Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Hyperandrogenism: A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Hirsutism: A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant: Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS with progressive deterioration of renal function.Oligomenorrhea: Abnormally infrequent menstruation.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.TRPP Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive: A genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS and associated LIVER lesions. Serious manifestations are usually present at BIRTH with high PERINATAL MORTALITY.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Cyproterone Acetate: An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Electrocoagulation: Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Theca Cells: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.Virilism: Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.Diathermy: The induction of local hyperthermia by either short radio waves or high-frequency sound waves.Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Electroacupuncture: A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Acanthosis Nigricans: A circumscribed melanosis consisting of a brown-pigmented, velvety verrucosity or fine papillomatosis appearing in the axillae and other body folds. It occurs in association with endocrine disorders, underlying malignancy, administration of certain drugs, or as in inherited disorder.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Menstruation-Inducing Agents: Chemical compounds that induce menstruation either through direct action on the reproductive organs or through indirect action by relieving another condition of which amenorrhea is a secondary result. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Receptors, FSH: Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Adrenarche: A stage of development at which the ADRENAL GLANDS undergo maturation leading to the capability of producing increasing amounts of adrenal androgens, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of PUBERTY and continues throughout puberty.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Testosterone Propionate: An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyAromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Nafarelin: A potent synthetic agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with 3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine substitution at residue 6. Nafarelin has been used in the treatments of central PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY and ENDOMETRIOSIS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Endocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Sex Reassignment Procedures: Clinical treatments used to change the physiological sexual characteristics of an individual.Glucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It was initially established to investigate the broad aspects of human development as a means of understanding developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, and the events that occur during pregnancy. It now conducts and supports research on all stages of human development. It was established in 1962.Contraceptives, Oral, Combined: Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes.Hair Removal: Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Teede H (2007). "Insulin sensitizers in polycystic ovary syndrome". In Kovács GT; Norman RW. Polycystic ovary syndrome. ... Metformin is primarily used for type 2 diabetes, but is increasingly being used in polycystic ovary syndrome due to the linkage ... Velazquez EM; Mendoza S; Hamer T; Sosa F; Glueck CJ (May 1994). "Metformin therapy in polycystic ovary syndrome reduces ... It is also used in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Limited evidence suggests metformin may prevent the ...
... polycystic ovary syndrome; excess weight; and conditions associated with metabolic syndrome. The American Diabetes Association ...
"Woman's Hour: polycystic ovaries Syndrome". BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 3 March 2014. Helen Mason "Helene Mason". Biomed Experts. ... Scientific advisor to the Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) self-help group Verity Executive director of PCOS-UK Fellow of Royal ... PCOS Forum: research in polycystic ovary syndrome today and tomorrow. (2011) Pasquali R, Stener-Victorin E, Yildiz BO, Duleba ... which provides support for health-care professionals dealing with polycystic ovary syndrome. She is a fellow of the Royal ...
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. *A previous diagnosis of gestational diabetes or prediabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or ... "Risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review and a meta-analysis". ... In addition to this, statistics show a double risk of GDM in smokers. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is also a risk factor,[12 ... People may prefer metformin by mouth to insulin injections. Treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome with metformin during ...
Gautam Allahbadia; Rina Agrawal; Rubina Merchant (2007). Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Anshan. pp. 184-. ISBN 978-1-904798-74-3.. ... NADIR R. FARID; Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis (27 February 2009). Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. ... such as those that occur in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Antiandrogens are also used as a component of feminizing hormone ... W. Futterweit (6 December 2012). Polycystic Ovarian Disease. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 282-. ISBN 978-1-4613-8289- ...
Kalra, Bharti; Kalra, Sanjay; Sharma, J. B. (2016). "The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome". Indian Journal of ... Bizzarri, M.; Carlomagno, G. (July 2014). "Inositol: history of an effective therapy for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome". European ... "Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Insights into the Therapeutic Approach with Inositols". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 8. doi:10.3389/ ...
A study found that multiple dosages of flutamide significantly reduced hirsutism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and ... 573-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. "Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - Treatment - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 2011-10-17. Retrieved 2013-01-04. ... in polycystic ovary syndrome or congenital adrenal hyperplasia), and is effective in improving the symptoms of these conditions ... Current Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Cambridge University Press. pp. 132-. ISBN 978-1-906985-41-7. Nguyen HL, ...
"Polycystic ovary syndrom". Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 27: 877-902. 1998. "Polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical perspectives ... It is a rare disease which is a subset of poly-cystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]. Polycystic ovary syndrome is basically a condition ... "POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME". Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 26 (4): 896-912. 1 December 1997. MD, Scott ... It is found out that women affected by this syndrome or PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) are generally accompanied by obesity. ...
"Polycystic ovary and gonadoblastoma in Turner's syndrome". Minerva Pediatr. 59 (4): 397-401. PMID 17947845. Bianco B, Lipay MV ... should be performed to remove both the primary tumor and the dysgenic contralateral ovary. If uninvolved, the uterus should be ...
Boomsma CM, Fauser BC, Macklon NS (January 2008). "Pregnancy complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome". Seminars ... Lilja AE, Mathiesen ER (2006). "Polycystic ovary syndrome and metformin in pregnancy". Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica ... Lilja AE, Mathiesen ER (2006). "Polycystic ovary syndrome and metformin in pregnancy". Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica ... polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hypothyroidism, certain infectious diseases, and autoimmune diseases. PCOS may increases the ...
NADIR R. FARID; Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis (27 February 2009). Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. ... that seen in polycystic ovary syndrome). In addition, seborrhea, as well as acne, are commonly associated with puberty due to ...
Pal, Lubna (2013). Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Current and Emerging Concepts. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 97. ISBN ...
"The effect of laparoscopic multiple punch resection of the ovary on hypothalamo-pituitary axis in polycystic ovary syndrome". ... "Polycystic ovaries treated by laparoscopic laser vaporization". Fertility and Sterility. 51 (2): 232-236. doi:10.1016/s0015- ... Ndefo, Uche Anadu; Eaton, Angie; Green, Monica Robinson (2013-06-01). "Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review of treatment options ... Berger, Joshua J.; Bates, G. Wright (2014-01-01). "Optimal management of subfertility in polycystic ovary syndrome". ...
This includes those who have polycystic ovary syndrome. Use results in a greater chance of twins. It is taken by mouth once a ...
High rates of polycystic ovary syndrome and menstrual disorders have also been observed in women treated with valproic acid. ... There is evidence that shows valproic acid may increase the chance of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women with epilepsy ... Bilo, Leonilda; Meo, Roberta (October 2008). "Polycystic ovary syndrome in women using valproate: a review". Gynecological ...
Other masses include endometriomas, polycystic ovaries, and benign neoplasms. In postmenopausal women, adnexal masses may be ... polycystic ovaries, and tubo-ovarian abscess. In females of reproductive age, adnexal masses can be physiologic or complex ... structures closely related structurally and functionally to the uterus such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or any of the ...
"Disturbed stress responses in women with polycystic ovary syndrome". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 34 (5): 727-35. doi:10.1016/j. ...
In women, clitoromegaly and polycystic ovary syndrome can develop. This impairs fertility for women, and only a few documented ... Metformin reduces appetite and improves symptoms of hepatic steatosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Leptin can also be used to ...
CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Alka Kriplani; Garima Kachhawa (2014). "Polycystic ovary syndrome: Novel insights ... CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Alka Kriplani; Garima Kachhawa (2014). "Polycystic ovary syndrome: Novel insights ...
Naessén, S; Carlström, K; Garoff, L; Glant, R; Hirschberg, AL (2006). "Polycystic ovary syndrome in bulimic women-an evaluation ... McCluskey, S; Evans, C; Lacey, JH; Pearce, JM; Jacobs, H (1991). "Polycystic ovary syndrome and bulimia". Fertility and ... Lujan, ME; Chizen, DR; Pierson, RA (2008). "Diagnostic Criteria for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Pitfalls and Controversies". ... Jahanfar, S; Eden, JA; Nguyent, TV (1995). "Bulimia nervosa and polycystic ovary syndrome". Gynecological Endocrinology. 9 (2 ...
"Hirsutism and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)" (PDF). American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Retrieved 5 May 2013. Sivin ... "Hirsutism and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome" (PDF). American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Retrieved 5 May 2013. " ... but is also prescribed for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome, menstrual disorders such as dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia ... are frequently successful at alleviating symptoms associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Birth control pills are often ...
NADIR R. FARID; Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis (27 February 2009). Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. ... that seen in polycystic ovary syndrome). In addition, seborrhoea, as well as acne, are commonly associated with puberty ... "Effects of a pure antiandrogen on gonadotropin secretion in normal women and in polycystic ovarian disease". Fertil. Steril. 52 ...
It is also being investigated for its involvement in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), though there is debate as to its direct ... 2007). "Polymorphism of the follistatin gene in polycystic ovary syndrome". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 13 (4): 237-41. doi:10.1093/ ... Follistatin and BMPs are also known to play a role in folliculogenesis within the ovary. The main role of follistatin in the ... Although FS is ubiquitous its highest concentration has been found to be in the female ovary, followed by the skin. The activin ...
... to look for polycystic ovary syndrome. Autoimmune disease - ANA, antidouble-stranded DNA, rheumatoid factor, thyroid antibodies ...
Poretsky, L (2006). "Polycystic ovary syndrome: Increased or preserved ovarian sensitivity to insulin?". J Clin Endocrinol ... Nandi, A; Chen, Z; Patel, R; Poretsky, L (2014). "Polycystic ovary syndrome". Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North ... Bloomgarden, Z; Futterweit, W; Poretsky, L (2001). "Use of insulin sensitizing agents in patients with polycystic ovary ... Subsequently, Poretsky's work became important for understanding more common disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS ...
... polycystic ovary syndrome; excess weight; and conditions associated with metabolic syndrome. The American Diabetes ...
Ever heard of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? If youre a woman who has had trouble getting pregnant, you might have. Just ... Multiple small cysts on the ovaries. Just having ovarian cysts isnt enough for a diagnosis. Lots of women without PCOS have ... cysts on their ovaries and lots of women with PCOS dont have cysts. ...
... the ovaries produce higher than normal amounts of certain hormones, which can interfere with egg development and release. Learn ... Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this page, you will be leaving ... The Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Association has a website just for teens, which includes discussion boards, chats, mentors, and ... Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Association. http://www.pcosupport.org ...
... and management of polycystic ovary syndrome, which affects between 4% and 8% of women. ... Increased LH, in turn, leads to an increase in androgen production by the theca cells within the ovary.[3,8] ...
... is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts ... Cystic disease of ovaries, PCOD - Polycystic ovarian disease, Polycystic ovaries, Multicystic ovaries, polycystic ovary, Stein- ... Polycystic Ovary, Polycystic ovaries (disorder), Syndrome, Stein-Leventhal, Ovarian Syndrome, Polycystic, Sclerocystic Ovary ... Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Ovary, Sclerocystic, Ovarian Syndromes, Polycystic, Ovary Syndrome, Polycystic, Polycystic ovarian ...
... the ovaries produce higher than normal amounts of certain hormones, which can interfere with egg development and release. Learn ... What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?. Polycystic (pronounced: pol-ee-SISS-tik) ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common health problem ... What Causes Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?. Doctors cant say for sure what causes it, but PCOS seems to be related to an imbalance ... How Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treated?. Theres no cure for PCOS, but there are several ways to treat and manage it. ...
... The treatment often recommended by specialists for PCOS is the contraceptive pill, in order to regulate the ... There is no universally agreed definition of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).. In the UK up to one third of women have ... I have been diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Theres no information at my doctors surgery and Im told theres ... polycystic ovaries (as defined by ultrasound examination); and around one third of these have PCOS as defined by abnormal blood ...
Polycystic ovary syndrome.. Br Med J 1976; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.6038.737 (Published 25 September 1976) Cite ...
... resulting in problems affecting many body systems.Most women with polycystic ovary syndrome produce excess male sex hormones ( ... Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that affects women in their child-bearing years and alters the levels of multiple ... Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common cause of infertility due to absent ovulation. The prevalence of polycystic ovary ... further increase the production of androgens in polycystic ovary syndrome.. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are also at ...
... happens when a womans ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. Learn the symptoms of PCOS. ... Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) * Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) (National ... Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (For Teens) (Nemours Foundation) * Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) for Teens (Hormone Health Network ... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) happens when a womans ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. PCOS ...
... on the ovaries associated with high male hormone levels, chronic anovulation (absent ovulation), and other metabolic ... Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Definition Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition characterized by the accumulation of ... Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Definition. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition characterized by the accumulation of ... Polycystic ovary syndrome. Definition. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), formerly Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a disorder in ...
... Some women with PCOS have been found to show an increased risk of developing diabetes, high ... In the UK up to one-third of women have polycystic ovaries (as defined by ultrasound examination), and around one-third of ... Im unable to define polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) exactly, because there is no universally agreed definition. ... I have been told that I may be suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). ...
Join PCOS Challenge: The National Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Association for a special Congressional Briefing on PCOS.. Date and ...
There is no single test that can be used to diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Instead, there are various factors that ... Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Diagnosis. News-Medical. 07 December 2019. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Polycystic-Ovary- ... Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Diagnosis. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Polycystic-Ovary-Syndrome-Diagnosis. ... Ultrasound scan with evidence of polycystic ovaries. Family and Medical History. As women with a family history of certain ...
There is no cure for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the symptoms of the condition can be managed to improve the quality ... Female reproductive system, the uterus and ovaries scheme, polycystic ovary syndrome, ovarian cyst - Image Copyright: ... Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment. News-Medical. 18 February 2020. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Polycystic-Ovary- ... Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Polycystic-Ovary-Syndrome-Treatment. ...
Through genetics, scientists are starting to understand polycystic ovary syndrome and may have specific therapies in the not-so ... Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrine conditions in reproductive-age women, affecting up to 15% of ... WEDNESDAY, May 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common cause of infertility and type 2 diabetes, but ... "Were starting to make headway on what causes PCOS [polycystic ovary syndrome]. Its very frustrating for patients because its ...
... ANSWER PCOS cant be cured, but there are treatments available to treat the ... What can help your chances of getting pregnant if you have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? ...
... into polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to date, new research conducted by scientists at the University of Cambridge and ten ... We estimate that one in every five women in the UK have polycystic ovaries and therefore research such as this is critical to ... In the largest genome wide association study (GWAS) into polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to date, new research conducted by ... Shining a light on polycystic ovary syndrome Written by undefined on Invalid date ...
... www.healthcentral.com/article/what-is-polycystic-ovary-syndrome. Sexual HealthDiagnosis. What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?. ... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that affects about one in 10 women and is one of the most common causes of ... Cysts on the ovaries. The first thing your doctor will do is to take a family history. Then they will ask about your medical ... They will also do a pelvic exam with an ultrasound of your ovaries to look for any cysts. ...
... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pcos/multimedia/polycystic-ovary-syndrome/img-20007768 ...
... usually does not cause symptoms before mid-puberty, when the ovaries begin to produce hormones in ... they stay in the ovary and the ovaries appear to contain many cysts. This is the reason for the term "polycystic" in the name ... Women with polycystic ovary syndrome need to pay strict attention throughout their life to ways they can reduce their risks of ... Commonly, women with polycystic ovary syndrome not only have high levels of androgen hormones but also have high levels of ...
"I have PCOCs (polycystic ovary syndrome), so I hadnt had a period in over two years. We were trying to find out if there were ... Lauren Wilkin thought her polycystic ovaries were stopping her from falling pregnant. But then tests revealed the horrifying ...
Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a clinical reference work for primary care physicians, ... Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a clinical reference work for primary care physicians, ... The Risks of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome ...
PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome). by Colette Harris , Health, Mind & Body. Registered by ...
Cause of polycystic ovary syndrome discovered at last. Polycystic ovaries are the most common cause of fertility issues in ... Polycystic ovary syndrome affects up to one in five women worldwide, three-quarters of whom struggle to fall pregnant. The ... "Its a radical new way of thinking about polycystic ovary syndrome and opens up a whole range of opportunities for further ... The most common cause of female infertility - polycystic ovary syndrome - may be caused by a hormonal imbalance before birth. ...
Polycystic ovary syndrome, which affects one in five women, seems to be caused by a hormonal imbalance. An IVF drug may fix ... Cause of polycystic ovary syndrome discovered at last. Health 14 May 2018 Polycystic ovaries are the most common cause of ... Polycystic ovary syndrome affects up to one in five women worldwide, three-quarters of whom struggle to fall pregnant. The ... "Its a radical new way of thinking about polycystic ovary syndrome and opens up a whole range of opportunities for further ...
PCOSHyperandrogenismFolliclesInsulinHirsutismOvulationAffectsMenstrualAMENORRHEAAndrogensMultiple cystsHormonesExcessWomen may have polycystic ovariesPresence of polycystic ovariesTestosteroneDisorderSmall cystsBilateral Polycystic OvariesNormal ovariesAppearance of the ovariesEggsDiseaseFluid-filledIrregular periodsUltrasound examinationMulticysticPregnant
- Lots of women without PCOS have cysts on their ovaries and lots of women with PCOS don't have cysts. (cdc.gov)
- In girls with PCOS, the ovaries make higher than normal amounts of androgens. (kidshealth.org)
- Research also suggests that women with PCOS may produce too much insulin , which signals their ovaries to release extra male hormones. (kidshealth.org)
- The effects of PCOS on the ovaries can make a girl stop ovulating. (kidshealth.org)
- PCOS is therefore a gynaecological condition in which the ovaries produce a number of cysts which can lead to problems with hormonal imbalances and ovulation, with absent or irregular periods . (netdoctor.co.uk)
- PCOS causes cysts (fluid-filled sacs) to grow on the ovaries. (medlineplus.gov)
- One of the most important characteristics of PCOS is hyperandrogenism, the excessive production of male hormones (androgens), particularly testosterone, by the ovaries. (encyclopedia.com)
- Most, but not all, women with PCOS have multiple cysts on their ovaries. (encyclopedia.com)
- In the UK up to one-third of women have polycystic ovaries (as defined by ultrasound examination), and around one-third of these have PCOS as defined by abnormal blood tests , or additional physical characteristics such as excess body and facial hair and obesity . (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Some women with PCOS may have enlarged ovaries and investigating the presence of ovarian mass is necessary. (news-medical.net)
- An ultrasound can also help to visualize the number of follicles in the ovaries, which is a distinctive characteristic of PCOS. (news-medical.net)
- The gene helps drive testosterone production in the ovaries, and too much testosterone is one of the hormonal abnormalities seen in PCOS. (webmd.com)
- PCOS is a condition that impacts how a woman's ovaries work. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- 5 In adolescents and women of child bearing age, the most common diagnostic criteria used for PCOS are evidence of increased androgen levels, anovulatory symptoms such as amenorrhea, menorrhagia, oligomenorrhea, infertility, and/or polycystic ovaries. (advanceweb.com)
- Similarly, a woman with polycystic ovaries but no hormonal or metabolic aberrations does not have PCOS. (medscape.com)
- It is now established and recognised by hormone specialists that female pattern hair loss (FPHL) alone is now a major criteria for suspecting the presence of PCOS particularly in younger menstruating women," says Lyons, but he continues, "the presence of polycystic ovaries only really adversely affects scalp hair if there is an hereditary predisposition to hair thinning, otherwise PCOS on its own does not cause hair loss. (refinery29.com)
- According to WomensHealth.gov, in women with PCOS, the ovary doesn't produce all of the hormones it needs for an egg to fully mature. (empowher.com)
- KidsHealth.org adds with PCOS, ovaries produce higher than normal amounts of androgens which can interfere with egg development and release. (empowher.com)
- Polycystic means "many cysts," and the ovaries in women with PCOS are usually large and full of cysts, although they may not have symptoms. (diabetesnet.com)
- Research has shown that women with PCOS have a type of low-grade inflammation that stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens, which can lead to heart and blood vessel problems. (mayoclinic.org)
- Most publications on PCOS do not include the presence of polycystic ovaries as a diagnostic criterion. (mja.com.au)
- Polycystic ovaries without PCOS? (whattoexpect.com)
- The ultrasound tech at both my old obgyn and my "new" obgyn who delivered my son in July have made comments about my ovaries looking like those of someone with PCOS. (whattoexpect.com)
- Have any of you experienced a tech mentioning you have polycystic ovaries but not having PCOS and do you think having polycystic ovaries has played a role in your fertility? (whattoexpect.com)
- Even my gynea when I was going in for ovarian drilling, said he'd bet his licence I didn't have pcos, when he came to visit me later, he was 'wow, I've never seen someone so polycystic without other symptoms before, guess I owe you my licence! (whattoexpect.com)
- I have irregular cycles and polycystic ovaries but my RE was not convinced it was PCOS as I am not insulin resistant and have no other symptoms. (whattoexpect.com)
- I had the string of pearls on my ovaries and was diagnosed with thin PCOS. (whattoexpect.com)
- I just left my FS first appointment and two seconds of looking at my ovaries she knew I had PCOS. (whattoexpect.com)
- My ovaries are polycystic and I have severely irregular cycles, but because I don't have the other symptoms I was not diagnosed with PCOS. (whattoexpect.com)
- Infertility in polycystic ovary disease (PCOS) is a hormonal imbalance in women that is thought to be one of the leading causes of female infertility. (wikipedia.org)
- Most women with PCOS grow many small cysts on their ovaries. (cigna.com)
- They state that the diagnosis of PCOS is based on the presence of at least 2 of the following 3 criteria: chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism (clinical or biological), and polycystic ovaries. (medscape.com)
- According to the Rotterdam consensus and Androgen Excess & PCOS Society, ultrasound criteria consist of the presence of 12 or more follicles within the ovary, with a diameter of 2-9 mm and/or ovarian volume 10 cm 3 or greater. (medscape.com)
- PCOS is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. (benzinga.com)
- 1 Stein and Leventhal first discussed PCOS in 1935 when patients presented with a host of endocrine issues, such as amenorrhea, polycystic ovaries, and hirsutism. (nursingcenter.com)
- PCOS keeps the body from ovulating, which means eggs aren't released from the ovaries for fertilization and pregnancy cannot occur. (lifescript.com)
- Women with PCOS often have enlarged ovaries that contain small fluid-filled follicles, or cysts. (theconversation.com)
- But although up to a third of women may have polycystic ovaries seen on an ultrasound, not all have the hormonal problems and physical symptoms that define PCOS. (theconversation.com)
- If, for other reasons, a woman with PCOS does need IVF treatment, she has a increased risk of an exaggerated response to the drugs: a condition known as "hyperstimulation", where the ovaries become swollen and painful. (theconversation.com)
- If you have PCOS, the sac does not open, instead remaining in the ovary as a cyst. (healthcentral.com)
- But unless your gyn has seen test results or other symptoms of PCOS as outlined above, you may not even have it--just cysts on the ovaries (which, in fact, you don't even need to technically have PCOS! (metafilter.com)
- PCOS is widely accepted as a combination of ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess, and polycystic ovaries with the exclusion of specific disorders that may lead to similar phenotypes. (springer.com)
- Although reports of disorders resembling PCOS date prior to the seventeenth century, the first clear description belongs to Chereau, who in 1844 described "sclerocystic degeneration of the ovaries. (springer.com)
- In PCOS , the follicle never reaches a size big enough to ovulate so the ovary doesn't produce progesterone and the uterus has no signal to tell it whether to bleed or not, causing infrequent menstruation. (fertilityauthority.com)
- The name "Poly", meaning "many", and "Cystic", meaning "cysts", refers to the fact that those with PCOS may have enlarged ovaries that contain many very small cysts. (youngwomenshealth.org)
- It is not uncommon for girls with PCOS to have normal appearing ovaries but still have an imbalance in their hormone levels. (youngwomenshealth.org)
- PCOS is caused by an imbalance in the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland that in turn affects the ovaries. (youngwomenshealth.org)
- PCOS usually happens when the luteinizing hormone (LH) levels or the insulin levels are too high, which results in extra testosterone production by the ovary. (youngwomenshealth.org)
- It's a little bit of a paradox," says Dr. Dokras, "If you do an ultrasound, the ovaries of women with PCOS have lots and lots of follicles which mean they have lots of eggs. (phillymag.com)
- Dr. Dokras explains, "If it's a PCOS patient who has a regular period, then she should have no problems getting pregnant because she actually has more eggs in the ovaries. (phillymag.com)
- The AKT2 gene was chosen as a candidate for PCOS because its product affects glucose metabolism and mitogenic signaling, interacts with GSK3β, and mediates cell survival in the ovary. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Adolescents do not require an ultrasound for the evaluation of PCOS, since large ovaries with many follicles develop as part of normal puberty. (hormone.org)
- Androgen excess (male hormone excess), seen in 60-80% of girls and women with PCOS, is a key problem in the disorder and likely comes from ovaries in most women. (hormone.org)
- Polycystic ovaries are also found in women with no evidence of menstrual dysfunction or hyperandrogenism. (mja.com.au)
- 5 , 6 While women with polycystic ovaries and no evidence of menstrual dysfunction or hyperandrogenism appear normal, they do have an overexaggerated response to stimulation with gonadotrophins such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in cycles of assisted reproduction. (mja.com.au)
- In the ovary, the cardinal feature is functional hyperandrogenism ( Box 3 ). (mja.com.au)
- The diagnosis is based on the presence of two of three criteria - ovulatory disturbance, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. (mja.com.au)
- The authors also inform that Rotterdam 2003 set the second criteria, stating that diagnosis can be confirmed by the presence of two of the following after exclusion of other disorders: oligo-ovulation, hyperandrogenism, or polycystic ovaries. (brightkite.com)
- Instead, these immature follicles accumulate in the ovaries. (medlineplus.gov)
- When a woman has a high level of androgen hormones in her body, she can be unable to release eggs from their follicles in the ovaries. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Since the fluid-filled follicles don't open and empty, they stay in the ovary and the ovaries appear to contain many cysts. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Increased androgen levels cause a decrease in progesterone and estrogen, leading to a hypersecretion of gonadotropic-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, which continues to stimulate immature follicles which do not mature and form cysts in the ovary. (advanceweb.com)
- Every month, in women of childbearing age, tiny fluid-filled cysts known as follicles develop on the surface of the ovary. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Ovulation may not occur due to an increase in testosterone production or because follicles on the ovaries do not mature. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- It involves a surgeon inserting a camera through a small incision in your abdomen and using it to identify follicles on the surface of your ovaries and burn holes in them. (wikihow.com)
- Polycystic ovaries are larger than normal ovaries, and have twice the number of follicles (RCOG 2015) (the sacs in which eggs normally develop). (babycentre.co.uk)
- Cysts develop in the follicles where the ovary produces eggs. (diabetesnet.com)
- The ovaries develop numerous small collections of fluid - called follicles - and may fail to regularly release eggs. (mayoclinic.org)
- Your ovaries might be enlarged and contain follicles that surround the eggs. (mayoclinic.org)
- My CCRM doc said that my ovaries were of no concern since I'm a young woman in her fertile years so she would expect lots of follicles. (whattoexpect.com)
- I had over 20 follicles on one ovary if I remember correctly when ultrasound was done in 2014. (whattoexpect.com)
- Though surgery is not commonly performed, the polycystic ovaries can be treated with a laparoscopic procedure called "ovarian drilling" (puncture of 4-10 small follicles with electrocautery), which often results in either resumption of spontaneous ovulations or ovulations after adjuvant treatment with clomiphene or FSH. (wikipedia.org)
- In polycystic ovary disease, enlarged ovaries with thickened sclerotic capsules and an abnormally high number of follicles are present. (medscape.com)
- They note that ultrasound machines now allow diagnosis of PCOM in patients with at least 25 small follicles (2-9 mm) in the whole ovary, and ovarian size of 10 ml is the threshold between normal and increased ovary size. (medscape.com)
- Since the follicles never rupture, month after month they fill up in the ovary and create a line of small cysts right near the surface of the ovary, giving the classic "polycystic" appearance. (fertilityauthority.com)
- The term "polycystic" means "many cysts" of the ovary, but these are not so much cysts as they are immature, un-ruptured follicles. (fertilityauthority.com)
- These small cysts also called follicles develop in the ovary but the eggs are only rarely released. (youngwomenshealth.org)
- As is true for anyone with high insulin levels, women with polycystic ovaries are more likely to become obese, and they are at a high risk of developing diabetes, high blood pressure, cholesterol problems and heart disease. (womenshealthmag.com)
- High levels of insulin may cause the ovary to make too much testosterone, and not enough estrogen. (nationwidechildrens.org)
- The excess insulin that's being produced stimulates the ovary to make testosterone, which can interfere with ovulation, rendering many women infertile," said Nestler. (theatlantic.com)
- Insulin resistance can impact on your ovaries, causing them to produce excess amounts of male hormones (e.g. testosterone). (mydr.com.au)
- High levels of insulin in the blood stream stimulate the ovaries to increase androgen production. (diabetesnet.com)
- Evidence suggests that the underlying disorder of polycystic ovary disease is insulin resistance, with the elevated insulin levels stimulating excess ovarian androgen production. (medscape.com)
- The resulting high levels of insulin cause the ovary to make more testosterone than usual. (fertilityauthority.com)
- High levels of insulin can also cause the ovaries to make more testosterone. (youngwomenshealth.org)
- Physical examination includes a pelvic examination to determine the size of the ovaries, and visual inspection of the skin for hirsutism, acne, or other changes. (encyclopedia.com)
- The prevalence of polycystic ovaries (PCO) in normal women of reproductive age was determined by pelvic ultrasound scanning of 257 volunteers who considered themselves to be normal and who had not sought treatment for menstrual disturbances, infertility, or hirsutism. (nih.gov)
- The ovaries produce abnormally high levels of androgen, resulting in hirsutism and acne. (mayoclinic.org)
- Although a multiplicity of clinical presentations exists for polycystic ovary disease , in 1935, Stein and Leventhal reported the classic symptomatology in a group of women who had amenorrhea, infertility, hirsutism, and enlarged polycystic ovaries. (medscape.com)
- In actuality, polycystic ovaries are not the primary cause of amenorrhea or hirsutism in this condition. (medscape.com)
- The most recent criteria proposed by the Androgen Excess Society (AES) in 2006 suggests hirsutism and/or hyperandrogenemia, oligo-ovulation and/or polycystic ovaries, and exclusion of other related disorders. (brightkite.com)
- Then, instead of an egg being released during ovulation as in a normal period, the cysts build up in the ovaries. (kidshealth.org)
- During a normal menstrual cycle, the ovary makes estrogen (hormone), causing an egg to be released each month (ovulation). (nationwidechildrens.org)
- Ovulation happens when a mature egg is released from an ovary. (uhhospitals.org)
- When ovulation doesn't happen, the ovaries can develop many small fluid-filled sacs (cysts). (uhhospitals.org)
- Ovaries are responsible for producing hormones to regulate the menstrual cycle and ovulation. (empowher.com)
- 5 , 6 As polycystic ovaries arise through incomplete follicular development or failure of ovulation, they may also occur in early to mid-adolescence, and in women with bulimia, recovery from anorexia nervosa, conditions of increased adrenal androgen production and hyperprolactinaemia. (mja.com.au)
- Some women may need gentle stimulation of the ovary, by tablets or injections , to stimulate ovulation (this also allows women to time sex around ovulation). (theconversation.com)
- This is a surgical procedure that uses electrocauterization or lasers to destroy part of the ovary to help trigger ovulation. (healthcentral.com)
- They also sometimes allow the ovaries to start functioning normally, which could result in more regular menstrual cycles, ovulation and pregnancy. (fertilityauthority.com)
- The benefit of metformin on ovulation in women with polycystic ovaries is not seen right away. (advancedfertility.com)
- Only 1 woman with normal ovaries had an irregular menstrual cycle. (nih.gov)
- It may cause disruptions to the menstrual cycle, skin problems (such as acne) and hair changes (including excessive hair growth on the body), as well as multiple cysts on the ovaries. (mydr.com.au)
- I have the hormonal symptoms, irregular menstrual cycles and polycystic ovaries. (metafilter.com)
- In girls, the ovaries make the hormones estrogen and progesterone , and also androgens . (kidshealth.org)
- This is a surgical procedure performed under general anesthetic that involves the application of heat or lasers to the ovarian tissues that is producing androgens, correcting the hormonal imbalance and restoring normal function to the ovaries. (news-medical.net)
- Low-grade inflammation may also stimulate the ovaries to produce male hormones (androgens). (mydr.com.au)
- Their ovaries and adrenal glands produce more androgens, specifically testerone, and often less estrogen and progesterone than normal. (diabetesnet.com)
- The theca cells, which envelop the follicle and produce androgens for conversion in the ovary to oestrogen, are over-responsive to this stimulation. (mja.com.au)
- Normally, the ovaries make a tiny amount of male sex hormones (androgens). (cigna.com)
- Estrogen and progesterone are the female hormones produced by the ovaries. (womenshealthmag.com)
- It is an imbalance of hormones (chemical messengers) in the brain and ovaries. (nationwidechildrens.org)
- A diagnosis requires only two of the following three criteria to be met: elevated levels of male sex hormones (which can cause excess hair growth, acne, and baldness), irregular or absent periods, and/or at least 12 follicular cysts on one or both ovaries. (theatlantic.com)
- This is when the ovaries release too many hormones. (uhhospitals.org)
- After getting the signal from the hormones LH and FSH, the ovaries make estrogen and progesterone, the female sex hormones. (youngwomenshealth.org)
- Meanwhile, the criteria are relatively straightforward: irregular period, excessive hair growth or high male hormones, and a 'typical PCO" appearance of the ovaries on an ultrasound. (phillymag.com)
- Other hormones from the ovary or fat tissue may also be involved. (hormone.org)
- A third hormone, testosterone, also is produced by the ovaries in small amounts. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Between 4% and 7% of women produce too much testosterone in their ovaries. (womenshealthmag.com)
- The polycystic ovary makes more testosterone than usual, which makes it even harder for the ovary to ovulate. (fertilityauthority.com)
- All normal ovaries also make a little bit of the androgen testosterone. (youngwomenshealth.org)
- Sometimes, if eggs are not released, small sacs filled with fluid (cysts) may form on the ovaries. (nationwidechildrens.org)
- Medicines can help the ovaries to release eggs normally. (uhhospitals.org)
- This may correct your hormone balance and could mean your ovaries start releasing eggs every month. (bounty.com)
- Your ovaries have small, fluid-filled sacs which hold eggs. (healthcentral.com)
- Women store their eggs in their ovaries. (baycare.org)
- We estimate that one in every five women in the UK have polycystic ovaries and therefore research such as this is critical to advance our understanding and help us to better tackle the disease,' said Dr. John Perry of the Medical Research Council (MRC) Epidemiology Unit at the University of Cambridge, and study co-lead. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This is the reason for the term "polycystic" in the name of the disease. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Genetics and the way that some of the body's glands are programmed (the ovaries, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal gland) also play a role in causing this disease. (womenshealthmag.com)
- Even though the name suggests that the ovaries are central to disease pathology, cysts are a symptom instead of the cause of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
- Metformin may be used in specific cases of polycystic ovary disease. (medscape.com)
- See the images of polycystic ovary disease below. (medscape.com)
- A relatively small percentage of women that do not ovulate regularly and have polycystic ovarian disease will ovulate regularly and become pregnant from treatment with metformin alone. (advancedfertility.com)