Ethylene Glycol: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Polyethylene: A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Glycolates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Butylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)AcrylatesKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ethylene Dichlorides: Toxic, chlorinated, saturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. The latter is considerably more toxic. It has a sweet taste, ethereal odor and has been used as a fumigant and intoxicant among sniffers. Has many household and industrial uses.CyclopropanesProsthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Mechanical Phenomena: The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Rotaxanes: Complex compounds in which a dumbbell shaped molecule is encircled by a macrocycle. They are named after rota (wheel) and axis (axle). Notation with a prefix is used to indicate the number of interlocked components. They have potential use in NANOTECHNOLOGY. Rotaxanes have been made with CYCLODEXTRINS and CYCLIC ETHERS.Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Urolithiasis: Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.EthersPolyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ethyl EthersKeratolytic Agents: Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Testicular Diseases: Pathological processes of the TESTIS.Succinimides: A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bisacodyl: A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Glycolaldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of glycolaldehyde to glycolate, using NAD and NADP as COENZYMES.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.PrintingEquipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Immobilized Proteins: Proteins that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed. The immobilization of proteins allows their use in chemical reactions without being diluted by solvent.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Vitrification: The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.Saxifragaceae: The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Cyanoacrylates: A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Cells, Immobilized: Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Ethylene Chlorohydrin: Used as a solvent, in the manufacture of insecticides, and for treating sweet potatoes before planting. May cause nausea, vomiting, pains in head and chest, stupefaction. Irritates mucous membranes and causes kidney and liver degeneration.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.DimethylformamideDimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Kerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Capillary Action: A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Hyperoxaluria: Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Silver Nitrate: A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Avidin: A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
... of ethylene; 400,000 MT of propylene; 900,000 MT of polyethylene; 400,000 MT of polypropylene; 700,000 MT of ethylene glycol; ...
Rogers, Robin D.; Andrew H. Bond; Debra M. Roden (1996). "Structural Chemistry of Poly (ethylene glycol). Complexes of Lead(II ... For example, combining lead nitrate and pentaethylene glycol (EO5) in a solution of acetonitrile and methanol followed by slow ...
The waxworms metabolize polyethylene plastic films into ethylene glycol, a compound which biodegrades rapidly. This unusual ... In a test with a 28-day incubation period of these two strains of bacteria on polyethylene films, the films' hydrophobicity ... Waxworms have been identified for their potential to eat and digest polyethylene plastics. Waxworms are an ideal food for many ... Placed in a polyethylene shopping bag, approximately 100 Galleria mellonella waxworms consumed 92 milligrams (0.0032452 ounces ...
Vasilevskaya, VV; Khokhlov AR (1995). "Collapse of a Single DNA Molecule in Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Solutions". Journal of ... A particularly prominent example of a polymer possessing a coil-globule transition of interest in this area is that of Poly(N- ...
... it is the ester of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. It is an intermediate in the production of poly(ethylene ...
"Anomalous Sorption in Thin Films of Fluoroalkyl-Ended Poly(Ethylene Glycol)s". Langmuir. 18 (21): 8241-8245. doi:10.1021/ ... Surface Erosion Characteristics from Self-Assembly of Fluoroalkyl-Ended Poly(ethylene glycol)". Macromolecules. 34: 6409-6419. ... One notable quantum dot encapsulation technique involves utilizing a double fluoroalkyl-ended polyethylene glycol molecule (Rf- ...
... is a market leader in key products such as ethylene, ethylene glycol, methanol, MTBE and polyethylene. SABIC's wholly ... the second largest producer of ethylene glycol and methanol in the world, the third largest producer of polyethylene and ... Ethylene Oxide / Ethylene Glycol) Carbon black EPDM rubber HaloButyl Polybutadiene Rubber List of Saudi Arabian companies Saudi ... It is currently the second largest global ethylene glycol producer and is expected to top the list after the introduction of ...
Semi-synthetic resilin-based hydrogels, which incorporate poly(ethylene glycols), have also been reported. Deming, Timothy ( ...
... ethylene glycol, heroin, mannitol, methanol, phenobarbital, propylene glycol, thiourea, and urea in ether-anesthetized newborn ... For example, radiolabeled polyethylene glycol coated hexadecylcyanoacrylate nanospheres targeted and accumulated in a rat ... Brigger, I.; Morizet, J; Aubert, G; Chacun, H; Terrier-Lacombe, MJ; Couvreur, P; Vassal, G (December 2002). "Poly(ethylene ... Another, more promising approach, is the coating of polyalkylcyanoacrylate or poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles ...
... ethylene glycol). In order to perform this conjugation, a cyclooctyne functional motif is added to the poly (ethylene glycol) ... Poly(ethylene glycol) Conjugates." Biomacromolecules. 15: 2751-2759. Retrieved 3 May 2017.. ... It has been shown that ELPs can be synthetically conjugated to poly ( ...
"Highly extensible, tough, and elastomeric nanocomposite hydrogels from poly (ethylene glycol) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles ... ethylene glycol) methacrylates and clay". European Polymer Journal. 69: 472-482. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2015.03.072. Gaharwar ...
This is achieved by giving the patient large amounts of a polyethylene glycol solution. The osmotically balanced polyethylene ... This procedure is mainly used for liquid ingestions where activated charcoal is ineffective, e.g. ethylene glycol poisoning. ... However, charcoal is ineffective against metals such as sodium, potassium, and lithium, and alcohols and glycols; it is also ... glycol solution is not absorbed into the body, having the effect of flushing out the entire gastrointestinal tract. Its major ...
barbosa, Helder; Slater K.H, Nigel (3 August 2009). "Protein quantification in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) and ...
The poly(ethylene glycol)s can assemble with α-CDs to form a molecular necklace. Every two ethyleneoxy repeat units in poly( ... This is a classical example of "template threadings" which also explains why poly(ethylene glycol)s are not able to form ... For example, a "molecular necklace" assembled by α-cyclodextrins and polyethylene glycol (PEG) is insoluble in water and ... ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) can thread in one α-CD. The models confirm that the distance of form zig-zag structure of repeat units ...
One example of an end group is in the polymer poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate where the end-groups are circled. IUPAC ... An example of polyester is polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which is made from the monomers terephthalic acid and ethylene ... The schematic below demonstrates the immobilization of copolymers onto a gold surface as reported for poly(sodium 4- ... glycol. If one of the components in the polymerization is in excess, then that polymers functionality will be at the ends of ...
... polyarylates and copolymers with poly(ethylene glycol)". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 55 (4): 447-66. doi:10.1016/S0169-409X ... Low KC, Wheeler AP, Koskan LP (1996). Commercial poly(aspartic acid) and Its Uses. Advances in Chemistry Series. 248. ... Alexander L, Grierson D (October 2002). "Ethylene biosynthesis and action in tomato: a model for climacteric fruit ripening". ... acid is a small disubstituted cyclic amino acid that is a key intermediate in the production of the plant hormone ethylene. ...
PCEs are composed by a methoxy-polyethylene glycol copolymer (side chain) grafted with methacrylic acid copolymer (main chain ... ethylene glycol) side chains". Cement and Concrete Research. 29 (4): 251. doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.2008.01.007. Ferrari, L; ... The polyethylene oxide (PEO or MPEG) group affords a not uniform distribution of electron cloud, which gives a chemical ... "Synthesis and performance of methacrylic ester based polycarboxylate superplasticizers possessing hydroxy terminated poly( ...
... for example ethylene oxide polymerizes to give polyethylene glycol, also known as polyethylene oxide. Epoxides also undergo ... Thus, the epoxide of ethylene (C2H4) is ethylene oxide (C2H4O). Many compounds have trivial names, ethylene oxide is called " ... Its hydrolysis affords ethylene glycol. The reaction of epoxides with amines is the basis for the formation of epoxy glues and ... The epoxidation of ethylene involves its reaction of oxygen according to the following stoichiometry: 7 H2C=CH2 + 6 O2 → 6 ...
Tulchinsky, Michael (2014). "Poly ethers and process for making them". Siegfried Rebsdat, Dieter Mayer "Ethylene Glycol" in ... as it derives from the family of glycol ethers, and is a butyl ether of ethylene glycol. As a relatively nonvolatile, ... "Ethylene Glycol Mono-N-Butyl Ether". National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2014-03-26. Elskamp, Carl J. "2-Butoxyethanol ( ... It is often produced industrially by combining ethylene glycol and butyraldehyde in a Parr reactor with palladium on carbon. In ...
For example, dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol react to form polyethylene terephthalate and methanol, which is ...
... ethylene glycol), PVC (via vinyl chloride), and many polymers, such as polyethylene and polystyrene. Carbon and carbon-rich ... The process is used heavily in the chemical industry, for example, to produce ethylene, many forms of carbon, and other ... Pyrolysis is used to produce ethylene, the chemical compound produced on the largest scale industrially (>110 million tons/year ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Zimmermann, Heinz; Walz, Roland (2008). "Ethylene". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
PTTGC plans to build its own plants or expand production of products such as polyethylene, ethylene glycols and ethylene oxide ... The main products are ethylene, propylene, Mixed C4 and pyrolysis gasoline. PTTGC's refined petroleum products has a capacity ... The ethane cracker would process ethane extracted from the region's Marcellus and Utica Shale formations into ethylene, which ...
Use of a spacer molecule like poly(ethylene glycol) helps reduce the steric hindrance by the substrate in this case. Covalent ...
... precursor to ethylene glycol; to ethylbenzene, precursor to styrene; to various kinds of polyethylene; to ethylene dichloride, ... of ethylene is used to produce ethylene oxide, ethylene dichloride, ethylbenzene and polyethylene.[11] Most of the reactions ... Polyethylene consumes more than half of the world's ethylene supply. Polyethylene, also called polyethene, is the world's most ... Ethylene oxide is also hydrolyzed to produce ethylene glycol, widely used as an automotive antifreeze as well as higher ...
The moth's larvae break down polyethylene to ethylene glycol and a mass loss of 13% polyethylene over 14 hours has been ... The caterpillar of G. mellonella has attracted interest for its ability to eat and digest polyethylene plastic. In laboratory ... Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhao, Jiao; Jiang, Lei (2014-12-02). "Evidence of Polyethylene Biodegradation by Bacterial ... Bombelli, Paolo; Howe, Christopher J.; Bertocchini, Federica (2017-04-24). "Polyethylene bio-degradation by caterpillars of the ...
... with ethylene glycol as the byproduct (the ethylene glycol is recycled in production). ... terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol with water as a byproduct or the transesterification reaction between ethylene glycol and ... Polyethylene terephthalate (aka PET, PETE or the obsolete PETP or PET-P) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polyethylene_terephtalate&oldid=6892992" ...
Ethylene glycol ethyl ether; Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether; Glycol monoethyl ether; Oxitol; Plastiazan 60; Poly-Solv EE; 2- ... Ether monoethylique de lethylene-glycol; Ethyl glycol; Ethylethylene glycol; Etoksyetylowy alkohol; Glycol ethyl ether; ... Hydroxy ether; NCI-C54853; 2EE; EE solvent; EGEE; Ektasolve EE; Ethoxyethanol; Ethyl icinol; Glycol ether EE; Jeffersol EE; ...
... tetraethylene glycol monomethyl ether manufacturers & tetraethylene glycol monomethyl ether suppliers from China. ... diethylene glycol monobutyl ether. *glycol monobutyl ether. *glycol monoethyl ether. *poly ethylene glycol methyl ether ... Methyldiglycol Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether series Specification Specification Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl ether(EM) ... tetraethylene glycol monomethyl ether. All tetraethylene glycol monomethyl ether wholesalers & tetraethylene glycol monomethyl ...
... ethylene glycol) is provided having of a linear or branched poly(ethylene glycol) backbone and at least one terminus linked to ... active moieties in a biologically active agent such as a protein or peptide thus forming conjugates between the activated poly( ... selected from the group consisting of poly(ethylene glycol), poly(propylene glycol), and copolymers of ethylene glycol and ... An activated, substantially water soluble poly(ethylene glycol) is provided having of a linear or branched poly(ethylene glycol ...
... ethylene glycol) analytical standard, for GPC, 12,000; CAS Number: 25322-68-3; Synonym: PEG; Linear Formula: H(OCH2CH2)nOH; ... ethylene glycol), Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and PEG Solutions, Poly(ethylene glycol) and Poly(ethylene oxide), Polymer ... Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Selection Guide Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a synthetic, hydrophilic, biocompatible polymer with ... Food and Cosmetic Component Standards, Materials Science, PEG Analytical Standards for GPC, Poly ( ...
... ethylene glycol) 2-aminoethyl ether acetic acid products. View information & documentation regarding Poly(ethylene glycol) 2- ... Poly(ethylene glycol) 2-aminoethyl ether acetic acid, average Mn 3,500, ... Poly(ethylene glycol) 2-aminoethyl ether acetic acid, average Mn 2,100, ... Poly(ethylene glycol) 2-aminoethyl ether acetic acid, average Mn 1,100, ...
... ethylene glycol), average M.W. 600, ACROS Organics. 1L; Plastic bottle. ... Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Poly( ...
The polymers covered in this review include cellulosic derivatives, starch, guar, pectin, and poly(ethylene glycol). ... 6. Poly(ethylene glycol). Although not a polysaccharide, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a water-soluble polymer that is used in ... Poly(ethylene glycol) is also included because it is amenable to most of the same reactions. ... The polymers covered in this review include cellulosic derivatives, starch, guar, pectin, and poly(ethylene glycol). ...
... ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel as an injectable bone grafting scaffold, sodium methallyl sulphonate (SMAS) was ... Tan F, Xu X, Deng T, Yin M, Zhang X, Wang J. Fabrication of positively charged poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate hydrogel as a ... Protein diffusion in photopolymerized poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel networks. Biomed Mater. 2011;6:055006.CrossRefGoogle ... Fabrication of sulphonated poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate hydrogel as a bone grafting scaffold. ...
... ethylene glycol)s is reported and the influence of the polymeric support on the photoluminescence activity of the compounds is ... The immobilization of some coumarin derivatives on modified poly( ... ethylene glycol)s is reported and the influence of the ... Keywords: Poly(ethylene glycol); Photoluminescence; Coumarins; PEG-conjugation Poly(ethylene glycol); Photoluminescence; ... Evaluation of Photoluminescence Properties of Some Poly(ethylene glycol) - Supported Coumarin Derivatives. Graziella Tocco 1,* ...
Poly-. ethylene glycol. induced super-diffusivity in lipid. bilayer membranes Thibault Tabarin,a Aaron Martin,a Robert J. ... Poly-. ethylene glycol. induced super-diffusivity in lipid. bilayer membranes T. Tabarin, A. Martin, R. J. Forster and T. E. ...
Surface modification of nanoparticulate carriers with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) has emerged as a ... Self-association and micelle formation of biodegredable poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactid acid) amphiphilic di-block co- ... Target-specific cellular uptake of PLGA nanoparticles coated with poly(L-lysine)-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate conjugate. ... Target-specific cellular uptake of PLGA nanoparticles coated with poly(L-lysine)-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate conjugate. ...
Poly(ethylene glycol) methylether methacrylate (mPEG-MAc 10K). * Poly(ethylene glycol) methylether acrylate, MW 10000 (mPEG-Ac ... Poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether monomethacrylate (mPEG-MAc) / * Polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether monomethacrylate ( ... Polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether monomethacrylate (PEGMMA 200). * Polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether monomethacrylate ( ... Lei, J., Mayer, C., Freger, V. & Ulbricht, M. Synthesis and characterization of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate based ...
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is the most frequently used polymer to impar … ... Comparative stability studies of poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(ethylene glycol) brush coatings Biointerphases. 2012 Dec;7 ... Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is the most frequently used polymer to impart surfaces with such non-fouling properties. ... Among them, we previously investigated poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMOXA), a peptidomimetic polymer, and found that PMOXA shows ...
Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Diacrylate Home / Search All Products / Polymers / Functional / Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Diacrylate. ...
Cytotoxicity analysis of the MCF-7 cell line indicated that the IC(50) value of the noscapine-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)- ... Long-circulating poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted gelatin nanoparticles customized for intracellular delivery of noscapine: ... Noscapine-enveloped gelatin nanoparticles and poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted gelatin nanoparticles were constructed and ... Noscapine-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted gelatin nanoparticles can be developed as a promising therapeutic agent for the ...
Biocompatibility of poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels in the brain: an analysis of the glial response across space and time ... Poly(ethylene glycol) or PEG-based hydrogels provide a useful methodology for tissue engineering and the controlled-release of ...
This work discusses modifications including chitosan with attached cyclodextrin and poly(ethylene glycol), and the main ... This work discusses modifications including chitosan with attached cyclodextrin and poly(ethylene glycol), and the main ... Among the chitosan derivatives, cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan and poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted chitosan are excellent ... ethylene glycol)-grafted chitosan are excellent candidates for a range of biomedical, environmental decontamination, and ...
... ethylene glycol)-block-poly(glutamate sodium) (PEG114-PGlu64) via electrostatic interactions (with PGlu) and hydrogen bonding ( ... Kanamycin A, an amino modified sugar, can interact with poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(glutamate sodium) (PEG114-PGlu64) via ... Complete dissociation and reassembly behavior as studied by using poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(glutamate sodium) and ... Complete dissociation and reassembly behavior as studied by using poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(glutamate sodium) and ...
... and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. AMT was found to interact with PVP more ... Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry*. Povidone / chemistry*. Scattering, Radiation*. Sodium Compounds / chemistry. Solutions. ... 0/Bromides; 0/Polyethylene Glycols; 0/Sodium Compounds; 0/Solutions; 50-48-6/Amitriptyline; 7647-15-6/sodium bromide; 9003-39-8 ... and poly(ethylene glycol) ( ...
Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M) were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium ... alginate (Na-alg) using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol) ( ... Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol) Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation Mahou, Redouan ; Meier, Raphael P. H. ; ... Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M) were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium ...
... Dånmark, ... By conjugating JR2E to hyaluronic acid and the EKIV-polypeptides to star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol), respectively, highly ... were conjugated to star-shaped 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The different PEG-coiled coil conjugates self-assemble as a ...
... ethylene glycol)-poly(gamma-benzyl L-glutamate) (PEG-PBLG-Ac) block copolymers was performed in aqueous solution at 298.15 K ... An all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of a spherical micelle composed of amphiphilic N-acetylated poly( ... All-atom molecular dynamics study of a spherical micelle composed of N-acetylated poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(gamma-benzyl L- ... An all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of a spherical micelle composed of amphiphilic N-acetylated poly(ethylene glycol)- ...
... and methoxy poly (ethylene glycol) (mPEG) onto chitosan, the copolymer was characterized and confirmed by 1H-NMR and FT-IR ... ethylene glycol)-O-chitosan- polyethylenimine(mPEG-O-CS-PEI), was synthesized by grafting polycationic polyethylenimine (PEI) ... A novel water-soluble chitosan (CS) derivative3methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-O-chitosan- polyethylenimine(mPEG-O-CS-PEI), was ... Synthesis and characterization of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-O-chitosan-polyethylenimine as a noviral carrier for gene ...
The partitioning of two proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and trypsin was studied in an aqueous poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)- ... The most widely used system for protein extraction has been the one consisting of dextran and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) ( ... Almeida, M. C.; Venâncio, A.; Teixeira, J. A. and Aires-Barros, M. R. (1998), Cutinase purification on poly(ethylene glycol)- ... Bovine serum albumin (BSA), trypsin and Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) 1500 were obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, Mo ...
  • 11. The method of claim 1 , wherein the polymer backbone is selected from the group consisting of linear or branched poly(alkylene oxide), linear or branched poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), linear or branched poly(vinyl alcohol), linear or branched polyoxazoline, and linear or branched poly(acryloylmorpholine). (google.com)
  • Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a synthetic, hydrophilic, biocompatible polymer with widespread use in biomedical and other applications. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is the most frequently used polymer to impart surfaces with such non-fouling properties. (nih.gov)
  • Among them, we previously investigated poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMOXA), a peptidomimetic polymer, and found that PMOXA shows excellent anti-fouling properties. (nih.gov)
  • Covalent attachment of the hydrophilic polymer, poly(ethylene glycol), commonly referred as PEG, to biologically active agents and surfaces has important applications in biotechnology and medicine. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Linear, side-chain methylated oligoglycerols (OGMe) were recently reported as potential surface passivating molecules for improving the protein resistance of cardiovascular application relevant poly(ether imide) (PEI) membranes. (iospress.com)
  • Disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (BPS) random copolymers have been used as membranes for purifying water and generating electricity. (elsevier.com)
  • Conjugation of a sequence containing the RGD motif to poly(allyl glycidyl ether) by the thiol-ene reaction, provided a conjugate which could be used in platelet adhesion studies. (rcsi.ie)
  • Partition coefficients are measured for five amino acids (aspartic acid, asparagine, methionine, cysteine and histidine) and two peptides (glycyl-glycine and hexa-glycine) in dextran + poly(ethylene glycol) + water aqueous two-phase system. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The partitioning of two proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and trypsin was studied in an aqueous poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)- Cashew-nut tree gum system. (scielo.br)
  • Alkayal N, Zapsas G, Bilalis P, Hadjichristidis N (2016) Self-assembly behavior of well-defined polymethylene-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers in aqueous solution. (edu.sa)
  • S.-T. Hsu, Y.L. Yao, Effect of film formation method and annealing on morphology and crystal structure of poly( l -lactic acid) films. (springer.com)
  • 2. The biodegradable elastomer of claim 1, wherein said pre-polymeric block is selected from the group consisting of a polymeric diol, an oligomeric diol, a polymeric poly-ol, an oligomeric poly-ol, a diacid, a polyacid, a multifunctionalized polyether, an alpha omega. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Here we show that it is possible to control the nonorthogonal peptides, designed to fold into four different coiled coil heterodimers with dissociation constants spanning from mu M to pM, were conjugated to star-shaped 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). (diva-portal.org)