A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.
An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
A de novo myeloproliferation arising from an abnormal stem cell. It is characterized by the replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue, a process that is mediated by CYTOKINES arising from the abnormal clone.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
An antineoplastic agent that acts by alkylation.
Increased numbers of platelets in the peripheral blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
A plant genus of the family Aloeaceae, order Liliales (or Asphodelaceae, Asparagales in APG system) which is used medicinally. It contains anthraquinone glycosides such as aloin-emodin or aloe-emodin (EMODIN).
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for THROMBOPOIETIN. They signal through interaction with JANUS KINASES such as JANUS KINASE 2.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Cell surface proteins that bind erythropoietin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.
The series of cells in the red blood cell lineage at various stages of differentiation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
A myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorder characterized by myelodysplasia associated with bone marrow and peripheral blood patterns similar to CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA, but cytogenetically lacking a PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME or bcr/abl fusion gene (GENES, ABL).
The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.
A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Enlargement of the spleen.

Effect of obesity on red cell mass results. (1/454)

Measurement of red cell mass with isotope dilution remains an important diagnostic test in the evaluation of patients with suspected polycythemia vera (PCV). Results and reference ranges are typically expressed in units normalized for body weight (mL/kg). Obesity is common in polycythemic patients, and it is important to know how the various published normative ranges compare across a wide range of body weights. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 51 consecutive patients referred for red cell mass determination with 51Cr red blood cell dilution. Results were expressed in milliliters per kilogram (mL/kg) by using the actual patient weight and after adiposity adjustments using ideal body weight, body mass index (BMI) and combinations of height-weight, including body surface area. Results were classified as normal, elevated or PCV. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of obesity in our population (28/51 [55%] with BMI > 27 kg/m2, BMI range 16.0-54.8 kg/m2). The method used to compensate for obesity had a dramatic effect on the derived red cell mass, the fraction of patients with elevated measurements and the fraction of patients meeting criteria for PCV. Concordance for categorization as normal, elevated or PCV by all methods was only 47.1%. CONCLUSION: Obesity is a common confounding factor in the interpretation of red cell mass measurements. Currently published reference ranges generate inconsistent results when extrapolated to obese patients. Further normative data on obese subjects are needed to determine which method (if any) is optimal.  (+info)

Posttranslational processing of the thrombopoietin receptor is impaired in polycythemia vera. (2/454)

Recently, we demonstrated a marked reduction in the expression of the thrombopoietin receptor, Mpl, in polycythemia vera (PV) platelets and megakaryocytes using an antiserum against the Mpl extracellular domain. To further examine this abnormality, we raised an antibody to the Mpl C-terminus. Immunologic analysis of PV platelets with this antiserum confirmed the reduction in Mpl expression. However, the C-terminal antiserum detected 2 forms of Mpl in PV platelets in contrast to normal platelets, in which a single form of Mpl was detected by both the extracellular domain and C-terminal antisera. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis studies with isoelectric focusing in the first dimension identified normal platelet Mpl as an 85 to 92 kD protein with an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.5. PV platelets contained an additional 80 to 82 kD Mpl Mpl isoform with a pI of 6.5. Analysis of Mpl expressed by the human megakaryocytic cell line, Dami, showed 2 isoforms similar to those found in PV platelets suggesting a precursor-product relationship. Digestion of Dami cell and normal platelet lysates with neuraminidase converted the more acidic Mpl isoform to the more basic one, indicating that the 2 isoforms differed with respect to posttranslational glycosylation. Furthermore, in contrast to normal platelet Mpl, PV platelet Mpl was susceptible to endoglycosidase H digestion, indicating defective Mpl processing by PV megakaryocytes. The glycosylation defect was specific for Mpl, as 2 other platelet membrane glycoproteins, glycoprotein IIb and multimerin, were processed normally. Importantly, the extent of the PV platelet Mpl glycosylation defect correlated with disease duration and extramedullary hematopoiesis.  (+info)

Nonrandom chromosomal abnormalities in hematologic disorders of man. (3/454)

A nonrandom pattern of chromosomal abnormalities occurs in bone marrow cells obtained from patients with hematologic disorders who have an abnormal karyotype involving a C group chromosome. An additional number 8 chromosome is the most common abnormality, found in more than one-half of the patients studies. An additional number 9 chromosome and the loss of all or part of a number 7 are abnormalities that occur more often than might be expected by chance. It is proposed that specific human chromosomal abnormalities may be related to different specific etiologic agents.  (+info)

Electron microscopic x-ray microanalysis of normal and leukemic human lymphocytes. (4/454)

A comparative study of the elemental content of normal and leukemic cells was undertaken on a few subjects, using electron microscopic x-ray microanalysis. Phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, calcium, copper, and zinc were detected in intracellular loci. The concentration of some of the above elements appeared to be disease related. In leukemic lymphocytes, the nuclear zinc was significantly lower than that recorded in normal lymphocytes, while the phosphorus was only moderately decreased. This suggests a faulty zinc uptake or binding in leukemic cells. The possible consequences of intracellular zinc deficiency are discussed.  (+info)

Cloning of PRV-1, a novel member of the uPAR receptor superfamily, which is overexpressed in polycythemia rubra vera. (5/454)

Polycythemia vera (PV) is a clonal stem cell disorder characterized by hyperproliferation of the erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic lineages. Although it has been shown that progenitor cells of patients with PV are hypersensitive to several growth factors, the molecular pathogenesis of this disease remains unknown. To investigate the molecular defects underlying PV, we used subtractive hybridization to isolate complementary DNAs (cDNAs) differentially expressed in patients with PV versus normal controls. We isolated a novel gene, subsequently named PRV-1, which is highly expressed in granulocytes from patients with PV (n = 19), but not detectable in normal control granulocytes (n = 21). Moreover, PRV-1 is not expressed in mononuclear cells from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 4) or acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 5) or in granulocytes from patients with essential thrombocythemia (n = 4) or secondary erythrocytosis (n = 4). Northern blot analysis showed that PRV-1 is highly expressed in normal human bone marrow and to a much lesser degree in fetal liver. It is not expressed in a variety of other tissues tested. Although PRV-1 is not expressed in resting granulocytes from normal controls, stimulation of these cells with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor induces PRV-1 expression. The PRV-1 cDNA encodes an open reading frame of 437 amino acids, which contains a signal peptide at the N-terminus and a hydrophobic segment at the C-terminus. In addition, PRV-1 contains 2 cysteine-rich domains homologous to those found in the uPAR/Ly6/CD59/snake toxin-receptor superfamily. We therefore propose that PRV-1 represents a novel hematopoietic receptor. (Blood. 2000;95:2569-2576)  (+info)

Acute myelogenous leukaemia and myelomonocytic blast crisis following polycythemia vera in HIV positive patients: report of cases and review of the literature. (6/454)

BACKGROUND: Acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) and myeloproliferative diseases are rare in HIV-infected individuals and optimal treatment has not been defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report on the cases of two HIV-infected men, one with AML and one with myeloid blast crisis after polycythaemia vera (PV). A comprehensive review of the available literature will be presented. RESULTS: Patient 1, a 57-year-old bisexual man known to be HIV seropositive for more than four years (CDC-category A1), presented with a pulmonary infiltrate. On admission WBC showed leukocytes 5.6 x 10(9)/l and the differential revealed 80% blasts. A diagnosis of AML FAB M0 was made. Pneumonia resolved under antibiotic treatment and the patient received induction chemotherapy. However, he once more developed multiple pulmonary infiltrates and died of respiratory failure despite broad spectrum antibiotic and antimycotic therapy. Autopsy revealed pulmonary aspergillosis. Patient 2 was a 63-year old HIV-positive hemophiliac (CDC A3) with a 10-year history of PV. On admission his white cell count showed leukocytes 256.6 x 10(9)/l with 82% blasts. Cytochemistry revealed myelomonocytic differentiation. The patient died of tumor lysis syndrome with renal and cardio-pulmonary failure two days later. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of an HIV-infected individual with AML M0. The literature describes the cases of 39 HIV+ patients with AML and only one further case with PV. The association of both, myeloproliferative disease and AML with HIV infection is coincidental. However, the proportion of FAB type M4/5 appears to be higher than in the general population. Despite a high risk of treatment associated mortality durable remissions can be achieved in a small proportion of HIV-infected patients with AML.  (+info)

Tumor-like splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis in a patient with myelofibrosis. (7/454)

A 61-year-old woman, who was diagnosed in 1982 as having polycythemia vera, was admitted to our hospital in July 1998 because of a splenic tumor in an enlarged spleen due to myelofibrosis. As it was difficult to identify the etiology of the splenic tumor, partial splenectomy was carried out. The resected tumor proved to be an extremely proliferative lesion as the result of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Since it is difficult to diagnose the etiology of splenic tumor, the collection and analysis of reports of relevant cases may well facilitate diagnosis.  (+info)

Towards a molecular understanding of polycythemia rubra vera. (8/454)

Polycythemia rubra vera (PV) is one of four diseases collectively called the myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs). Each disorder leads to an increased production of one or several hematopoietic cell lineages. MPDs arise from acquired mutations in a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the development of these diseases are poorly understood. This review will summarize and evaluate recent advances in our understanding of one particular MPD, PV.  (+info)

Polycythemia Vera is a type of myeloproliferative neoplasm, a group of rare blood cancers. In Polycythemia Vera, the body produces too many red blood cells, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and thickening of the blood, which can cause various symptoms such as fatigue, headache, dizziness, and itching. It can also lead to enlargement of the spleen. The exact cause of Polycythemia Vera is not known, but it is associated with genetic mutations in the JAK2 gene in most cases. It is a progressive disease that can lead to complications such as bleeding, thrombosis, and transformation into acute leukemia if left untreated.

Polycythemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal increase in the total red blood cell (RBC) mass or hematocrit (the percentage of RBCs in the blood). This results in a higher-than-normal viscosity of the blood, which can lead to various complications such as impaired circulation, increased risk of blood clots, and reduced oxygen supply to the tissues.

There are two main types of polycythemia: primary and secondary. Primary polycythemia, also known as polycythemia vera, is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm caused by genetic mutations that lead to excessive production of RBCs in the bone marrow. Secondary polycythemia, on the other hand, is a reactive condition triggered by various factors such as chronic hypoxia (low oxygen levels), high altitude, smoking, or certain medical conditions like sleep apnea, heart disease, or kidney tumors.

Symptoms of polycythemia may include fatigue, headaches, dizziness, shortness of breath, itching, and a bluish or reddish tint to the skin (cyanosis). Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition and may involve phlebotomy, medications to reduce RBC production, and management of associated complications.

Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), a type of blood cancer characterized by the overproduction of platelets (thrombocytosis) in the bone marrow. In ET, there is an excessive proliferation of megakaryocytes, the precursor cells that produce platelets. This leads to increased platelet counts in the peripheral blood, which can increase the risk of blood clots (thrombosis) and bleeding episodes (hemorrhage).

The term "essential" is used to indicate that the cause of this condition is not known or idiopathic. ET is primarily a disease of older adults, but it can also occur in younger individuals. The diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia requires careful evaluation and exclusion of secondary causes of thrombocytosis, such as reactive conditions, inflammation, or other myeloproliferative neoplasms.

The clinical presentation of ET can vary widely among patients. Some individuals may be asymptomatic and discovered only during routine blood tests, while others may experience symptoms related to thrombosis or bleeding. Common symptoms include headaches, visual disturbances, dizziness, weakness, numbness, or tingling in the extremities, if there are complications due to blood clots in the brain or other parts of the body. Excessive bruising, nosebleeds, or blood in the stool can indicate bleeding complications.

Treatment for essential thrombocythemia is aimed at reducing the risk of thrombosis and managing symptoms. Hydroxyurea is a commonly used medication to lower platelet counts, while aspirin may be prescribed to decrease the risk of blood clots. In some cases, interferon-alpha or ruxolitinib might be considered as treatment options. Regular follow-up with a hematologist and monitoring of blood counts are essential for managing this condition and detecting potential complications early.

Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) is a tyrosine kinase enzyme that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction. It is named after the Roman god Janus, who is depicted with two faces, as JAK2 has two similar phosphate-transferring domains. JAK2 is involved in various cytokine receptor-mediated signaling pathways and contributes to hematopoiesis, immune function, and cell growth.

Mutations in the JAK2 gene have been associated with several myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis. The most common mutation is JAK2 V617F, which results in a constitutively active enzyme that promotes uncontrolled cell proliferation and survival, contributing to the development of these MPNs.

Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a rare, chronic bone marrow disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with fibrous scar tissue, leading to impaired production of blood cells. This results in cytopenias (anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), which can cause fatigue, infection susceptibility, and bleeding tendencies. Additionally, PMF is often accompanied by the proliferation of abnormal megakaryocytes (large, atypical bone marrow cells that produce platelets) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (blood cell formation outside the bone marrow, typically in the spleen and liver).

PMF is a type of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), which is a group of clonal stem cell disorders characterized by excessive proliferation of one or more types of blood cells. PMF can present with various symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, abdominal discomfort due to splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), and bone pain. In some cases, PMF may progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

The exact cause of PMF remains unclear; however, genetic mutations are known to play a significant role in its development. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), calreticulin (CALR), and MPL genes have been identified as commonly mutated in PMF patients. These genetic alterations contribute to the dysregulated production of blood cells and the activation of signaling pathways that promote fibrosis.

Diagnosis of PMF typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, complete blood count (CBC), bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, cytogenetic analysis, and molecular testing to identify genetic mutations. Treatment options depend on the individual patient's symptoms, risk stratification, and disease progression. They may include observation, supportive care, medications to manage symptoms and control the disease (such as JAK inhibitors), and stem cell transplantation for eligible patients.

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of rare, chronic blood cancers that originate from the abnormal proliferation or growth of one or more types of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. These disorders result in an overproduction of mature but dysfunctional blood cells, which can lead to serious complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and organ damage.

There are several subtypes of MPDs, including:

1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of mature granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CML is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, which drives uncontrolled cell growth and division.
2. Polycythemia Vera (PV): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of all three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets - in the bone marrow. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, bleeding, and enlargement of the spleen.
3. Essential Thrombocythemia (ET): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and bleeding.
4. Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF): A disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with scar tissue, leading to impaired blood cell production and anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.
5. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CNL can lead to an increased risk of infections and organ damage.

MPDs are typically treated with a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the subtype of MPD, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any comorbidities.

Pipobroman is an antineoplastic agent, which means it is used to treat cancer. It's a type of alkylating agent, specifically a nitrogen mustard. Alkylating agents work by disrupting the DNA of cancer cells, which can prevent them from dividing and growing. Pipobroman has been used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), although it's not widely used today due to the availability of more effective treatments.

Please note that medical definitions can vary based on the source, and this definition is intended to be a general overview. Always refer to the most current prescribing information for any medication.

Thrombocytosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high platelet count (also known as thrombocytes) in the blood. Platelets are small cell fragments that play a crucial role in blood clotting. A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. Thrombocytosis is typically defined as a platelet count exceeding 450,000-500,000 platelets/µL.

Thrombocytosis can be classified into two types: reactive (or secondary) thrombocytosis and primary (or essential) thrombocytosis. Reactive thrombocytosis is more common and occurs as a response to an underlying condition, such as infection, inflammation, surgery, or certain types of cancer. Primary thrombocytosis, on the other hand, is caused by intrinsic abnormalities in the bone marrow cells responsible for platelet production (megakaryocytes), and it is often associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms like essential thrombocythemia.

While mild thrombocytosis may not cause any symptoms, higher platelet counts can increase the risk of blood clots (thrombosis) and bleeding disorders due to excessive platelet aggregation. Symptoms of thrombocytosis may include headaches, dizziness, visual disturbances, or chest pain if a blood clot forms in the brain or heart. Bleeding symptoms can manifest as easy bruising, nosebleeds, or gastrointestinal bleeding.

Treatment for thrombocytosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In cases of reactive thrombocytosis, treating the underlying disorder often resolves the high platelet count. For primary thrombocytosis, medications like aspirin or cytoreductive therapy (such as hydroxyurea) may be used to reduce the risk of blood clots and control platelet production. Regular monitoring of platelet counts is essential for managing this condition and preventing potential complications.

Erythroid precursor cells, also known as erythroblasts or normoblasts, are early stage cells in the process of producing mature red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the bone marrow. These cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and undergo a series of maturation stages, including proerythroblast, basophilic erythroblast, polychromatophilic erythroblast, and orthochromatic erythroblast, before becoming reticulocytes and then mature red blood cells. During this maturation process, the cells lose their nuclei and become enucleated, taking on the biconcave shape and flexible membrane that allows them to move through small blood vessels and deliver oxygen to tissues throughout the body.

'Aloe' is the common name for a genus of succulent plants that belong to the family Asphodelaceae. The most widely recognized species is Aloe vera, which has been used for medicinal and therapeutic purposes for centuries.

Aloe vera, also known as "true aloe" or "medical aloe," contains a clear gel inside its leaves that is made up of 99% water and a complex mixture of glucomannans, acemannan, polymannose, anthraquinones, enzymes, sugars, sterols, vitamins, and minerals. This gel has been used topically to soothe skin irritations, burns, and other dermatological conditions due to its anti-inflammatory, moisturizing, and antimicrobial properties.

In addition to its topical uses, aloe vera extracts have also been studied for their potential internal health benefits, including improving digestion, boosting the immune system, and providing antioxidant effects. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

It's important to note that not all aloe products are created equal, and some may contain additives or contaminants that can cause adverse reactions. Always consult with a healthcare professional before using aloe vera or any other natural remedy for medicinal purposes.

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that is primarily produced by the kidneys and plays a crucial role in the production of red blood cells in the body. It works by stimulating the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells, which are essential for carrying oxygen to various tissues and organs.

EPO is a glycoprotein that is released into the bloodstream in response to low oxygen levels in the body. When the kidneys detect low oxygen levels, they release EPO, which then travels to the bone marrow and binds to specific receptors on immature red blood cells called erythroblasts. This binding triggers a series of events that promote the maturation and proliferation of erythroblasts, leading to an increase in the production of red blood cells.

In addition to its role in regulating red blood cell production, EPO has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects and may play a role in modulating the immune system. Abnormal levels of EPO have been associated with various medical conditions, including anemia, kidney disease, and certain types of cancer.

EPO is also used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of anemia caused by chronic kidney disease, chemotherapy, or other conditions that affect red blood cell production. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is a synthetic form of the hormone that is produced using genetic engineering techniques and is commonly used in clinical practice to treat anemia. However, misuse of rhEPO for performance enhancement in sports has been a subject of concern due to its potential to enhance oxygen-carrying capacity and improve endurance.

Phlebotomy is a medical term that refers to the process of making an incision in a vein, usually in the arm, in order to draw blood. It is also commonly known as venipuncture. This procedure is performed by healthcare professionals for various purposes such as diagnostic testing, blood donation, or therapeutic treatments like phlebotomy for patients with hemochromatosis (a condition where the body absorbs too much iron from food).

The person who performs this procedure is called a phlebotomist. They must be trained in the proper techniques to ensure that the process is safe and relatively pain-free for the patient, and that the blood sample is suitable for laboratory testing.

Thrombopoietin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor found on megakaryocytes and platelets. They are also known as MPL (myeloproliferative leukemia virus) receptors. Thrombopoietin is a hormone that regulates the production of platelets in the body, and it binds to these receptors to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes, which are large bone marrow cells that produce platelets.

The thrombopoietin receptor is a type I transmembrane protein with an extracellular domain that contains the thrombopoietin-binding site, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain that contains several tyrosine residues that become phosphorylated upon thrombopoietin binding. This triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various downstream pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Mutations in the thrombopoietin receptor gene have been associated with certain myeloproliferative neoplasms, such as essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, which are characterized by excessive platelet production and bone marrow fibrosis.

Erythropoiesis is the process of forming and developing red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the body. It occurs in the bone marrow and is regulated by the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which is produced by the kidneys. Erythropoiesis involves the differentiation and maturation of immature red blood cell precursors called erythroblasts into mature red blood cells, which are responsible for carrying oxygen to the body's tissues. Disorders that affect erythropoiesis can lead to anemia or other blood-related conditions.

Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. They are called granulocytes because they contain small granules in their cytoplasm, which are filled with various enzymes and proteins that help them fight off infections and destroy foreign substances.

There are three types of granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Neutrophils are the most abundant type and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. Eosinophils play a role in defending against parasitic infections and regulating immune responses. Basophils are involved in inflammatory reactions and allergic responses.

Granulocytes are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they circulate and patrol for any signs of infection or foreign substances. When they encounter a threat, they quickly move to the site of infection or injury and release their granules to destroy the invading organisms or substances.

Abnormal levels of granulocytes in the blood can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder.

Erythropoietin receptors are cell surface proteins found on immature red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. They bind to the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which is produced by the kidneys in response to low oxygen levels in the blood. When EPO binds to its receptor, it activates a signaling pathway that promotes the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of red blood cell precursors, leading to increased production of red blood cells. This process is critical for maintaining adequate oxygen delivery to tissues in the body. Mutations in the erythropoietin receptor gene can lead to various blood disorders, including anemia and polycythemia.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Hydroxyurea is an antimetabolite drug that is primarily used in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), essential thrombocythemia, and polycythemia vera. It works by interfering with the synthesis of DNA, which inhibits the growth of cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer therapy, hydroxyurea is also used off-label for the management of sickle cell disease. In this context, it helps to reduce the frequency and severity of painful vaso-occlusive crises by increasing the production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which decreases the formation of sickled red blood cells.

The medical definition of hydroxyurea is:

A hydantoin derivative and antimetabolite that inhibits ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, thereby interfering with DNA synthesis. It has been used as an antineoplastic agent, particularly in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders, and more recently for the management of sickle cell disease to reduce the frequency and severity of painful vaso-occlusive crises by increasing fetal hemoglobin production.

Bloodletting is a medical procedure that was commonly used in the past to balance the four humors of the body, which were believed to be blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. The procedure involved withdrawing blood from a patient through various methods such as venesection (making an incision in a vein), leeches, or cupping.

The theory behind bloodletting was that if one humor became overabundant, it could cause disease or illness. By removing some of the excess humor, practitioners believed they could restore balance and promote healing. Bloodletting was used to treat a wide variety of conditions, including fever, inflammation, and pain.

While bloodletting is no longer practiced in modern medicine, it was once a common treatment for many different ailments. The practice dates back to ancient times and was used by various cultures throughout history, including the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, and Chinese. However, its effectiveness as a medical treatment has been called into question, and it is now considered an outdated and potentially harmful procedure.

Hematocrit is a medical term that refers to the percentage of total blood volume that is made up of red blood cells. It is typically measured as part of a complete blood count (CBC) test. A high hematocrit may indicate conditions such as dehydration, polycythemia, or living at high altitudes, while a low hematocrit may be a sign of anemia, bleeding, or overhydration. It is important to note that hematocrit values can vary depending on factors such as age, gender, and pregnancy status.

A missense mutation is a type of point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in the substitution of a different amino acid in the protein that is encoded by the affected gene. This occurs when the altered codon (a sequence of three nucleotides that corresponds to a specific amino acid) specifies a different amino acid than the original one. The function and/or stability of the resulting protein may be affected, depending on the type and location of the missense mutation. Missense mutations can have various effects, ranging from benign to severe, depending on the importance of the changed amino acid for the protein's structure or function.

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is defined as the production of blood cells outside of the bone marrow in adults. In normal physiological conditions, hematopoiesis occurs within the bone marrow cavities of flat bones such as the pelvis, ribs, skull, and vertebrae. However, certain disease states or conditions can cause EMH to occur in various organs such as the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood.

EMH can be seen in several pathological conditions, including hematologic disorders such as myeloproliferative neoplasms (e.g., polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytopenia), myelodysplastic syndromes, and leukemias. It can also occur in response to bone marrow failure or infiltration by malignant cells, as well as in some non-hematologic disorders such as fibrocystic disease of the breast and congenital hemolytic anemias.

EMH may lead to organ enlargement, dysfunction, and clinical symptoms depending on the site and extent of involvement. Treatment of EMH is generally directed at managing the underlying condition causing it.

Erythroid cells are a type of blood cell that develops in the bone marrow and mature into red blood cells (RBCs), also known as erythrocytes. These cells play a crucial role in the body's oxygen-carrying capacity by transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

The development of erythroid cells begins with hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. Through a series of maturation stages, including proerythroblasts, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatophilic erythroblasts, and orthochromatic erythroblasts, these cells gradually lose their nuclei and organelles to become reticulocytes. Reticulocytes are immature RBCs that still contain some residual ribosomes and are released into the bloodstream. Over time, they mature into fully functional RBCs, which have a biconcave shape and a flexible membrane that allows them to navigate through small blood vessels.

Erythroid cells are essential for maintaining adequate oxygenation of body tissues, and their production is tightly regulated by various hormones and growth factors, such as erythropoietin (EPO), which stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Abnormalities in erythroid cell development or function can lead to various blood disorders, including anemia, polycythemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

An amino acid substitution is a type of mutation in which one amino acid in a protein is replaced by another. This occurs when there is a change in the DNA sequence that codes for a particular amino acid in a protein. The genetic code is redundant, meaning that most amino acids are encoded by more than one codon (a sequence of three nucleotides). As a result, a single base pair change in the DNA sequence may not necessarily lead to an amino acid substitution. However, if a change does occur, it can have a variety of effects on the protein's structure and function, depending on the nature of the substituted amino acids. Some substitutions may be harmless, while others may alter the protein's activity or stability, leading to disease.

GPI-linked proteins are a type of cell surface protein that are attached to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. The GPI anchor is a complex glycolipid molecule that acts as a molecular tether, connecting the protein to the outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane.

The GPI anchor is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and added to proteins in the ER or Golgi apparatus during protein trafficking. The addition of the GPI anchor to a protein occurs in a post-translational modification process called GPI anchoring, which involves the transfer of the GPI moiety from a lipid carrier to the carboxyl terminus of the protein.

GPI-linked proteins are found on the surface of many different types of cells, including red blood cells, immune cells, and nerve cells. They play important roles in various cellular processes, such as cell signaling, cell adhesion, and enzyme function. Some GPI-linked proteins also serve as receptors for bacterial toxins and viruses, making them potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

A platelet count is a laboratory test that measures the number of platelets, also known as thrombocytes, in a sample of blood. Platelets are small, colorless cell fragments that circulate in the blood and play a crucial role in blood clotting. They help to stop bleeding by sticking together to form a plug at the site of an injured blood vessel.

A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter (µL) of blood. A lower than normal platelet count is called thrombocytopenia, while a higher than normal platelet count is known as thrombocytosis.

Abnormal platelet counts can be a sign of various medical conditions, including bleeding disorders, infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about your platelet count or if you experience symptoms such as easy bruising, prolonged bleeding, or excessive menstrual flow.

Megakaryocytes are large, specialized bone marrow cells that are responsible for the production and release of platelets (also known as thrombocytes) into the bloodstream. Platelets play an essential role in blood clotting and hemostasis, helping to prevent excessive bleeding during injuries or trauma.

Megakaryocytes have a unique structure with multilobed nuclei and abundant cytoplasm rich in organelles called alpha-granules and dense granules, which store various proteins, growth factors, and enzymes necessary for platelet function. As megakaryocytes mature, they extend long cytoplasmic processes called proplatelets into the bone marrow sinuses, where these extensions fragment into individual platelets that are released into circulation.

Abnormalities in megakaryocyte number, size, or function can lead to various hematological disorders, such as thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), thrombocytosis (high platelet count), and certain types of leukemia.

A Colony-Forming Units (CFU) assay is a type of laboratory test used to measure the number of viable, or living, cells in a sample. It is commonly used to enumerate bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms. The test involves placing a known volume of the sample onto a nutrient-agar plate, which provides a solid growth surface for the cells. The plate is then incubated under conditions that allow the cells to grow and form colonies. Each colony that forms on the plate represents a single viable cell from the original sample. By counting the number of colonies and multiplying by the known volume of the sample, the total number of viable cells in the sample can be calculated. This information is useful in a variety of applications, including monitoring microbial populations, assessing the effectiveness of disinfection procedures, and studying microbial growth and survival.

Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the obstruction of the hepatic veins, which are the blood vessels that carry blood from the liver to the heart. This obstruction can be caused by blood clots, tumors, or other abnormalities, and it can lead to a backflow of blood in the liver, resulting in various symptoms such as abdominal pain, swelling, and liver enlargement. In severe cases, Budd-Chiari syndrome can cause liver failure and other complications if left untreated. The diagnosis of this condition typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and treatment may include anticoagulation therapy, thrombolytic therapy, or surgical intervention to remove the obstruction.

Isoantigens are antigens that are present on the cells or tissues of one individual of a species, but are absent or different in another individual of the same species. They are also known as "alloantigens." Isoantigens are most commonly found on the surface of red blood cells and other tissues, and they can stimulate an immune response when transplanted into a different individual. This is because the recipient's immune system recognizes the isoantigens as foreign and mounts a defense against them. Isoantigens are important in the field of transplantation medicine, as they must be carefully matched between donor and recipient to reduce the risk of rejection.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), atypical, BCR-ABL negative is a rare subtype of CML that does not have the typical Philadelphia chromosome abnormality or the resulting BCR-ABL fusion gene. This means that the disease lacks the constitutively active tyrosine kinase that is targeted by imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and other similar drugs.

The atypical form of CML is often characterized by a more aggressive clinical course, with a higher risk of transformation to acute leukemia compared to the classic form of CML. It can be difficult to diagnose and treat due to its rarity and heterogeneity. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up with blood tests and bone marrow examinations is essential for monitoring the disease course and adjusting treatment as necessary.

Human chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic information in the form of DNA and proteins. Each human cell typically contains 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs, except for the sperm and egg cells which contain only 23 chromosomes (one half of the full set).

Chromosome 19 is one of the autosomal chromosomes, meaning it is not a sex chromosome. It is the fifth smallest human chromosome, spanning about 58 million base pairs and representing approximately 1.9% of the total DNA in cells. Chromosome 19 contains more than 1,200 genes that provide instructions for making proteins and RNA molecules involved in various cellular processes.

Chromosome 20 is also an autosomal chromosome, slightly smaller than chromosome 19. It spans about 54 million base pairs and contains around 800 genes that code for proteins and RNA molecules. Chromosome 20 is known to contain several important genes involved in cancer development, such as the tumor suppressor gene TP53.

Together, chromosomes 19 and 20 carry crucial genetic information necessary for normal human growth, development, and health. Abnormalities in these chromosomes can lead to various genetic disorders and diseases.

Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of platelet production, also known as thrombopoiesis. It is primarily produced by the liver and to some extent by megakaryocytes, which are the cells responsible for producing platelets.

TPO binds to its receptor, c-Mpl, on the surface of megakaryocytes and their precursor cells, stimulating their proliferation, differentiation, and maturation into platelets. By regulating the number of platelets in circulation, TPO helps maintain hemostasis, the process that prevents excessive bleeding after injury.

In addition to its role in thrombopoiesis, TPO has been shown to have potential effects on other cell types, including hematopoietic stem cells and certain immune cells. However, its primary function remains the regulation of platelet production.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

A homozygote is an individual who has inherited the same allele (version of a gene) from both parents and therefore possesses two identical copies of that allele at a specific genetic locus. This can result in either having two dominant alleles (homozygous dominant) or two recessive alleles (homozygous recessive). In contrast, a heterozygote has inherited different alleles from each parent for a particular gene.

The term "homozygote" is used in genetics to describe the genetic makeup of an individual at a specific locus on their chromosomes. Homozygosity can play a significant role in determining an individual's phenotype (observable traits), as having two identical alleles can strengthen the expression of certain characteristics compared to having just one dominant and one recessive allele.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are immature, self-renewing cells that give rise to all the mature blood and immune cells in the body. They are capable of both producing more hematopoietic stem cells (self-renewal) and differentiating into early progenitor cells that eventually develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. HSCs are found in the bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and peripheral blood. They have the ability to repair damaged tissues and offer significant therapeutic potential for treating various diseases, including hematological disorders, genetic diseases, and cancer.

Splenomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlargement or expansion of the spleen beyond its normal size. The spleen is a vital organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, behind the stomach and below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in filtering the blood, fighting infections, and storing red and white blood cells and platelets.

Splenomegaly can occur due to various underlying medical conditions, including infections, liver diseases, blood disorders, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. The enlarged spleen may put pressure on surrounding organs, causing discomfort or pain in the abdomen, and it may also lead to a decrease in red and white blood cells and platelets, increasing the risk of anemia, infections, and bleeding.

The diagnosis of splenomegaly typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to manage the underlying condition.

"Polycythemia vera - MayoClinic.com". Polycythemia vera: Definition. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2011-09-03. "What Is Polycythemia ... Clinical symptoms of polycythemia vera are mostly due to hyperviscosity of blood. A classic symptom of polycythemia vera is ... "Polycythemia Vera Follow-up". Retrieved 2011-09-03. Verstovsek, S. (2016). "Highlights in polycythemia vera from the 2016 EHA ... "The diagnosis and management of polycythemia vera in the era since the Polycythemia Vera Study Group: a survey of American ...
... vera (PCV) (a.k.a. polycythemia rubra vera (PRV)) occurs when excess red blood cells are produced as a result of ... The management of polycythemia varies based on its etiology: See polycythemia vera for management of primary polycythemia, ... Treatment of primary polycythemia (see polycythemia vera) could involve phlebotomy, antiplatelet therapy to reduce risk of ... polycythemia vera) was estimated to be approximately 44-57 per 100 000 individuals in the United States. Secondary polycythemia ...
FST Polycythemia vera; 263300; JAK2 Polycythemia, benign familial; 263400; VHL Polydactyly, postaxial, types A1 and B; 174200; ...
See polycythemia vera.) "Obituary notice. Scott Murphy". philly.com. April 2006. Sandler, S. Gerald (November 2007). "Obituary ... "Polycythemia Vera: Stem-Cell and Probable Clonal Origin of the Disease". N Engl J Med. 295 (17): 913-916. doi:10.1056/ ...
Polycythemia vera definition, mayoclinic.org; accessed July 30, 2021. Yetter, Deborah (May 16, 2020). "Phyllis George, former ... George died of complications from polycythemia vera, a blood cancer, on May 14, 2020, aged 70, at the Albert B. Chandler ...
No evidence of polycythemia vera hematocrit < midpoint of normal range or normal red cell mass in presence of normal iron ... Vannucchi, AM (June 2010). "Insights into the pathogenesis and management of thrombosis in polycythemia vera and essential ... Campbell PJ, Green AR (2005). "Management of Polycythemia Vera and Essential Thrombocythemia" (PDF). Hematology. 2005: 201-8. ... polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: 2011 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management". American ...
... including polycythaemia vera. In patients with polycythaemia, the reduction of mutant JAK2 concentrations by givinostat is ... polycythaemia vera. and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A preclinical study produced early results suggesting the molecule might ... "Treatment options for essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera". Expert Review of Hematology. 2 (1): 41-55. doi:10.1586/ ... Givinostat for the treatment of polycythaemia vera" (PDF). European Medicines Agency. "Potential treatment for diastolic ...
Burgess, J. H.; Bishop, J. M. (1963). "Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity and ITS Subdivisions in Polycythemia Vera". Journal of ... polycythemia, left to right intracardiac shunts, due increase in volume of blood exposed to inspired gas. Asthma due to better ... More hemoglobin is present in polycythemia, and so D L C O {\displaystyle D_{L_{CO}}} is elevated. In anemia, the opposite is ...
Reikvam H, Tiu RV (April 2012). "Venous thromboembolism in patients with essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera". ... polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, intravenous drug use, and smoking. Some risk factors influence the location of ...
"Regulated expression of microRNAs in normal and polycythemia vera erythropoiesis". Experimental Hematology. 35 (11): 1657-67. ...
In polycythaemia vera, the most common side effects include anemia (low red blood cell counts) and thrombocytopenia (low blood ... It is also indicated for the treatment of adults with polycythaemia vera who are resistant to or intolerant of hydroxyurea. ... In 2014, it was approved in polycythemia vera when there has been an inadequate response to or intolerance of hydroxyurea, ... January 2015). "Ruxolitinib versus standard therapy for the treatment of polycythemia vera". The New England Journal of ...
... complications from polycythemia vera. Mun Jong-nam, North Korean diplomat, ambassador to Italy (2017) and Syria (since 2018), ... Vatsala Deshmukh, 92, Indian actress (Toofan Aur Deeya, Ladki Sahyadri Ki, Jal Bin Machhli Nritya Bin Bijli). Vera Gissing, 93 ... Vera Gissing, one of Winton' children, has died aged 93 Retired Supreme Court Justice Eliezer Goldberg has passed away Умер ...
... polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, and primary myelofibrosis. In one review of adult-AMKL, 25% of 49 cases were ... polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, primary myelofibrosis, or mediastinal germ cell tumor. AMKL associated with ...
It can also be associated with lupus, polycythemia vera and homocystinuria. Malar flush is a plum-red discolouration of the ... It can also be associated with other conditions, such as lupus, polycythemia vera and homocystinuria. Malar rash Topol, Eric J ...
December 1988). "[Therapeutic effect of ranimustine (MCNU) on essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera]". Gan To Kagaku ... is a nitrosourea alkylating agent approved in Japan for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia and polycythemia vera. It ...
... , sold under the brand name Besremi, is a medication used to treat polycythemia vera. It is an ... In this trial, 51 adults with polycythemia vera received ropeginterferon alfa-2b for an average of about five years. The ... In the European Union, ropeginterferon alfa-2b is indicated as monotherapy in adults for the treatment of polycythemia vera ... In the United States it is indicated for the treatment of polycythemia vera. The effectiveness and safety of ropeginterferon ...
Passamonti F, Lazzarino M (September 2003). "Treatment of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: the role of ...
... can begin with a blood picture similar to that found in polycythemia vera or chronic myeloid leukemia. ... Najean Y, Rain JD (November 1997). "Treatment of polycythemia vera: the use of hydroxyurea and pipobroman in 292 patients under ... November 2010). "Oxidative stress is increased in primary and post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis". Experimental Hematology. ... such as polycythemia vera, and less commonly, essential thrombocythemia. In these cases, myelofibrosis occurs as a result of ...
Tefferi A (May 2003). "A contemporary approach to the diagnosis and management of polycythemia vera". Curr. Hematol. Rep. 2 (3 ... When the hematocrit rises to 60 or 70%, which it often does in polycythemia, the blood viscosity can become as great as 10 ...
It is often misdiagnosed as polycythemia, polycythemia vera, hyperviscosity syndrome, or sepsis. Most SCLS patients succumb to ...
"Expression of Bcl-x in erythroid precursors from patients with polycythemia vera". The New England Journal of Medicine. 338 (9 ... suggested to play additional roles in regulating this process in erythrocytes which could lead to a role in polycythemia vera, ...
Pahl HL (2003). "PRV-1 mRNA expression and other molecular markers in polycythemia rubra vera". Curr. Hematol. Rep. 2 (3): 231- ... 2003). "Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the PRV-1 gene in polycythemia vera: implications for its role in ... 2002). "Overexpression of the polycythemia rubra vera-1 gene in essential thrombocythemia". J. Clin. Oncol. 20 (20): 4249-54. ... which is overexpressed in polycythemia rubra vera". Blood. 95 (8): 2569-76. doi:10.1182/blood.V95.8.2569. PMID 10753836. ...
Progressive abdominal distention in a 51-year-old woman with polycythemia vera". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires , ...
Two examples of bleeding disorders are von Willebrand disease and polycythemia vera. The body normally gets the iron it ...
High platelet counts can occur in patients with polycythemia vera (high red blood cell counts), and is an additional risk ... These include: essential thrombocythemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, polycythemia vera, and primary myelofibrosis. Extremely ...
Jak2 mutation, when demonstrable, is one of the methods of diagnosing polycythemia vera. Janus kinase 2 has been shown to ... Pargade V, Darnige L, Gaussem P (2006). "[Acquired mutation of JAK2 tyrosine kinase and polycythaemia vera]". Annales de ... Mutations in JAK2 have been implicated in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis as well as other ...
May 2009). "TET2 mutations and their clinical correlates in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis". ...
"Peripheral arterial occlusion and amaurosis fugax as the first manifestation of polycythemia vera. A case report". Blut. 48 (3 ... Systemic lupus erythematosus Periarteritis nodosa Eosinophilic vasculitis Hyperviscosity syndrome Polycythemia ...
But I got my official diagnosis today so why not? I do in fact have a type of blood cancer called Polycythemia Vera. It's ... In November 2022, Williams was diagnosed with polycythemia vera, a type of blood cancer. In September 2020, Williams began ...
Mutations in Jak2 kinases associated with EpoR can also lead to polycythemia vera. Primary role of EpoR is to promote ... "A unique clonal JAK2 mutation leading to constitutive signalling causes polycythaemia vera". Nature. 434 (7037): 1144-8. ...
"Polycythemia vera - MayoClinic.com". Polycythemia vera: Definition. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2011-09-03. "What Is Polycythemia ... Clinical symptoms of polycythemia vera are mostly due to hyperviscosity of blood. A classic symptom of polycythemia vera is ... "Polycythemia Vera Follow-up". Retrieved 2011-09-03. Verstovsek, S. (2016). "Highlights in polycythemia vera from the 2016 EHA ... "The diagnosis and management of polycythemia vera in the era since the Polycythemia Vera Study Group: a survey of American ...
Update - Polycythemia Vera Research in Pennsylvania-Schuylkill, Luzerne, and Carbon Counties (September 2012) Cdc-pdf. [PDF - ... Determination of accuracy of Polycythemia Vera diagnoses and use of the JAK2V617F test in the diagnostic scheme Cdc-pdf. [PDF ... Updated and expanded study of polycythemia vera and other myeloproliferative neoplasms in the tri-county area Cdc-pdf. [PDF - ... Fact sheet: Geographic study of polycythemia vera occurrence in central Pennsylvania (2001-2007) Cdc-pdf. [PDF - 105 KB] ...
Polycythaemia vera (PV) is a rare blood cancer that affects the bone marrow. ... Polycythaemia vera (PV). Polycythaemia vera (PV) is a rare blood cancer that affects the bone marrow. It is sometimes called ... What is polycythaemia vera (PV)?. Polycythaemia vera (PV) is a type of rare blood cancer that causes your body to make too many ... Tests and treatment for polycythaemia vera (PV). The first test to diagnose polycythaemia vera is usually a blood test. Read ...
Polycythemia vera (PV) is a disorder of the multipotent hematopoietic stem cell that manifests as excess production of normal ... Management of polycythemia vera. Treatment of polycythemia vera depends on whether the disease is in the plethoric phase or the ... Treatment of polycythemia vera: a summary of clinical trials conducted by the polycythemia vera study group. Wasserman LR, Berk ... Signs and symptoms of polycythemia vera. Some patients with polycythemia vera are asymptomatic, whereas others have various ...
He chose to do a presentation on polycythemia vera because Sam has had PV for several years. We were so impressed with Jakes ... for polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis, known collectively as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). ...
Polycythemia Vera - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... is used in polycythemia vera and in post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis. In polycythemia vera, it is usually given starting at ... Prognosis for Polycythemia Vera A large study of patients with polycythemia vera reported a median survival of 14.1 years, and ... Pathophysiology of Polycythemia Vera Polycythemia vera involves increased production of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood ...
Learn about polycythemia vera pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, complications, and treatment in hematology video. ...
Polycythemia vera. Somatic mutations in the JAK2 gene are associated with polycythemia vera, a disorder characterized by ... Many of the signs and symptoms of polycythemia vera are related to a lack of oxygen in body tissues. ... Narrative review: Thrombocytosis, polycythemia vera, and JAK2 mutations: The phenotypic mimicry of chronic myeloproliferation. ... The V617F mutation is found in approximately 96 percent of people with polycythemia vera. About 3 percent of affected ...
Polycythemia vera. PV is characterized primarily by an increase in red blood cells. Patients may present with headaches, ... polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). These all share some overlapping ... "Polycythemia" refers to an increase in red blood cells, which may be the result of numerous conditions; therefore, care must be ...
... en_ ... Comorbidities Associated with Polycythemia Vera and Factors Influencing Cost and Mortality in Inpatient Hospital Settings. ... RESULTS: There were a total of 156,490 episodes of care involving polycythemia vera between 2004 and 2008. Average age upon ... RESULTS: There were a total of 156,490 episodes of care involving polycythemia vera between 2004 and 2008. Average age upon ...
Natural Remedies for Polycythemia Vera to Get Rid of It. Natural Remedies for Polycythemia Vera Polycythemia Vera is also ... Home/polycythemia vera symptoms. polycythemia vera symptoms. * Herbal Remedies. Natural Health NewsDecember 3, 2020. 928 ... Polycythemia Vera Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment. What Is Polycythemia Vera? It is a slow-growing form of blood ...
Polycythemia vera (PV) is a disorder of the multipotent hematopoietic stem cell that manifests as excess production of normal ... Treatment of polycythemia vera: a summary of clinical trials conducted by the polycythemia vera study group. Wasserman LR, Berk ... encoded search term (Pediatric Polycythemia Vera) and Pediatric Polycythemia Vera What to Read Next on Medscape ... First Drug for Polycythemia Vera Approved by FDA * Comparison of the Mutational Profiles of Primary Myelofibrosis, Polycythemia ...
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The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) will update community members on the polycythemia vera (PV) ... to update area residents on recent efforts regarding polycythemia vera (PV). ...
This is a cool white and sport grey shirt that has the word "When fighting cancer is in your blood polycythemia vera " in black ... Let this When fighting cancer is in your blood polycythemia vera shirt show your support. When fighting cancer is in your blood ...
... and other members of the clinical team involved in the care of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) using an innovative “ ...
Determination of accuracy of polycythemia vera diagnoses and use of the JAK2V617F test in the diagnostic scheme Cite ... Updated and Expanded Study of Polycythemia Vera and Other Myeloproliferative Neoplasms in the Tri-County Area Cite ... 2014). Determination of accuracy of polycythemia vera diagnoses and use of the JAK2V617F test in the diagnostic scheme. 93(9). ... "Determination of accuracy of polycythemia vera diagnoses and use of the JAK2V617F test in the diagnostic scheme" vol. 93, no. 9 ...
Patients were eligible if 18 years or older with early stage polycythaemia vera (no history of cytoreductive treatment or less ... Ropeginterferon alfa-2b versus standard therapy for polycythaemia vera (PROUD-PV and CONTINUATION-PV): a randomised, non- ... INTERPRETATION: In patients with early polycythaemia vera, who predominantly presented without splenomegaly, ropeginterferon ... the standard therapy for patients with polycythaemia vera, over 3 years of treatment.. METHODS: PROUD-PV and its extension ...
Polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia. Therapy of PV and ET relies on short-term anti-platelet drugs142 and selected ... TET2 Mutations in Polycythemia Vera (PV) in Some Cases Follow Rather Than Precede JAK2 V617F Mutation, Are Not a Disease- ... Nussenzveig RH, Swierczek SI, Jelinek J, Gaikwad A, Liu E, Verstovsek S. Polycythemia vera is not initiated by JAK2V617F ... The identification of the JAK2 mutation in polycythemia vera and other Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) has made ...
polycythemia vera. *polycythemia, thrombocytosis. *pregnancy or recent postpartum condition. *recent injury, including limb ...
Polycythaemia Vera rarely presents with portal vein thrombosis below age of 55 years especially in absence of any chronic liver ... Polycythaemia Vera was diagnosed with a positive JAK2 mutation and increased haemoglobin. Laparoscopy was done to perform ... Polycythaemia Vera (PV) is a myeloproliferative disorder in which bone marrow has increased production of red blood cells, ... Polycythaemia Vera rarely presents with portal vein thrombosis below age of 55 years especially in absence of any chronic liver ...
V617F JAK2 mutation is a reliable molecular marker of polycythemia vera (PV), potentially useful to monitor the effect of ... V617F JAK2 mutation is a reliable molecular marker of polycythemia vera (PV), potentially useful to monitor the effect of ... peginterferon, polycythemia vera, biological markers, neoplasm, residual, polymerase chain reaction, mutation, clone cells ... Polycythemia vera treated with recombinant interferon-alpha 2a: evidence of a selective effect on the malignant clone. Am J ...
Polycythemia vera; cerebral infarction; diabetes. B cell lymphocytic leukemia; hypertension. Acute myeloid leukemia (M2a). ...
Post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis.. *Post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis.. Fedratinib hydrochloride is also being ...
Polycythemia vera dosing for Besremi, ropeginterferon alfa-2b-njft (ropeginterferon alfa 2b), frequency-based adverse effects, ... Polycythemia Vera. Indicated for treatment of polycythemia vera. Not currently on hydroxyurea. *Initial dose: 100 mcg SC ... Untreated polycythemia vera during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal outcomes such as thrombosis and hemorrhage ... Adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with polycythemia vera include increased risk for miscarriage ...
Hematologic disorders (leukemia, lymphoma, hemolytic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, infectious mononucleosis, polycythemia vera) ... Artifactual (polycythemia, failure to separate serum promptly). HDL/HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Ideal Range: 55-75. Causes of ...
Polycythemia vera (blood disease) or. *Protein C deficiency (rare hereditary disease), known or suspected or ...
Polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are linked to increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and ... Policitemia Vera/complicações; Policitemia Vera/tratamento farmacológico; Policitemia Vera/epidemiologia; Trombocitemia ... Statin use, survival and incidence of thrombosis among older patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia. ... Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases; Policitemia Vera; Trombocitemia Essencial; Trombose; Estados Unidos/ ...
What foods should people with polycythemia vera eat? And more diet FAQ. While there is no special diet plan for polycythemia ... vera, eating a well-balanced diet that limits foods high in purines and oxalates can help lower… ...
Polycythaemia vera (PV). Polycythaemia vera (PV) is one of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) where the blood produces ...
  • A classic symptom of polycythemia vera (and the related myeloproliferative disease essential thrombocythemia) is erythromelalgia. (wikipedia.org)
  • MPN Research Foundation has a single goal: to stimulate original research in pursuit of new treatments - and eventually a cure - for polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis, known collectively as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). (mpnresearchfoundation.org)
  • polycythemia vera (PV) , essential thrombocythemia (ET) , and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) . (lls.org)
  • Mutations profile of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia among Japanese children. (medscape.com)
  • JAK2V617F allele burden and thrombosis: a direct comparison in essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera. (medscape.com)
  • Statin use, survival and incidence of thrombosis among older patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) are linked to increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality . (bvsalud.org)
  • Natural Remedies for Polycythemia Vera Polycythemia Vera is also called polycythemia Rubra Vera. (natural-health-news.com)
  • In oncology, polycythemia vera is an uncommon myeloproliferative neoplasm (chronic leukemia) in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycythemia vera is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by an increase in morphologically normal red cells (its hallmark), but also white cells and platelets. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Crielaard BJ, Rivella S. ß-Thalassemia and Polycythemia vera: targeting chronic stress erythropoiesis. (medscape.com)
  • Polycythaemia Vera rarely presents with portal vein thrombosis below age of 55 years especially in absence of any chronic liver disease. (aku.edu)
  • Chronic myeloproliferative disease (CMPD) including polycythemia vera and thrombocythemias (histology codes 9950, 9960-9962) are included in the "Miscellaneous" and "All Sites" categories. (cdc.gov)
  • The revised World Health Organization diagnostic criteria for polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, and primary myelofibrosis: an alternative proposal. (medscape.com)
  • Post- polycythemia vera myelofibrosis. (cancer.gov)
  • People with untreated polycythemia vera have a substantial risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome (hepatic vein thrombosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • A mutation in the JAK2 kinase (V617F) is strongly associated with polycythemia vera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic mutations in the JAK2 gene are associated with polycythemia vera, a disorder characterized by uncontrolled blood cell production. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Elevated serum erythropoietin levels in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome secondary to polycythemia vera: clinical implications for the role of JAK2 mutation analysis. (medscape.com)
  • The identification of the JAK2 mutation in polycythemia vera and other Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) has made an extremely important contribution to our understanding of the basic biology of these disorders. (haematologica.org)
  • Polycythaemia Vera was diagnosed with a positive JAK2 mutation and increased haemoglobin. (aku.edu)
  • Clinical symptoms of polycythemia vera are mostly due to hyperviscosity of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some patients with polycythemia vera are asymptomatic, whereas others have various nonspecific symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Many of the signs and symptoms of polycythemia vera are related to a lack of oxygen in body tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Once polycythemia vera is suspected, the first step in evaluating a patient is determining whether the patient has primary, secondary, or apparent polycythemia. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast, the ferritin level is usually normal in secondary polycythemia. (medscape.com)
  • In polycythemia vera, in contrast to secondary erythrocytosis, the red cell mass increase is often initially masked by an increase in the plasma volume that leaves the hematocrit in the normal range. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Interferon alfa: effects of long-term treatment for polycythemia vera. (medscape.com)
  • Recombinant interferon-alpha for treatment of polycythaemia vera. (medscape.com)
  • The PROUD-PV and CONTINUATION-PV trials aimed to compare the novel monopegylated interferon ropeginterferon alfa-2b with hydroxyurea, the standard therapy for patients with polycythaemia vera, over 3 years of treatment. (qxmd.com)
  • The V617F mutation is found in approximately 96 percent of people with polycythemia vera. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Polycythemia vera is not initiated by JAK2V617F mutation. (medscape.com)
  • The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) will update community members on the polycythemia vera (PV) research projects in the tri-county area of Schuylkill, Luzerne, and Carbon Counties, PA on September 20, 2012 in Tamaqua, PA. (cdc.gov)
  • The federal Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) will hold a public meeting in the Tamaqua Area Auditorium at Tamaqua High School, 500 Penn St, Tamaqua, PA, on Saturday, October 24, 2009 from 10:00 to 11:30 a.m. to update area residents on recent efforts regarding polycythemia vera (PV). (cdc.gov)
  • In the plethoric phase, polycythemia vera is treated first by performing phlebotomy until the hematocrit is under reasonable control. (medscape.com)
  • Diagnostic criteria for polycythemia vera were modified by the World Health Organisation in 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycythemia vera (PV), being a primary polycythemia (increase in the fraction of volume occupied by red cells in the blood), is caused by neoplastic proliferation and maturation of erythroid, megakaryocytic and granulocytic elements to produce what is referred to as panmyelosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically in primary polycythemia, the ferritin level is low due to constant overproduction of erythrocytes. (medscape.com)
  • Landolfi R, Marchioli R, Kutti J, Gisslinger H, Tognoni G, Patrono C. Efficacy and safety of low-dose aspirin in polycythemia vera. (medscape.com)
  • People with polycythemia vera can be asymptomatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients were eligible if 18 years or older with early stage polycythaemia vera (no history of cytoreductive treatment or less than 3 years of previous hydroxyurea treatment) diagnosed by WHO's 2008 criteria. (qxmd.com)
  • Trends in the incidence of polycythemia vera among Olmsted County, Minnesota residents, 1935-1989. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Treatment of polycythemia vera depends on whether the disease is in the plethoric phase or the spent phase. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment of polycythemia vera: a summary of clinical trials conducted by the polycythemia vera study group. (medscape.com)
  • Thrombocythemia and polycythemia in patients younger than 20 years at diagnosis: clinical and biologic features, treatment, and long-term outcome. (medscape.com)
  • Such itching is present in approximately 40% of patients with polycythemia vera. (wikipedia.org)
  • The WHO criteria for polycythemia vera are specifically outlined in Table 4, and emphasis is given to accurate histological observations as proven predictors in the prognosis of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data on the effect of life-span of an individual with treated polycythemia vera is inconclusive due to the rarity of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of patient, payer, clinical and disease-related factors in charges and mortality among adult inpatient cases of polycythemia vera in the United States from 2004 to 2008. (arizona.edu)
  • Patients with polycythemia vera are more likely to have gouty arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Untreated, polycythemia vera can be fatal, with the median survival in patients being 1.5-3 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marchioli R, Finazzi G, Landolfi R, Kutti J, Gisslinger H, Patrono C. Vascular and neoplastic risk in a large cohort of patients with polycythemia vera. (medscape.com)
  • Polycythaemia vera (PV) is a rare blood cancer that affects the bone marrow. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Polycythaemia vera (PV) is a type of rare blood cancer that causes your body to make too many red blood cells. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Let this When fighting cancer is in your blood polycythemia vera shirt show your support. (lelemoon.com)
  • This is a cool white and sport grey shirt that has the word "When fighting cancer is in your blood polycythemia vera " in black and red letters on the chest of the shirt. (lelemoon.com)
  • Bone marrow and aspirate in polycythemia vera tend to be hypercellular. (medscape.com)
  • Polycythaemia Vera (PV) is a myeloproliferative disorder in which bone marrow has increased production of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. (aku.edu)
  • A classic symptom of polycythemia vera is pruritus or itching, particularly after exposure to warm water (such as when taking a bath), which may be due to abnormal histamine release or prostaglandin production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycythemia vera (PV) is a disorder of the multipotent hematopoietic stem cell that manifests as excess production of normal erythrocytes and variable overproduction of leukocytes and platelets. (medscape.com)
  • Polycythemia vera involves increased production of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In polycythemia vera, RBC production proceeds independently of the serum erythropoietin level, which is usually low but can be normal. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In polycythemia vera, iron absorption is increased due to suppression of hepcidin production. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Jake is a 7th grader at Egan Junior in Los Altos, CA. He chose to do a presentation on polycythemia vera because Sam has had PV for several years. (mpnresearchfoundation.org)
  • Most of the health concerns associated with polycythemia vera are caused by the blood being thicker as a result of the increased red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ropeginterferon alfa-2b versus standard therapy for polycythaemia vera (PROUD-PV and CONTINUATION-PV): a randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial and its extension study. (qxmd.com)
  • Alternatively, the patient may present with a complication of polycythemia vera. (medscape.com)
  • Polycythaemia vera presenting as a porta hepatis mass" by Shanila Ahmed, Omar Irfan et al. (aku.edu)