Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
Fatty acid biopolymers that are biosynthesized by microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase enzymes. They are being investigated for use as biodegradable polyesters.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.
Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A gram-negative, facultatively chemoautotrophic bacterium, formerly called Wautersia eutropha, found in water and soil.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.
Infection with larvae of the blow fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Callitroga americanum), a common cause of disease in livestock in the southern and southwestern U.S.A.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
Propylene or propene polymers. Thermoplastics that can be extruded into fibers, films or solid forms. They are used as a copolymer in plastics, especially polyethylene. The fibers are used for fabrics, filters and surgical sutures.
Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).
Laundering in the medical field refers to the process of cleaning and disinfecting medical equipment and supplies to prevent the spread of infection.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE.
A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.
Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.
Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.
Surgical procedures undertaken to repair abnormal openings through which tissue or parts of organs can protrude or are already protruding.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

A clearance model of inhaled man-made fibers in rat lungs. (1/1075)

A clearance model of inhaled man-made fibers (MMFs) was developed, and the calculated fiber numbers and dimensions were compared with the experimental ones using a glass fiber (GF), ceramic fiber (RF1) and two potassium octatitanate whiskers (PT1, TW). If the translocation rate by macrophages is constant and the effect of dissolution and disintegration can be ignored, the fiber number is expected to decrease exponentially with time. In the experimental study, however, the fiber number did not always decrease exponentially. In the case of RF1, the fiber number decreased almost exponentially and the diameter decreased linearly with the time. The clearance rate constant of GF during 3 to 6 months after the end of one-month exposure was greater than that during 1 to 3 months. On the contrary, the clearance rate constants of PT1 and TW during 1 to 6 months were greater than next six months. The diameter and the length of GF did not change significantly. The fiber length of PT1 tends to become longer with time although the diameter did not change significantly. Our theoretical model gives a satisfactory fit to these experimental results.  (+info)

Metabolic engineering of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates): from DNA to plastic. (2/1075)

Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are a class of microbially produced polyesters that have potential applications as conventional plastics, specifically thermoplastic elastomers. A wealth of biological diversity in PHA formation exists, with at least 100 different PHA constituents and at least five different dedicated PHA biosynthetic pathways. This diversity, in combination with classical microbial physiology and modern molecular biology, has now opened up this area for genetic and metabolic engineering to develop optimal PHA-producing organisms. Commercial processes for PHA production were initially developed by W. R. Grace in the 1960s and later developed by Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., in the United Kingdom in the 1970s and 1980s. Since the early 1990s, Metabolix Inc. and Monsanto have been the driving forces behind the commercial exploitation of PHA polymers in the United States. The gram-negative bacterium Ralstonia eutropha, formerly known as Alcaligenes eutrophus, has generally been used as the production organism of choice, and intracellular accumulation of PHA of over 90% of the cell dry weight have been reported. The advent of molecular biological techniques and a developing environmental awareness initiated a renewed scientific interest in PHAs, and the biosynthetic machinery for PHA metabolism has been studied in great detail over the last two decades. Because the structure and monomeric composition of PHAs determine the applications for each type of polymer, a variety of polymers have been synthesized by cofeeding of various substrates or by metabolic engineering of the production organism. Classical microbiology and modern molecular bacterial physiology have been brought together to decipher the intricacies of PHA metabolism both for production purposes and for the unraveling of the natural role of PHAs. This review provides an overview of the different PHA biosynthetic systems and their genetic background, followed by a detailed summation of how this natural diversity is being used to develop commercially attractive, recombinant processes for the large-scale production of PHAs.  (+info)

Reduction of cell lysate viscosity during processing of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) by chromosomal integration of the staphylococcal nuclease gene in Pseudomonas putida. (3/1075)

Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are biodegradable thermoplastics which are accumulated by many bacterial species in the form of intracellular granules and which are thought to serve as reserves of carbon and energy. Pseudomonas putida accumulates a polyester, composed of medium-side-chain 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids, which has excellent film-forming properties. Industrial processing of PHA involves purification of the PHA granules from high-cell-density cultures. After the fermentation process, cells are lysed by homogenization and PHA granules are purified by chemical treatment and repeated washings to yield a PHA latex. Unfortunately, the liberation of chromosomal DNA during lysis causes a dramatic increase in viscosity, which is problematic in the subsequent purification steps. Reduction of the viscosity is generally achieved by the supplementation of commercially available nuclease preparations or by heat treatment; however, both procedures add substantial costs to the process. As a solution to this problem, a nuclease-encoding gene from Staphylococcus aureus was integrated into the genomes of several PHA producers. Staphylococcal nuclease is readily expressed in PHA-producing Pseudomonas strains and is directed to the periplasm, and occasionally to the culture medium, without affecting PHA production or strain stability. During downstream processing, the viscosity of the lysate from a nuclease-integrated Pseudomonas strain was reduced to a level similar to that observed for the wild-type strain after treatment with commercial nuclease. The nuclease gene was also functionally integrated into the chromosomes of other PHA producers, including Ralstonia eutropha.  (+info)

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) without subsequent degradation by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava. (4/1075)

A Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain was able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] having a high level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid monomer unit (4HB) from gamma-butyrolactone. In a two-step process in which the first step involved production of cells containing a minimum amount of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] and the second step involved polyester accumulation from the lactone, approximately 5 to 10 mol% of the 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) derived from the first-step culture was unavoidably reincorporated into the polymer in the second cultivation step. Reincorporation of the 3HB units produced from degradation of the first-step residual P(3HB) was confirmed by high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In order to synthesize 3HB-free poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(4HB)] homopolymer, a three-stage cultivation technique was developed by adding a nitrogen addition step, which completely removed the residual P(3HB). The resulting polymer was free of 3HB. However, when the strain was grown on gamma-butyrolactone as the sole carbon source in a synthesis medium, a copolyester of P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 45 mol% 3HB was produced. One-step cultivation on gamma-butyrolactone required a rather long induction time (3 to 4 days). On the basis of the results of an enzymatic study performed with crude extracts, we suggest that the inability of cells to produce 3HB in the multistep culture was due to a low level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4HBA) dehydrogenase activity, which resulted in a low level of acetyl coenzyme A. Thus, 3HB formation from gamma-butyrolactone is driven by a high level of 4HBA dehydrogenase activity induced by long exposure to gamma-butyrolactone, as is the case for a one-step culture. In addition, intracellular degradation kinetics studies showed that P(3HB) in cells was completely degraded within 30 h of cultivation after being transferred to a carbon-free mineral medium containing additional ammonium sulfate, while P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 5 mol% 3HB and 95 mol% 4HB was totally inert in interactions with the intracellular depolymerases. Intracellular inertness could be a useful factor for efficient synthesis of the P(4HB) homopolymer and of 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB) by the strain used in this study.  (+info)

Analyses of a polyhydroxyalkanoic acid granule-associated 16-kilodalton protein and its putative regulator in the pha locus of Paracoccus denitrificans. (5/1075)

The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) granule-associated 16-kDa protein (GA16 protein) of Paracoccus denitrificans was identified, and its corresponding gene was cloned and analyzed at the molecular level. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of GA16 protein revealed that its structural gene is located downstream from the PHA synthase gene (phaCPd) cloned recently (S. Ueda, T. Yabutani, A. Maehara, and T. Yamane, J. Bacteriol. 178:774-779, 1996). Gene walking around phaCPd revealed two new open reading frames (ORFs) possibly related to PHA synthesis, one of which was the phaPPd gene, encoding GA16 protein, and the other was the phaRPd gene, encoding a protein that is putatively involved in the regulation of the expression of phaPPd. Overproduction of PhaPPd was observed in Escherichia coli carrying phaPPd, but the overproduction was not observed in the presence of phaRPd. Coexpression of phaPPd and PHA biosynthesis genes in E. coli caused increases in both the number of poly-(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) granules and PHB content and caused decreases in both the size of the granules and the molecular weight of PHB. GA16 protein was considered a phasin protein. The phaRPd gene had significant similarities to stdC, a possible transcriptional factor of Comamonas testosteroni, as well as to other ORFs of unknown function previously found in other PHA-synthetic bacteria.  (+info)

Paracrine immunotherapy with interleukin-2 and local chemotherapy is synergistic in the treatment of experimental brain tumors. (6/1075)

Potent immune responses against malignant brain tumors can be elicited by paracrine intracranial (i.c.) immunotherapy with interleukin (IL)-2. Additionally, i.c. delivery of carmustine via biodegradable polymers has been shown to significantly prolong survival in both animal models and clinical trials. In this study, we show that the combination of paracrine immunotherapy, with nonreplicating genetically engineered tumor cells that produce IL-2, and local delivery of chemotherapy by biodegradable polymers prolongs survival in a synergistic manner in mice challenged intracranially with a lethal murine brain tumor. Animals receiving IL-2-transduced cells and polymers containing 10% 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea had significantly improved survival compared with animals receiving IL-2-transduced cells or 10% 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea alone. Median survival for the control group was 19 days. Survival in animals receiving IL-2-transduced cells and 1% carboplatin-containing polymers was also significantly improved compared with either therapy alone. Histopathological examination on day 14 of animals receiving combination treatment showed rare degenerating tumor cells. In addition to tissue necrosis surrounding the polymer, a marked inflammatory reaction was observed. In long-term survivors (all animals receiving combination treatment), no tumor was observed and the inflammatory reaction was completely resolved. The brains of animals receiving combination therapy showed both tissue necrosis due to local chemotherapy and strong inflammation due to paracrine immunotherapy. The demonstration of synergy between paracrine IL-2 and local i.c. delivery of antineoplastic drugs is novel and may provide a combined treatment strategy for use against both primary and metastatic i.c. tumors.  (+info)

Health hazards in the production and processing of some fibers, resins, and plastics in Bulgaria. (7/1075)

Results of the toxicological studies of working conditions, general and professional morbidity, and complex examinations carried out on workers engaged in the production of polyamides, polyacrylonitrile fibers, polyester fibers and poly (vinyl chloride) resin, urea-formaldehyde glue, glass fibre materials and polyurethane resins are given. An extremely high occupational hazard for workers in the production of poly (vinyl chloride) resin and porous materials from polyurethane resins and urea-formaldehyde glue has been established. Cases of vinyl chloride disease, poisoning from formaldehyde, isocyanates, and styrene were noted. Prophylactic measures were taken in Bulgaria to lessen the occupational hazard in the productions as set forth included limitation of the work day to 6 hr, free food, additional bonus and leave, and annual physical examinations of workers.  (+info)

Removal of endotoxin during purification of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from gram-negative bacteria. (8/1075)

Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) was produced by cultivating several gram-negative bacteria, including Ralstonia eutropha, Alcaligenes latus, and recombinant Escherichia coli. PHB was recovered from these bacteria by two different methods, and the endotoxin levels were determined. When PHB was recovered by the chloroform extraction method, the endotoxin level was less than 10 endotoxin units (EU) per g of PHB irrespective of the bacterial strains employed and the PHB content in the cell. The NaOH digestion method, which was particularly effective for the recovery of PHB from recombinant E. coli, was also examined for endotoxin removal. The endotoxin level present in PHB recovered by 0.2 N NaOH digestion for 1 h at 30 degrees C was higher than 10(4) EU/g of PHB. Increasing the digestion time or NaOH concentration reduced the endotoxin level to less than 1 EU/g of PHB. It was concluded that PHB with a low endotoxin level, which can be used for various biomedical applications, could be produced by chloroform extraction. Furthermore, PHB with a much lower endotoxin level could be produced from recombinant E. coli by simple NaOH digestion.  (+info)

In the medical field, "polyesters" typically refers to a class of synthetic polymers that are derived from petrochemicals or renewable resources such as vegetable oils. They are commonly used in medical applications due to their biocompatibility, durability, and versatility. One example of a polyester used in medicine is polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which is commonly used to make medical devices such as catheters, surgical sutures, and packaging for medical equipment. PET is a strong, lightweight, and flexible material that can be easily processed into various shapes and sizes. Another example of a polyester used in medicine is polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), which is used to make medical implants such as orthopedic screws and plates. PBT is a high-strength, heat-resistant material that can withstand the rigors of the human body. Overall, polyesters are a versatile class of materials that have a wide range of applications in the medical field, from packaging and sterilization to implantable devices and surgical instruments.

In the medical field, silver compounds refer to substances that contain silver as an active ingredient. Silver has been used in medicine for centuries due to its antimicrobial properties, which means it can kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Silver compounds are used in a variety of medical applications, including wound care, burn treatment, and the prevention of infections. Some common silver compounds used in medicine include silver sulfadiazine, silver nitrate, and silver chloride. Silver sulfadiazine is a cream or ointment that is commonly used to treat burns and other skin injuries. It contains silver ions that help to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms that can cause infections. Silver nitrate is a solution that is used to treat eye infections, such as conjunctivitis. It contains silver ions that help to kill bacteria and other microorganisms that can cause infections in the eye. Silver chloride is a powder that is used to treat wounds and other skin injuries. It contains silver ions that help to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms that can cause infections. Overall, silver compounds are an important tool in the medical field for preventing and treating infections. However, it is important to note that silver compounds can also have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It is always important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any medical treatment.

Polyethylene terephthalates (PET) are a type of plastic commonly used in medical devices and packaging. PET is a thermoplastic polymer that is formed by the condensation of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. It is known for its transparency, durability, and resistance to moisture and chemicals. In the medical field, PET is used to make a variety of products, including medical tubing, catheters, and containers for medical supplies. It is also used to make packaging for medical devices and pharmaceuticals, as it is lightweight, strong, and impermeable to gases and moisture. PET is also used in the production of medical implants, such as orthopedic implants and dental implants. It is a biocompatible material that is well-tolerated by the body and can be easily shaped and molded to fit the specific needs of a patient. Overall, PET is a versatile and widely used material in the medical field due to its many desirable properties, including its strength, durability, and biocompatibility.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers that are produced by various microorganisms, including bacteria and algae. In the medical field, PHAs are being studied for their potential use in a variety of applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds, and medical implants. PHAs are synthesized by microorganisms as a way to store excess carbon and energy. They are composed of repeating units of hydroxyalkanoic acids, which are linked together by ester bonds. The specific composition and properties of PHAs can vary depending on the microorganism that produces them and the conditions under which they are synthesized. One of the key advantages of PHAs is their biodegradability, which means that they can be broken down by the body or the environment over time. This makes them an attractive alternative to traditional synthetic polymers, which can persist in the environment for decades or even centuries. In the medical field, PHAs are being investigated for their potential use in drug delivery systems, where they can be used to encapsulate and release drugs over time. They are also being studied as potential tissue engineering scaffolds, where they can be used to support the growth and differentiation of cells. Additionally, PHAs are being explored as potential materials for medical implants, such as sutures and dental fillings, due to their biocompatibility and ability to be tailored to specific applications.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used to replace or repair damaged or diseased blood vessels. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, polyurethane, or silicone, and is designed to mimic the natural structure and function of the blood vessel it is replacing. Blood vessel prostheses are used in a variety of medical procedures, including coronary artery bypass surgery, where a blocked or narrowed coronary artery is bypassed with a synthetic vessel, and peripheral artery bypass surgery, where a blocked or narrowed artery in the legs is bypassed with a synthetic vessel. Blood vessel prostheses can also be used to treat aneurysms, where a weakened or bulging blood vessel is repaired with a synthetic vessel, and to treat venous insufficiency, where the valves in the veins are damaged and the blood flows backwards, causing swelling and discomfort. Blood vessel prostheses are typically inserted into the body through a small incision and are secured in place with stitches or clips. They are designed to be biocompatible, meaning that they are not rejected by the body's immune system, and are intended to last for many years.

Styrenes are a group of organic compounds that are widely used in the production of various plastics and resins. They are typically derived from the chemical reaction of benzene and ethylene, and are characterized by the presence of a benzene ring with a single ethyl group attached to it. In the medical field, styrenes are used in the production of medical devices and equipment, such as syringes, catheters, and medical tubing. They are also used in the production of medical packaging materials, such as plastic bags and containers. However, it is important to note that some styrenes, particularly styrene monomer, have been classified as potential human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to high levels of styrene can cause respiratory problems, skin irritation, and other health issues. Therefore, proper handling and disposal of styrene-containing materials are essential to minimize the risk of exposure.

Biocompatible materials are materials that are designed to interact with living tissues in a way that is safe and non-toxic. These materials are used in a variety of medical applications, including implants, prosthetics, and drug delivery systems. Biocompatible materials must be able to withstand the harsh conditions of the human body, including exposure to bodily fluids, enzymes, and bacteria. They must also be able to integrate with the surrounding tissue and promote healing, rather than causing inflammation or rejection. Some examples of biocompatible materials include metals such as titanium and stainless steel, polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene, and ceramics such as hydroxyapatite. These materials are often used in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and pacemakers. It is important to note that while a material may be biocompatible, it may not be suitable for all medical applications. The choice of material depends on a variety of factors, including the intended use of the device, the patient's individual needs and health status, and the specific requirements of the medical procedure.

In the medical field, plastics refer to a wide range of synthetic materials that are used to make medical devices, implants, and other equipment. These materials are typically lightweight, durable, and resistant to corrosion, making them ideal for use in medical applications. Plastics are used in a variety of medical devices, including catheters, syringes, surgical instruments, and prosthetic devices. They are also used to make medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and pacemakers. Plastics can be made from a variety of materials, including polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyurethane. These materials are chosen based on their specific properties, such as their strength, flexibility, and biocompatibility. It is important to note that not all plastics are safe for medical use, and some may even be toxic or cause adverse reactions in the body. Therefore, medical devices made from plastics must be carefully tested and regulated to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Polyurethanes are a class of polymers that are widely used in the medical field due to their unique properties, such as their flexibility, durability, and biocompatibility. They are typically used to make a variety of medical devices, including catheters, implants, and prosthetics. In the medical field, polyurethanes are often used to create materials that can mimic the properties of natural tissues, such as skin, cartilage, and bone. They can also be used to create materials that are more durable and resistant to wear and tear than natural tissues. Polyurethanes can be synthesized from a variety of starting materials, including diisocyanates, polyols, and catalysts. The properties of the resulting polyurethane can be tailored by adjusting the composition of the starting materials and the reaction conditions. Overall, polyurethanes are a versatile and useful material in the medical field, with a wide range of potential applications in the development of new medical devices and treatments.

In the medical field, waxes are substances that are used for a variety of purposes, including as a protective coating for skin, as a lubricant, and as a component in various medical devices and products. One common use of waxes in medicine is as a barrier cream or ointment, which is applied to the skin to prevent moisture loss and protect against friction and irritation. These creams and ointments are often used on the hands, feet, and other areas of the body that are prone to dryness and chapping. Waxes are also used in medical devices and products, such as catheters, surgical instruments, and dental fillings. In these applications, waxes are used to provide a smooth, non-stick surface that helps to reduce friction and prevent damage to the surrounding tissues. In addition to their practical applications, waxes have also been studied for their potential therapeutic effects. Some studies have suggested that certain types of waxes, such as beeswax and carnauba wax, may have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties that could be useful in the treatment of various medical conditions.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic polymer that is commonly used in the medical field due to its unique properties. It is a non-stick, non-toxic, and highly resistant material that is commonly used in medical implants, such as prosthetic joints, heart valves, and blood vessels. PTFE is also used in medical devices, such as catheters, guidewires, and endoscopes, due to its low friction and non-stick properties. It is also used in surgical instruments, such as scalpels and forceps, due to its durability and resistance to wear and tear. In addition to its use in medical devices, PTFE is also used in surgical implants, such as hernia patches and artificial ligaments, due to its biocompatibility and ability to withstand the rigors of the body. Overall, PTFE is a versatile material that has many applications in the medical field due to its unique properties, including its non-stick, non-toxic, and highly resistant nature.

Cupriavidus necator is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Burkholderiaceae. It is also known as Ralstonia eutropha and is commonly found in soil and water environments. In the medical field, Cupriavidus necator is not typically associated with human disease. However, it has been studied for its ability to produce biofuels and other valuable chemicals through metabolic engineering. Additionally, some strains of Cupriavidus necator have been found to produce antibiotics, such as cephamycin C, which may have potential applications in the treatment of bacterial infections.

Acyltransferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acyl group from one molecule to another. In the medical field, acyltransferases play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including fatty acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, and drug metabolism. One example of an acyltransferase enzyme is acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a carboxyl group from bicarbonate to acetyl-CoA, producing malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA is then used as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis. Another example of an acyltransferase enzyme is the cholesterol biosynthesis enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a hydrogen atom from NADPH to HMG-CoA, producing mevalonate. Mevalonate is then used as a substrate for the synthesis of cholesterol. In the field of drug metabolism, acyltransferases are involved in the metabolism of many drugs. For example, the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2C9 is an acyltransferase that is involved in the metabolism of several drugs, including warfarin and diazepam. Overall, acyltransferases play important roles in various metabolic pathways and are important targets for the development of new drugs and therapies.

Screw worm infection, also known as screwworm myiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the fly Cochliomyia hominivorax. The fly lays its eggs on the skin of mammals, including humans, and the larvae that hatch from the eggs burrow into the skin, causing painful sores and tissue damage. The infection is most commonly found in warm, humid climates and is more prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Treatment typically involves the use of insecticides to kill the flies and the larvae, as well as the use of antibiotics to prevent or treat secondary bacterial infections.

Hydroxybutyrates are a class of compounds that contain a hydroxybutyrate functional group. They are commonly used in the medical field as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including epilepsy, anxiety, and depression. Some examples of hydroxybutyrates include valproic acid, which is used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder, and diazepam, which is used to treat anxiety and seizures. Hydroxybutyrates are also used as dietary supplements to promote muscle growth and improve athletic performance.

Polypropylenes are a type of plastic material that is commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. They are made from the polymerization of propylene monomers and are known for their strength, durability, and resistance to chemicals and moisture. In the medical field, polypropylenes are used to make a wide range of products, including catheters, surgical instruments, prosthetic devices, and medical packaging. They are also used to make implants and other medical devices that are designed to be left in the body for an extended period of time. One of the key advantages of polypropylenes in the medical field is their biocompatibility. They are generally well-tolerated by the body and do not cause adverse reactions or inflammation. They are also easy to clean and sterilize, which makes them ideal for use in medical settings where hygiene is critical. Overall, polypropylenes are a versatile and widely used material in the medical field, thanks to their combination of strength, durability, and biocompatibility.

Mandelic acid is a naturally occurring organic compound that is classified as a phenol. It is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and alcohol. Mandelic acid is found in a variety of plants, including almonds, bitter almonds, and citrus fruits. In the medical field, mandelic acid is used as an ingredient in certain medications and cosmetic products. It has been found to have a number of potential therapeutic effects, including anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and antifungal properties. Mandelic acid is also used in the treatment of certain skin conditions, such as acne and rosacea, and it has been shown to be effective in reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Mandelic acid is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. It is important to follow the instructions on the label and to consult a healthcare professional before using mandelic acid or any other medication or cosmetic product.

Absorbable implants are medical devices that are designed to be absorbed or degraded by the body over time, rather than remaining in the body indefinitely. These implants are typically made from materials such as hydrogels, polymers, and metals that are biodegradable or resorbable, meaning that they can be broken down and absorbed by the body's natural processes. Absorbable implants are used in a variety of medical procedures, including orthopedic surgery, dental surgery, and plastic surgery. They are often used as temporary scaffolds to support tissue growth and healing, and are then gradually absorbed by the body as the tissue becomes stronger and more stable. Examples of absorbable implants include absorbable sutures, which are used to close wounds and incisions, and absorbable screws and plates, which are used to stabilize fractures and other bone injuries. Absorbable mesh implants are also used in plastic surgery to repair soft tissue damage, such as hernias or breast reconstruction. Overall, absorbable implants offer a number of advantages over traditional, non-absorbable implants, including reduced risk of complications, improved patient comfort, and faster recovery times. However, they may not be suitable for all medical procedures, and their use should be carefully considered by medical professionals based on the specific needs of each patient.

Prosthesis-related infections (PRIs) are infections that occur in or around medical devices, such as artificial joints, heart valves, or pacemakers. These infections can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, and can be difficult to treat because the bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics. PRIs can lead to serious complications, including the need for surgery to remove the infected device, and can be life-threatening in some cases. It is important for patients who have medical devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions for preventing infections and to seek medical attention immediately if they experience any signs or symptoms of infection.

In the medical field, polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units or monomers. Polymers are used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and medical devices. One common use of polymers in medicine is in drug delivery systems. Polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, allowing for more controlled and sustained release of the drug. This can help to improve the effectiveness of the drug and reduce side effects. Polymers are also used in tissue engineering, where they are used to create scaffolds for growing new tissue. These scaffolds can be designed to mimic the structure and properties of natural tissue, allowing cells to grow and differentiate into the desired tissue type. In addition, polymers are used in a variety of medical devices, including implants, prosthetics, and surgical sutures. For example, polymers can be used to create biodegradable implants that are absorbed by the body over time, reducing the need for additional surgeries to remove the implant. Overall, polymers play an important role in the medical field, providing a range of useful materials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical device applications.

Coated materials that are biocompatible are materials that have been designed and formulated to be safe and non-reactive with living tissues in the human body. These materials are typically used in medical devices, implants, and other medical applications where it is important to minimize the risk of adverse reactions or tissue damage. Biocompatible coatings are often applied to the surface of medical devices to improve their performance and reduce the risk of complications. For example, a biocompatible coating may be used to reduce friction and wear on an artificial joint, or to prevent corrosion and infection on an implant. To be considered biocompatible, a material must meet certain criteria, including being non-toxic, non-allergenic, and non-immunogenic. It must also be able to withstand the harsh conditions of the human body, including exposure to bodily fluids and enzymes. Overall, the use of biocompatible coated materials in the medical field is an important step in improving patient outcomes and reducing the risk of complications associated with medical devices and implants.

Sucrose is a disaccharide sugar that is commonly found in many foods and beverages, including fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages. In the medical field, sucrose is often used as a source of energy for patients who are unable to consume other sources of calories, such as solid foods. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. In some cases, sucrose may be used as a medication to treat certain medical conditions, such as low blood sugar levels. However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of sucrose can lead to weight gain and other health problems, so it should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

In the medical field, "Resins, Synthetic" refers to a group of synthetic polymers that are derived from petrochemicals or other organic compounds. These resins are used in a variety of medical applications, including as adhesives, coatings, and as components in medical devices. Some examples of synthetic resins used in the medical field include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polystyrene. These resins are often used to make medical devices such as catheters, tubing, and containers for medical supplies. Synthetic resins are also used in medical coatings to provide a barrier against bacteria and other microorganisms, as well as to improve the durability and performance of medical devices. For example, some medical implants are coated with synthetic resins to reduce the risk of infection and to improve their biocompatibility with the body. Overall, synthetic resins play an important role in the medical field by providing a range of useful properties and applications in the development and production of medical devices and supplies.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which a synthetic or biologic prosthesis is placed inside a blood vessel to replace or bypass a damaged or diseased section of the vessel. The prosthesis is typically made of materials such as polyester, silicone, or bovine jugular vein, and is designed to mimic the natural structure and function of the blood vessel it is replacing. The procedure is commonly used to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, and blocked or narrowed blood vessels. During the procedure, the surgeon makes a small incision in the skin and uses specialized instruments to access the blood vessel and implant the prosthesis. The procedure is typically performed under general anesthesia and may take several hours to complete. Recovery time and potential complications vary depending on the specific procedure and the individual patient.

In the medical field, cotton fiber refers to the natural filament that makes up the cotton plant. Cotton fibers are used in a variety of medical applications, including: 1. Surgical sutures: Cotton fibers are often used to make surgical sutures because they are biodegradable, non-toxic, and have good tensile strength. 2. Dressings: Cotton fibers are used in wound dressings because they are absorbent and can help to keep wounds clean and dry. 3. Bandages: Cotton fibers are used in bandages because they are soft and comfortable to wear, and can help to absorb excess moisture. 4. Gauze: Cotton fibers are used in gauze because they are lightweight, breathable, and can help to absorb excess moisture. 5. Medical textiles: Cotton fibers are used in a variety of medical textiles, including hospital gowns, surgical drapes, and isolation gowns. Overall, cotton fibers are a versatile and widely used material in the medical field due to their absorbency, biodegradability, and non-toxicity.

In the medical field, "nylons" typically refers to a type of synthetic fiber that is commonly used in the production of medical devices and equipment. Nylons are known for their strength, durability, and resistance to wear and tear, which makes them ideal for use in medical applications where these properties are important. For example, nylon is often used to make sutures, which are used to close incisions during surgery. It is also used to make catheters, which are tubes that are inserted into the body to drain fluids or administer medication. In addition, nylon is used to make a variety of other medical devices, such as prosthetic limbs, orthopedic braces, and surgical instruments. Overall, the use of nylon in the medical field has helped to improve patient outcomes by providing medical devices that are strong, durable, and reliable.

Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is a synthetic polymer that is commonly used in medical applications as a biodegradable scaffold for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It is a linear copolymer of glycolic acid, which is a naturally occurring monomer that is derived from renewable resources such as corn starch. PGA is typically produced through a chemical reaction that involves the polymerization of glycolic acid monomers in the presence of a catalyst. The resulting polymer has a high molecular weight and is hydrophilic, meaning that it is able to absorb and retain water. In the medical field, PGA is used in a variety of applications, including as a scaffold for tissue engineering, as a wound dressing, and as a carrier for drugs and other therapeutic agents. It is also used in medical devices such as sutures, staples, and absorbable pins. One of the key advantages of PGA is its ability to degrade over time, which allows it to be absorbed by the body and replaced by new tissue. This makes it an attractive material for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, where the goal is to create new tissue that can replace damaged or diseased tissue.

In the medical field, anhydrides refer to compounds that do not contain water molecules. Anhydrides can be found in various forms, including organic and inorganic compounds. One example of an anhydride in the medical field is acetylsalicylic acid, also known as aspirin. Aspirin is an organic anhydride that is commonly used as a pain reliever and anti-inflammatory medication. Another example of an anhydride in the medical field is sulfuric acid, which is an inorganic anhydride. Sulfuric acid is used in various medical applications, including as a preservative for vaccines and as a component in some medications. Overall, anhydrides play important roles in the medical field and are used in a variety of applications, from pain relief to vaccine preservation.

In the medical field, "Decanoates" refers to esters of decanoic acid, which is a fatty acid with a chain length of 10 carbon atoms. Decanoates are commonly used as parenteral (injectable) medications to deliver hormones or other drugs directly into the bloodstream. One example of a medication that is available as a decanoate ester is testosterone decanoate, which is used to treat conditions such as hypogonadism (low testosterone levels) in men. Testosterone decanoate is administered as an intramuscular injection and provides a sustained release of testosterone over several weeks. Other examples of medications that are available as decanoate esters include estradiol decanoate (used to treat hormone deficiency in women), and nandrolone decanoate (used to treat muscle wasting and osteoporosis). Decanoate esters are also used as a carrier for other drugs, such as growth hormone, which is often administered as a decanoate ester to provide a sustained release of the hormone over several days.

Biopolymers are large molecules made up of repeating units of smaller molecules called monomers. In the medical field, biopolymers are often used as biomaterials, which are materials that are designed to interact with biological systems in a specific way. Biopolymers can be used to create a wide range of medical devices, such as implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems. They can also be used as diagnostic tools, such as in the development of biosensors. Some examples of biopolymers used in medicine include proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides.

Silicones are a group of synthetic polymers that are widely used in various medical applications due to their unique properties, such as biocompatibility, chemical stability, and thermal stability. They are typically composed of silicon, oxygen, and carbon atoms, and can be further modified to include other elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and fluorine. In the medical field, silicones are used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Implants: Silicones are commonly used in medical implants such as breast implants, artificial joints, and heart valves due to their biocompatibility and durability. 2. Wound dressings: Silicones are used in wound dressings due to their ability to prevent bacterial growth and promote healing. 3. Drug delivery systems: Silicones are used in drug delivery systems such as microspheres and nanoparticles to improve the delivery of drugs to specific areas of the body. 4. Medical devices: Silicones are used in medical devices such as catheters, syringes, and endoscopes due to their non-stick properties and ability to reduce friction. 5. Cosmetics: Silicones are used in cosmetics such as lotions, creams, and shampoos due to their ability to provide a smooth and silky texture. Overall, silicones are a versatile and important material in the medical field due to their unique properties and wide range of applications.

I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any information on a medical term called "Caproates." It's possible that you may have misspelled the term or that it is not a commonly used term in the medical field. If you have any additional information or context, please let me know and I'll do my best to assist you.

Styrene is a colorless, flammable liquid that is commonly used in the production of various plastics and synthetic resins. It is not typically used in the medical field, as it is not considered to be biocompatible or safe for medical applications. However, styrene can be found in some medical devices and equipment, such as plastic syringes and medical-grade plastic tubing. In these cases, it is important to ensure that the styrene is not released into the body or environment, as it can be harmful if ingested or inhaled in large quantities.

Carboxylic ester hydrolases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic ester bonds. These enzymes are involved in a variety of biological processes, including the breakdown of fats and cholesterol in the body, the metabolism of drugs and toxins, and the regulation of hormone levels. In the medical field, carboxylic ester hydrolases are often studied in the context of diseases related to lipid metabolism, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. They are also important in the development of new drugs and therapies for these conditions, as well as for the treatment of other diseases that involve the metabolism of lipids and other molecules. Carboxylic ester hydrolases are classified into several different families based on their structure and function. Some of the most well-known families include the lipases, esterases, and amidases. Each family has its own specific set of substrates and catalytic mechanisms, and they are often regulated by different factors, such as hormones, enzymes, and cellular signaling pathways.

The abdominal wall is the outer layer of muscles and connective tissue that covers the abdominal cavity. It is composed of three layers: the superficial fascia, the rectus sheath, and the transversalis fascia. The abdominal wall serves as a protective barrier for the organs within the abdominal cavity and plays a role in supporting the trunk and maintaining posture. It also contains several muscles, including the rectus abdominis, external obliques, internal obliques, and transversus abdominis, which are responsible for movements such as breathing, digestion, and posture. Injuries or conditions that affect the abdominal wall can cause pain, weakness, and other symptoms.

Biodegradation, Environmental in the medical field refers to the process by which microorganisms break down and consume organic matter in the environment. This process is important in the management of medical waste, as it helps to reduce the amount of waste that is sent to landfills and reduces the risk of environmental contamination. Biodegradation can occur naturally, through the action of microorganisms in the environment, or it can be accelerated through the use of biodegradable materials or biodegradation agents. In the medical field, biodegradation is often used to dispose of medical waste, such as bandages, gauze, and other materials that are contaminated with bodily fluids or other potentially infectious materials.

Tissue adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that form between organs, tissues, or the abdominal wall after surgery or injury. These adhesions can cause pain, discomfort, and limit mobility. They are a common complication of surgery and can occur in any part of the body. Adhesions can also form after a traumatic injury, such as a car accident or a fall. In some cases, adhesions can be severe enough to cause infertility or bowel obstruction. Treatment options for tissue adhesions include medications, physical therapy, and surgery.

Pyrethrins are a group of natural insecticides derived from the flowers of the Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium plant. They are commonly used in household and agricultural insecticides due to their effectiveness against a wide range of insects, including mosquitoes, flies, ants, and spiders. Pyrethrins work by disrupting the nervous system of insects, causing paralysis and death. They are non-toxic to humans and most mammals, but can be harmful to fish and other aquatic organisms if they enter waterways. Pyrethrins are often combined with other chemicals, such as piperonyl butoxide, to increase their effectiveness and prolong their duration of action. However, prolonged exposure to pyrethrins can cause skin irritation and respiratory problems in some individuals.

In the medical field, hydroxy acids refer to a group of organic acids that contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group. These acids are commonly used in skincare products and are believed to have various benefits for the skin, such as exfoliating dead skin cells, improving skin texture and tone, and reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. The most commonly used hydroxy acids in skincare are alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) and beta-hydroxy acids (BHAs). AHAs include glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, and tartaric acid, while BHAs include salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide. AHAs work by breaking down the bonds between dead skin cells, allowing them to be easily removed and revealing smoother, brighter skin. BHAs, on the other hand, penetrate deeper into the skin and dissolve excess oil and dead skin cells in the pores, helping to unclog them and reduce the appearance of acne. While hydroxy acids can be effective in improving the appearance of the skin, they can also cause irritation and dryness if used improperly. It is important to follow the instructions on skincare products containing hydroxy acids and to start with a low concentration and gradually increase over time to avoid irritation.

Fatty acids are organic compounds that are composed of a long chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them. They are a type of lipid, which are molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Fatty acids are an important source of energy for the body and are also used to synthesize other important molecules, such as hormones and cell membranes. In the medical field, fatty acids are often studied in relation to their role in various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. They are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies.

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The 1980 Tefilin Polyesters season was the first season of the franchise in the Philippine Basketball Association (PBA). ...
Main applications are textile polyester, bottle polyester resin, film polyester mainly for packaging and specialty polyesters ... Natural polyesters and a few synthetic ones are biodegradable, but most synthetic polyesters are not. Synthetic polyesters are ... Also rubber-like polyesters exist, called thermoplastic polyester elastomers (ester TPEs). Unsaturated polyesters (UPR) are ... "polyester bees". The family of synthetic polyesters comprises Linear aliphatic high molecular weight polyesters (Mn >10,000) ...
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"Regurgitator - Polyester Girl". ARIA Top 50 Singles. Retrieved 4 October 2019. "Regurgitator - Polyester Girl". Top 40 Singles ... "Polyester Girl" peaked at No. 14 in Australia and No. 16 in New Zealand and it also ranked at No. 26 on Triple J's Hottest 100 ... Polyester Girl is said to be about a man "pledging fidelity to a sex doll." A "romantic trauma" occurs when the product breaks ... "Polyester Girl" is a song by Australian rock band Regurgitator. The song was released in May 1998 as the third single from the ...
... is the major label debut studio album by the American rock band Red Sun Rising. It was released on August 7, ... Polyester Zeal (booklet). Red Sun Rising. Razor & Tie. 2015. 7930183649-2.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV ... All tracks are written by Mike Protich and Ryan Williams Adapted credits from the liner notes of Polyester Zeal. Childers, Chad ...
Most polyester resins are viscous, pale coloured liquids consisting of a solution of a polyester in a reactive diluent which is ... Polyesters can withstand a temperature up to 80 °C. Polyesters have good wetting to glass fibres. Relatively low shrinkage at ... Polyesters are a category of polymers in which ester functionality repeats within the main chain. Polyesters are a classic ... Polyester". www.2kps.net. Retrieved 2018-04-05. "Polyester Resins". Retrieved 2019-08-19. Joanna Klein Nagelvoort (2009). " ...
Wikiquote has quotations related to Polyester. Polyester at IMDb Polyester: The Perils of Francine an essay by Elena Gorfinkel ... "POLYESTER (X)". GTO Films & Video Ltd. British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved October 25, 2013. "Polyester (1981) - ... Maslin, Janet (May 29, 1981). "'POLYESTER,' AN OFFBEAT COMEDY". New York Times. Polyester at Rotten Tomatoes David James Young ... "Polyester" by Tab Hunter - words and music by Chris Stein and Debbie Harry "Be My Daddy's Baby (Lu-Lu's Theme)" by Michael ...
... is similar to ripstop nylon but differs in the chemical composition of the fibres used to weave it. It is ... v t e (Plastics, Polyesters, All stub articles, Polymer stubs). ...
... is a material frequently used for flexible fabric structures. It is made up of a polyester scrim, a ... The adhesive agent acts as a chemical bond between the polyester fibers and the exterior coating and prevents fibers from ...
Madison Avenue: The Polyester Embassy/ORICON The Polyester Embassy - Discogs "ARIA Dance - Week Commencing 1st January 2001" ( ... The Polyester Embassy is the only album by Australian band Madison Avenue, released in Australia on 2 October 2000 by Vicious ... The Polyester Embassy was a success in the band's native Australia, peaking at number 4 and was certified Platinum. However, ... Coates spoke out about her time in the band and the process of making The Polyester Embassy, as well as their unreleased second ...
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McDonald, Hamish (3 March 2014). "The Polyester Prince". Outlook. "The polyester prince: Insights from a banned biography - ... The Polyester Prince: The Rise of Dhirubhai Ambani is an unauthorised biography of the Indian business tycoon and founder of ... The Polyester Prince chronicles Dhirubhai Ambani's life from childhood to founder of RIL following India's independence in 1947 ... This book was widely considered to be the sequel to The Polyester Prince: The Rise of Dhirubhai Ambani as it includes the ...
Sand composites, most commonly sand reinforced polyester composites (SPCs), involve a building material with sand acting as ... Mathijsen, Django (2016). "LEGO-like sand reinforced polyester bricks are set to revolutionize the building world". 60 (6): 362 ... who made sand reinforced composite bricks with polyester resin and hardener to provide emergency relief housing for those ...
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... , AIR 1989 Bom 331. (1927) 1 Ch 526 "Legislation.gov.uk". www.legislation.gov.uk. ... In this case, the plaintiffs (Garware Plastics and Polyester) had the right as a way of assignment to telecast a cinematography ... 2 KB 543 Garware Plastics and Polyester vs Telelink, AIR 1989 Bom 331 573 U.S. ___ (2014). 17 U.S.C. § 106, U.S. Copyright Act ...
Köpnick, Horst; Schmidt, Manfred; Brügging, Wilhelm; Rüter, Jörn; Kaminsky, Walter (2002). "Polyesters". Ullmann's Encyclopedia ...
Horst Köpnick; Manfred Schmidt; Wilhelm Brügging; Jörn Rüter; Walter Kaminsky (2002). "Polyesters". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... Polycyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate (PCT) is a thermoplastic polyester formed from the polycondensation of terephthalic ...
Biopolymer Epoxy resins Polyamide Polyester Jenkins, A. D.; Kratochvíl, P.; Stepto, R. F. T.; Suter, U. W. (1996-01-01). " ... Horst Köpnick; Manfred Schmidt; Wilhelm Brügging; Jörn Rüter; Walter Kaminsky (2002). "Polyesters". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... H2O Another important class of condensation polymers are polyesters. They arise from the reaction of a carboxylic acid and an ...
... polyesters; plastics and nylons. Erucic acid is traditionally derived from older varieties of rapeseed. Crambe oil is ...
Polyester fibres are widely used in the textile industry. The invention of the polyester fibre is attributed to J. R. Whinfield ... ISBN 978-1-000-10411-0. Scheirs, John; Long, Timothy E. (2003). Modern polyesters : chemistry and technology of polyesters and ... Handbook of Thermoplastic Polyesters, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, ISBN 3-527-30113-5. "Polyesters". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... Polyester fibres are used in fashion apparel often blended with cotton, as heat insulation layers in thermal wear, sportswear ...
Poly-esters". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 51 (8): 10. doi:10.1021/ja01383a042. U.S. Patent 2,589,687 Jacquel, N.; et al. (2011). " ... Like other polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate, two main routes exist for the synthesis of PBS: the trans- ... PBS is a biodegradable aliphatic polyester with properties that are comparable to polypropylene. It may also be referred to by ... Nevertheless most of the producers are evaluating or developing bio-based succinic acid for the synthesis of these polyesters. ...
Polyester Carpet Fibers: Comparison Guide". Homedit. Retrieved 2023-08-17. S. R. Turner; R.W. Seymour; T.W. Smith (2001). " ... The properties of these polyesters also is affected by the cis/trans ratio of the CHDM monomer. CHDM reduces the degree of ... Via the process called polycondensation, CHDM is a precursor to polyesters. It is one of the most important comonomers for ... Thermoplastic polyesters containing CHDM exhibit enhanced strength, clarity, and solvent resistance. The properties of the ...
In the industrial production of PHA, the polyester is extracted and purified from the bacteria by optimizing the conditions of ... Kim, Y. B.; Lenz, R. W. (2001). "Polyesters from microorganisms". Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. 71: 51-79 ... Polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHAs are polyesters produced in nature by numerous microorganisms, including through bacterial ... Polyesters are deposited in the form of highly refractive granules in the cells. Depending upon the microorganism and the ...
From Polyesters to Poly(Ester Amide)S." International Journal of Molecular Sciences 15.5 (2014): 7064-7123. Academic Search ... Aliphatic polyesters are a diverse family of synthetic polymers of which are biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-toxic. ... Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is part of the polyester group and can go through thermoplastic and foaming processes. Along with its ... Degradable Aliphatic Polyesters. Vol. 157. Berlin: Springer, 2002. Print. Díaz, Angélica, Ramaz Katsarava, and Jordi Puiggalí ...
Spring, F. S. (March 1945). "Naturally Occurring Polyesters". Nature. 155 (3931): 272. Bibcode:1945Natur.155..272S. doi:10.1038 ...
The enzyme poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) depolymerase (EC 3.1.1.76) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the polyester poly{oxycarbonyl[(R)-2 ... Jendrossek D (2001). "Microbial degradation of polyesters". Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 71: 293-325. doi:10.1007/3-540-40021 ...
This polyester does not form linear chains, but is built as a three-dimensional structure. Teegarden, David M. (2004) It was ... Glycerol phthalate was the first synthetic polyester. It came into use around World War I. It was used for waterproofing. ...
The substrate binding site has at least 3 subsites in which monomer units of polyester substrates can bind. Thirteen ... Jendrossek D (2001). "Microbial degradation of polyesters". Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/ ... Jendrossek, Dieter (2001), Babel, Wolfgang; Steinbüchel, Alexander (eds.), "Microbial Degradation of Polyesters", Biopolyesters ... is an enzyme used in the degradation processes of a natural polyester poly(3-hydroxyburate). This enzyme has growing ...
Polyesters are often used for bonding fabrics. They can be used on their own, or blended with large amounts of additives. They ... Lower strength than polyesters. They usually have A-B-A structure, with an elastic rubber segment between two rigid plastic ... Polyesters, similar to the ones used for synthetic fibers. High application temperature. Synthesized from a diol and a ... Most polyester hot-melt adhesives have a high degree of crystallinity. Niche applications, together with polyamides taking less ...
Black led the Polyesters to move into the next round for the first time in four conferences. Norman Black poured in 71 points ... The Polyesters signed up Norman Black, who played for the Detroit Pistons in the Southern California Summer Pro league, as ... The 1981 Tefilin Polyesters season was the second and final season of the franchise in the Philippine Basketball Association ( ...
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Portrait of the Polyester Studio team. But that doesnt mean Polyester Studio is defined by retro creative stylings. In fact, ... "Passage" saved Polyester. The animated thriller is about a man in the final moments of death who is plunged into a dreamlike ... "What makes Polyester special is that these investigations are done from the point of view of the brand versus a trusted ... From Harlequin to realtor.com to the Globe and Mail newspaper to Nickelodeon, the brands Polyester has animated for-either ...
Polyester: Which Gym Clothes Trap The Most Body Odor?. European scientists explore the microbiome of dirty, stinky workout gear ... Rather they found that soiled polyester shirts wound up harboring more Micrococci bacteria, a type of odiferous germ, than ... After 28 hours, an independent panel of odor connoisseurs judged that the polyester shirts stank worse than cotton-based ones. ... Cotton grew very few smelly germs, akin to earlier findings, while the microbes continued to swarm over polyester. ...
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  • Employees were concerned with exposures to PVC glue, fiberglass, acetone, organic peroxide, and unsaturated polyester resins in the production of cultured marble vanities, bath tubs, and shower walls and floors. (cdc.gov)
  • Most propylene oxide is used as an intermediate in the production of polyether polyols used to manufacture polyurethane foam and in the production of propylene glycol for unsaturated polyester resins. (cdc.gov)
  • Lime Windowpane Polyester Fabric is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. (denverfabrics.com)
  • LawPro Two-Tone uniform shirts are constructed of premium polyester fabric with a tighter weave than other uniform shirts for enhanced moisture wicking to ensure you stay drier and more comfortable. (galls.com)
  • I heard lots of other issues every year (color, sizes, design, etc…) but never about a type of fabric - polyester. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • Environmental and medical surveys were conducted from January 25 to 27, 1978, to evaluate airborne emissions from the dyeing of polyester fabric in the Screen Print Preparation Department of the Rock Hill Printing and Finishing Company (SIC-2262) in Rock Hill, South Carolina. (cdc.gov)
  • For our in vitro study, we compared the suscep- grafts were associated with increased biofilm formation tibility of 2 thoracic vascular woven polyester grafts and bacterial adherence in vitro and with higher rates of with different coatings--collagen (collagen graft, perioperative vascular graft infections in vivo. (cdc.gov)
  • All of our glitter is high quality polyester and temperature/solvent resistant. (michaels.com)
  • The thin, high tensile strength polyester backing is abrasion and solvent resistant while featuring a relatively low caliper thickness that is less likely to interfere with machinery processes. (3m.com)
  • Instead, pungent bacteria from our skin grow more readily on certain workout shirts, namely those made from synthetic textiles like polyester, according to new research from Callewaert and his colleagues at Ghent University in Belgium. (popsci.com)
  • In this study, the rumen content from cattle ( Bos taurus ) was investigated regarding synthetic polyester hydrolyzing enzymes based on the fact that the diet of ruminants may contain natural plant polyesters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rumen fluid hydrolyzed synthetic aromatic polyesters with higher amounts of terephthalic acid released from poly(butylene adipate- co -terephthalate) (PBAT) (0.75 and 0.5 mM for polymer powder and film, respectively) and thus exceeded when compared to the hydrolysis of the second terephthalic acid-based polymer-poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) (0.6 and 0.15 mM, for powder and film, reciprocally). (frontiersin.org)
  • Most nets are made of polyester, polyethylene, or polypropylene. (cdc.gov)
  • It can be lightweight wool, polyester, or polypropylene (polypro). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by Cladosporium sp. (bvsalud.org)
  • To explore this idea, the team took a few pungent species of bacteria and tried growing them in Petri dishes coated with seven different fabrics: polyester, acryl, nylon, fleece, viscose, cotton, and wool. (popsci.com)
  • Cotton Vs. Polyester: Which Gym Clothes Trap The Most Body Odor? (popsci.com)
  • After 28 hours, an independent panel of odor connoisseurs judged that the polyester shirts stank worse than cotton-based ones. (popsci.com)
  • Rather they found that soiled polyester shirts wound up harboring more Micrococci bacteria, a type of odiferous germ, than cotton shirts. (popsci.com)
  • Cotton grew very few smelly germs, akin to earlier findings, while the microbes continued to swarm over polyester. (popsci.com)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Braided Polyester Suture. (fpnotebook.com)
  • made of 2 ply polyester known in the industry as Poly-wavez or Spectra Pro material. (united-states-flag.com)
  • Material de sutura absorbible que se utiliza también en clips para ligaduras, en clavos para la fijación interna de huesos fracturados, así como para reforzar los ligamentos en las lesiones ligamentosas tratadas quirúrgicamente. (bvsalud.org)
  • This 100% polyester power-loomed rug is soft underfoot and tough enough to handle high-traffic areas. (plowhearth.com)
  • 2-ply high-tenacity variegated trilobal polyester thread. (superiorthreads.com)
  • Made from the same high-strength fibers as Magnifico and Twist, Fantastico is a variegated high-strength high-sheen polyester thread with a one-inch precision dye pattern. (superiorthreads.com)
  • Need Polyester high tenacity with FR properties? (swicofil.com)
  • Any polyester high tenacity yarn in the Tersuisse program can be supplied with FDA approved spin finishes. (swicofil.com)
  • Taslanzied high tenacity Polyester multilfilament yarn for applications where a better grip or a higher volume are important. (swicofil.com)
  • Tersuisse has modern warping equipment for high tenacity Polyester multifilament yarns - we are able to offer the yarns on weaving beams. (swicofil.com)
  • Tersuisse is today the only European producer of spundyed (non black) Polyester high tenacity yarns. (swicofil.com)
  • Micrococci bacteria, a type of odiferous germ, were found in soiled polyester shirts. (popsci.com)
  • When the Toronto native became a student at the Ontario College of Art & Design (now OCAD University), he would browse secondhand and vintage clothing shops along Queen Street West's stretch of trendy hip retail stores for disco-era polyester shirts. (commarts.com)
  • Portrait of the Polyester Studio team. (commarts.com)
  • The Polyester team] does a good job of pushing something to a better place than when the brief was brought to them. (commarts.com)
  • It may be a polyester costume, but note the upcycled Terracycle bag! (ecochildsplay.com)
  • 5 For throat swab, take a second dry polyester swab, insert into mouth, Note: NP aspirate may not be possible and swab the posterior pharynx and to conduct in infants tonsillar areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Polyester film backing with a translucent green pigmented silicone adhesive. (3m.com)
  • Resilient Performance Our 3M™ Polyester Film Tape 8403 is a popular choice for a variety of web splicing, masking and holding applications, particularly those needing good chemical resistance or adhesion to silicone. (3m.com)
  • In fact, Ferreira calls Dimmock and the largely young Polyester crew of producers, cel animators, 3-D animators and illustrators-who number more than a dozen-"obsessive chameleons. (commarts.com)
  • Black led the Polyesters to move into the next round for the first time in four conferences. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of our glitter is high quality polyester and temperature/solvent resistant. (michaels.com)
  • Our high-quality polyester tablecloth is sure to bring a level of sophistication and elegance to any special occasion. (efavormart.com)
  • The high quality polyester fabric used for the table cover, made with a full back design, will allow you to store items safely under your furniture piece during working hours. (displays2go.com)
  • Weave interesting fabric creations with Assorted Polyester Weaving Loops. (hobbylobby.com)
  • Our polyester tablecloth is crafted from the highest-quality, 100% polyester fabric that is guaranteed to make a statement at your next gathering. (efavormart.com)
  • Allowing you to print your very own custom logo on the polyester fabric, this tablecloth offers a means to catch the eyes of potential customers and bring them over to your booth. (displays2go.com)
  • These include CuRe Technology, Garbo, gr3n and PerPETual who over the course of the 18-month project will be producing chemically recycled polyester for eventual use in fabric and garment production from post-consumer textile waste. (waste-management-world.com)
  • Environmental and medical surveys were conducted from January 25 to 27, 1978, to evaluate airborne emissions from the dyeing of polyester fabric in the Screen Print Preparation Department of the Rock Hill Printing and Finishing Company (SIC-2262) in Rock Hill, South Carolina. (cdc.gov)
  • This polyester tablecloth is the perfect table cover for your elegant events. (efavormart.com)
  • Whether you want special tables for a wedding reception, graduation banquet, party or family get-together, our polyester tablecloth offers an ideal solution that will make all your guests feel extra pampered. (efavormart.com)
  • Add luxury and elegance to all your special events with our polyester tablecloth. (efavormart.com)
  • For our in vitro study, we compared the suscep- grafts were associated with increased biofilm formation tibility of 2 thoracic vascular woven polyester grafts and bacterial adherence in vitro and with higher rates of with different coatings--collagen (collagen graft, perioperative vascular graft infections in vivo. (cdc.gov)
  • For our in vitro study, we compared the susceptibility of 2 thoracic vascular woven polyester grafts with different coatings-collagen (collagen graft, InterGard Hemabridge, https://www.getinge.com ) and gelatin (gelatin graft, Terumo Aortic, Gelweave, https://terumoaortic.com )-to biofilm formation. (cdc.gov)
  • Water-repellent acrylic/polyester shell sheds moisture, and the Premium Down i. (shopzilla.com)
  • Water-repellent acrylic/polyester shell sheds moisture, and the Premium Down insulation keeps your head warm. (shopzilla.com)
  • Create your own polyester tie down assemblies and custom cargo nets with this tough, abrasion-resistant blue polyester webbing. (uscargocontrol.com)
  • To enhance the activity on synthetic polyesters, the canonical amino acid methionine in Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus lipase (TTL) was exchanged by the residue-specific incorporation method for the more hydrophobic non-canonical norleucine (Nle). (frontiersin.org)
  • Made from 100% recycled polyester, meaning this scarf isn't just stylish, it's sustainable. (mulberry.com)
  • Made in the USA, 100% Milliken Spun Polyester. (ralphs.com)
  • We recommend swabs made with polyester tips and plastic stems. (cdc.gov)
  • A soft, recycled polyester satin. (mulberry.com)
  • SAMPLES - Micro Sued Polyester DWR, 100% polyester micro fiber with a soft sanded finish. (seattlefabrics.com)
  • Prominent & Leading Wholesale Trader from Mumbai, we offer Spun Polyester Thread. (indiamart.com)
  • Each spool is 1000 meters of beautiful polyester thread. (sewforless.com)
  • This project will help us all in understanding the barriers, impacts and opportunities in the chemical recycling of polyester and is an important foundation to C&A's commitment to connect principles of circularity to 7 out of 10 of our products by 2028. (waste-management-world.com)
  • Our range of products include Polyester Spun Yarn. (indiamart.com)
  • The Polyesters signed up Norman Black, who played for the Detroit Pistons in the Southern California Summer Pro league, as their import in the Reinforced Filipino Conference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Black led the Polyesters to move into the next round for the first time in four conferences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Full Circle Textiles Project - Polyester brings together a consortium of stakeholders including brands, innovators, supply chain partners and catalytic funders - a structure that has proven successful in driving and scaling disruptive innovation in the industry. (waste-management-world.com)
  • I read on line that polyester can withstand 480 degrees of heat. (hobbylobby.com)
  • Fashion for Good launched the Full Circle Textiles Project - Polyester, with the ambition to validate and scale promising technologies in polyester chemical recycling. (waste-management-world.com)
  • To attain a clear idea of the innovations best positioned to address the challenges of recycling polyester textiles, Fashion for Good has enlisted promising innovators in polyester chemical recycling from around the world to participate in the project. (waste-management-world.com)
  • Polyester is an animation studio with a strong emphasis on design and illustrative solutions. (ba-reps.com)
  • The utility model belongs to field of cables, relates in particular to a kind of aviation polyester fiber sheathed shielded cable. (google.com)