on a single polymer chain, to allow for multivalent detection of pathogens. Incubation of a mannose-functionalized polymer with Escherichia coli yields brightly fluorescent aggregates of bacteria. These results show that carbohydrate-functionalized fluorescent polymers are a versatile detection method for bacteria. Future design of detectors for other pathogens only requires information on the carbohydrates bound by the organisms, which has been exhaustively reported in the literature.. ...
The work presented in this thesis concerns surface energy modification and patterning of the surfaces of conjugated polymers. Goniometry and Wilhelmy Balance techniques were used to evaluate the surface energy or wettability of a polymers surface; infrared reflectionabsorption spectroscopy (IRAS) was used to analyse the residuals on the surface as modified by a bare elastomeric stamp poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The stamp was found to be capable of modifying a polymer surface. Patterning of a single and/or double layer of conjugated polymers on the surface can be achieved by surface energy controlled dewetting. Modification of a conjugated polymer film can also be carried out when a sample is subjected to electrochemical doping in an aqueous electrolyte. The dynamic surface energy changes during the process were monitored in-situ using the Wilhelmy balance method.. This thesis also concerns studies of conjugated polymer-based optoelectronics, including light-emitting diodes (PLEDs), that ...
The direct reaction between copper nitrate, thymine-1-acetic acid, and 4,4′-bipyridine in water leads to the formation of a blue colloid comprising uniform crystalline nanoribbons (length >1 mum; width ca. 150-185 nm; diameter ca. 15-60 nm) of a coordination polymer. The polymer displays a thymine-based structure freely available for supramolecular interactions. These nanostructures show significant selective interaction with single-stranded oligonucleotides based on adenine. Remarkably, they present low cell toxicity in three cell lines-despite the copper(II) content-and can be used as nanocarriers of oligonucleotides. These results suggest the potential of these types of nanostructures in several biological applications ...
This invention includes malleable, biodegradable, fibrous compositions for application to a tissue site in order to promote or facilitate new tissue growth. One aspect of this invention is a fibrous component that provides unique mechanical and physical properties. The invention may be created by providing a vessel containing a slurry, said slurry comprising a plurality of natural or synthetic polymer fibers and at least one suspension fluid, wherein the polymer fibers are substantially evenly dispersed and randomly oriented throughout the volume of the suspension fluid; applying a force, e.g., centrifugal, to said vessel containing said slurry, whereupon said force serves to cause said polymer fibers to migrate through the suspension fluid and amass at a furthest extent of the vessel, forming a polymer material, with said polymer material comprising polymer fibers of sufficient length and sufficiently viscous, interlaced, or interlocked to retard dissociation of said polymer fibers.
A composite is formed wherein particles of a conductive polymer are uniformly distributed within a processable non-conductive polymer. In the method of the invention, an inverted emulsion is formed by dispersing an aqueous solution of oxidant in an organic solvent comprising a host polymer and an oil-soluble surfactant. A monomer whose polymerization yields a conductive polymer which is dissolved in a solvent miscible with the organic solvent of the emulsion is then added dropwise to the emulsion with agitation. The composite is separated from the emulsion and the precipitate is washed and dried.
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Polymer composites comprising a water-insoluble polymer and a water-sensitive polymer are disclosed. The water-sensitive polymer is a copolymer polymerized from one or more alkylene oxide monomers and one or more epoxy-functional monomers. The polymer composites can be used in the manufacture of articles having enhanced lubricious-when-wet properties, e.g., wet-shaving devices, and medical devices, e.g., catheters. The articles can provide enhanced retention of lubricity after repeated uses.
phdthesis{d217f1f6-5ffd-404d-8913-770a926a130e, abstract = {Most polymeric materials used today are not simple homopolymers, but consist of more than one polymer, which lead to morphologies of different length scale and shape. It is important to receive knowledge of the morphologies because the properties of the materials change depending on the structure. This thesis describes methods developed to study polymer morphologies by electron microscopy and also how to make a correct interpretation of the result. TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) are described for studying morphologies in PVC (polyvinyl chloride) resin, polymer blends, compatibilizer in polymer blends, latex particles, latex films and bitumen/polymer blends. Following polymer blends were studied: Carbon black filled NBR/EPDM (nitril butadiene rubber/ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer), PP/PA (polypropylene/polyamid) Modified with SEBS-MA ...
A process for producing a substantially dry polymer particle powder. A mixture of polymerization reagents is formed from a mixture of at least one monomer source and a solvent selected from the group consisting essentially of water and organic solvents and an initiator source. The mixture of polymerization reagents is sprayed into a heated, controlled atmosphere, forming droplets of the mixture which are allowed to fall through the heated, controlled atmosphere for a sufficient period of time to obtain a desired degree of polymerization. The solvent is continuously evacuated from the atmosphere during the polymerization process.
Zinc-porphyrin dye molecules were incorporated into the backbone of a conjugated polymer material by a method, which allowed for the incorporation of only one zinc-porphyrin dye molecule into the backbone of each conjugated polymer molecule. The electronic properties of the homopolymer were established using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) for the determination of the electronic energy levels and the injection barrier for holes into the valence band. Pulse radiolysis time resolved microwave conductivity (PR-TRMC) was used to determine the sum of charge carrier mobilities. Electroluminescent devices of the homopolymer itself and of the zinc-porphyrin containing polymer were prepared and the nature of the electroluminescence was characterized. The homopolymer segments were found to optically pump the emission of the zinc-porphyrin dye moities. The homopolymer exhibits blue-green emission and the zinc-porphyrin linked homopolymers emit near-infrared/infrared light. This was ...
In this study, the outstanding ability of the coordination polymer [Pt2(nBuCS2)4I]n (nBu = n-butyl) (1) to reversibly self-organize from solution was demonstrated. This feature allowed us to generate highly electrical conductive structures located upon demand on technologically relevant surfaces, by easy-to-
Wagner, B. D., McManus, G. J., Moulton, B., & Zaworotko, M. J. (2002). Exciplex fluorescence of {[Zn(bipy)(1.5)(NO3)(2)}]center dot CH3OH center dot 0.5pyrene}n: a coordination polymer containing intercalated pyrene molecules (bipy=4,4 -bipyridine). Chemical Communications, (18), 2176-2177 ...
Using bifunctional organic ligand 5-(4-imidazol-1-yl-phenyl)-2H-tetrazole (HL) and different aromatic carboxylates as secondary ligands, four novel metal-organic coordination polymers, [Zn(L)(1,4-bdc){sub 0.5}] (1), [Zn{sub 1.5}(L)(2,5-pydc)] (2), [Zn(HL)(1,2,4,5-btec){sub 0.5}] (3), and [Cd(HL)(1,2,4,5-btec){sub 0.5}] (4) (1,4-bdc, 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate; 2,5-pydc, 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate; 1,2,4,5-btec, 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate) have been successfully synthesized and analyzed. Compound 1 features the 2D [Zn(L)]{sub n} layers built by μ{sub 3}-L bridging ligands and Zn(II) ions, which are further linked by pillared 1,4-bdc{sup 2−} ligands to form a 2-fold interpenetrating dmc framework. The 3D network of compound 2 can be simplified as a rare 2-nodal (3,6)-connected rtl (rutile) topology. Compound 3 possesses a 2D layer structure which is accomplished by connecting ladder-chains to L ligands. Compound 4 exhibits 2D [Cd(1,2,4,5-btec)] layers with infinite Cd-O-Cd rods and the ...
The book also provides the reader with associated challenges and existing application problems of SMP. This could assist the reader to focus more on these issues and further exploit their knowledge to look for innovative solutions.
Sirrus, Inc., a developer of novel monomers and crosslinkers, welcomes Alexander Polykarpov, PhD, as its new Director of Polymer Synthesis. Dr. Polykarpov will be responsible for the companys polymer synthesis efforts, leading the development of hybrid, crosslinked and homopolymers based on Sirrus patented methylene malonate technology.. "Alex has a unique combination of polymer synthesis and application development experience," says Jeff Uhrig, Sirrus CEO. "Accordingly, he is uniquely qualified to design polymer architectures that will address commercial opportunities.". Dr. Polykarpov holds a PhD in Organic Photochemistry from Bowling Green State University and brings more than 25 years of polymer science experience to Sirrus. Most recently, he served as Polymer Lab Manager at AkzoNobel Coatings Inc., where he led a research team developing new polymer platforms for can and coil coatings. Dr. Polykarpovs research portfolio includes seven issued patents.. Since the acquisition of Sirrus by ...
Presenting a completely new approach to examining how polymers move in non-dilute solution, this book focuses on experimental facts, not theoretical speculations, and concentrates on polymer solutions, not dilute solutions or polymer melts. From centrifugation and solvent dynamics to viscosity and diffusion, experimental measurements and their quantitative representations are the core of the discussion. The book reveals several experiments never before recognized as revealing polymer solution properties. A novel approach to relaxation phenomena accurately describes viscoelasticity and dielectric relaxation and how they depend on polymer size and concentration. Ideal for graduate students and researchers interested in the properties of polymer solutions, the book covers real measurements on practical systems, including the very latest results. Every significant experimental method is presented in considerable detail, giving unprecedented coverage of polymers in solution ...
Decision III International scientific conference «Modern trends in chemistry and technology of polymer materials». SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, AUTOMATION AND PROCESS CONTROL TEXTILE AND LIGHT INDUSTRY. A.G. Makarov, N.V. Pereborova, M.A. Egorova, D.S. Ljodov, K.N. Busygin, A.S. Konovalov. Methodology spectral modeling of deformation-relaxation processes of polymer material. Development and improvement of methods of settlement prediction of stress-strain states of polymer materials in the scope of non-destructive mechanical effects caused by expanding their use in technical products and is inextricably linked with the objectives of the comparative analysis of the properties of materials, studies the relationship of properties to the structure, with targeted technological control properties with the prediction of short-term and long-term mechanical stress.. Keywords: creep, viscoelasticity, plasticity, elasticity, deformation, polymeric materials, forecasting, recovery processes.. E.Yu. Chulanov, G.Yu. ...
Polymer Composites and Polymeric Materials for Energy Management and Occupant Safety by Society of Automotive Engineers, 9780768003802, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
Study on Structure Development of Polymer Blends under the Continuous Change of Quench DepthStudy on Structure Development of Polymer Blends under the Continuous Change of Quench Depth ...
Current Applied Polymer Science publishes expert review articles and thematic issues in all applied aspects of polymer science including composites, nano polymeric composites and molecular composites, It includes biodegradable polymers, polysaccharides and other natural polymers, membranes, energy conversion and storage, conducting polymers, biomedical implants, and synthetic polymers. It will cover miscible and compatible polymer blends, amorphous and semi-crystallline polymer blends, rubber toughened and elastomeric blends, self-reinforced blends, interpenetrating networks and all other aspects of polymer science as applied to various fields of pharmaceuticals, industrial manufacture, health, agriculture, new materials and other areas.
Current Applied Polymer Science publishes expert review articles and thematic issues in all applied aspects of polymer science including composites, nano polymeric composites and molecular composites, It includes biodegradable polymers, polysaccharides and other natural polymers, membranes, energy conversion and storage, conducting polymers, biomedical implants, and synthetic polymers. It will cover miscible and compatible polymer blends, amorphous and semi-crystallline polymer blends, rubber toughened and elastomeric blends, self-reinforced blends, interpenetrating networks and all other aspects of polymer science as applied to various fields of pharmaceuticals, industrial manufacture, health, agriculture, new materials and other areas.
Compounds and metal complexes comprising a polycyclic, fused ring ligand or inertly substituted derivative thereof having up to 60 atoms other than hydrogen, said ligand comprising at least: (1) a cyclopentadienyl ring, (2) a 6,7,or 8 membered ring other than a 6-carbon aromatic ring, and (3) an aromatic ring, with the proviso that said 6, 7, or 8 membered ring (2), is fused to both the cyclopentadienyl ring (1), and the aromatic ring (3), polymerization catalysts, a process to prepare the novel compounds and complexes, and olefin polymerization processes using the same are disclosed.
An apparatus for manufacturing a polymer fiber shell from liquefied polymer is provided. The apparatus includes: (a) a precipitation electrode being for generating the polymer fiber shell thereupon; (b) a dispenser, being at a first potential relative to the precipitation electrode so as to generate an electric field between the precipitation electrode and the dispenser, the dispenser being for: (i) charging the liquefied polymer thereby providing a charged liquefied polymer; and (ii) dispensing the charged liquefied polymer in a direction of the precipitation electrode; and (c) a subsidiary electrode being at a second potential relative to the precipitation electrode, the subsidiary electrode being for modifying the electric field between the precipitation electrode and the dispenser.
The report provides a comprehensive overview of the global water soluble polymers market and presents insights into the factors driving and restraining the market. To present a holistic overview of the market, the report also studies the prevailing competitive landscape of the global water soluble polymers market. BASF SE, Kemira, Kuraray, SNF, and Ashland Inc. are the key vendors operating in the market. It is interesting to note here that over 70% of the highly consolidated global water soluble polymers market is held by the top three companies. The leading companies operating in the market are profiled in the report to with an aim to analyze the markets prevailing competitive landscape ...
El departamento ORAFOL Advanced Polymer Films ofrece soluciones de láminas y películas plásticas de gran calidad. Estos productos se utilizan en mercados tan variados como artes gráficas, medicina, aeroespacial y automoción, para satisfacer todos los requisitos de extrusión.. La línea ORAFOL Advanced Polymer Films incluye las familias de láminas y películas extruidas de gran calidad RowTec® Polycarbonate Films (PC), SolaTuf® Acrylic Films (AC) y RowLux® Multi-lensed Polycarbonate Films (PC).. ORAFOL Europe adquirió Rowland Technologies Inc. de Wallingford, Connecticut (EE.UU.) en 2017. Rowland Technologies es un fabricante especializado en películas poliméricas de gran calidad con un proceso exclusivo de extrusión y técnicas de mecanización propias patentadas. La excelencia técnica de Rowland combinada con la red internacional de distribución de ORAFOL componen el recién creado departamento Advanced Polymer Films, la elección natural para películas de calidad ...
Following on in the tradition of events jointly organized by the Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC, San Sebastian, Spain), the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany) and the European Network of Excellence SoftComp, a workshop on "Functional Polymers" is being organized to take place in spring 2018 in San Sebastian, Spain.. The workshop focuses on advanced polymer materials, and aims to bring together physicists and chemists who are interested in novel polymer nanocomposites, polymers functionalized with supramolecular groups and functional soft nano-objects ...
Following on in the tradition of events jointly organized by the Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC, San Sebastian, Spain), the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany) and the European Network of Excellence SoftComp, a workshop on "Functional Polymers" is being organized to take place in spring 2018 in San Sebastian, Spain.. The workshop focuses on advanced polymer materials, and aims to bring together physicists and chemists who are interested in novel polymer nanocomposites, polymers functionalized with supramolecular groups and functional soft nano-objects.. ...
Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry. 40 (2): 192-209. Bibcode:2002JPoSA..40..192K. doi:10.1002/pola.10090.. ... Polymers[edit]. 2-Oxazolines, such as 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline, can undergo living cationic ring-opening polymerisation to form poly ... Hoogenboom, Richard (12 October 2009). "Poly(2-oxazoline)s: A Polymer Class with Numerous Potential Applications". Angewandte ... as protecting groups for carboxylic acids and increasingly as monomers for the production of polymers. ...
Polymer coated carbon[edit]. This is a process by which a porous carbon can be coated with a biocompatible polymer to give a ... Activated carbon can be nitrogenated by natural products or polymers[43][44] or processing of carbon with nitrogenating ...
Organic/polymer solar cells[edit]. Main articles: Organic solar cell and Polymer solar cell ... "Organic polymers create new class of solar energy devices". Kurzweil Accelerating Institute. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013 ... Mayer, A.; Scully, S.; Hardin, B.; Rowell, M.; McGehee, M. (2007). "Polymer-based solar cells". Materials Today. 10 (11): 28. ... Organic solar cells and polymer solar cells are built from thin films (typically 100 nm) of organic semiconductors including ...
Polymer fibers. *Polymer fibers are a subset of man-made fibers, which are based on synthetic chemicals (often from ... Silicon carbide fibers, where the basic polymers are not hydrocarbons but polymers, where about 50% of the carbon atoms are ... Carbon fibers are often based on oxidized and via pyrolysis carbonized polymers like PAN, but the end product is almost pure ... Coextruded fibers have two distinct polymers forming the fiber, usually as a core-sheath or side-by-side. Coated fibers exist ...
Plastic and polymer[edit]. *Cellulose acetate. *Optyl, a type of hypoallergenic material made especially for eyeglass frames. ...
Polymers[edit]. Many engineering polymers are hygroscopic, including nylon, ABS, polycarbonate, cellulose, and poly(methyl ... Other polymers, such as polyethylene and polystyrene, do not normally absorb much moisture, but are able to carry significant ...
8 creates a polymer on the surface of the substrate, and the second gas composition (SF. 6 and O. 2) etches the substrate. The ... Polymers[edit]. Even though the electronics industry provides an economy of scale for the silicon industry, crystalline silicon ... Since the polymer only dissolves very slowly in the chemical part of the etching, it builds up on the sidewalls and protects ... Polymers on the other hand can be produced in huge volumes, with a great variety of material characteristics. MEMS devices can ...
Filled polymer rheology[edit]. The incorporation of various types of fillers into polymers is a common means of reducing cost ... Polymers[edit]. Examples may be given to illustrate the potential applications of these principles to practical problems in the ... Polymers constitute the basic materials of the rubber and plastic industries and are of vital importance to the textile, ... It applies to substances that have a complex microstructure, such as muds, sludges, suspensions, polymers and other glass ...
Polymers in condensed formulas[edit]. For polymers in condensed chemical formulas, parentheses are placed around the repeating ...
Polymer fibers. *Polymer fibers are a subset of man-made fibers, which are based on synthetic chemicals (often from ... Hollaway, C. (1990). Polymers and Polymer Composites in Construction. Great Britain: Bulter and Tanner Ltd. p. 209. ISBN 978-0- ... Silicon carbide fibers, where the basic polymers are not hydrocarbons but polymers, where about 50% of the carbon atoms are ... Shenoy, Aroon (1999). Rheology of Filled Polymer Systems. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-0-412-83100-3.. ...
Precursor to polymers[edit]. In the plastic industry, ethylene glycol is an important precursor to polyester fibers and resins ...
The term "additives" in polymer science refers to the chemicals and compounds added to the polymer base to modify its material ... pulling in relatively new polymer engineering and polymer science; recombining from the previous, as well as chemistry, ... Polymers are the raw materials (the resins) used to make what are commonly called plastics and rubber. Plastics and rubber are ... Polymers are chemical compounds made up of a large number of identical components linked together like chains. They are an ...
The material itself is made of chemical photo-reactive polymers. These compounds use a polymer mixture combined with a ... Digital Shape-Memory Polymers[edit]. A time-lapse of an SMP gripper that Qi Ge et al. developed for grabbing and releasing an ... Hydro-reactive polymers/hydrogels[edit]. Skylar Tibbits is the director of the Self-Assembly Lab at MIT, and worked with the ... Thermo-reactive polymers/hydrogels[edit]. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), or pNIPAM, is a commonly used thermo-responsive material ...
Types of branched polymers include star polymers, comb polymers, polymer brushes, dendronized polymers, ladder polymers, and ... Randomly oriented polymer Interlocking of several polymers *Disordered polymers: In the solid state, atactic polymers, polymers ... slightly cross-linked polymer (elastomer) highly cross-linked polymer (thermoset) Polymer architecture. Main article: Polymer ... "Polymer - Definition of polymer". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 23 July 2013.. *^ "Define polymer". Dictionary Reference. ...
... (in polymer science): Process in which a polymer melt changes on cooling to a polymer glass or a polymer glass ... Polymers[edit]. In polymers the glass transition temperature, Tg, is often expressed as the temperature at which the Gibbs free ... The addition of nonreactive side groups to a polymer can also make the chains stand off from one another, reducing Tg. If a ... Nicholson, John W. (2011). The Chemistry of Polymers (4, Revised ed.). Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 50. ISBN 9781849733915. ...
polymer resins[edit]. Amalgam is tolerant to a wide range of clinical placement conditions and moderately tolerant to the ... Mercury has properties of a bacteriostatic agent whereas certain methacrylate polymers (for example TEGMA, triethylene glycol ...
Polymer flooding[edit]. Polymer flooding consists in mixing long chain polymer molecules with the injected water in order to ... Surfactants may be used in conjunction with polymers; They decrease the surface tension between the oil and water. This reduces ... Hakiki, F., Maharsi, D.A. and Marhaendrajana, T. (2016). Surfactant-Polymer Coreflood Simulation and Uncertainty Analysis ... Injection of a dilute solution of a water-soluble polymer to increase the viscosity of the injected water can increase the ...
Synthetic polymers[edit]. Many polymers are strengthened by hydrogen bonds within and between the chains. Among the synthetic ... Hydrogen bonds in polymers[edit]. Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in determining the three-dimensional structures and ... Some polymers are more sensitive than others. Thus nylons are more sensitive than aramids, and nylon 6 more sensitive than ... Hydrogen bonds are important in the structure of cellulose and derived polymers in its many different forms in nature, such as ...
Role in polymers[edit]. Ethylenediamine, because it contains two amine groups, is a widely used precursor to various polymers. ...
Polymer adsorption[edit]. Main article: polymer adsorption. Adsorption of molecules onto polymer surfaces is central to a ... Polymer-based compounds - Are polar or non-polar functional groups in a porous polymer matrix. ... Polymers may also be adsorbed to surfaces through polyelectrolyte adsorption. Adsorption in viruses[edit]. Adsorption is the ... Cheraghian, Goshtasp (2017). "Evaluation of Clay and Fumed Silica Nanoparticles on Adsorption of Surfactant Polymer during ...
Entrapment of hydrogenase in polymers[edit]. There are many ways to adsorb hydrogenases onto carbon electrodes that have been ... An alternative is to form films with graphite particles adsorbed with hydrogenase inside a polymer matrix. The graphite ... Another solution includes the entrapment of hydrogenase in a conductive polymer.[12] ... modified with polymers. An example is a study done by Morozov et al. where they inserted NiFe hydrogenase into polypyrrole ...
Natural polymers[edit]. Biopolymers of sugars are common in nature. Through photosynthesis, plants produce glyceraldehyde-3- ... Starch, consisting of two different polymers of glucose, is a readily degradable form of chemical energy stored by cells, and ... can be converted to other types of energy.[48] Another polymer of glucose is cellulose, which is a linear chain composed of ...
Other polymers[edit]. Other polymers, including polyetheretherketone and polybutylene terephthalate, have also been used.[8][9] ... To help solve the corrosion problem strings are either metal plated or polymer coated. The polymer coating is claimed to reduce ... Among strings coated with a polymer, (polytetrafluoroethylene) Teflon is the most commonly used. Teflon is resistant to many ... is another polymer that is sometimes used to coat strings. It is abrasion and cut resistant and has many characteristics ...
Two main groups of polymers exist: synthetic polymers and biopolymers. Synthetic polymers are artificially manufactured, and ... Both synthetic and natural rubber are polymers.[citation needed] Varieties of each synthetic polymer product may exist, for ... Since the invention of the first synthetic polymer product, bakelite, synthetic polymer products have frequently been invented. ... Common synthetic organic polymers are polyethylene (polythene), polypropylene, nylon, teflon (PTFE), polystyrene, polyesters, ...
Two main groups of polymers exist: those artificially manufactured are referred to as industrial polymers [4] or synthetic ... Common synthetic organic polymers are polyethylene or polythene, polypropylene, nylon, teflon or PTFE, polystyrene, polyesters ... Further, secondary component(s) may be added to create a heteropolymer (co-polymer) and the degree of clustering of the ... The process is called polymerization and the chains or networks polymers, while the source compound is a monomer. ...
Polymer Nanocomposites,/b, offers a comprehensive review of the main types of polymer nanocomposites and their properties. Part ... p,Offering improved barrier properties, fire resistance, and strength, polymer nanocomposites are increasingly desirable as ... Multifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites [46%] University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) [45%] Numerous products featuring ... Mechanical Properties of Polymers based on Nanostructure and Morphology [40%] ,p,The improvement of strength and durability in ...
Development of cardiovascular implants using nanocomposite polymer and stem cell technology: from Lab to commercialisation ... Thus to overcome these issues, a nanocomposite polymer based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles and ... Thus to overcome these issues, a nanocomposite polymer based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles and ... Development of cardiovascular implants using nanocomposite polymer and stem cell technology: from Lab to commercialisation. ...
Reynolds Polymer is the worlds leader in highly engineered acrylic and polymer material products. For over 30 years, we have ... Reynolds Polymer is the worlds leader in highly engineered acrylic and polymer material products. For over 30 years, we have ... When we say we are the worlds leading acrylic and polymer material project company, we mean it. Check it out for yourself. ... We engineer complex, groundbreaking acrylic and polymer material structures that our competitors simply cant. Our dedication ...
... are engaged in Manufacturing, Supplying, Trading and Exporting HDPE, PP Cosmetic Bottles, Cream Jars, Flip ... Millennium Polymers * 1. 09953353188 A Member of Millennium Polymers www.millenniumpolymers.in Acrylic Jar & Bottles Foam Pump ... 2. A Member of I n t r o d u c t i o n & P r o f i l e Incorporated in the year 2012, we, Millennium Polymers, are counted ... We Millennium Polymers are engaged in Manufacturing, Supplying, Trading and Exporting HDPE, PP Cosmetic Bottles, Cream Jars, ...
New NIST Method Measures 3D Polymer Processing Precisely October 09, 2018 Recipes for three-dimensional (3D) printing, or ...
Polymers and Plastics are synonymous in many applications and everyday things. Yet they are two distinct terms when applied to ... Polymers + 3D Printing. 2 November 2017 08:00 - 3 November 2017 17:00, Houston-Webster, United States ... Polymer chemists and plastics engineers will find the requirements for performance limits most 3D printing objects as ... This conference and workshop will focus on bridging the knowledge gap and appreciation for the properties of polymer materials ...
... x chain charged solitons Chem chemical shift coefficient conducting polymers configuration conjugated polymers correlation ... Conjugated conducting polymers. Volume 102 of Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences. Volume 102 of Solid-State Sciences ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Conjugated_conducting_polymers.html?id=jkwsAAAAYAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus- ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Conjugated_conducting_polymers.html?id=jkwsAAAAYAAJ ...
Types of branched polymers include star polymers, comb polymers, polymer brushes, dendronized polymers, ladder polymers, and ... Randomly oriented polymer Interlocking of several polymers *Disordered polymers: In the solid state, atactic polymers, polymers ... slightly cross-linked polymer (elastomer) highly cross-linked polymer (thermoset) Polymer architecture. Main article: Polymer ... "Polymer - Definition of polymer". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 23 July 2013.. *^ "Define polymer". Dictionary Reference. ...
Types of branched polymers include star polymers, comb polymers, brush polymers, dendronized polymers, ladder polymers, and ... "polymer - definition of polymer". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 23 July 2013.. *^ "Define polymer". Dictionary Reference. ... Polymer degradation is a change in the properties-tensile strength, color, shape, or molecular weight-of a polymer or polymer- ... Polymers are studied in the fields of biophysics and macromolecular science, and polymer science (which includes polymer ...
In recent years, inorganic polymers have attracted much a ... present state of knowledge on a number of inorganic polymers ... Some biomedical inorganic polymers have already been applied e.g. as "bioglass" for bone repair and bone tissue engineering, or ... Inorganic Polymers: Morphogenic Inorganic Biopolymers for Rapid Prototyping Chain Werner E. G. Müller, Heinz C. Schröder, ... However, there are a number of further biological and medicinal properties of these polymers that have been elucidated in the ...
... Greg Landrum Sun, 28 Dec 2014 22:14:02 -0800 ... What I would prefer: , 1) The molecule is read in and some kind of flag is set to signify that it , is a polymer , 2) the ... I was wondering how complicated it would be to add , the ability to read polymers from molfiles. Right now I am getting , ... to specify that they are willing to accept polymers and then using some new data structure to return info about the polymer. 2 ...
New companies entering the high performance polymers industry, new polymer introductions, and inter-material competition with ... for each polymer. While certain polymer categories, such as fluoropolymers are witnessing relatively lower growth due to a ... and coatings are expanding the reach of high performance polymers. The high performance polymers value-chain, from polymerized ... Using 2007 as the baseline, the study analyzes the drivers and trends of the high performance polymer market by region, product ...
We have taken the term to mean a polymer which can be used, at least for short time periods, at temperatures from 150°C. The ... Definitions of what is meant by a heat-resistant polymer vary considerably. ... Definitions of what is meant by a heat-resistant polymer vary considerably. We have taken the term to mean a polymer which can ... More than 2000 references have been published on one heat-resistant polymer system alone over a period of little more than two ...
The DMR Polymers Program supports fundamental research and education on polymeric materials and polymer science. The Program ... Interdisciplinary Globally-Leading Polymer Science and Engineering: 2007 NSF Polymers Workshop (Co-sponsored by AFOSR, ARO, DOE ... a central goal includes developing and advancing the foundations of polymer science across the wide horizon of the polymer ... Frontiers in Polymer Science and Engineering: Report of a 2016 NSF Workshop (Co-sponsored by AFRL/AFOSR, ARO, DOE/BES, FDA, ...
Mallard Creek Polymers, Inc. (MCP) is excited to release the newest changes to the company website. MCP and Knowmad ... Mallard Creek Polymers, Inc. (MCP) is excited to release the newest changes to the company website. MCP and Knowmad , an award- ... The audience for the site was invited at that time to take a new look at the company, the companys wide array of polymer ... Mallard Creek Polymers is highlighting three key themes at the renewed site: Making Customized Solutions Work, Creative ...
Donor-Acceptor-Conjugated Polymer for High-Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors: A Progress Report Adv. Funct. Mater ... The Effect of Irregularity from Asymmetric Random π-Conjugated Polymers on the Photovoltaic Performance of Fullerene-Free ... Loss in Green Solvent-Processed Ternary Blended Organic Photovoltaics derived from UV-Crosslinkable Semiconducting Polymers and ...
Major industrial polymers - Polyamides: A polyamide is a polymer that contains recurring amide groups (R―CO―NH―R′) as integral ... The most important amide polymers are the nylons, an extremely versatile ... parts of the main polymer chain. Synthetic polyamides are produced by a condensaton reaction between monomers, in which the ... A polyamide is a polymer that contains recurring amide groups (R―CO―NH―R′) as integral parts of the main polymer chain. ...
Major industrial polymers, chemical compounds used in the manufacture of synthetic industrial materials. In the commercial ... production of plastics, elastomers, man-made fibres, adhesives, and surface coatings, a tremendous variety of polymers are used ... Carbon-chain polymers. Polyolefins and related polymers. By far the most important industrial polymers (for example, virtually ... industrial polymers are either carbon-chain polymers (also called vinyls) or heterochain polymers (also called noncarbon-chain ...
"Current models do not take into account the motion of the polymer inside the pore," says author Anatoly Kolomeisky of Rice ... In modeling a tapering pore, they confirmed that translocation occurs faster when the polymer enters the wide side of the pore. ... The movement of long chain polymers through nanopores is a key part of many biological processes, including the transport of ... By improving the boundary conditions for polymer movement inside the pore, researchers demonstrated a significant increase in ...
12500 out of 0 Frontier Performance Polymers lobbyists in 2013-2014 have previously held government jobs ...
These electroactive polymers generate huge forces at low voltages. Because chemical reactions break down the polymer, earlier ... Electroactive Polymers. Artificial muscles made of electroactive polymers impart lifelike movements to biomedical and robotic ... When lab director Mohsen Shahinpoor applies a voltage to an artificial "hand" made of a polymer-metal composite, its fingers ... But researchers in academia and industry have found ways to make the polymers stronger, more robust, and more efficient. These ...
Sarvam polymers, are one of the distinguished manufacturers, suppliers and exporters of adhesives and binders. Our range is ... Sarvam Polymers, Surat, Acrylic Binder * 1. 09953352967 Sarvam Polymers www.sarvampolymers.comAcrylic Binders Carpet Binders ... We, Sarvam polymers, are one of the distinguished manufacturers, suppliers and exporters of adhesives and binders. Our range is ... 2. ProfileEstablished in the year 2007, we, "Sarvam Polymers", are engaged in manufacturing,exporting and supplying optimum ...
ZEISS Solutions for Plastics and Polymers. Providing insight, from the development and production of polymers in their primary ... Understand a range of conditions on a range of microscopes, including polymer morphology, structure and crystallinity, ...
Recent work in the Gibson group has developed a series of synthetic polymers which display AFGP properties. This project aims ... Each stage is achieved by a combination of modern polymer chemistry and state-of-the-art computer simulations. ... to elucidate the molecular-level mechanisms of antifreeze active synthetic polymers and use this information to develop novel ...
Search for polymer at other dictionaries: OneLook, Oxford, American Heritage, Merriam-Webster, Wikipedia. See polymer used in ... Definitions of polymer: *noun: a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked ...
  • Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers . (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers will use nature's catalysts - enzymes, to reduce polymers to their component monomers for recovering valuable components, or for remanufacture. (bath.ac.uk)
  • RAFT can be used with a wide range of monomers and reaction conditions and gives unprecedented control over polymer size, composition and architecture. (www.csiro.au)
  • A condensation polymer is one in which the repeating structural unit contains fewer atoms than that of the monomer or monomers because of the splitting off of water or some other substance, e.g., polyesters and polycarbonates . (factmonster.com)
  • Polymerization, the chemical process of forming polymers from their component monomers, is often a complex process that may be initiated or sustained by heat, pressure, or the presence of one or more catalysts. (factmonster.com)
  • Lipids are polymers because they are formed by condensation reactions from fatty acid monomers and alcohols. (reference.com)
  • It takes only seconds for the Sandia/UNM method to evenly pre-distribute monomers simpler precursors of polymers within a silica matrix through self-assembly. (sandia.gov)
  • Exposure to UV light polymerizes the monomers into conjugated polymers housed in nanoscopic channels that penetrate the matrix of the material. (sandia.gov)
  • Typically, single chain cyclized/knotted polymers are synthesized by deactivation enhanced ATRP of multivinyl monomers via kinetically controlled strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is worthy to note that due to the multiple reactive sites of the multivinyl monomers, plenty of unreacted pendent vinyl groups are introduced to linear primary polymer chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • This conference and workshop will focus on bridging the knowledge gap and appreciation for the properties of polymer materials when applied to additive manufacturing methods and 3D printing. (rsc.org)
  • Moreover, the combined application of inorganic polymers and organic polymeric molecules (formation of organic-inorganic hybrid materials) provides a variety of new materials with novel property combinations and diverse applications in nanomedicine. (springer.com)
  • We have taken the term to mean a polymer which can be used, at least for short time periods, at temperatures from 150°C. The greatest problem which arises in writing a monograph on such materials is the tremendous amount of data that is available. (springer.com)
  • The "older" heat-resistant polymers, e. g. , the thermosets and some of the fluorine-containing materials, are not dealt with in such depth as are the "newer" polymers with aromatic and/or heterocyclic rings in the chain. (springer.com)
  • The DMR Polymers Program supports fundamental research and education on polymeric materials and polymer science. (nsf.gov)
  • Polymers are studied from the molecular level through the nano-to-macro continuum using fundamental materials-focused scientific approaches. (nsf.gov)
  • Particular focus is on transformative approaches to novel materials with superior properties, on advancing polymer fundamentals and optimizing structure-property relationships, as well as on basic polymer research addressing major societal challenges. (nsf.gov)
  • Within the context of societal challenges, proposals offering fundamental polymer-science approaches toward sustainable materials or addressing the environmental burden of plastics are especially welcome. (nsf.gov)
  • Major industrial polymers , chemical compounds used in the manufacture of synthetic industrial materials. (britannica.com)
  • Since the early 1990s, materials scientists and engineers have been developing electroactive polymers for use as sensors, actuators, and artificial muscles. (technologyreview.com)
  • Benjamin Mattes, CEO of Santa Fe Science and Technology, is building strong, long-lasting artificial muscles out of conducting polymers that expand and contract in response to changes in the flow of ions into the materials. (technologyreview.com)
  • Thanks to such advances in materials science, electroactive polymers are starting to yield useful biomedical devices. (technologyreview.com)
  • The project brings together experts in molecular and structural biology, polymer materials and sustainable technologies from Bath, The Ohio State University , University of São Paulo and Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp) . (bath.ac.uk)
  • Argonne provides industry with the tools and expertise to optimize additive manufacturing polymer and composite materials and processes to fit application needs. (anl.gov)
  • Maya Jacob John is senior researcher at Polymers and Composites Competence Area at Materials Science and Manufacturing, CSIR, South Africa. (rsc.org)
  • IBM scientists have discovered a class of polymer materials that can potentially transform manufacturing and fabrication in the fields of transportation, aerospace and microelectronics. (environmentalleader.com)
  • Intertek's polymers and plastics services can help you to improve and qualify materials and products and meet worldwide regulatory requirements. (intertek.com)
  • With decades of experience in the polymers and plastics industries, our scientists have the knowledge to help you improve and qualify materials and products. (intertek.com)
  • Polymer and plastic testing services include physical, thermal, rheological, optical, aging, barrier, surface, flammability and mechanical properties which identify the characteristics of your raw materials or polymer and whether they meet specification. (intertek.com)
  • Polymers and plastics are some of the most versatile materials in existence and are used in all aspects of our daily lives. (intertek.com)
  • The melting behavior of semicrystalline polymers is intermediate between that of crystalline materials (sharp density change at a melting temperature) and that of a pure amorphous material (slight change in slope of density at the glass-transition temperature). (virginia.edu)
  • Composite materials, wet compression molding, HP-RTM, in-line compounding of long-fibre reinforced polymers, injection moulding (thermosets and thermoplastics), design and construction of composite parts. (uwo.ca)
  • The edible polymers were produced exclusively from renewable, edible ingredients and therefore were anticipated to degrade more readily than other polymeric materials [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While polymer in popular usage suggests plastic, the term actually refers to a large class of natural and synthetic materials. (wiley-vch.de)
  • The study of polymer science begins with understanding the methods in which these materials are synthesized. (wiley-vch.de)
  • It is a one-stop reference and a must-have for all Chemists, Polymer Chemists, Chemists in Industry, and Materials Scientists. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Polymers are materials composed of large molecules used to make everyday products from paint to sunscreen. (www.csiro.au)
  • Polymers are materials composed of large molecules. (www.csiro.au)
  • CSIRO has invented a revolutionary technology that creates a new generation of advanced polymer materials. (www.csiro.au)
  • Such materials offer the potential for synergistic property combinations, and even entirely new applications where the polymer structure is used as a template, but their complex behavior makes tapping this potential a true challenge. (princeton.edu)
  • Right from the start, the activity of the Polymer Technology Group, which is part of the UPV/EHU's Department of Polymer Science and Technology and the Institute for Polymer Materials, POLYMAT, has concentrated mainly on the study of polymer blends in order to obtain new materials with optimized features. (eurekalert.org)
  • New nano-reinforced materials based on technical polymers, and in the case of systems with carbon nanotubes, conductors of electricity, have been developed in this line. (eurekalert.org)
  • CAMBRIDGE, MA -- Plastic, rubber, and many other useful materials are made of polymers -- long chains arranged in a cross-linked network. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now, the same researchers have found a simple way to reduce the number of loops in a polymer network and thus strengthen materials made from polymers. (eurekalert.org)
  • They were not able to measure the number of loops for all of those types of polymers, but they did find similar improvements in the strength of the materials. (eurekalert.org)
  • The nanostructured polymers could be multi-layered materials, polymer blends, block copolymers, or liquid-crystalline polymers. (aiche.org)
  • Block copolymers are a unique set of materials in which two chemically distinct polymer chains (or blocks) are covalently bonded at a point. (princeton.edu)
  • This joint meeting between RAMS (Recent Appointees in Material science) and RAPS (Recent Appointees in Polymer Science) brought together academic and industrial appointees in both Materials and Polymers at the beginning of their careers (with at least one year's postdoctoral or industrial experience). (google.com)
  • Underlying the immediate application described above, the Sandia/UNM method is a generic, efficient solution to a problem that has puzzled modern materials science: how to efficiently distribute conjugated polymers inexpensive carbon-based polymers that due to special bonding patterns carry electrical current and produce changes in a material s optical properties within a hard, protective structure. (sandia.gov)
  • The research could ultimately inform polymer fabrication methods and lead to new designs for materials and devices that incorporate polymers. (lbl.gov)
  • Already widely used for the deposition of inorganic materials in the semiconductor industry, CVD has become the method of choice in many applications to process polymers as well. (recordedbooks.com)
  • In addition, vapor phase processing is critical for the deposition of insoluble materials including fluoropolymers, electrically conductive polymers, and highly crosslinked organic networks. (recordedbooks.com)
  • They have appeared in metals and a few other materials, but now a team reports in the 11 May Physical Review Letters that quasicrystals can also form in polymers. (aps.org)
  • but then you would be missing the point that both these materials (polymers) are pretty. (innovateuk.org)
  • The polymer melt is produced from the raw materials, and then from the polymer finisher directly pumped to the spinning mill. (wikipedia.org)
  • We engineer complex, groundbreaking acrylic and polymer material structures that our competitors simply can't. (reynoldspolymer.com)
  • Using this approach, they were able to cut the number of loops in half, in a variety of different polymer network structures. (eurekalert.org)
  • Each unit of the polymer can consist of any of a number of molecules, from a simple chain of sulphur-carbon bonds, to much more complicated ring structures. (newscientist.com)
  • While this problem could be solved by incorporating the polymers in hard silica scaffolds, previous research groups at other institutions had found that implanting conjugated polymers into pre-existing silica structures to be a time-consuming, inaccurate, and relatively expensive process. (sandia.gov)
  • Quasicrystals-orderly but not-quite-crystalline structures-have mostly appeared in solids, but researchers have now made a larger-scale version with polymers. (aps.org)
  • The spacing between the polymer structures is 100 times larger than between atoms, so it's difficult to apply the quantum mechanical theories from previous quasicrystals to this new type. (aps.org)
  • In 2004 a team in England found that an organic compound dissolved in a liquid forms quasicrystalline structures, and now Tomonari Dotera of Kyoto University and Yushu Matsushita of Nagoya University in Japan and their colleagues have added polymers-long-chain molecules-to the list. (aps.org)
  • The spatial extent of the polymer pattern is small, so it might be a mixture of misaligned crystal-like structures, rather than a true quasicrystal, says Christopher Henley of Cornell University. (aps.org)
  • According to Dotera, these polymer structures are of a size that could lead to new types of photonic crystals-structures that can manipulate light for possible future devices, such as optical chips that would use "light circuits" instead of electrons. (aps.org)
  • In plastic (thermoplastic and thermosetting resins) , polymers are divided between those that are soluble in selective solvents and can be reversibly softened by heat (thermoplastics) and those that form three-dimensional networks which are not soluble and cannot be softened by heat without decomposition (thermosets). (britannica.com)
  • Right now, the Group's most recent line of work is focussing on the study of nanocomposite systems consisting of thermoplastic polymers and organically modified laminated clays or carbon nanotubes. (eurekalert.org)
  • If the polymer is a thermoplastic then it can be simply melted, otherwise it is dissolved in a solvent or chemically treated to form soluble or thermoplastic derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to Menon, the team included theoretical physicist Benny Davidovitch, polymer scientist Thomas Russell and a former UMass postdoctoral physics researcher, Deepak Kumar. (umass.edu)
  • RAPS is very grateful to our sponsors Wyatt Technology, Polymer Laboratories, Viscotech and the Institute of Physics for their support. (google.com)
  • The large element size in polymer quasicrystals may also have theoretical implications, because the same quantum mechanical physics thought to explain the atom arrangement in metallic quasicrystals does not apply to large polymer molecules. (aps.org)
  • Within these key themes, the company reinforces its' drive to create customized products for individual clients, whether these are acrylic polymer emulsions , carboxylated styrene-butadiene latexes, resin supported styrene-acrylics for printing and packaging, vinyl acetate latex emulsions, or rheology modifiers for concrete. (prweb.com)
  • Blog - Polymer Blog Series: Why perform Rheology testing for polymers? (intertek.com)
  • His group does computer simulation and experiments in a number of important polymer processing operations, including mixing (twin-screw extruders, static mixers, impingement mixing), die design, reactive processing, injection molding, liquid coating and rheology. (uwo.ca)
  • RapiThix™ polymers are rheology modifiers especially designed for use in cold-mix processes. (ashland.com)
  • Thermosetting polymers (thermosets) harden permanently when heated, as cross-linking hinder bending and rotations. (virginia.edu)
  • The movement of long chain polymers through nanopores is a key part of many biological processes, including the transport of RNA, DNA, and proteins. (redorbit.com)
  • Design of polymer products and shaping processes benefit from a change from experimental trial-and-error to quantitative predictive capability. (tue.nl)
  • Aspen Polymers is the market-leading technology for accurate and reliable design and optimization of polymer processes, accelerating new product innovation and enabling increased operational efficienc. (aspentech.com)
  • Self-assembling processes of amphiphilic aqueous polymers, as well as their response to temperature, light, magnetic field, pH, and ionic strength are the essential topics. (helsinki.fi)
  • While interdisciplinarity is stressed, a central goal includes developing and advancing the foundations of polymer science across the wide horizon of the polymer field through innovative research and education projects. (nsf.gov)
  • Dr Janet Scott, who is leading a transatlantic project to tackle effective recycling of polymers, shares her passion for science with us. (bath.ac.uk)
  • He received Ph.D from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur and a B.Tech in Polymer Science and Technology from Cochin University. (rsc.org)
  • Metabolix and other companies are exploring whether plants can be genetically engineered to make polymers for producing bioplastics in a way that's cheaper than oil-based plastics, the Christian Science Monitor reports. (environmentalleader.com)
  • KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology. (diva-portal.org)
  • The research is aimed at bridging the gap between science and technology in the area of polymer processing and design, through the use of experimental and computational tools in the modeling of the full thermo-mechanical history of material (elements) during their formation, processing and final design, to quantitatively predict properties of processed objects. (tue.nl)
  • Professor Thomas P. Russell, polymer science and engineering, was recently honored by the Neutron Scattering Society of America with its highest honor, the Clifford G. Shull Prize in Neutron Science, for "his pivotal role in the application of neutron reflectivity and small-angle neutron scattering to polymer science and his important work on behalf of the neutron scattering community. (umass.edu)
  • The units composing polymers derive, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass. The term was coined in 1833 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius , though with a definition distinct from the modern IUPAC definition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The problem with having the standard mol block parser set an isPolymer flag by default is that code expecting 'normal' molecules would always have to check it in order to ensure that they aren't getting polymers. (mail-archive.com)
  • A polymer is a molecule that is created by combining other molecules through condensation reactions. (reference.com)
  • The Intertek plastics and composites testing laboratory provides fast turnaround on plastic and composite sample testing and reporting, using state-of-the-art composite, plastics and polymers testing instrumentation. (intertek.com)
  • The laboratory services a wide range of industries using plastics and polymers, including consumer, electronics, aerospace, automotive, building products and many other clients. (intertek.com)
  • Because chemical reactions break down the polymer, earlier versions were slow and able to survive only a few cycles. (technologyreview.com)
  • Stereoregular Polymers and Stereospecific Polymerizations, Volume 2 covers the reactions and physico-chemical properties of various polymers. (elsevier.com)
  • Like lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids are linked together through condensation reactions and broken apart through hydrolysis (water-absorbing) reactions, making them polymers as well. (reference.com)
  • I interviewed at Ingenia Polymers in July 2014. (glassdoor.com)
  • I interviewed at Ingenia Polymers (Houston, TX) in March 2012. (glassdoor.com)
  • I interviewed at Ingenia Polymers (Houston, TX) in August 2012. (glassdoor.com)
  • Developer salaries at Ingenia Polymers can range from $62,091-$67,287. (glassdoor.com)
  • This estimate is based upon 1 Ingenia Polymers Developer salary report(s) provided by employees or estimated based upon statistical methods. (glassdoor.com)
  • Looking beyond Ingenia Polymers? (glassdoor.com)
  • Polymers and Plastics are synonymous in many applications and everyday things. (rsc.org)
  • This book summarizes the present state of knowledge on a number of inorganic polymers with respect to their potential biomedical applications. (springer.com)
  • Projects focused on processing, manufacturing, transport, engineering, devices, or applications of polymers are generally more suitable for programs in the NSF Engineering Directorate. (nsf.gov)
  • Edible polymers have appeared as a substitute for synthetic plastic for food applications and have received significant attention in recent years because of their advantages over synthetic polymer. (hindawi.com)
  • The MCP line of synthetic emulsion polymers will be marketed and supported through the C.A.S.E division (Coatings, Adhesives, Sealants, and Elastomers) of Azelis Canada, expanding the current product offering of specialty water-based resin technology to these industry segments as well as other applications in the Construction, Specialty Textiles, Printing and Packaging markets. (prweb.com)
  • The polymer ecovio has already been able to prove itself in applications such as organic waste bags and agricultural films. (basf.com)
  • Recently, several major research programs in collaboration with the faculty of Biomedical Engineering Department and of Medical School have also been launched to apply the bioabsorbable/biocompatible polymers for medical applications, drug delivery and tissue engineering. (stonybrook.edu)
  • To bridge the gap from the underlying structure and kinetics of polymers to their respective applications via processing, we use advanced experimental, theoretical, and numerical methods. (tue.nl)
  • We live surrounded by polymers and today, rather than come up with new polymers, there is a tendency to modify them in order to obtain new applications. (eurekalert.org)
  • There is no doubt that conjugated polymers will continue to find new applications that will be of interest in various research fields. (mdpi.com)
  • Scientists believe that with this similarity to natural motion, electroactive polymers could revolutionize robotics and biomedical devices. (technologyreview.com)
  • Designing Safer Polymers is an indispensable working resource for polymer scientists and engineers, as well as corporate decision makers working in the polymer and chemical industries. (wiley.com)
  • There were 35 posters presented and 17 lecturers from young polymer scientists from the UK. (google.com)
  • Scientists from a US university have a created a new super stretchy, self-healing polymer that could lead to the creation of artificial muscle. (innovateuk.org)
  • DNA-based straight and branched polymers or nanomaterials that can be created and dissolved using biocompatible methods are now possible thanks to the work of US biomedical engineers. (innovateuk.org)
  • John Chalmers (VS Consulting, UK) is one of the leading IR spectroscopists in the field of polymers. (wiley.com)
  • For published work of particular merit in the field of polymers. (iom3.org)
  • Our RAFT polymerisation process enables the production of polymers that are designed with enhanced properties for a myriad of uses across health, industry and agriculture. (www.csiro.au)
  • Our experts can advise on formulation development, competitor material deformulation, comparative analysis of blends, regulatory submission data requirements and how polymer additives relate to performance. (intertek.com)
  • Products that we use in everyday life, from shampoo, paint and contact lenses to smartphones, toys and sunscreen, contain polymers. (www.csiro.au)
  • By improving the boundary conditions for polymer movement inside the pore, researchers demonstrated a significant increase in total time in the pore compared to earlier models. (redorbit.com)
  • But researchers in academia and industry have found ways to make the polymers stronger, more robust, and more efficient. (technologyreview.com)
  • Within 10 years, researchers aim to develop artificial limbs that provide feedback to the user, graceful autonomous robots that are powered by musclelike polymers, and even suits that enhance the strength and endurance of soldiers and rescue personnel. (technologyreview.com)
  • Researchers from Brazil, the UK and the US are coming together to work on an important global problem: effective recycling of polymers to keep their carbon in the manufacturing loop. (bath.ac.uk)
  • It aims to provide a meeting ground for researchers who daily encounter problems related to polymers and who welcome opportunities to share their discoveries in a most expeditious manner. (springer.com)
  • Several years ago, MIT researchers were the first to measure certain types of these defects, called "loops," which are caused when a chain in the polymer network binds to itself instead of another chain. (eurekalert.org)
  • To achieve this, the researchers simply add one of the components of the polymer network very slowly to a large quantity of the second component. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this paper, the researchers first focused on a type of polymer structure known as a star polymer network. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sandia researchers Alan Burns and Darryl Sasaki had characterized the responsiveness of two-dimensional films of these polymers to local stresses and temperature changes. (sandia.gov)
  • Researchers "connected the dots" in an electron microscope image of a polymer mixture (bottom) to show the first example of a polymer quasicrystal-an ordered pattern that never repeats (top). (aps.org)
  • Digital tools to address the unique needs of polymer producers, enabling them to reduce operating costs, optimize production, and get new polymers to market faster. (aspentech.com)
  • We, Sarvam polymers, are one of the distinguished manufacturers, suppliers and exporters of adhesives and binders. (slideshare.net)