Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Polyethylene: A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Bisacodyl: A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Laxatives: Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Fecal Impaction: Formation of a firm impassable mass of stool in the RECTUM or distal COLON.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Pharmaceutic Aids: Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Barbital: A long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice for central nervous system depression.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Tissue Adhesives: Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Cellulose, Oxidized: A cellulose of varied carboxyl content retaining the fibrous structure. It is commonly used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for normal blood coagulation.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Blood Substitutes: Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Senna Extract: Preparations of Cassia senna and C. angustifolia (see SENNA PLANT). They contain sennosides, which are anthraquinone type CATHARTICS and are used in many different preparations as laxatives.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Picolines: A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Succinimides: A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Simethicone: A poly(dimethylsiloxane) which is a polymer of 200-350 units of dimethylsiloxane, along with added silica gel. It is used as an antiflatulent, surfactant, and ointment base.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Polynucleotide Ligases: Catalyze the joining of preformed ribonucleotides or deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes. EC 6.5.1.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.ChymotrypsinogenCross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.DimethylformamidePhosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lespedeza: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Orbital Implants: Rounded objects made of coral, teflon, or alloplastic polymer and covered with sclera, and which are implanted in the orbit following enucleation. An artificial eye (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) is usually attached to the anterior of the orbital implant for cosmetic purposes.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Biological Processes: Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Plasticizers: Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Genes, araC: Regulatory genes which encode a cyclic AMP receptor protein required for L-arabinose utilization in E. coli. It is an example of positive control or regulation of gene expression in the bacterial operon.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Ostreidae: A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Emulsifying Agents: SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Butylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Magnesium Hydroxide: An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.

Stabilization of poly-L-lysine/DNA polyplexes for in vivo gene delivery to the liver. (1/6763)

We are developing a self-assembling non-viral in vivo gene delivery vehicle based on poly-l-lysine and plasmid DNA. We have characterized poly-l-lysines of different chain lengths for DNA condensation and strength of DNA binding. Poly-l-lysine chains >20 residues bound DNA efficiently in physiological saline, while shorter chains did not. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid to PLL increased the PLL chain length required for efficient DNA binding in saline and for efficient DNA condensation. By electron microscopy, poly-l-lysine/DNA polyplexes appeared as toroids 25-50 nm in diameter or rods 40-80 nm long; conjugation of asialoorosomucoid to the polylysine component increased the size of resulting polyplexes to 50-90 nm. In water, poly-l-lysine and asialoorosomucoid-PLL polyplexes have effective diameters of 46 and 87.6 nm, respectively. Polyplexes containing only poly-l-lysine and DNA aggregated in physiological saline at all charge ratios and aggregated at neutral charge ratios in water. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid lessened, but did not eliminate, the aggregation of PLL polyplexes, and did not result in efficient delivery of polyplexes to hepatocytes. Conjugation of polyethylene glycol to poly-l-lysine sterically stabilized resulting polyplexes at neutral charge ratios by shielding the surfaces. For efficient in vivo gene delivery, polyplexes will need to be sterically stabilized to prevent aggregation and interaction with serum components.  (+info)

Partial purification and properties of porcine thymus lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase. (2/6763)

Porcine thymus lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase was purified by a simple procedure. In the final step of isoelectric focusing the enzyme was separated into two peaks of pI 6.3 (peak I) and 7.0 (peak II), which showed 3,600- and 4,000-fold enhancement of lactosylceramide-hydrolysing activity, respectively. The two peaks had identical mobility on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The apparent molecular weight was 34,000. Neither monosialoganglioside (GM1) nor galactosylceramide was hydrolysed by the purified enzyme fractions. The optimal pH was at 4.6, and sodium taurocholate was essential for the reaction. The apparent Km was 2.3 x 10-5 M. The reaction was stimulated by sodium chloride and linoleic acid, while it was strongly inhibited by Triton X-100 and bovine serum albumin. Galactosylceramide, p-nitrophenyl beta-galactoside, and p-nitrophenol were weak inhibitors. No effects of GM1 and galactose were observed on the hydrolysis of lactosylceramide.  (+info)

Further studies on the mechanism of adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipid micelles. (3/6763)

Lipase [EC 3.1.1.3] depleted lipid micelles, in which lipolysis was not elicited by adrenaline, were prepared from lipid micelles. When these lipase-depleted lipid micelles incubated with adipose tissue extract containing lipase activity, adrenaline-induced lipolysis was restored to almost the same level as that of native lipid micelles. Adrenaline-induced lipolysis was not restored when the lipase-depleted lipid micelles were homogenized or sonicated. Various tissue extracts from kidney, lung, liver, and pancreas, and post-heparin plasma, which contained lipase activity, restored adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipase-depleted lipid micelles.  (+info)

A lipid modified ubiquitin is packaged into particles of several enveloped viruses. (4/6763)

An anti-ubiquitin cross-reactive protein which migrates more slowly (6.5 kDa) by SDS-PAGE than ubiquitin was identified in African swine fever virus particles. This protein was extracted into the detergent phase in Triton X-114 phase separations, showing that it is hydrophobic, and was radiolabelled with both [3H]palmitic acid and [32P]orthophosphate. This indicates that the protein has a similar structure to the membrane associated phosphatidyl ubiquitin described in baculovirus particles. A similar molecule was found in vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus particles, suggesting that it may be a component of uninfected cell membranes, which is incorporated into membrane layers in virions during morphogenesis.  (+info)

Structural and functional consequences of antigenic modulation of red blood cells with methoxypoly(ethylene glycol). (5/6763)

We previously showed that the covalent modification of the red blood cell (RBC) surface with methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) [mPEG; MW approximately 5 kD] could significantly attenuate the immunologic recognition of surface antigens. However, to make these antigenically silent RBC a clinically viable option, the mPEG-modified RBC must maintain normal cellular structure and functions. To this end, mPEG-derivatization was found to have no significant detrimental effects on RBC structure or function at concentrations that effectively blocked antigenic recognition of a variety of RBC antigens. Importantly, RBC lysis, morphology, and hemoglobin oxidation state were unaffected by mPEG-modification. Furthermore, as shown by functional studies of Band 3, a major site of modification, PEG-binding does not affect protein function, as evidenced by normal SO4- flux. Similarly, Na+ and K+ homeostasis were unaffected. The functional aspects of the mPEG-modified RBC were also maintained, as evidenced by normal oxygen binding and cellular deformability. Perhaps most importantly, mPEG-derivatized mouse RBC showed normal in vivo survival ( approximately 50 days) with no sensitization after repeated transfusions. These data further support the hypothesis that the covalent attachment of nonimmunogenic materials (eg, mPEG) to intact RBC may have significant application in transfusion medicine, especially for the chronically transfused and/or allosensitized patient.  (+info)

Enhancement of endocytosis due to aminophospholipid transport across the plasma membrane of living cells. (6/6763)

Formation of intracellular vesicles is initiated by membrane budding. Here we test the hypothesis that the plasma membrane surface area asymmetry could be a driving force for vesicle formation during endocytosis. The inner layer phospholipid number was therefore increased by adding exogenous aminophospholipids to living cells, which were then translocated from the outer to the inner layer of the membrane by the ubiquitous flippase. Addition of either phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylethanolamine led to an enhancement of endocytosis, showing that the observed acceleration does not depend on the lipid polar head group. Conversely, a closely related aminophospholipid that is not recognized by the flippase, lyso-alpha-phosphatidylserine, inhibited endocytosis, and similar results were obtained with a cholesterol derivative that also remains in the plasma membrane outer layer. Thus an increase of lipid concentration in the inner layer enhanced internalization, whereas an increase of the lipid concentration in the outer layer inhibited internalization. These experiments suggest that transient asymmetries in lipid concentration might contribute to the formation of endocytic vesicles.  (+info)

The pharmacokinetics of artemisinin after administration of two different suppositories to healthy Vietnamese subjects. (7/6763)

Eight healthy Vietnamese male subjects received 400 mg artemisinin formulated into fatty suppositories (FS), and six different subjects received 500 mg of artemisinin formulated in polyethylene glycol suppositories (PEGS). Plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection; concentration versus time curves were analyzed with nonparametric methods. No statistically significant differences were found between the two formulations. The maximum concentration (Cmax) was 100 +/- 102 microg/L (mean +/- SD, range = 24-330) microg/L (FS), the pharmacokinetic lag time (Tlag) was 1.3 +/- 1.0 hr (range = 0-3) (FS), and the time of the maximum concentration (Tmax) was 7.1 +/- 2.1 hr (range = 3-10) hr (FS). Because artemisinin is not available for intravenous dosage, absolute bioavailability cannot be assessed. However, compared with a previous study on oral artemisinin in healthy Vietnamese subjects, bioavailability relative to oral administration was estimated to be approximately 30%. We conclude that therapeutic blood concentrations of artemisinin can be reached after rectal dosage. The dose after rectal administration should probably be higher than after oral administration; doubling or tripling the oral dose might be necessary, which would imply a rectal dose of at least 20 mg/kg of body weight given twice a day.  (+info)

Opposite behavior of two isozymes when refolding in the presence of non-ionic detergents. (8/6763)

GroEL has a greater affinity for the mitochondrial isozyme (mAAT) of aspartate aminotransferase than for its cytosolic counterpart (cAAT) (Mattingly JR Jr, Iriarte A, Martinez-Carrion M, 1995, J Biol Chem 270:1138-1148), two proteins that share a high degree of sequence similarity and an almost identical spatial structure. The effect of detergents on the refolding of these large, dimeric isozymes parallels this difference in behavior. The presence of non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 or lubrol at concentrations above their critical micelle concentration (CMC) interferes with reactivation of mAAT unfolded in guanidinium chloride but increases the yield of cAAT refolding at low temperatures. The inhibitory effect of detergents on the reactivation of mAAT decreases progressively as the addition of detergents is delayed after starting the refolding reaction. The rate of disappearance of the species with affinity for binding detergents coincides with the slowest of the two rate-limiting steps detected in the refolding pathway of mAAT. Limited proteolysis studies indicate that the overall structure of the detergent-bound mAAT resembles that of the protein in a complex with GroEL. The mAAT folding intermediates trapped in the presence of detergents can resume reactivation either upon dilution of the detergent below its CMC or by adding beta-cyclodextrin. Thus, isolation of otherwise transient productive folding intermediates for further characterization is possible through the use of detergents.  (+info)

Export Data And Price Of Methoxypolyethylene Glycol , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of Methoxypolyethylene Glycol Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India Methoxypolyethylene Glycol Export data. You can find previous two days Methoxypolyethylene Glycol Export data on Eximpulse Services. Methoxypolyethylene Glycol Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for Methoxypolyethylene Glycol Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accelerated blood clearance phenomenon upon repeated injection of peg-modified pla-nanoparticles. AU - Ishihara, Tsutomu. AU - Takeda, Miho. AU - Sakamoto, Haruka. AU - Kimoto, Ayumi. AU - Kobayashi, Chisa. AU - Takasaki, Naoko. AU - Yuki, Kanae. AU - Tanaka, Ken Ichiro. AU - Takenaga, Mitsuko. AU - Igarashi, Rie. AU - Maeda, Taishi. AU - Yamakawa, Naoki. AU - Okamoto, Yoshinari. AU - Otsuka, Masami. AU - Ishida, Tatsuhiro. AU - Kiwada, Hiroshi. AU - Mizushima, Yutaka. AU - Mizushima, Tohru. PY - 2009/10/1. Y1 - 2009/10/1. N2 - Purpose: We recently developed prostaglandin E1 (PGE 1)-encapsulated nanoparticles, prepared with a poly(lactide) homopolymer (PLA, Mw∈=∈17,500) and monomethoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)- PLA block copolymer (PEG-PLA) (NP-L20). In this study, we tested whether the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon is observed with NP-L20 and other PEG-modified PLA-nanoparticles in rats. Methods: The plasma levels of PGE 1 and anti-PEG IgM antibody were determined ...
We have explored the concept of using the bacterial enzyme thiaminase to disrupt energy metabolism in cancer. To optimize the biological and pharmacologic properties of this enzyme, we studied the effects of modifying it with the addition of linear polyethylene glycol chains of various sizes, a common technique that can increase plasma retention time and reduce immunogenicity of foreign proteins. Figure 1 demonstrates that the protein was successfully modified by these PEG chains of various lengths. For most of the subsequent studies we focused on the intermediate, 5k-PEG modified thiaminase enzyme in comparison with native enzyme.. We initially hypothesized that thiaminase worked through an extracellular mechanism of action, by catabolizing extracellular thiamine and causing acute thiamine starvation. Indeed, Fig. 2 shows that both native and 5k-PEG thiaminase are very potent in the catabolism of thiamine, achieving a 100-fold reduction of thiamine in medium at concentrations of 0.0001 ...
Pegylated interferon alpha 2b is used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection,chronic hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection,multiple myeloma(blood cancer),follicular lymphoma,hairy cell leukemia.get complete information about pegylated interferon alpha 2b including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with pegylated interferon alpha 2b at 1mg.com
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email protected] Recommended for excipient applications, topical creams, lotions, personal care products, and solid oral dose. Polyethylene Glycol 6. Product Information Table of contents 3 4 6 Introduction. Polyethylene Glycol 8000, NF acts as a lubricant, coating the surfaces in aqueous and non-aqueous environments. It is also used to empty the bowels before a colonoscopy. MiraLAX Laxative Powder for Gentle Constipation Relief, #1 Dr. Polyethylene glycol 6,000. polyethylene glycol standard set mp 400-40000 polyethylene glycol, diglycidyl bisphenol a polymer polyethylene glycol/polyethylene oxide standard readycal set mp 500-2740000. chemBlink provides information about CAS # 9005-08-7, Polyethylene glycol distearate, AM 112, AM 113, Atmer 122, Atmer 123, Atmos 150, Atmul 124, Atmul 67, Atmul P. After a short sample clean-up, carbon-oxygen linkages were partially cleaved with 0. National regulations Germany AwSV/VwVwS Annex reference : Water hazard class (WGK) 1, slightly hazardous to water ...
The present invention provides a long circulating non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride composition for parenteral administration and a process for its preparation. The circulation time in Swiss albino mice is at least 25 times longer than conventional non-liposomal formulations. The non-pegylated liposomes are stable, exhibit low toxicity and have been found to be efficacious in different tumor models.
Source Text: English CARBOWAX Polyethylene Glycols (PEGs) and CARBOWAX Methoxypolyethylene Glycols (MPEGs) are a family of watersoluble linear polymers formed by the addition reaction of ethylene oxide to an ethylene glycol equivalent. The general formula for polyethylene glycol is: H-(OCH2CH2)n-OH and for methoxypolyethylene glycol: CH3-(OCH2CH2)n-OH where "n" is the average number of repeating oxyethylene groups. […]. Read More. ...
Page contains details about doxorubicin-loaded phospholipid-polyethylene glycol-modified oxidized single-walled nanotubes . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
heparin drug combination ethyleneglycol monosalicylate escin: combination of aescin, heparin & ethyleneglycol monosalicylate used in topical treatment of edema, hematoma
Under the trade name Mircera, Roche Pharmaceuticals received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 2008 to market a continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator (methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta) for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease, including in those undergoing dialysis.[1] (Patent disputes between Amgen, which owns several patents relating to recombinant EPO variants, and Roche are blocking distribution of Mircera in the U.S. This issue appears to have been resolved since Fresenius Medical dialysis clinics in the US are now administering this drug.) Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta had been approved by the European Commission in August 2007, and was made available in Europe at the start of 2008.. In terms of its structure, Mircera is similar to the previous synthetic EPO drugs, except that it is connected to a chemical called polyethylene glycol (PEG), which makes it last longer in the body. According to Roche, the ...
Export Data And Price Of Polyethylene Glycol , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of Polyethylene Glycol Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India Polyethylene Glycol Export data. You can find previous two days Polyethylene Glycol Export data on Eximpulse Services. Polyethylene Glycol Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for Polyethylene Glycol Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have names of Indian companies and Foreign ...
Table of Contents for Global Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol (MPEG) Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 by Global Info Research Available at market-research-reports.com.
Doctors give trusted answers on uses, effects, side-effects, and cautions: Dr. Weisberger on methoxy polyethylene glycol epoetin beta dosage: It depends on clinical scenario . Metoprolol for instance is twice per day unless is long acting metoprolol succinate. Digoxin is once per day. The rest of drugs varies.
Press Release issued Dec 8, 2016: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is one of the most frequently used non-ionic polymers in polymer-based drug delivery and other bioactivities. Since polyethylene glycol has high aqueous solubility, it is considered for pro-drug conjugation. This appreciative status and use of PEGlycation technology in biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications has led to many progressive steps in the medical field. The existent scientific literature testifies for the various applications of polymers derived from polyethylene glycol (PEGs). The collective experience surrounding this material and relief provided by governing authorities around the world regarding its usage will lead to its increased usage in many medical device applications and drugs, which in turn will expand the market for polyethylene glycol in research and development areas. Better opportunities are predicted for the polyethylene glycol market in a range of applications such as diagnostics areas and drug development,
This is an open-label (all the people know the identity of the intervention), single arm (study will be conducted in a single group) clinical study, to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of TMC435 along with pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PegIFNα-2a) and ribavirin (RBV) triple therapy in adult chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype-1 infected patients who are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1). The study consists of 3 phases, screening phase (Week -6), treatment phase, and a follow-up phase (up to 24 weeks). In the treatment phase, patients will be classified based on their experience with previous hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment as follows: 1) HCV treatment-naive (patients who never received medication for the treatment of HCV); 2) prior HCV relapsers (patients who received at least 24 weeks of a PegIFNα-2a and RBV-based therapy and relapsed within 1 year after the last medication intake); and 3) prior HCV non-responders (can be further classified as, null ...
This is an open-label (all the people know the identity of the intervention), single arm (study will be conducted in a single group) clinical study, to evaluate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of TMC435 along with pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PegIFNα-2a) and ribavirin (RBV) triple therapy in adult chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype-1 infected patients who are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1). The study consists of 3 phases, screening phase (Week -6), treatment phase, and a follow-up phase (up to 24 weeks). In the treatment phase, patients will be classified based on their experience with previous hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment as follows: 1) HCV treatment-naive (patients who never received medication for the treatment of HCV); 2) prior HCV relapsers (patients who received at least 24 weeks of a PegIFNα-2a and RBV-based therapy and relapsed within 1 year after the last medication intake); and 3) prior HCV non-responders (can be further classified as, null ...
In the interest of creating readily transfusable blood, we have developed a method of covalently bonding methoxy polyethylene gylcol (mPEG) to the erythrocyte membrane to mask antigens which would otherwise cause immunorejection in unmatched blood tr
Sustained Virological Response to Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b (PegIntron) with or without Ribavirin Predicts Continued Response through 5 Years Sustained virological response (SVR), or continued undetectable HCV viral load 24 weeks after completion of interferon-based therapy, is widely regarded as a cure for chronic hepatitis C.. As reported at the recent Digestive Disease Week 2008 conference in San Diego, Karen Lindsay and an international team of colleagues conducted a study to confirm whether SVR predicts long-term (, 5 years) HCV clearance in adults treated with pegylated interferon, as has already been demonstrated for conventional interferon.. The present analysis included 567 adult chronic hepatitis C patients from 2 previously published clinical trials (Lindsay et al, Hepatology 2001, 34:395-403; Manns et al, Lancet 2001, 358:958-965) who were treated with pegylated interferon alfa-2b (PegIntron) with or without ribavirin.. Participants completed the initial 24 weeks of follow-up and ...
Cooksley et al 2003 is an open-label trial, which assessed the efficacy and safety of different doses of peginterferon alfa-2a vs. interferon alfa-2a 4.5 MIU for 24 weeks of therapy followed by 24 weeks of treatment-free follow up in 194 interferon-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B. There was a non-significant higher incidence of serious adverse events in the peginterferon alfa-2a 180μg/week group (8.6%) as compared with interferon 4.5 MIU /three times a week group (4%). The most common causes of SAEs were gastrointestinal disorders and infections. There was no difference in virologic or immunologic outcomes (such as loss of DNA or seroconversion) between peginterferon alfa-2a 180μg/wk and interferon alfa-2a 4.5 MIU group. The basis of choosing 180μg/week dose as the recommended dose is not clear since the efficacy in terms of surrogate outcome measures did not differ among the different peginterferon regimens (90, 180 and 270μg/week) and the number of patients who required dose ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Injectable cartilage using polyethylene oxide polymer substrates. AU - Sims, C. Derek. AU - Butler, Peter E.M.. AU - Casanova, Rene. AU - Lee, Betty T.. AU - Randolph, Mark A.. AU - Lee, W. P.Andrew. AU - Vacanti, Charles A.. AU - Yaremchuk, Michael J.. PY - 1996/10. Y1 - 1996/10. N2 - This study demonstrates that polyethylene oxide gels, which are biocompatible and biodegradable synthetic polymers, can be utilized for the encapsulation of isolated chondrocytes and maintenance of three-dimensional spatial support for new tissue development. Chondrocytes isolated from the glenohumeral and humeroradioulnar joints of a calf were added to a 20% polyethylene oxide solution in Hams F-12 medium to generate a final cellular density of 10 x 106/ml. The polymer-chondrocyte constructs were injected through a 22-gauge needle in 500-μl aliquots subcutaneously in 12 nude mice and incubated for 6 and 12 weeks in vivo. Histologic and biochemical analyses including deoxyribonucleic acid and ...
Polyethylene Glycol,Polyethylene glycol,Polyethylene glycol. Polyethylene glycol ( PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications, from industrial
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As not all patients achieve a sustained response with the standard duration of interferon-based therapy, a current focus of research is to identify ways of increasing the post-treatment response rate to peginterferon alfa-2a. Early studies have shown that additional benefits can be obtained by HBeAg-negative patients when the duration of conventional interferon therapy is extended beyond 1 year.6,7 A pilot study highlighted that the advantages of extension therapy initially observed with conventional interferon were also apparent following treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a.8 It is possible that the pattern of HBsAg decline during treatment may help identify patients for whom extended therapy should be ...
The 24-week analysis from this ongoing 48-week phase IIb clinical trial in treatment-naive HCV patients included data from the following five randomized treatment arms, all involving dosing regimens of valopicitabine, administered once-daily, in combination with pegylated interferon alfa-2a (Pegasys) 180 _g per week: (A, n=34) pegylated interferon beginning on day 8 plus valopicitabine ramping from 400 mg to 800 mg beginning at day 29-32, followed by dosing at 800 mg; (B, n=34) valopicitabine 200 mg beginning on day 1 plus pegylated interferon beginning on day 8; (C, n=34) valopicitabine ramping from 400 mg to 800 mg from day 1-6, followed by dosing at 800 mg plus pegylated interferon beginning on day 8; (D, n=36) valopicitabine 800 mg beginning on day 1 plus pegylated interferon beginning on day 8; and (E, n=35) valopicitabine 800 mg plus pegylated interferon, both beginning on day 1 ...
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Life-threatening and fatal neuropsychiatric reactions may occur with peginterferon alfa-2b use, including suicide, suicidal ideation, homicidal ideation and depression.. Depression was reported by 59% of patients in clinical trials. Post-marketing neuropsychiatric reactions have also been reported, including hallucinations, psychosis, aggression, bipolar mania and encephalopathy. Patients taking peginterferon alfa-2b should be advised to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider, and providers should monitor their patients for these symptoms. Suicidal or homicidal ideation should result in immediate discontinuation of peginterferon alfa-2b.). Additional serious adverse events associated with peginterferon alfa-2b treatment include:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Steric stabilization of poly-L-lysine/DNA complexes by the covalent attachment of semitelechelic poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide]. AU - Oupicky, David. AU - Howard, Kenneth A.. AU - Koňák, Čestmír. AU - Dash, Philip R.. AU - Ulbrich, Karel. AU - Seymour, Leonard W.. PY - 2000/7/1. Y1 - 2000/7/1. N2 - The concept of steric stabilization was utilized for self-assembling polyelectrolyte poly-L-lysine/DNA (pLL/DNA) complexes using covalent attachment of semitelechelic poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] (pHPMA). We have examined the effect of coating of the complexes with pHPMA on their physicochemical stability, phagocytic uptake in vitro, and biodistribution in vivo. The coated complexes showed stability against aggregation in 0.15 M NaCl and reduced binding of albumin, chosen as a model for the study of the interactions of the complexes with plasma proteins. The presence of coating pHPMA had no effect on the morphology of the complexes as shown by transmission ...
1.Previous studies have indicated that the permeability of polyethyleneglycol across the human intestine is anomalously high in comparison with the permeability of sugars with similar molecular mass. In consequence it has been proposed that two or more distinct mechanisms must exist for the translocation of these classes of molecule or, alternatively, that the molecular parameter determining rate of penetration is each molecules minimum molecular dimension.. 2.The notional hydrogen-bonding capacity of a molecule correlates well with oil-water partition coefficient and also, in a variety of experimental systems, with rate of passive diffusion across biological membranes. A molecules hydrogen-bonding capacity is calculated by inspecting the structural formula and summing the individual theory-derived hydrogen-bonding capacities of the molecules functional groups.. 3.A classic set of intestinal permeability data that includes several ethyleneglycol oligomers and several sugars is re-analysed. A ...
Materials and cell culture. 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, N-hexanoyl-d-erythro-sphingosine (C6), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy polyethylene glycol-2000], N-octanoyl-sphingosine-1-[succinyl(methoxy polyethylene glycol-750)] (PEG(750)-C8), N-[6-[(7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl]-d-erythro-sphingosine (NBD-C6), and N,N-dimethyl-d-erythro-sphingosine (DMSph) were purchased from Avanti Polar Lipids (Alabaster, AL). N-hexanoyl-d-erythro-sphingosine [hexanoyl 6-3H] ([3H]C6) was obtained from ARC (St. Louis, MO). Primary antibodies to caveolin-1 and CD31 were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA) and BD PharMingen (San Jose, CA), respectively. Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG and rhodamine red-X-conjugated goat anti-rat IgG secondary antibodies were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology and Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, Inc. (West Grove, PA), ...
Protein PEGylation (covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) or PEG to proteins) is an excellent example of a drug delivery system that improves pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic properties of therapeutics. However, although PEGylation is clinically proven and attracts both scientific and commercial interest, the technique is associated with many process constraints, in particular related to controlling the number of conjugated PEG chains. A novel, solid-phase PEGylation methodology was attempted to overcome the drawbacks of the commonly used solution-phase methods for preparing PEGylated products. The solid-phase PEGylation methodology involved conjugating protein onto a tethered PEG derivative attached onto a solid matrix, followed by hydrolytic cleavage of the PEG chain from the solid matrix under mild conditions to yield PEGylated protein in free solution. PEGs with molecular weights (MWs) 2000 and 4000 Da were used and a heterobifunctional PEG derivative, α-(β-alanine)-ω-carboxy ...
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Abstract The purpose of this review article is to describe the properties and applications of polyethylene oxide. Polyethylene oxide is a biocompatible polymer, which is marketed as
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ClinicalTrials.gov summary of Structured Treatment Interruptions With or Without Pegylated Interferon Alpha for HIV-Infected Patients After Prolonged Viral Suppression
To evaluate the safety and the efficacy of low dose and long term Peg-Interferon alpha-2a treatment after curative ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.
About SODIUM LAURETH-13 CARBOXYLATE: Sodium Laureth-13 Carboxylate is a sodium salt of the carboxylic acid derived fromLaureth-13 (q.v.).. Function(s): Surfactant - Cleansing Agent. Synonym(s): .ALPHA.- (CARBOXYMETHYL) -.OMEGA.- (DODECYLOXY) POLY (OXY-1,2-ETHANEDIYL) , SODIUM SALT; DODECYLOXYPOLY (ETHYLENEOXY) ACETIC ACID SODIUM SALT; LAURETH-13 CARBOXYLIC ACID, SODIUM SALT; PEG-13 LAURYL ETHER CARBOXYLIC ACID, SODIUM SALT; POLY (OXY-1,2-ETHANEDIYL) , .ALPHA.- (CARBOXYMETHYL) -.OMEGA.- (DODECYLOXY) -, SODIUM SALT; POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (13) LAURYL ETHER CARBOXYLIC ACID, SODIUM SALT; POLYOXYETHYLENE (13) LAURYL ETHER CARBOXYLIC ACID, SODIUM SALT; SODIUM SALT LAURETH-13 CARBOXYLIC ACID; SODIUM SALT PEG-13 LAURYL ETHER CARBOXYLIC ACID; SODIUM SALT POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (13) LAURYL ETHER CARBOXYLIC ACID; SODIUM SALT POLYOXYETHYLENE (13) LAURYL ETHER CARBOXYLIC ACID. ...
The website is about Creative PEGWorks supplies a unique collection of biopolymers, including polyethylene glycol, PEG derivatives, PEGylation reagents, polysaccharides, PEGylated polymers, and fluorescent and biotinylated polymers.
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CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Biogen Idec (NASDAQ: BIIB) today announced enrollment of the first patient in a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PEGylated interferon beta-1a (BIIB017) in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). The trial, called ADVANCE, will determine the efficacy of PEGylated interferon beta-1a in reducing relapse rates in patients with RMS.
68610-16-2 - Phosphorodithioic acid, mixed O,O-diesters with polyethylene glycol monodecyl ether and polyethylene glycol monooctyl ether - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
This prospective observational study will investigate predictive values of virological response in pegylated interferon alfa-2a (Pegasys)/ribavirin (Copegus)
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Polyethylene glycol (PEG). Polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyoxyethylene (POE). Ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide. - ... Polyethylene glycol (PEG) A linear polyether, e.g. used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. ... Polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG) or Polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG). Polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF). Acid-catalyzed ring- ... The term glycol is reserved for low to medium range molar mass polymer when the nature of the end-group, which is usually a ...
Silica and polyethylene glycolEdit. Silica nano-particles are dispersed in a solution of polyethylene glycol. The silica ...
propylene glycol. *PEG-4 (polyethylene glycol). *sodium lauryl sulfate. *sodium metabisulfite. *BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene)- ...
Polyethylene glycol coated, pitted mesoporous carbon. 17 May 2009. University of Waterloo[19]. 1,110 mA⋅h/g after 20 cycles at ...
Polyethylene glycol was chosen as the polymer. A team of Davis, Theodorus Van Es, Nicholas C. Palczuk, and Abraham Abuchowski ... Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera) - PEGylated form of erythropoietin to combat anemia associated with chronic ... is the process of both covalent and non-covalent attachment or amalgamation of polyethylene glycol (PEG, in pharmacy called ... "Alteration of immunological properties of bovine serum albumin by covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol". The Journal of ...
Polyethylene glycol p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-phenyl ether. *Octyl phenol ethoxylate ... 4O)n) is a nonionic surfactant that has a hydrophilic polyethylene oxide chain (on average it has 9.5 ethylene oxide units) and ... owing to the hydrogen bonding of its hydrophilic polyethylene oxide parts. Undiluted Triton X-100 has a viscosity of about 270 ... ethylene glycol, ethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethylene dichloride, but unless a coupling agent like oleic ...
"Microscopic Dynamics of Polyethylene Glycol Chains Interacting with Silica Nanoparticles". Physical Review Letters. 110 (17): ... Lang, X.Y.; Zhang, G.H.; Lian, J.S.; Jiang, Q. (2006). "Size and pressure effects on glass transition temperature of poly ( ...
Kawai F, Kimura T, Tani Y, Yamada H, Ueno T & Fukami H (1983). "Identification of reaction-products of polyethylene-glycol ... Other names in common use include polyethylene glycol dehydrogenase, and alkan-1-ol:(acceptor) oxidoreductase. This enzyme ... 1985). "Identification of the prosthetic group and further characterization of a novel enzyme, polyethylene-glycol ...
Polyethylene glycol is used to fuse adjacent plasma membranes, but the success rate is low, so a selective medium in which only ... Polyethylene glycol-mediated cell fusion. Methods Mol Biol. 2006; 325:59-66. National Research Council (US) Committee on ...
The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) causes fusion without significant aggregation or biochemical disruption. This ... Pannuzzo, Martina; Jong, De; Djurre, H.; Raudino, Antonio; Marrink Siewert, J. (2014). "Simulation of polyethylene glycol and ... A DNA hairpin composed of 5 base pair stem and poly-thymidine loop that is labeled with a donor (Cy3) and an acceptor (Cy5) at ... We separately encapsulated multiple unlabeled poly-adenosine DNA strands in the t-SNARE vesicle. If the two vesicles, both ~100 ...
... is a silicone-based brake fluid (contains at least 70% by weight of a diorgano polysiloxane). Unlike polyethylene glycol ...
Polyethylene glycols are more commonly used in practical applications. These ligands encapsulate alkali metal cations ( ...
mono-ethylene glycol, di-ethylene glycol and other poly-ethylene glycols) get unavoidably produced. Thus, in-order to prevent ... Among glycols, ethylene glycol is used as antifreeze, in the production of polyester and polyethylene terephthalate (PET - raw ... Most ethylene oxide is used for synthesis of ethylene glycols, including diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol, that ... Ethylene oxide in presence of water can hydrolyze to ethylene glycol and form poly ethylene oxide which then eventually gets ...
Rogers, Robin D.; Andrew H. Bond; Debra M. Roden (1996). "Structural Chemistry of Poly (ethylene glycol). Complexes of Lead(II ... For example, combining lead nitrate and pentaethylene glycol (EO5) in a solution of acetonitrile and methanol followed by slow ...
The copolymer with PET is known as glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate, PETG. PETG is used in many fields, including ... It is one of the most important comonomers for production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), or polyethylene terephthalic ... The properties of the polyesters vary from the high melting crystalline poly(1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate), PCT, ... to the non-crystalline copolyesters derived from both ethylene glycol and CHDM. The properties of these polyesters also is ...
The lipid shell is also covered with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) layer. PEG prevents microbubble aggregation and makes the ...
Transferrin-polyethylene glycol liposomes Boronated sugars. aThe delivery agents are not listed in any order that indicates ...
Immersing flowers in glycerol or polyethylene glycol also lengthens lifespan. Xerochrysum 'Dargan Hill Monarch' was a natural ...
This second aqueous phase contains e.g. polyethylene glycol (PEG). On the one hand, a low density difference and low ...
Cserr HF, Cooper DN, Suri PK, Patlak CS (1981). "Efflux of radiolabeled polyethylene glycols and albumin from rat brain". Am J ...
If laxatives are used, milk of magnesia or polyethylene glycol are recommended as first-line agents due to their low cost and ... Lee-Robichaud H, Thomas K, Morgan J, Nelson RL (7 July 2010). "Lactulose versus Polyethylene Glycol for Chronic Constipation". ... In cases of chronic constipation, polyethylene glycol appears superior to lactulose. Prokinetics may be used to improve ...
Silica nano-particles are dispersed in a solution of polyethylene glycol. The silica particles provide a high strength material ...
Osmotic laxatives such as polyethylene glycol are preferred. Individuals prone to DIOS tend to be at risk for repeated episodes ...
Patel SS, Benfield P (Jun 1996). "New drug profile: pegaspargase (Polyethylene Glycol L-Asparaginase)". Clinical ...
"Preparation and Characterization of Imidacloprid Lignin-Polyethylene Glycol Matrices Coated with Ethylcellulose". Journal of ...
... humectant Polyethylene glycol 8000 - antifoaming agent Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids - emulsifier Polyglycerol ... humectant Propylene glycol alginate - thickener, vegetable gum, stabilizer, emulsifier Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids ... 8] Prune kernel oil - marketed as a gourmet cooking oil [9] Poly vinyl pyrrolidone - Polydextrose - ... preservative Oxidised polyethylene wax - humectant Oxidised starch - thickener, vegetable gum Oxystearin - antioxidant, ...
Polyethylene Glycol 3350: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Take polyethylene glycol 3350 exactly as directed.. Polyethylene glycol 3350 may be habit-forming. Do not take a larger dose, ... Before taking polyethylene glycol 3350,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to polyethylene glycol or any ... Polyethylene glycol 3350 is used to treat occasional constipation. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is in a class of medications called ...
About POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL: PEG-7 is a polymer of ethylene oxide.. Function(s): Humectant; Solvent ...
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a biocompatible, synthetic, hydrophilic polyether compound that has many applications, mostly in ... What is Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)?. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/What-is-Polyethylene-Glycol-(PEG ... Characteristics of polyethylene glycol. While varying the molecular weight of PEG can have slight effects on its ... Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a biocompatible, synthetic, hydrophilic polyether compound that has many applications, mostly in ...
Polyethylene Glycols - From absorption bases to zeolites, functional chemicals play a vital role in household and personal ...
Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES): learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on ... Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) comes as a powder to mix with water and take by mouth. Certain PEG-ES ... Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a colonoscopy ( ... Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES). pronounced as (pol ee eth i leen) (glye col) ...
... Li Yang,1 Xiao Wang,2 Tao Gan,3 Yiping Wang,3 and Jinlin Yang3 ... To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of different dosages of polyethylene glycol in patients undergoing capsule endoscopy, we ... Our review indicated that 4 L and 2 L polyethylene (PEG) before capsule endoscopy (CE) and 500 mL PEG after CE increase the ... performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials involving polyethylene glycol in preparation for ...
... polyethylene glycol 3350 - Answer: It is best not to mix any medicine with milk - any other drink is ok. ... ... Home › Q & A › Questions › Can polyethylene glycol be.... Can polyethylene glycol be mixed with milk?. Asked. 25 Apr 2010 by ... Polyethylene Glycol 3350 Information for Consumers. *Polyethylene Glycol 3350 Information for Healthcare Professionals ( ... polyethylene glycol 3350. Details:. My 14 month daughter has to take this to help her go to the bathroom,she dont always drink ...
Learn about polyethylene glycol 3350 side effects, how to take polyethylene glycol 3350 and more. ... Before taking polyethylene glycol 3350,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to polyethylene glycol or any ... Take polyethylene glycol 3350 exactly as directed.. Polyethylene glycol 3350 may be habit-forming. Do not take a larger dose, ... Polyethylene glycol 3350 is used to treat occasional constipation. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is in a class of medications called ...
Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) and Electrolytes. Title: Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) and ElectrolytesCategory: MedicationsCreated: 3/2/ ... Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) and Electrolytes. Title: Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) and ElectrolytesCategory: MedicationsCreated: 3/2/ ... polyethylene glycol 3350 (Miralax, Glycolax). Title: polyethylene glycol 3350 (Miralax, Glycolax)Category: MedicationsCreated: ... polyethylene glycol 3350 (Miralax, GoLytely). Title: polyethylene glycol 3350 (Miralax, GoLytely)Category: MedicationsCreated: ...
Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta is the active ingredient of a drug marketed by Hoffmann-La Roche under the brand name ... Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta is made from erythropoietin by chemically linking the N-terminal amino group or the Є- ... amino group of any lysine present in the protein with methoxy polyethylene glycol butanoic acid. The average molecular weight ...
Polyethylene glycol is produced by the interaction of ethylene oxide with water, ethylene glycol, or ethylene glycol oligomers ... Ethylene Glycol and its ethers are nephrotoxic if applied to damaged skin. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and related polymers (PEG ... Polyethylene oxide, or high-molecular weight polyethylene glycol, is synthesized by suspension polymerization. It is necessary ... Ethylene Propylene glycol Monoethylene glycol Diethylene glycol PEGylation PEG-PVA Lauryl methyl gluceth-10 hydroxypropyl ...
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
... crosslinkable polyethylene by first forming a blend, preferably a dry blend, of the antioxidant with a polyalkylene glycol (PAG ... The incorporation of thiobis phenolic antioxidant and PAG blend into polyethylene provides the PE with high oxidative induction ... and then mixing the blend with the polyethylene. ... the polyalkylene glycol is polyethylene glycol that has a ... Though the polyethylene glycol is preferred, other polyalkylene glycols or mixtures of polyalkylene glycols may be used instead ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Polyethylene Glycol-Electrolyte Solution (MoviPrep, Plenvu). Includes indications, proper use ... Polyethylene Glycol-Electrolyte Solution (MoviPrep, Plenvu). Generic Name: Polyethylene Glycol-Electrolyte Solution (MoviPrep, ... Polyethylene glycol 3350 and electrolytes (Advanced Reading). *Polyethylene glycol 3350, electrolytes, and ascorbic acid ( ... More about polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes. *Polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes Side Effects ...
PEGs (polyethylene glycols) is a term used to refer to a broad set of petroleum-based compounds that are frequently used in ...
Each lot is tested for bacterial and fungal contamination. Cytotoxicity testing is performed on NS-1 cells at a 40% w/v concentration. Cells must remain greater than 80% viable after exposure to PEG.
Find treatment reviews for Polyethylene Glycol 3350 from other patients. Learn from their experiences about effectiveness, side ... Showing 3 of 24 patient evaluations for Polyethylene Glycol 3350 Previous page 1 2 3 … 8 Next page ...
Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 1450 ATCC® 50-X™ freeze-dried 5 x 2 gm vials ...
... to Recover during the Forecast Period until 2025 - published on ... 2.1 Global Activated Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Production. 2.1.1 Global Activated Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Revenue 2013-2025. ... 3.2.2 Activated Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2013-2018). 3.3 Activated Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) ... 3.1 Activated Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Production by Manufacturers. 3.1.1 Activated Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Production by ...
Polyethylene glycol, or PEG, is an interesting molecule with uses beyond woodworking. Heres some info on the varieties on the ... Facts about PEG (Polyethylene Glycol). Polyethylene glycol, or PEG, is an interesting molecule with uses beyond woodworking. ... Ethylene glycol is an interesting molecule. Alone, it is antifreeze that most cars have in their radiator system. It is ... PEG 200 - PEG 8000 (the number refers to the number of ethylene glycol molecules tied together to make one molecule) are made ...
... ethylene glycol) is provided having of a linear or branched poly(ethylene glycol) backbone and at least one terminus linked to ... active moieties in a biologically active agent such as a protein or peptide thus forming conjugates between the activated poly( ... such as poly(propylene glycol) ("PPG"), copolymers of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol and the like; poly(vinyl alcohol) (" ... selected from the group consisting of poly(ethylene glycol), poly(propylene glycol), and copolymers of ethylene glycol and ...
This report studies Polyethylene Glycol Adhesive in Global market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, ... 5.2 China Polyethylene Glycol Adhesive Market Analysis. 5.2.1 China Polyethylene Glycol Adhesive Market Overview. 5.2.2 China ... 5.5 Japan Polyethylene Glycol Adhesive Market Analysis. 5.5.1 Japan Polyethylene Glycol Adhesive Market Overview. 5.5.2 Japan ... 5.6 India Polyethylene Glycol Adhesive Market Analysis. 5.6.1 India Polyethylene Glycol Adhesive Market Overview. 5.6.2 India ...
... polyethylene glycol 3350 powder, for solution), including warnings and precautions, directions, and the names of other drugs ...
... is a synthetic polymer produced via polymerization of ethylene oxide molecules to make joining units of ethylene glycol by an ... Polyethylene glycol (55 g/100g) + Polyethylene glycol 400 (45 g/100g). Cream. Topical. Biocellerex, Inc.. 2015-07-14. 2016-01- ... Polyethylene Glycol 3350 NF PEGyLAX. Polyethylene glycol (17 g/17g). Powder, for solution. Oral. Martin Ekwealor ... Polyethylene glycol. Accession Number. DB09287. Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Approved, Vet approved. Description. Polyethylene ...
Among these, poly- ethylene glycol coated nanoparticles were most effective in killing all the bacterial strains which includes ... Antibacterial Activities of Polyethylene Glycol, Tween 80 and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Coated Silver Nanoparticles in Normal and ... Consistence with that polyethylene glycol coated nanoparticles produced more intracellular reactive oxygen species in bacteria ... The minimum inhibitory concentration of polyethylene glycol coated silver nanoparticles was also less compared to the other two ...
  • PEGs (polyethylene glycols) is a term used to refer to a broad set of petroleum-based compounds that are frequently used in personaly care products and cosmetics as thickeners, solvents, softeners, and moisture-carriers, often in baby products i . (ecostore.co.nz)
  • PEGs and methoxypolyethylene glycols are manufactured by Dow Chemical under the tradename Carbowax for industrial use, and Carbowax Sentry for food and pharmaceutical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Source: "Safety assessment on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and their derivatives as used in cosmetic products," Toxicology and Preclinical Affairs, 2005. (truthinaging.com)
  • 1. An additive mixture comprising at least one thiobis phenolic antioxidant and at least one polyalkylene glycol (PAG) of a weight average molecular weight of at least 1,000. (google.ca)
  • Polyethylene glycol diacrylate is used to prepare photopolymerized hydrogels which are used as scaffolds for tissue regeneration and other biological applications. (alfa.com)
  • Nealey, P. F. Biochemically and topographically engineered poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels with biomimetic characteristics as substrates for human corneal epithelial cells. (alfa.com)
  • Some of the new experiments being done in the field of research & development such as the development of polyethylene glycol hydrogels which are used as adhesives for wound healing, wound closure, regenerative medicine tool with dopamine, tissue models and cell cultures will lead to opportunities for the polyethylene glycol market. (sbwire.com)
  • Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M) were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg) using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-VS). In a one-step microsphere formation process, fast ionotropic gelation yields spherical calcium alginate gel beads, which serve as a matrix for simultaneously but slowly occurring covalent cross-linking of the PEG-VS molecules. (epfl.ch)
  • Novel calcium alginate poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres (Ca-alg-PEG) were developed and evaluated as potentially suitable materials for cell microencapsulation. (epfl.ch)
  • Substances et méthodes interdites en permanence (en et hors compétition) Archived 2008-11-12 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • PEG 200 - PEG 8000 (the number refers to the number of ethylene glycol molecules tied together to make one molecule) are made by Dow and are known as Carbowax (TM). (woodweb.com)
  • A C1q-ELISA for the detection of immune complexes is described in which the sensitivity was increased by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG). (ajtmh.org)
  • The aim of this study was to compare urinary probe excretion and accuracy of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) assay and dual sugar assay in a double-blinded crossover study to evaluate probe excretion and the accuracy of both tests. (dovepress.com)
  • The radioimmunoprecipitation-polyethylene glycol assay with [ 125 I] anti- S. mansoni rabbit antibodies appeared as a sensitive and specific method to quantify CSA. (ajtmh.org)