Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
One of the early purine analogs showing antineoplastic activity. It functions as an antimetabolite and is easily incorporated into ribonucleic acids.
Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.
A concave exterior region on some POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three phenyl rings in a non-linear arrangement.
1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.
Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.
A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen. Three or more carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic structure and they possess aliphatic properties.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A widely used industrial solvent.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The contamination of indoor air.
Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.
A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Supplies used in building.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Mice selectively bred for hypersusceptibility to two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. They are also hypersusceptible to UV radiation tumorigenesis with single high-dose, but not chronic low-dose, exposures. SENCAR (SENsitive to CARcinogenesis) mice are used in research as an animal model for tumor production.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.

UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers. (1/924)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.  (+info)

Induction of CYP1A2 by phenobarbital in the livers of aryl hydrocarbon-responsive and -nonresponsive mice. (2/924)

The effects of phenobarbital treatment on the expression of the cytochrome P-450 (CYP or P-450) enzyme CYP1A2 in the livers of mice of various strains were examined. Phenobarbital induced the expression of CYP1A2 at the levels of mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity (methoxyresorufin O-demethylation and metabolic activation of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) in both aryl hydrocarbon-responsive [C57BL/6NCrj (C57BL/6), C3H/HeJSlc] and -nonresponsive (DBA/2NCrj, AKR/JSea, NZB/NSlc) mouse strains. The induction of CYP2B10, which is known as a phenobarbital-inducible P-450 in mice, was prominent in the livers of all five strains examined, whereas clear inductive effects on the P-450 CYP2B9 were not observed in female C57BL/6 and female DBA/2NCrj mice. These results indicate that CYP1A2 is a member of the family of phenobarbital-inducible genes in mice and suggest that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent induction pathway is not involved in the induction of CYP1A2. This concept is in accordance with those proposed by other laboratories recently using the AhR knockout mice. The following are new observations of this report. The magnitude of the increases in the CYP1A2 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activities were comparable among these three levels (ranging from 1.4- to 3. 1-fold), suggesting that the induction of CYP1A2 by phenobarbital is mainly determined at a pretranslational level. Cyclobarbital, pentobarbital, and secobarbital also induced CYP1A2 mRNA in primary culture hepatocytes from C57BL/6 mice. Barbital, in contrast, did not show any clear inductive effect on CYP1A2 mRNA.  (+info)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carcinogenesis. (3/924)

A symposium on "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Carcinogenesis" was presented at the third International Congress of Pathophysiology held in Lathi, Finland, 28 June-3 July 1998. The congress was also sponsored by the International Union of Biological Sciences and the International Society of Free Radical Research. Institutional support for the symposium included the Electric Power Research Institute, National Center for Toxicological Research, and EPA/National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory and the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The symposium focused on the sources, carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and risk assessment of individual and mixtures of PAHs that are found in solid wastes, Superfund sites, and other hazardous waste sites. Based on the occurrence of PAHs at numerous Superfund sites and the significant data gaps on the toxic potential of certain PAHs, the information developed during this symposium would be of value in assessing health risks of these chemicals at Superfund and other hazardous waste sites.  (+info)

Genotoxic exposures of potroom workers. (4/924)

OBJECTIVES: Potroom workers in aluminum reduction plants have increased risks for bladder and lung cancer due to exposure from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study correlations between measures of the external, internal, and biological effective dose have been studied for PAH. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained from 98 male potroom workers and 55 unexposed male blue-collar workers, for the analysis of aromatic adducts to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in lymphocytes, using the 32P-postlabeling technique. 1-Hydroxypyrene in urine was analyzed with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Personal sampling of both particulate and gas phase PAH was performed during a full workday for the potroom workers and for 5 referents. Individual PAH congeners were determined with liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques. RESULTS: The respiratory-zone airborne level of the sum of 22 particulate (median 13.2 micro/m3) and the 7 gas phase PAH-congeners (median 16.3 microg/m3) among the potroom workers was a hundred times higher than among the referents. The urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene before work was 30 times higher for the potroom workers (median 3.43 micromol/mol creatinine) than for the referents. Most airborne PAH congeners correlated with the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. The frequency of aromatic DNA adducts did not, however, differ between the potroom workers and the referents, and no correlation was found for 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an obvious occupational exposure to PAH, no increase in aromatic DNA adducts in lymphocytes was found among the potroom workers.  (+info)

Diverse oxygenations catalyzed by carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain CA10. (5/924)

Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) from Pseudomonas sp. strain CA10 is a multicomponent enzyme that catalyzes the angular dioxygenation of carbazole, dibenzofuran, and dibenzo-p-dioxin. It was revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analyses that xanthene and phenoxathiin were converted to 2,2',3-trihydroxydiphenylmethane and 2,2',3-trihydroxydiphenyl sulfide, respectively. Thus, for xanthene and phenoxathiin, angular dioxygenation by CARDO occurred at the angular position adjacent to the oxygen atom to yield hetero ring-cleaved compounds. In addition to the angular dioxygenation, CARDO catalyzed the cis dihydroxylation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biphenyl. Naphthalene and biphenyl were converted by CARDO to cis-1, 2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene and cis-2,3-dihydroxy-2, 3-dihydrobiphenyl, respectively. On the other hand, CARDO also catalyzed the monooxygenation of sulfur heteroatoms in dibenzothiophene and of the benzylic methylenic group in fluorene to yield dibenzothiophene-5-oxide and 9-hydroxyfluorene, respectively. These results indicate that CARDO has a broad substrate range and can catalyze diverse oxygenation: angular dioxygenation, cis dihydroxylation, and monooxygenation. The diverse oxygenation catalyzed by CARDO for several aromatic compounds might reflect the differences in the binding of the substrates to the reaction center of CARDO.  (+info)

Molecular epidemiologic research on the effects of environmental pollutants on the fetus. (6/924)

Evidence shows that fetuses and infants are more affected than adults by a variety of environmental toxicants because of differential exposure, physiologic immaturity, and a longer lifetime over which disease initiated in early life can develop. In this article we review data on the effects of in utero exposure to common environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particulate matter and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We then summarize results from our molecular epidemiologic study to assess risks from in utero exposures to ambient air pollution and ETS. This research study, conducted in Poland, used biomarkers to measure the internal and bioeffective dose of toxicants and individual susceptibility factors. The study included 160 mothers and 160 newborns. Ambient air pollution was significantly associated (p= 0.05) with the amount of PAH bound to DNA (PAH-DNA adducts) in both maternal and infant cord white blood cells (WBC). Newborns with elevated PAH-DNA adducts (greater than the median) had significantly decreased birth weight (p= 0.05), birth length (p= 0.02), and head circumference (p= 0.0005) compared to the newborns with lower adducts (n= 135). Maternal and infant cotinine levels were increased by active and passive cigarette smoke exposure of the mother (p= 0.01). An inverse correlation was seen between newborn plasma cotinine (nanograms per milliliter) and birth weight (p= 0.0001) and length (p= 0.003). Adducts were elevated in placental tissue and WBC of newborns who were heterozygous or homozygous for the cytochrome P4501A1 MspI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) compared to newborns without the RFLP. Levels of PAH-DNA and cotinine were higher in newborns than mothers. These results document that there is significant transplacental transfer of PAH and ETS constituents from mother to fetus; that PAH-DNA adduct levels in maternal and newborn WBC were increased with environmental exposure to PAH from ambient pollution; and that the fetus is more sensitive to genetic damage than the mother. The study also provided the first molecular evidence that transplacental PAH exposure to the fetus is compromising fetal development. If confirmed, these findings could have significant public health implications since a number of studies have found that reduction of head circumference at birth correlates with lower intelligence quotient as well as poorer cognitive functioning and school performance in childhood.  (+info)

Molecular and genetic damage from environmental tobacco smoke in young children. (7/924)

To assess the risks of early life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), we tested whether four biomarkers in peripheral blood were associated with home ETS exposure in Hispanic and African-American children. The biomarkers included cotinine (a metabolite of nicotine) and three indicators of molecular and genetic damage from mutagens/carcinogens, protein adducts formed by the carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). We also explored possible ethnic differences in biomarkers. The study cohort comprised 109 Hispanic and African-American preschool children (1-6 years of age). Plasma cotinine was analyzed by gas chromatography, 4-ABP-hemoglobin adducts by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, PAH-albumin adducts by ELISA, and SCEs by cytogenetic techniques. Data on the amount of smoking by mothers (average 10.5 cigarettes per day) and other household members and regular visitors (average 6.5 cigarettes per day) were obtained by interview-administered questionnaires. Cotinine, 4-ABP-hemoglobin adducts, and PAH-albumin were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the ETS-exposed children compared with the unexposed. SCEs were marginally higher (P = 0.076). African-American children had higher levels of cotinine (P = 0.059) and PAH-albumin (P = 0.02) than Hispanic children, after controlling for exposure to ETS. These results indicate molecular and genetic damage in minority children with  (+info)

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and genotoxic effects on nonsmoking Swedish road pavement workers. (8/924)

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from asphalt fumes among Swedish road pavement workers and determine whether any effects could be detected with genotoxic tests. METHODS: The study included 28 nonsmoking road pavers and 30 nonsmoking referents. The concentration of PAH was determined in the breathing zone of the road pavers. 1-Hydroxypyrene was analyzed before and after shifts of asphalt work and during the afternoon for referents. Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) were determined in peripheral lymphocytes. RESULTS: Several 3- or 4-ring PAH were found, and the analysis indicated that they occurred in bitumen fumes rather than in traffic fumes. The average total concentration of PAH was 2.3 (range 0.2-23.8) microg/m3. The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine was higher for the road pavers than for the referents, but there was no significant difference between the pre- and postshift values of the road pavers. The road pavers had no significant increase in SCE or MN. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that Swedish road pavers have an increased exposure to PAH from bitumen fumes, but no genotoxic effects could be detected by SCE or MN tests.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA damage in human volunteers during fire extinction exercises. AU - Andersen, Maria Helena Guerra. AU - Saber, Anne Thoustrup. AU - Clausen, Per Axel. AU - Pedersen, Julie Elbæk. AU - Løhr, Mille. AU - Kermanizadeh, Ali. AU - Loft, Steffen. AU - Ebbehøj, Niels. AU - Hansen, Åse Marie. AU - Pedersen, Peter Bøgh. AU - Koponen, Ismo Kalevi. AU - Nørskov, Eva-Carina. AU - Møller, Peter. AU - Vogel, Ulla Birgitte. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - This study investigated a number of biomarkers, associated with systemic inflammation as well as genotoxicity, in 53 young and healthy subjects participating in a course to become firefighters, while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). The exposure period consisted of a 3-day training course where the subjects participated in various live-fire training exercises. The subjects were instructed to extinguish fires of either wood or wood ...
The effect of ultra-high temperature (UHT) on production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the surface of beef steaks was determined. Beef steaks were treated with five treatments, raw, UHT, UHT/grill marks, UHT/grill marks/microwave, and charcoal grilled. Four PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene, were quantified. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) were used to purify and analyze the PAH extracts, respectively. Levels of PAH found on charcoal-grilled steaks were higher than those observed in the literature. A balanced incomplete block design was used to analyze the data. There were no significant differences among the treatments in the production of the benzofluoranthenes. There were significant increases in production of benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene when grill marks were applied to the UHT steak. Microwaving significantly decreased the levels of benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene. The
Background: This study attempted to clarify the household and mothers lifestyle factors that contribute to the greater fetal vulnerability of African-American individuals to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).. Methods: Non-smoking pregnant women with no known risks of adverse birth outcome were monitored for their personal exposure to airborne PAH. Birth outcomes were collected from the hospital medical record. Modification of the airborne PAH effects was statistically examined. In linear regression analyses, modification of PAH effect by demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral traits on birth weight and fetal growth ratio were respectively tested, adjusting for the gestational age, gender, parity, delivery season, maternal body mass index and weight gained during the present pregnancy.. Results: Maternal obesity exacerbated the airborne PAH risk by −491 g per 25th to 80th percentile unit exposure (95% CI −197 to −786 g; p,0.01) among African Americans. In addition, ...
A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in EgyptAssmaa M. El-Mekawy1, Atef M.F. Mohammed1, Salwa K. M. Hassan11Air Pollution Depa...
article{76d93444-52bd-4e4a-9e48-97e8ab47fe24, abstract = {Little is known about the spatial connection between soil microbial community composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration. A spatially explicit survey at a creosote-contaminated site demonstrated that microbial biomass (total concentration of phospholipid fatty acids [PLFAs]) and microbial community composition (PLFA fingerprints) were spatially autocorrelated, mostly within a distance of 25 m, and covaried with PAH concentrations. The concentration of PLFAs indicative of gram-negative bacteria (16:1 omega 7c, 16:1 omega 7t, 18:1 omega 7, cy17:0, and cy19:0) increased in the PAH hot spots, whereas PLFAs representing fungi and gram-positive bacteria (including actinomycetes) were negatively correlated to PAH concentrations. Most PLFAs were spatially autocorrelated, with distances varying between 4 and 25 m. Those PLFAs that increased in PAH-contaminated soil had autocorrelation ranges between 4 and 16 m, whereas the ...
Humans spend most of their lives in indoor environments; hence, indoor exposure to air pollution may constitute a large part of the total exposure to air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are well known for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and are ubiquitous in urban environments as a result of combustion from e.g. vehicular traffic. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated to air particulate matter in indoor environments originates from several sources including: cooking and heating, outdoor sources, smoking, candle and incense burning. Infiltration has been suspected to be one major source of indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, four different air filter materials intended for mechanical ventilation were tested for their capability to remove particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other genotoxic compounds from a real urban aerosol. Particles were sampled at two highly trafficked locations in Stockholm using a sampling system capable of sample ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorus-Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. AU - Szűcs, Rózsa. AU - Bouit, Pierre Antoine. AU - Nyulászi, L.. AU - Hissler, Muriel. PY - 2017/10/6. Y1 - 2017/10/6. N2 - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly appealing functional materials in the field of molecular electronics. In particular, molecular engineering of these derivatives by using organic chemistry is a powerful method to tune their properties from the point of view of the band gap and supramolecular assemblies. Another way to achieve such control is to take advantage of the specific reactivity of heteroatoms placed within the sp2-carbon framework. This strategy has been successfully applied to nitrogen, sulfur and boron. In this review, examples of phosphorus-containing PAHs and the effect of the phosphorus environment on the electronic properties from both experimental and theoretical points of view are discussed.. AB - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly appealing ...
The Koggala lagoon is a coastal wetland affected by a major oil spill and other anthropogenic pollution sources. In this study, gill and liver histological alterations and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure indicative bile fluorescence patterns of the fish species inhabiting the lagoon were examined in order to explore the potential biological impacts. Fixed wavelength fluorescence patterns in the bile of Mugil cephalus, Lutjanus russellii and Etroplus suratensis showed bioavailability of naphthalene type-, phenanthrene type-, pyrene type- and benzo(a)pyrene type- metabolites indicating recent exposure of the fishes to petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs. Histological analysis revealed the occurrence of prominent gill and liver lesions, especially in the tissues of M. cephalus and L. russellii. Of the fish species examined, which included 43 individual fishes, the liver tissues of M. cephalus (two fish) and L. russellii (one fish) displayed foci of hepatocellular alterations with nodular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the black crusts of Sicilian stone monuments: distribution and sources. AU - Gianguzza, Antonio. AU - Orecchio, Santino. AU - Piazzese, Daniela. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds with known carcinogenic potential; their properties of lipophilicity, low water solubility and adsorption to particles and sediments make them a potentially dangerous group of chemicals and a threat to the environment and its bio-resources. The concentrations of total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 19 individual compounds in 8 black crusts sampled from historical building of Palermo (Italy) were analyzed, by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. PAH concentrations ranged from 78 to 9798 g/Kg of dry matrix. The resulting distributions and molecular ratios of specific compounds have been discussed in terms of sample location and ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
Molecular cloning and expression of genes encoding a novel dioxygenase involved in low- and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 ...
Molecular cloning and expression of genes encoding a novel dioxygenase involved in low- and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 ...
Sediments from four inshore industrial sites and a reference site in the Great Lakes were extracted with solvents and characterized chemically for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). An aqueous phase and a crude organic extract were obtained. The crude organic extract was further resolved into fractions A-2 (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and A-3 (nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compounds), which were analyzed for PACs by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The extracts and fractions were tested for mutagenicity in three assays: Ames, rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis, and Chinese hamster ovary hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT). Sediments from the industrial sites contained 27 to 363 μg/g total PACs; the reference site, less than 1 μg/g. Qualitative differences in the residue profiles among the sites were attributable to the probable sources of the PACs (petroleum versus combustion). Only one industrial site yielded measurable (0.1
The clustering of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules is investigated in the context of soot particle inception and growth using an isotropic potential developed from the benchmark PAHAP potential. This potential is used to estimate equilibrium constants of dimerisation for five representative PA
We present a study of the culturable PAH-degrading bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of several salt marsh plant species in contaminated and uncontaminated estuarine sediments. In addition, a pasteurization method was successful in isolating spore-forming bacteria. Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of the rhizosphere effect on degradation of organic contaminants. Most of these studies have examined terrestrial plants and agricultural chemicals (1, 2, 27); few have looked at the influence of plant-associated microorganisms on the fate of PCBs (15, 16) and PAHs (34, 39). There have been a limited number of studies on PAH degradation involving wetland or salt marsh ecosystems, but none have studied the diversity of PAH-degrading microorganisms present (28, 30, 49).. Recently, more studies have focused on PAH degradation in marine and estuarine ecosystems (3, 11, 12, 13, 17, 20, 21, 46). No studies have been conducted on the PAH-degrading microorganisms associated with salt ...
Our findings suggest that the association between PAH exposure and a cytokine storm may be mediated by AhR and NLRP3 expression among preschoolers.
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3129 The exposure to ambient air pollution has negative health consequences including increased morbidity and mortality. Among other pollutants, ambient air contains particulate matter (PM). PM consists of dust, soot and other particles and various chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To investigate the role of PAHs and PM in oxidative stress induction we analyzed oxidative damage to DNA, lipids and proteins in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Cells were exposed to several concentrations of individual carcinogenic PAHs (cPAHs, including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), dibenzo[al]pyrene (DB[al]P), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]F), chrysene, benzo[ghi]perylene (B[ghi]P), indeno[cd]pyrene (I[cd]P) and dibenzo[ah]anthracene (DB[ah]A)), an artificial mixture of cPAHs (cPAHs mix) and to organic extracts obtained from PM10 (PM , 10 µm) collected by high volume air samplers in summer 2001, winter 2001 and winter 2005 in Prague, Czech ...
This paper proposes an analytical method for determining amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i] perylene) in ...
Article Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wastewater by using silica-based organic–inorganic nanohybrid material. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of priority pollutants, which are classified as persistent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Orbital views of the electron transport through polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different molecular sizes and edge type structures. AU - Li, Xinqian. AU - Staykov, Aleksandar Tsekov. AU - Yoshizawa, Kazunari. PY - 2010/6/3. Y1 - 2010/6/3. N2 - In this work electron-transport properties of π-conjugated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different molecular sizes and edge type structures are investigated. The applicability of a derived concept for orbital control of electron transport (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 9406) is tested on larger hydrocarbons in order to estimate its predictive power for different types of compounds. Favorable connections for effective electron transport in π-conjugated systems with weak coupling between the molecules and electrodes are predicted on the basis of the orbital symmetry rule by looking at the phase and amplitude of the frontier orbitals. Qualitative predictions based on frontier orbital analysis are compared with density functional ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Central role of radical cations in metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. AU - Cavalieri, E. L.. AU - Rogan, E. G.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - 1. Development of the chemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) radical cations has provided evidence that these intermediates play a major role in the metabolism of PAHs by P450 and in their binding to DNA. 2. Fluoro substitution of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) represents a suitable probe for studying mechanisms of oxygen transfer in the P450-catalysed formation of quinones and phenols from BP. Formation of BP-1,6-, -3,6- and -6,12-dione from the metabolism of 6-fluoroBP (6-FBP) is mediated by the intermediate 6-FBP+. Similarly, metabolism of 1-FBP and 3-FBP by rat liver microsomes produces BP-1,6-dione and BP-3,6-dione respectively. These results demonstrate that formation of quinones and phenols occurs via an initial electron transfer from BP to P450 and subsequent transfer of oxygen from the iron-oxo complex ...
AZEVEDO, Débora de A.; GERCHON, Elaine and REIS, Ederson O. dos. Monitoring of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water from Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. [online]. 2004, vol.15, n.2, pp.292-299. ISSN 0103-5053. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532004000200021.. The Paraíba do Sul River, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, was studied for its water quality, by determining the levels of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from six sites in two cities, Resende and Campos dos Goytacazes, as they have industrial and agricultural activities. This study was carried out between July 2001 and March 2002. The method involved 200 mL samples taken by off-line, solid phase extraction by OASIS polymeric cartridges followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries and standard deviation of pesticides in non polluted real water sample spiked with a standard mixture were 82-119% and less then 20%. For PAH, recoveries and standard ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Characerization and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in PM10 in Rural, China. AU - Ye, Bixiong. AU - Krafft, Thomas. AU - Yang, Linsheng. AU - Li, Yonghua. AU - Li, Hairong. AU - Wang, Wuyi. AU - Pilot, Eva. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples in particles were collected with a PM10 sampler in rural areas of Beijing. PAH samples collected on quartz fiber filters were first extracted using dichloromethane with ultrasonic methods, and then were fractionated on an alumina-silica column. Finally, the aromatic and n-alkane fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and gas chromatography- combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The level of PAHs showed distinctly seasonal changes throughout the year, with the highest concentrations in January and lowest concentration in July. Σ16PAH concentrations ranged from 153.23 to 867.41 ng·m-3 in January, from 21.53 to 527.42 ng·m-3 in April, from 1.84 to 32.02 ...
Despite the considerable knowledge of bacterial high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism, the key enzyme(s) and its pleiotropic and epistatic behavior(s) responsible for low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs in HMW PAH-metabolic networks remain poorly understood. In this study, a phenotype-based strategy, coupled with a spray plate method, selected a Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 mutant (6G11) that degrades HMW PAHs but not LMW PAHs. Sequence analysis determined that the mutant was defective in pdoA2, encoding an aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO). A series of metabolic comparisons using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the mutant had a lower rate of degradation of fluorene, anthracene, and pyrene. Unlike the wild type, the mutant did not produce a color change in culture media containing fluorene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. An Escherichia coli expression experiment confirmed the ability of the Pdo system to oxidize
The morphologies of heterogeneous clusters of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are investigated using molecular modelling. Clusters of up to 100 molecules containing combinations of the different sized PAHs circumcoronene, coronene, ovalene, or pyrene are evaluated. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations using an all-atom force field parameterised for PAHs sample many configurations at high and low temperatures to determine stable low energy structures. The resulting cluster structures are evaluated using molecular radial distances and coordination numbers, and are found to be independent of initial configuration and the cluster sizes studied. Stable clusters consist of stacked PAHs in a core-shell structure, where the larger PAHs are found closer to the cluster core and the smaller PAHs are located on the cluster surface. This work provides novel insight into the molecular partitioning of heterogeneous aromatic clusters, with particular relevance to the structure of nascent soot ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have garnered much attention due to their bioaccumulation, carcinogenic properties, and persistence in the environment. Investigation of the spatial distribution, composition, and sources of PAHs in sediments of three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California revealed significant differences among marinas, with concentrations in one site exceeding 16,000 ng g− 1. Hotspots of PAH concentration suggest an association with stormwater outfalls draining into the basins. High-molecular weight PAHs (4-6 rings) were dominant (, 86%); the average percentage of potentially carcinogenic PAHs was high in all sites (61.4-70%) but ecotoxicological risks varied among marinas. Highly toxic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was the main contributor (, 90%) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) in marinas. PAHs in San Diego Bay marina sediments appear to be derived largely from pyrogenic sources, potentially from combustion products that reach the basins by aerial ...
Application: This special purpose and specially tested capillary GC column is designed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It incorporates an ionic liquid stationary phase. Each column is individually tested to ensure resolution of several key sets (phenanthrene/anthracene, benzo[a]anthracene/chrysene/triphenylene, and benzo [b]fluoranthene/benzo[k]fluoranthene/benzo[j]fluoranthene). USP Code: None Phase: Non-bonded; 1,12-Di(tripropylphosphonium)dodecane bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide Temp. Limits: Subambient to 300 °C (isothermal or programmed)
In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs ...
In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs ...
Members of the Acidovorax genus are frequently encountered in association with PAH degradation, notably that of phenanthrene, but prior to this work little was known of the underlying genetic determinants behind the phenotype. The particular Acidovorax strain used in this study has genes very similar in sequence and arrangement to those in Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2, and the initial dioxygenase sequence is also highly similar to those in several Burkholderia strains, although not to that of Burkholderia sp. strain RP007. These observations suggest that this particular genotype may be widespread among some PAH-degrading members of the order Burkholderiales.. Unfortunately for comparative purposes, while the genes determined in this study bear significant resemblance to the Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2 sequences deposited in GenBank, there does not appear to be a publication associated with the entry (GenBank accession number AB024945). However, other previously published research on AFK2 revealed the ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are among the most prominent toxic air pollutants, posing a threat to human health because their metabolites and oxidation products are carcinogenic and mutagenic (1). PAHs are emitted into the atmosphere from incomplete combustion and biomass burning and by smoking and cooking in indoor environments. Due to its low vapor pressure, BaP resides mostly in the condensed phase, and heterogeneous oxidation of BaP by oxidants such as OH and O3 is a major atmospheric loss pathway (2). Laboratory measurements show rapid degradation of BaP against ozone when adsorbed to a variety of substrates such as water, ammonium sulfate, soot, and organic compounds (3⇓⇓-6).. Upon chemical aging in the atmosphere, PAH-containing particles are likely coated by semi- or low-volatile organic compounds, which are formed by multigenerational gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds. Laboratory experiments have shown that organic coatings ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in airborne particles (PM10) collected in an urban site of São Paulo City, Brazil. Samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially with dichloromethane and acetone, followed by solid phase fractionation. Increasing polar fractions (A-K) of dichloromethane and acetone extracts were obtained. Fractionated extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Salmonella microsuspension bioassay. Sixteen PAH compounds were quantified in dichloromethane B and C fractions, nevertheless the D and E fractions presented higher mutagenic activities. Concentrations of the individual PAHs ranged from 0.8 ng m−3 (perylene) to 12.8 ng m−3 (benzofluranthene), reaching a total concentration of 95.5 ng m−3. BaP/BgP and Pyr/BaP ratios indicated the presence of vehicular emissions and BghiP/Ind and Chr/BeP ratios suggested a contribution of wood combustion emissions. Further investigation is still necessary for a better understanding of the PAH ...
TY - JOUR AU - Milić, Jelena AU - Avdalović, Jelena AU - Šolević Knudsen, Tatjana AU - Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana AU - Jednak, Tanja AU - Vrvić, Miroslav PY - 2016 UR - http://cer.ihtm.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/1937 AB - The group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very hazardous environmental pollutants because of their mutagenic, carcinogenic and toxic effects on living systems. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the ability and efficiency of selected bacterial isolates obtained from oil-con-taminated areas to biodegrade PAHs. The potential of the bacteria to biodeg-rade various aromatic hydrocarbons was assessed using the 2,6-dichlorophe-nolindophenol assay. Further biodegradation of PAHs was monitored by gra-vimetric and gas-chromatographic analysis. Among the eight bacterial isolates, identified on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences, two isolates, Planomicrobium sp. RNP01 and Rhodococcus sp. RNP05, had the ability to grow on and utilize almost all examined ...
Author: Panda, S. K. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2006; Keywords: beta-cyclodextrin stationary phase; FT-ICR-mass spectrometry; polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles; fossil fuel; vacuum gas oil; Title: β-cyclodextrin as a stationary phase for the group separation of polycyclic aromatic compounds in normal-phase liquid chromatography
Pyrosequencing of the bacterial community associated with a cosmopolitan marine diatom during enrichment with crude oil revealed several Arenibacter phylotypes, of which one (OTU-202) had become significantly enriched by the oil. Since members of the genus Arenibacter have not been previously shown to degrade hydrocarbons, we attempted to isolate a representative strain of this genus in order to directly investigate its hydrocarbon-degrading potential. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, one isolate (designated strain TG409T) exhibited ,99% sequence identity to three type strains of this genus. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain TG409T represents a novel species in the genus Arenibacter, for which the name Arenibacter algicola sp. nov. is proposed. We reveal for the first time that PAH-degradation is a shared phenotype among members of this genus, indicating that it could be used as a taxonomic marker for this genus. Kinetic data for PAH mineralization rates showed that ...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants that have received considerable attention because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Due to the extensive amount of data suggesting the hazards of these compounds, 16 PAHs are on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Priority Pollutant List. These compounds are often emitted into the atmosphere by way of combustion processes. Thus, analysis of these compounds during coal combustion is an important task. Three 1000-hour coal combustion burns were performed using the 0.1 MW (0.3 m) bench-scale Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC) in the Combustion Laboratory at Western Kentucky University. The data for this thesis were collected from the second and third 1000-hour experiments. An in-situ sampling system was designed for 16 PAHs specified by EPA, which consisted of a glass wool filter, condenser, glass fiber filter, Teflon filter, and Tenax. The filters and Tenax were extracted by methylene chloride and hexane, respectively,
Tar and nicotine levels have been made to conform to EU standards as of 1 July 2004, but data on tobacco-derived carcinogenic compounds, such as PAH, in Chinese cigarettes are lacking in the literature. Levels of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and PAH were measured in 20 cigarette brands purchased in China between 2003 and 2004. Higher nicotine and tar levels were found in Chinese cigarettes than in European brands just 3 months before the above deadline; carcinogenic PAH levels were about 1.5 fold higher than in European cigarettes, but analysed singly, the mean value of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA), the most potent carcinogenic PAH yields, were 2.4 and 4.4 fold higher, respectively. Tar levels were well correlated with carcinogenic PAH (r = 0.53, P , 0.01), thus providing an easily measurable parameter for ranking various cigarette brands in developing countries where more sophisticated techniques might not be feasible for lack of funds and expertise.. ...
BACKGROUND: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together ...
Over the past 10 years, a number of safety measures for reducing firefighters exposure to combustion particles have been introduced in Sweden. The most important measure was the reduction in the time firefighters wear suits and handle contaminated equipment after turn-outs involving smoke diving. This study was divided into two parts, those being to investigate the level of protection obtained by multiple garment layers and to assess exposure during a standardized smoke diving exercise. First, realistic work protection factors (WPFs) were calculated by comparing air concentrations of the full suite of gaseous and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) inside and outside structural ensembles, including jacket and thick base layer, during a tough fire extinguishing exercise using wood as the fuel ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in urban atmospheres. Several PAHs are known carcinogens or are the precursors to carcinogenic daughter compounds. Understanding the contributions of the various emission sources is critical to appropriately managing PAH levels in the environment. The sources of PAHs to ambient air in Baltimore, MD, were determined by using three source apportionment methods, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression, UNMIX, and positive matrix factorization. Determining the source apportionment through multiple techniques mitigates weaknesses in individual methods and strengthens the overlapping conclusions. Overall source contributions compare well among methods. Vehicles, both diesel and gasoline, contribute on average 16-26%, coal 28-36%, oil 15-23%, and wood/other having the greatest disparity of 23-35% of the total (gas- plus particle-phase) PAHs. Seasonal trends were found for both coal and oil. Coal was the dominate PAH source
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of fluorine substitution on the DNA binding and tumorigenicity of benzo[b]fluoranthene in mouse epidermis. AU - Weyand, Eric H.. AU - Amin, Shantu. AU - Huie, Keith. AU - Boger, Eliahu. AU - Neuber, Evelyn. AU - Hecht, Stephen S.. AU - LaVoie, Edmond J.. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported by Grant No. CA-44377 from the National Cancer Institute and Grant No. ES-02030 from the National Institute of Environmental Health and Sciences.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - The effects of fluorine substitution on benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) DNA adduct formation and tumorigenicity in mouse epidermis were investigated. Fluoro derivatives studied included 1-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9- and 11-fluoroB[b]F as well as 1,9- and 6,9-difluoroB[b]F. Each compound was applied topically to mice and hydrocarbon/DNA adduct formation was assessed using the 32P-postlabelling technique. All of the fluorinated compounds bound to DNA to a lesser extent than B[b]F. Among the fluorinated compounds, the ...
Five types of nanofibrous membranes were prepared by electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA), poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) (P(LA/CL)), poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PDLGA) and methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (MPEG-PLGA), respectively. These electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENFMs) were used to adsorb anthracene (ANT), benz[a]anthracene (BaA) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from aqueous solution, and the sorption kinetics and isotherms of these PAHs on the five ENFMs were investigated. The pseudo-second-order model (PSOM) can well describe the sorption kinetics of the three PAHs on five ENFMs, and the partition-adsorption model (PAM) can interpret the sorption processes of PAHs on the ENFMs. PCL ENFMs, which had the largest surface areas (8.57 m(2)g(-1)), exhibited excellent sorption capacity for ANT at over 4112.3 ± 35.5 μg g(-1). Moreover, the hydrophobicity and pore volume of ENFMs significantly affected the sorption kinetics and sorption capacity
Bioflavonoids are plant compounds touted for their potential to treat or prevent several diseases including cancers induced by common environmental chemicals. Much of the biologic activity of one such class of pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/transcription factor (AhR). For example, the AhR regulates PAH immunotoxicity that manifests as pre-B cell apoptosis in models of B cell development. Because bioflavonoids block PAH-induced cell transformation and are structurally similar to AhR ligands, it was postulated that some of them would suppress PAH-induced, AhR-dependent immunotoxicity, possibly through a direct AhR blockade. This hypothesis was tested using a model of B cell development in which pre-B cells are cultured with and are dependent on bone marrow stromal or hepatic parenchymal cell monolayers. Of seven bioflavonoids screened, galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) blocked PAH-induced but not C(2)-ceramide- or H(2)O(2)-induced ...
One hundred and twenty (120) fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus (mean weight: 0.96 ± 0.1g) were randomly exposed to 4 experimental treatments of petroleum, based on LC50 values (6.4mg/L of crude oil, 8.7mg/L of petrol, 8.0mg/L of kerosene and 7.8mg/L of diesel oil) and replicated thrice, to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in exposed fish for 96 h. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in total (PAHs) between crude oil (97.1 ng/uL) and diesel (97.2 ng/uL) exposed fish and also between petrol (53.2 ng/uL) and kerosene (49.6 ng/uL) exposed fish, but there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in PAH levels of the crude oil/diesel exposed -groups of fish compared to petrol/kerosene exposed -groups of fish (97.1/97.2 and 53.2/49.6 ng/uL). Naphthalene correlated positively to benzo a anthracene (r=0.672, (P < 0.05), benzo b fluoranthene (r=0.681, P < 0.05) and chrysene (r=0.615, P < 0.05) but did not correlate to fluorene. Benzo a anthracene correlated
Zhigacheva I.. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, street Kosygin, 4, Moscow, 119334 Russia 1 pp. (accepted). The consequences of long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrosamines (NA) on the body began to be studied in detail more than 100-150 years ago [Proctor R. N., 2004; Scanlan R. A., 2004]. The researchers interest in these toxicants is associated with the high carcinogenic properties of PAHs and NAs. The bulk of PAHs in the environment is of anthropogenic origin. The main sources of PAHs are: household, industrial discharges, wash-outs, transport, accidents. The anthropogenic flux of PAHs, in particular benzo(a)pyrene (BP) is approximately 30 tons a year [Larin S. A. and co-authors, 2005]. Currently, the contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is global. Their presence is found in all elements of the natural environment (air, soil, water, biota) from the Arctic to Antarctica. Not less toxic nitrosamines ...
Cometabolic biodegradation processes are potentially useful for the bioremediation of hazardous waste sites. In this study the potential application of phenol-oxidizing and nitrifying bacteria as priming biocatalysts was examined in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers, and aromatic ethers. We observed that a phenol-oxidizing Pseudomonas strain cometabolically degrades a range of 2- and 3-ringed PAHs. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to overcome the competitive effects between two substrates and the SBR was evaluated as a alternative technology to treat mixed contaminants including phenol and PAHs. We also have demonstrated that the nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea can cometabolically degrade a wide range polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers and aromatic ethers including naphthalene, acenaphthene, diphenyl ether, dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and anisole. Our results indicated that all the compounds are transformed by N. ...
BACKGROUND: We investigated if blood Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities are increased and total plasma antioxidant concentration is decreased in coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. METHODS Ninety-six coke oven workers participated in the study. Nonexposed workers (n = 105) were randomly sampled among power plant workers in the same age range. The examination included a questionnaire on health status, occupational history, smoking, and dietary habits. Blood samples completed the examination. Coke oven workers were classified into low-, middle-, and high-exposure groups based on the benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) air concentrations and were further classified into the categories topside and non-topside, according to their proximity to the ovens. RESULTS: Erythrocyte glutathiane peroxidase activity increased with age (r = 0.18, P = 0.061) in power plant workers, whereas plasma glutathione peroxidase activity decreased with age (r = -0.18,
Dumping wastes generated from the oil industry to the local waste disposal facilities remains the most common means of oil waste management. In industrial landfills, the most serious ecological problem is the contamination of soil and local groundwater by landfill leachate. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a hazardous group of harmful chemical compounds that threaten human and ecosystem health. This study focuses on a PAH-contaminated soil from a landfill site in New South Wales, Australia. Soil was exposed to two different bioremediation treatments, natural attenuation and biostimulation using pea straw. The bacterial community composition and diversity of the PAH-contaminated soil were also examined using high throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results revealed that PAHs were degraded naturally by indigenous microorganisms; however, the addition of plant residues led to enhanced degradation (66.6%) at the beginning of the treatment, although in all treatments a ...
Urban air quality and real human exposure to chemical environmental stressors is an issue of high scientific and political interest. In an effort to find innovative and inexpensive means for air quality monitoring, the ability of car engine air filters (CAFs) to act as efficient samplers collecting street level air, to which people are exposed to, was tested. In particular, in the case of taxis, air filters are replaced after regular distances, the itineraries are almost exclusively urban, cruising mode is similar and, thus, knowledge of the air flow can provide with an integrated city air sample. The present pilot study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most important category of organic pollutants associated with traffic emissions. Concentrations of Sigma PAHs in CAFs ranged between 650 and 2900 mu g CAF(-1), with benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[123-cd]pyrene being the most abundant PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged between 110 and 250 mu g CAF(-1), ...
Twelve workers from a coke plant in The Netherlands participated in an intensive skin monitoring programme combined with personal air sampling and biological monitoring during five consecutive eight hour workshifts. The purpose of the study was to make a quantitative assessment of both the dermal and respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrene was used as a marker compound for both dermal and respiratory exposure to PAHs. The biological measure for the internal exposure to PAHs was urinary 1-OH-pyrene concentration. Measurements on exposure pads at six skin sites showed that mean total skin contamination of the 12 workers ranged between 21 and 166 micrograms pyrene a day. The dermal uptake of pyrene ranged between 4 and 34 micrograms/day, which was about 20% of the pyrene contamination on skin. The mean concentration of total pyrene in the breathing zone air of the 12 coke oven workers ranged from 0.1 to 5.4 micrograms/m3. The mean respiratory uptake of pyrene varied ...
PAHs occur in oil, coal and tar produced by carbonization of coal, but not in bitumen. They can also be found in grilled meat, cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. PAH are persistent, ubiquitous and some of them have carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. There are more than 100 different PAH, but usually the 16 PAH defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are analyzed. These are acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(ghi)perylene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(ah)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene is often used as a lead substance. This Application Note describes the extraction and determination of these EPA-PAHs in a dried sediment SETOC sample according to EPA 3541. The sample was extracted with the UniversalExtractor E-800 in the Soxhlet warm mode. The quantification was done by Labor Veritas Zurich, ...
This is the first attempt for the direct detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts in human placental DNA samples by solid-matrix phosphorescence (SMP). Six samples were investigated, and SMP emission spectra and the corresponding second derivative SMP spectra were obtained for all the samples. Numerous excitation and emission wavelengths were studied for detecting PAH-DNA add
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in animal models. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient PAH exposure. This study evaluates the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic-related PAHs and risk of breast cancer, overall and by tumor subtype, and within strata of nucleotide excision repair and base excision repair genotypes and fruit/vegetable intake. For this population-based study, residential histories, dietary intake, and other factors were assessed in 1996-1997 for 1,508 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases and 1,556 controls. Residential traffic exposure estimates were reconstructed using a validated model for the years 1960 through 1995. The following single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped: ERCC1 8092C/A, OGG1 Ser326Cys, XPA -4A/G, XPD Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn, XPF ...
Soils are a major reservoir of organic pollutants, and soil-air partitioning and exchange are key processes controlling the regional fate of pollutants. Here, we report and discuss the soil concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their soil fugacities, the soil-air partition coefficients (KSA) and soil-air gradients for rural and semirural soils, in background areas of N-NE Spain and N-NW England. Different sampling campaigns were carried out to assess seasonal variability and differences between sampling sites. KSA values were dependent on soil temperature and soil organic quantity and type. Soil fugacities of phenanthrene and its alkyl homologues were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than their ambient air fugacities for all sampling sites and periods. The soil to air fugacity ratio was correlated with soil temperature and soil redox potential. Similar trends for other PAHs were found but with lower fugacity ratios. The ubiquitous source of PAHs from background soils to the ...
PAH is the short name for a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. A PAH is a stable structure made up of multiple rings that are fused together. The rings are made of carbon and hydrogen (though other elements sometimes sneak into the structure!). These rings are tough to break apart. They are held together by a type of hybrid bond (hybrid between a single and double bond) that is actually stronger than the single or double bond with which you might be familiar. Many people think that all aromatic molecules contain one or more benzene rings. This is a historical misconception. Benzene rings are found in many, but not all aromatic molecules. Many of the plants that were first found to contain benzene rings, such as vanilla or sassafras, were smelly...aromatic! So, it is a common misconception that all aromatic molecules contain benzene rings...when in fact, some do not (they contain other forms of carbon and hydrogen). PAHs form easily. PAHs are very abundant in the solar system as well as in space. ...
Fluorene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is a precursor to other fluorene compounds. Fluorene and its derivative can be used as a precursor to fluorene-based dyes. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Air sampled from the breathing zone of chimney sweeps during dirty work and soot samples were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 20 PAH were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 115 air samples and 18 soot samples. These included benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and indeno (1,2,3-cd)pyrene, all of which are animal carcinogens. The summed atmospheric concentration of these compounds depended on the type of fuel used and averaged 2.27 micrograms/m3 for oil fuel. If a mixture of oil and solid fuel was used the concentration was 5.06 micrograms/m3; pure solid fuel heating yielded 5.08 micrograms/m3. The air concentrations of BaP were 0.36, 0.83, and 0.82 micrograms/m3 respectively. The soot samples recovered after using the three different fuel types were 10.50, 109.10, and 51.25 mg BaP/kg. The maximum total concentrations of the five carcinogenic PAH were 243.70, 691.06, and 213.94 mg/kg respectively. The ...
In a longitudinal cohort of ∼700 children in New York City, the prevalence of asthma (|25%) is among the highest in the US. This high risk may in part be caused by transplacental exposure to traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but biomarkers informative of PAH-asthma relationships is lacking. We here hypothesized that epigenetic marks associated with transplacental PAH exposure and/or childhood asthma risk could be identified in fetal tissues. Mothers completed personal prenatal air monitoring for PAH exposure determination. Methylation sensitive restriction fingerprinting was used to analyze umbilical cord white blood cell (UCWBC) DNA of 20 cohort children. Over 30 DNA sequences were identified whose methylation status was dependent on the level of maternal PAH exposure. Six sequences were found to be homologous to known genes having one or more 5′-CpG island(s) (5′-CGI). Of these, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3) exhibited the highest concordance between
Rhodococcus sp. 124 is a Gram-positive soil bacterium being developed for the manufacture of (-)cis-(1S,2R)-1-aminoindan-2-ol, a key precursor in the production of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor CrixivanTM, from the aromatic hydrocarbon indene. Rhodococcus sp. 124 was grown by batch fermentation in the presence of naphthalene and indene to measure changes in gene expression and aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism with DNA microarray technology. Genes were selected for microarray analysis based on functional annotation assignments made by the Consensus Annotation by Phylogeny Anchored Sequence Alignment (CAPASA) program, a high throughput system for automated functional annotation assignment of DNA sequence similarity search results. CAPASA was validated by comparison to several methods of annotation, and the agreement to other methods ranged from 75-94%. Microarray results were analyzed by the newly described method of trigonometric deconvolution, a mathematical system for the measurement of changes ...
Produced water constitutes the largest volume of waste from offshore oil and gas operations and is composed of a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds. Although treatment processes have to meet strict oil in water regulations, the definition of oil is a function of the analysis process and may include aliphatic hydrocarbons which have limited environmental impact due to degradability whilst ignoring problematic dissolved petroleum species. This thesis presents the partitioning behavior of oil in produced water as a function of temperature and salinity to identify compounds of environmental concern. Phenol, p-cresol, and 4-tert-butylphenol were studied because of their xenoestrogenic power; other compounds studied are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAHs which include naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Partitioning experiments were carried out in an Innova incubator for 48 hours, temperature was varied from 4゚C to 70゚C, and two salinity levels of 46.8‰ and 66.8‰ ...
Dibenz[a,h]anthracene has been shown to be carcinogenic to experimental animals.. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene is embryotoxic to rats when given at high doses. The available data on teratogenicity were inadequate for evaluation. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene was positive in differential survival assays using DNA-repair-proficient/-deficient strains of bacteria and was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of an exogenous metabolic system. In cultured mammalian cells, dibenz[a,h]anthracene was mutagenic and induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in the presence of an exogenous metabolic system. It was positive in assays for morphological transformation. In the one available study, it induced sister chromatid exchange but not chromosomal aberrations in vivo.. There is sufficient evidence that dibenz[a,h]anthracene is active in short-term tests. ...
The mutagenicity of crude extracts and subfractions of two samples of a reference sewage sludge material and two sewage sludges from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), one urban and the other one urban mixed with industrial, was assessed using an Ames fluctuation assay based on 384-well microtiter plates with liquid cultures. Crude extracts of sludges were obtained by ultrasonic extraction with dichloromethane/methanol, and further column fractionation yielded two fractions, one of which containing mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Quantitative analysis performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave sum concentrations of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at levels between 1,305 and 2,442 μg/kg. Subjecting crude extracts and column fractions to the mutagenicity assay with Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 provided good qualitative correlation between the presence of mutagenic PAH and the induction of gene ...
The intertidal zone-a transitional boundary between terrestrial and marine environments-has important ecological functions, and receives polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from human activities, but how and to what extent anthropogenic factors influence the distribution of PAHs in this important niche remain largely unknown. Here we measured the distribution of United States Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs in samples of intertidal sediments from across more than 4,500 km of Chinas coastline. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 1,031.7 ng g−1 sediment (dry weight) and all PAHs showed positive correlations with total organic carbon (TOC). TOC-normalized high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAH concentrations, but not TOC-normalized low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs, were positively correlated with TOC. Moreover, population size and economic development influenced TOC-normalized HMW PAH concentrations, whereas urbanization had a major influence on TOC-normalized LMW PAHs. Human
The risks associated with a soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally assessed by measuring individual PAHs in the soil and correlating the obtained amounts to known adverse biological effects of the PAHs. The validity of such a risk estimation is dependent on the presence of additional compounds, the availability of the compounds (including the PAHs), and the methods used to correlate the measured chemical data and biological effects. In the work underlying this thesis the availability, chemical composition and biological effects of PAHs in samples of soils from PAH-contaminated environments were examined. It can be concluded from the results presented in the included papers that the PAHs in the studied soils from industrial sites were not generally physically trapped in soil material, indicating that the availability of the PAHs was not restricted in this sense. However, the bioavailable fraction of the PAHs, as assessed by bioassays with the earthworm Eisenia ...
The economy of the state of Tabasco is based on oil extraction. However, this imposes major effects to the environment and communities. Examples are the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) that may be found in the soil, water and sediment of the region. Their volatility makes them available to living beings and results in genotoxic activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of PAHs in the air at several points in the state, and to analyze their relationship with possible damage to DNA on local inhabitants. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay (Comet Assay) was applied to peripheral blood lymphocytes of five groups of children between six and 15 years of age. PAH samples were analyzed following US/EPA TO-13-A method. Results indicated the presence in the air of most of the 16 PAHs considered as high priority by EPA, some of which have been reported with carcinogenic activity. Differences (p
Apart from widely known anthropogenic pollutants as SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, there are another dangerous substances emitted to the air named polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In the air they occur in a form of vapours and aerosols deposited on dust particles of 10 μm (PM 10) and 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) in diameter. In cities, the air polluted by gases and atmospheric particulate was analysed using special automatic or semi-automatic equipment or analytic procedures. That is why a powerful development of bioanalytical techniques based on using organisms as bioindicators is observed in recent years. The lichens are the most frequently used organisms in bioindication. The purpose of this research is to evaluate air pollution by PAHs in urban agglomeration with the use of Hypogymnia physodes (L.)Nyl. The research was performed in two hundred thousand occupants in south-east Poland in 2004-2007. The lichens placed on tree branches of 30 cm on 4 crossroads, and the 3 branches were put in each research ...
Strata™-PAH from Phenomenex Inc. is a new sorbent designed for the isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental samples. Strata-PAH solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents target these analytes while simultaneously removing humic acids that can interfere with chromatographic separation of environmental samples such as soil and water.
A tandem-cartridge system was established for studying colloid formation and physical state distribution of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in water. The effectiveness of the method for measuring the trace PAH colloids was demonstrated. With aqueous samples prepared by adding the PAH solutes with a small amount of organic solvent carrier, the potential of colloid formation increased with the hydrophobicity and concentration of the solute, but the incipient concentration for the colloid formation may be far lower than the aqueous solubility of the solute. After formation in water, the colloids showed remarkable stability at room temperature, and the stability was greatly reduced by elevated temperature and the presence of a small amount of inorganic electrolytes. The possible mechanism of destabilization of the colloids was discussed, and the mechanism might be of utility in providing insights into the physical state distribution of the solutes in various water samples. However, ...
Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) contains 1 article on - GreenMedInfo contains 4 articles on Radioiodine 131 indicating it may contribute to Radiation-Induced Illness: Radioiodine (Iodine-131), Thyroid Cancer, and Radiation Induced Illness
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GC Application #15562: Extended List Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on ZB-5MS. Column used: Zebron™ ZB-5MS, GC Cap. Column 20 m x 0.18 mm x 0.18 µm, Ea Part#: 7FD-G010-08
GC Application #15560: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on ZB-5MS. Column used: Zebron™ ZB-5MS, GC Cap. Column 20 m x 0.18 mm x 0.18 µm, Ea Part#: 7FD-G010-08
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons msds sheet, PAHs, short for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are a group of chemicals consisting of numerous carbon atoms joined together to form multiple rings. There are at least 10,000 different PAH compounds. Most are formed from the incomplete combustion of plant or animal matter, or carbon fuels, such as coal or petroleum.
The photophysical and photochemical properties of aromatic hydrocarbons have been reviewed. Aromatic hydrocarbons were photoreduced upon irradiation in the presence of amines, and also photosensitized the decarboxylation of amino acids. Product and kinetic studies have shown that both these reactions involve the same initial step, i.e. transfer of an electron from the amino function to the first excited singlet state of the aromatic hydrocarbon. Products obtained from the decarboxylation of amino acids photosensitized by dyes and aromatic carbonyl and aza-aromatic compounds were identical with those obtained from the decarboxylations sensitized by aromatic hydrocarbons. The mechanism for photodecarboxylation by all these sensitizers was proposed to be the same. Amino alcohols quench the fluorescence of aromatic hydrocarbons less efficiently than do amines. This inefficiency has been attributed to hydrogen bonding between the hydroxylic proton and the nitrogen atom of the amino alcohol. Two ...
The substance distillates (coal tar), heavy oils (anthracene oil high (, 50 ppm) BaP, AOH - composite sample CS 06) [CAS no. 90640-86-1] is a UVCB and consists of a complex and within limits variable combination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Manufacturing process excludes low molecular aromatic hydrocarbons (1- and 2-ring aromatics) as well as largely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons composed of 5 rings and above. Main components are phenanthrene, anthracene (3-ring PAH), fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene (4-ring PAH) representing approx. 30 % of total AOH, each accounting for ca. 3 to 10 %. The majority of other components of AOH fall within the molecular size range of these five substances. A key component of AOH is phenanthrene (7 - 10 %). Fluoranthene and pyrene are present in similar amounts.In analogy to the structure-related anthracene oil (low (, 50 ppm) BaP, AOL) [CAS no. 90640-80-5], the key component phenanthrene is considered to adequately represent ...
Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known carcinogens and workplace PAH exposure may increase the risk of cancer. Monitoring early cancer-related changes can indicate whether the exposure is carcinogenic. Here, we enrolled 151 chimney sweeps, 152 controls, and 19 creosote-exposed male workers from Sweden. We measured urinary PAH metabolites using LC/MS/MS, the cancer-related markers telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) using qPCR, and DNA methylation of lung cancer-related genes F2RL3 and AHRR using pyrosequencing. The median 1-hydroxypyrene (PAH metabolite) concentrations were highest in creosote-exposed workers (8.0 μg/g creatinine) followed by chimney sweeps (0.34 μg/g creatinine) and controls (0.05 μg/g creatinine). TL and mtDNAcn did not differ between study groups. Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers had significantly lower methylation of AHRR CpG site cg05575921 (88.1% and 84.9%, respectively) than controls (90%). Creosote-exposed workers ...
Background. The capital city of Prague becomes one of the most polluted localities of the Czech Republic. The effect of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) adsorbed onto respirable air particles (PM2.5, ,2.5 \#956;m) on DNA adducts and chromosomal aberrations was repeatedly studied in the groups of policemen working in the downtown area as well as in bus drivers. Methods. Ambient air particles (PM10, PM2.5) and (c-PAHs) were monitored using VAPS sampler, personal exposure to c-PAHs was evaluated using personal samplers during working shift. DNA adducts were analysed in lymphocytes by 32P-postlabeling assay, chromosomal aberrations by conventional cytogenetic analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), cotinine in urine, plasma levels of vitamins A, E and C by HPLC, , cholesterol and triglycerids using commercial kits. Polymorphisms of metabolic genotypes (GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, EPHX1, CYP1A1-MspI) and DNA repair genotypes (XRCC1 and XPD) were determined by ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and Ames test mutagenic activity of exhaust particulate matter from a diesel engine burning fuel containing the barium (7440393) based additive Lubrizol-565 were evaluated. A heavy duty air cooled engine commonly used in underground mining equipment was used for the test. The additive was tested at concentrations of 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 grams per liter in
Article Spatial and temporal variations of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM 2.5 aerosols in Yangtze River Delta Region, China. Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are of great interest because of their high potentia...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 genetic polymorphisms and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene excretion in non-occupationally exposed individuals. AU - Nerurkar, P. V.. AU - Okinaka, L.. AU - Aoki, C.. AU - Seifried, A.. AU - Lum-Jones, A.. AU - Wilkens, L. R.. AU - Le Marchand, L.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The CYP1A1 and glutathione S-transferase enzymes (e.g., GSTM1 and GSTP1) are involved in the activation and conjugation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, and are controlled by genes that are polymorphic. The CYP1A1*2 allelic variant has been associated with elevated urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a proposed marker for internal dose of activated PAHs, in coke-oven workers. We investigated whether this association could be observed at low exposure levels, such as those experienced by the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 188 individuals (106 Japanese, 60 Caucasians, and 22 Hawaiians) who were selected as controls in a population-based ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits 3-5 DNA helicase activity (ortholog); INVOLVED IN cell population proliferation (ortholog); DNA dealkylation involved in DNA repair (ortholog); DNA duplex unwinding (ortholog); ASSOCIATED WITH intellectual disability (ortholog); FOUND IN activating signal cointegrator 1 complex (ortholog); cytosol (ortholog); nucleus (ortholog); INTERACTS WITH benzo[b]fluoranthene; cadmium dichloride; carbon nanotube
A method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in carbonaceous materials and on particulate Batter produced in the atmosphere during the electrolytic reduction by various methods in the metallurgical industry is presented. The PAH are extracted into hexane with the aid of ultrasound, which is shown to be more efficient than the conventional Soxhlet thimble technique. Cyclohexane and hexane are shown to be more selective extractants for PAH than benzene or acetone. Hexane is preferred because it has a lower boiling point than cyclohexane. Three metnods of identification were investigated. These included thin-layer chromatography (TLCJ, gas chromatography (GO using retention times and indices and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hexane containing 2 % by volume of N.N -dimethylformaoide was used for the development of a thin-layer chromatograa. This resolved only ten of the twenty PAH investigated adequately. The non-polar OV-101 capillary column used in the GC-MS work did not ...
social_buttons]. As a pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (or PAHs as we call them in the business), are of concern because they have been identified as carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic (not good things if you were wondering). PAHs are created as a byproduct of the burning of coal, oil, and fossil fuels. Often they are of concern in urban areas where there is a higher carbon footprint, and it forms that nice cloud of yellow smoke you see floating over some of your major cities.. Now, new research out of Columbia University is showing that exposure to PAHs, can reduce neonates intelligence. The study performed in New York city where PAHs are in no short demand, showed IQ scores that were 4.31 and 4.67 points lower, respectively than those of less exposed children.. ...
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a variety of adverse neonatal outcomes including altered reproductive performance. Herein we provide molecular evidence for a pathway involved in the elimination of the female germline due to prepregnancy and/or lactational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), environmental toxicants found in cigarette smoke. We show that ovaries of offspring born to mice exposed to PAHs contained only a third of the ovarian follicle pool compared with offspring of unexposed female mice. Activation of the cell death pathway in immature follicles of exposed females was mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), as ovarian reserve was fully rescued by maternal cotreatment with the Ahr antagonist, resveratrol, or by inactivation of the Ahr gene. Furthermore, in response to PAHs, Ahr-mediated activation of the harakiri, BCL2 interacting protein (contains only BH3 domain), was necessary for execution of cell death. This pathway appeared to be ...
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Two important limitations of our study were the small sample size and the lack of PAH exposure data. Because of the small sample size, single observations in this study may have large potential influence on our findings. Our results need to be interpreted cautiously until consistent findings are observed in similar studies with larger populations. We observed an increase in PAH metabolite levels during work, but we could not determine the relative contribution of occupational exposure sources for this increase. A future study with personal exposure measures would allow us to identify different sources of variation of PAH exposures and possibly strengthen the association between occupational exposure and DNA damage. Despite these important limitations, we were able to observe statistically significant associations between 8-OHdG and 1-OHPyr after 6 h of work. 1-OHPyr is the main metabolite of pyrene and has been widely accepted as the gold standard of biomarkers of exposure to PAHs.55 ,56 In this ...
Cook, J. W. (1931). "CCCL.-Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Part VI. 3 : 4-Benzphenanthrene and its quinone". J. Chem. Soc.: ... Olympicene has 18 pi electrons in its ring system; as it is a flat molecule, this makes it an aromatic molecule. The central ... The structure of overcrowded aromatic compounds. Part VI. The crystal structure of benzo[c]phenanthrene and of 1,12- ... ring is not an aromatic ring. A very similar molecule (benzo[c]phenanthrene) which lacks the -CH2- spacer between the two sides ...
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ferromagnesian minerals are isolated and show no signs of alteration. As concerns the ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons • Radioactive contamination • Volatile organic compounds Waste - Electronic waste • Great ... Hydrocarbons • Perchlorate • Pesticides • Persistent organic pollutant • PBBs • PBDEs • Toxic heavy metals • PCB • Dioxin • ...
... hydrocarbons • and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons • other acute and chronic toxicants In many cases, huge ponds sit with very ... silt and clay mixed with leftover hydrocarbons and other toxic substances. Tailings are being created at a rate of 2,000 or so ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aldehydes, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phenolic compounds, flavors, tobacco ... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; GS-MS, gas chromatography - mass spectrometry; ICP-MS, inductively coupled plasma - mass ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, long carbon-chain molecules such as polyynes, and fullerenes are all potentially important. ... The origin of most DIBs remains unknown, with common suggestions being polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other large carbon- ... Kroto, H. W. (1987). Leger, Alain (ed.). Chains and Grains in Interstellar Space (PDF). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ... "Ultrafast Studies on the Photophysics of Matrix-Isolated Radical Cations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons". The Journal of ...
Cerniglia, Carl E. (1992). "Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". Biodegradation. 3 (2-3): 351-368. doi:10.1007/ ... Typical stoichiometries for the hydroxylation of a generic hydrocarbon are these: 2 R3C-H + O2 → 2 R3C-OH R3C-H + O2 + 2e- + 2 ...
"Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". Biodegradation. 3 (2-3): 351-368. doi:10.1007/BF00129093. Aryl hydrocarbon ... Many species are also capable of oxidizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a class of stable organic molecules that tends to ...
Benzo[c]fluorene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with mutagenic activity. It is a component of coal tar, cigarette ... Seto H, Ohkubo T, Kanoh T, Koike M, Nakamura K, Kawahara Y (1993). "Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ... Benzo[c]fluorene belongs to a group of compounds called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs and their derivatives are ... Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures (External Review ...
Harvey, G. R. (1991). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Chemistry and Carcinogenicity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University ...
In February 2014, NASA announced a greatly upgraded database for tracking polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including ... They belong to the chemical class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Related compounds include cyclopentapyrenes, ... "Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled food". J Agric Food Chem. 31 (4): 867-873. doi:10.1021/jf00118a049. PMID 6352775. ... Benzopyrene is a component of pitch and occurs together with other related pentacyclic aromatic species such as picene, ...
... can degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Parte, A.C. "Stenotrophomonas". LPSN. " ... of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila NCW-702 biofilm for implication in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". ...
Luch, A. (2005). The Carcinogenic Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. London: Imperial College Press. ISBN 1-86094-417 ... and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other substances resistant to breakdown. There are many health effects ...
"Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Synthesis and discotic organization". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 81 (12): 2203-2224. ...
"Heterocirculenes a new class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". Tetrahedron Letters. 13 (9): 763-766. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039 ... A heterocyclic circulene is one in which the fused rings around the periphery are not simple hydrocarbons, but instead contain ... Nakamoto, Youichi; Suzuki, Toshiyasu (2013). "Tetrabenzo[8]circulene: Aromatic Saddles from Negatively Curved Graphene". J. Am ...
... also includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Almost all of these elements, such as vanadium, nickel, ... Hydrocarbon of crude oil consists of paraffin, cycloparaffins and aromatic material with at least one benzene ring. ... For gasoline blends, composites which are lighter hydrocarbons are used. Molecular weights of these hydrocarbons are lower than ... and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons are known as toxic. At first, people attempted to use crude oil for lighting, considering its ...
1. Complexes Between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Halogens". Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 29 (2): 213. doi:10.1246/bcsj.29.213 ... that aromatic hydrocarbons become conductive when blended with molecular iodine because a charge-transfer complex is formed. ... In the 1950s, researchers discovered that polycyclic aromatic compounds formed semi-conducting charge-transfer complex salts ... Aromatic short peptides self-assemblies are a kind of promising candidate for bioinspired and durable nanoscale semiconductors ...
She studies polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in these galaxies. Her work focuses on astronomical 'big data', and she is active ...
"Mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". Environmental Health Perspectives. 30: 185-189. doi ...
For example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be common in space due to their vibrational lines, which are ... "Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Molecules". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 46: 289-337. Bibcode: ... band Lists of molecules Molecular astrophysics Molecular spectroscopy Molecules in stars Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ... First detection of the l-C3MH+ hydrocarbon cation", Astronomy & Astrophysics, 548: A68, arXiv:1210.8178, Bibcode:2012A&A...548A ...
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in coal tar with the formula C20H12. The compound is one of the ... Benzo[a]pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures ... Kleiböhmer, W. (2001). "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Metabolites". Environmental Analysis (Volume 3 of Handbook of ... International Chemical Safety Card 0104 National Pollutant Inventory - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet "Lung cancer ...
"Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: An Interview With Dr. Farid Salama". Astrobiology magazine. 2000. Archived from the original ...
... , a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is an ortho- and peri-fused tricyclic hydrocarbon. The molecule resembles ... Unlike many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, it has no fluorescence. Acenaphthylene occurs as about 2% of coal tar. It is ... "Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a13_227. N. G. ...
nov., a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, isolated from beach sediment". International Journal of Systematic ... Zobellella maritima is able to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M (12 June ...
... after the simplest possible such hydrocarbon, benzene. Aromatic hydrocarbons can be monocyclic (MAH) or polycyclic (PAH). ... Aromatic hydrocarbon An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and ... In contrast, aliphatic hydrocarbons lack this delocalization. The term "aromatic" was assigned before the physical mechanism ... Hydrocarbon A compound containing hydrogen and carbon atoms only; petroleum is made of hydrocarbons. Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F ...
Metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment. CRC Press. 1989. ISBN 0849368448 "Usha Varanasi". ... She edited the book "Metabolism of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment" and co-edited "Evaluating and ... Her highest paper is Metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment, which was cited 285 times, ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Metabolism of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Aquatic Environment". CRC Press ...
... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum hydrocarbons (motor oil and fuel), and pesticides (including insecticides). ... Parking lot sealcoat: an unrecognized source of urban polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Science & Technology 39: ... These contaminants are grouped as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Effects of PAHs on fish have shown that these ... Exposure to metals and petroleum hydrocarbons displayed some response to pre-spawn mortality, while exposure to pesticides, ...
4-hydroxynonenal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DAUN GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000117448 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ... AKR1A1 could activate procarcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. AKRs have been linked to metabolism of the ... "Metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon trans-dihydrodiols by ubiquitously expressed aldehyde reductase (AKR1A1 ... It catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols and ...
Wing, Michael R.; Jeffrey L. Bada (1992). "The origin of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in meteorites". Origins of Life ... aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles, carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. Glossary of ...
... contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are carcinogenic. It has been described that raw shale oil has a mild ... Shale oil usually contains large quantities of olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Shale oil can also contain significant ... while upgraded shale oil has lower carcinogenic potential as most of the polycyclic aromatics are believed to broken down by ... In The History of On-Shore Hydrocarbon Use in the UK" (PDF). Geological Society of London: 1. Archived from the original (PDF) ...
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in coal tar with the formula C20H12. The compound is one of the ... Kleiböhmer, W. (2001). "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Metabolites". Environmental Analysis (Volume 3 of Handbook of ... Benzo[a]pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracenes, benzoflavones (e.g., beta- ...
... such as particulates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Even modern pellet boilers generate much more pollutants than oil or ... The resulting product is a straight-chain hydrocarbon with a high cetane number, low in aromatics and sulfur and does not ... Syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons, is produced by partial combustion of biomass, that is, ... into shorter hydrocarbon chains used in diesel engines.[49] It may also be called renewable diesel, hydrotreated vegetable oil[ ...
anglicky) National Pollutant Inventory - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet. *(česky) Polycyklické aromatické ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). *RNA world hypothesis. *Spectroscopy. *Tholin. *. Category:Astrochemistry. *. Astronomy ...
Biodiesel emissions showed decreased levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitrited PAH compounds, which have ... aromatic hydrocarbons (including naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes).[53] The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C ... Petroleum-derived diesel is composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n, iso, and ... The exhaust emissions of total hydrocarbons (a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) are up to 93% ...
A singlet biradical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon having Kekulé structures." Journal of the American Chemical Society, volume ... "Towards polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with a singlet open-shell ground state." Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ... Non-Kekulé polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are composed of several fused six-membered rings. The simplest member of this ... The so-called Schlenk-Brauns hydrocarbons are: Eugene Müller, with the aid of a Gouy balance, established for the first time ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). *RNA world hypothesis. *Spectroscopy. *Tholin. *. Category:Astrochemistry. *. Portal: ...
Pyrimidine, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), may have been formed in giant red stars or in interstellar dust and ... whereby polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mediate the synthesis of RNA molecules.[90] PAHs are the most common and ... "UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers". Science. 283 (5405 ... "The PAH World - Discotic polynuclear aromatic compounds as a mesophase scaffolding at the origin of life" Archived 2011-02-03 ...
Forsberg ND, et al: Effect of Native American fish smoking methods on dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ... Rozentale I, et al: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in traditionally smoked meat products from the Baltic states. Food Addit. ... the smoking of food could possibly introduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which may lead to an increased risk of some types ... Lignin, a highly complex arrangement of interlocked phenolic molecules, also produces a number of distinctive aromatic elements ...
However, burning at low temperatures also causes increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions. FBC boilers can burn ... as they coincide with dramatic increases in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and possibly other carbon compound emissions.[ ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). *RNA world hypothesis. *Spectroscopy. *Tholin. *. Category:Astrochemistry. *. Portal: ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), for example, are genotoxic via epoxidation.[2]. Cigarette companies in the United ... Luch, A. (2005), The Carcinogenic Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Imperial College Press, ISBN 978-1-86094-417-8. ...
PLOS ONE: Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil ... stay above carcinogenic levels by NIH and OSHA standards due to Corexit inhibiting the microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in ... where previous dispersants had been hydrocarbon-based and highly toxic. James Avery, Humble Oil and Refining Company's public ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). *RNA world hypothesis. *Spectroscopy. *Tholin. *. Category:Astrochemistry. *. Astronomy ... Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula C. 2H. 4 or H2C=CH2. It is a colorless flammable gas with ... This hydrocarbon has four hydrogen atoms bound to a pair of carbon atoms that are connected by a double bond. All six atoms ... Like all hydrocarbons, ethylene is an asphyxiant and combustible. It is listed as an IARC class 3 carcinogen as there is no ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). *RNA world hypothesis. *Spectroscopy. *Tholin. *. Book:Chemistry. *. Category: ... For example, a hydrocarbon molecule that is described as CH3(CH2)50CH3, is a molecule with fifty repeating units. If the number ...
... and oil-wax n-hydrocarbons from branched and polycyclic hydrocarbons. 5Å molecular sieves are stored at room temperature, with ... desulphurization of gas and liquids and separation of aromatic hydrocarbon 13X. 10. 0.55-0.65. 23-24. 0.3-0.5. Desiccation, ... Sweetening (removal of thiols) of aviation fuel and corresponding liquid hydrocarbons 3Å[edit]. *Approximate chemical formula: ... natural gas and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The latter include cracking gas, acetylene, ethylene, propylene and butadiene. ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). *RNA world hypothesis. *Spectroscopy. *Tholin. *. Book:Chemistry. *. Category: ... as in the Fischer-Tropsch process where carbon monoxide is hydrogenated to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This technology allows ...
... including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzopyrene), formaldehyde, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, tobacco-specific ... Aromatic fire-cured is cured by smoke from open fires. In the United States, it is grown in northern middle Tennessee, central ... Turkish tobacco is a sun-cured, highly aromatic, small-leafed variety (Nicotiana tabacum) grown in Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, ... Sometime after the War of 1812, demand for a milder, lighter, more aromatic tobacco arose. Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland all ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). *RNA world hypothesis. *Spectroscopy. *Tholin. *. Category:Astrochemistry. *. Portal: ...
Soot is produced by laser ablation of graphite or pyrolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons. Fullerenes are extracted from the soot ... the fullerenes are dissolved in hydrocarbon or halogenated hydrocarbon and separated using alumina columns.[21] ... Fullerenes are sparingly soluble in aromatic solvents such as toluene and carbon disulfide, but insoluble in water. Solutions ... C60 exhibits a small degree of aromatic character, but it still reflects localized double and single C-C bond characters. ...
... which is a key enzyme in detoxication of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo(a)pyrene.[9] ...
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in coal tar with the formula C20H12. The compound is one of the ... Benzo[a]pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracenes, benzoflavones (e.g., beta- ... National Pollutant Inventory - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet. *. "Lung cancer as consequence by Benzopyrene in ...
Aromatic hydrocarbons contain conjugated double bonds. This means that every carbon atom in the ring is sp2 hybridized, ... The purine nucleoside bases are notable polycyclic aromatic heterocycles. Rings can also fuse on a "corner" such that one atom ... Aromatic compounds. Benzene is one of the best-known aromatic compounds as it is one of the simplest and most stable aromatics. ... The aliphatic hydrocarbons are subdivided into three groups of homologous series according to their state of saturation:. * ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracenes, benzoflavones (e.g., beta- ... Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ... carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons such as benzo(a)pyrene (but making many of them more toxic in the process).[11] ... Mechanistic aspects - the dioxin (aryl hydrocarbon) receptor (2000). "Mechanistic aspects-the dioxin (aryl hydrocarbon) ...
... and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) that gaseous or liquid particles become adsorbed to. The particulate matter and chemical ...
... including nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.[36] Tobacco is responsible for about one in five cancer deaths ...
209-218, 1996 Link Jusélius, Jonas; Dage Sundholm (2008). "Polycyclic antiaromatic hydrocarbons". Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10: ... This effect is of a smaller magnitude than the corresponding shifts in aromatic compounds. Many aromatic and antiaromatic ... Non-aromatic molecules are either noncyclic, nonplanar, or do not have a complete conjugated π system within the ring. Having a ... Unlike aromatic compounds, which follow Hückel's rule ([4n+2] π electrons) and are highly stable, antiaromatic compounds are ...
It is one of the pre-planetary nebulae containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic hydrocarbons otherwise constituting ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracenes, benzoflavones (e.g., beta- ... Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ... The compound has been found to act as an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.[23] ... Denison MS, Nagy SR (2003). "Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by structurally diverse exogenous and endogenous ...
Contaminants monitored in fish include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), certain ... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and metals. English Sole, the first species studied for the Toxics in ...
Source for information on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Environmental Encyclopedia dictionary. ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of organic compounds having two or more fused benzene rings. While usually ... referring to compounds made of carbon and hydrogen , PAH also may include fused aromatic compounds containing nitrogen , sulfur ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of organic compounds having two or more fused ...
Time trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in New York City from 2001 to 2012: assessed by repeat air and urine ... Biomonitoring Factsheet: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals ... Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as biomarkers of exposure to wood smoke in wildland firefighters. Adetona O, ... Monitoring exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an Australian population using pooled urine samples. Thai PK, ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.. *ATSDR - Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ... National Pollutant Inventory: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet. *Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons NASA ... Dipple, A. (1985). "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Carcinogenesis". Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis. ACS Symposium ... A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) is a hydrocarbon-a chemical compound containing only carbon and hydrogen-that is ...
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons usually occurs by breathing air contaminated by wild fires or coal tar, or by ... How can polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affect my health?. *How likely are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to ... What are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)?. *What happens to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when they enter the ... What are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)?. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 100 different ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (en); هيدرو كربون أروماتي متعدد الحلقات, هيدروكربون أروماتي ... polycyclic aromatic compound,. aromatic hydrocarbon,. pollutant,. non-methane volatile organic compound. Part of. response to ... Media in category "Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". The following 123 files are in this category, out of 123 total. ... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (en); Policikliskie aromātiskie ogļūdeņraži (lv); полициклические ароматические углеводороды ( ...
Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological ... Toxicological profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ...
ToxFAQs for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Environmental Protection Agency. *Consumer Factsheet on: BENZO(A)PYRENE ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemicals that occur naturally in coal, crude oil, and gasoline. They ... Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Factsheet. ... Definition Page for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbonsexternal ...
Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) are a group of compounds comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ... "Relative Potencies of Individual Chlorinated and Brominated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for Induction of Aryl Hydrocarbon ... Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are generated by combustion of organic compounds. Cl-PAHs enter the environment ... One of the well-established mechanisms by which chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can exert their toxic effects is ...
... for research into environmental contaminants in food and feed such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Wageningen Food Safety Research is National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for research into ... The EU-RL for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Feed and Food as laid down in Regulation (EU) 2017/625 contributes to the ... Wageningen Food Safety Research is National Reference Laboratory for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is involved in ...
Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAH) are a very large number of naturally occurring and man-made chemicals. The pure compounds ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make sure javascript ... www.eea.europa.eu/help/glossary/eper-chemicals-glossary/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pah or scan the QR code. ... Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAH) are a very large number of naturally occurring and man-made chemicals. The pure compounds ...
... Jejal Reddy Bathi,1,2 Robert E. Pitt,1 and Shirley E. Clark3 ... J. R. Bathi, Associations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with urban creek sediments, Ph.D. thesis, Department of ... C. J. Diblasi, H. Li, A. P. Davis, and U. Ghosh, "Removal and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutants in an urban ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of frequently detected organic pollutants in urban stormwater runoff. ...
L. Donta, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) Factsheet, European Union JRC 66955, Joint Research Center, Institute for ... T. Abdulazeez, "Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons," A Review. Lawal, Cogent Environmental Science, vol. 3, Article ID 1339841, ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise a large group of organic compounds containing two or more fused benzene rings ... V. K. Singh, D. K. Patel, R. Jyoti, S. Ram, N. Mathur, and M. K. J. Siddiqui, "Blood levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...
Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Who Is at Risk of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)? ... Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Where Are Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Found? Learning Upon ... Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) What Are the Routes of Exposure for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs ... Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) What Are Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)? Learning Upon completion ...
FSANZ Internet Our science Monitoring the safety of the food supply Survey of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAH) ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are naturally occurring compounds found in the environment. They result from natural ... The full report of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foods available in Australia is available on the FSANZ website HERE ...
Filed under: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pops, air pollution indicators, air emissions, pah, persistent organic ... Filed under: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pops air pollution indicators air emissions pah persistent organic pollutants ... Change in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make ... www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/daviz/change-in-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons or scan the QR code. ...
... both the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals like arsenic that are associated with drilling accidents. By some ...
... 2018-01-1812. ... Citation: Fanick, E. and Kroll, S., "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Diesel Engine Exhaust Both with and without ... One group of compounds typically found in exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), usually occurs at very low ... Selective catalytic reduction Diesel particulate filters Diesel / compression ignition engines Hydrocarbons Combustion and ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ecotoxicology in marine ecosystems.. Hylland K1.. Author information. 1. Norwegian ... Low levels of oil and hence polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are naturally present in the marine environment, although ...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are Everywhere. PAHs are extremely common in the environment. Urban environments ... PAHs, short for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are a group of chemicals consisting of numerous carbon atoms joined together ...
Find Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Monitoring - Monitoring and Testing information on the worlds largest Environmental ... Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Monitoring. Articles & Whitepapers. * TESTEX AG, Zürich, Switzerland - Case Study "The ... Bordeaux (13-17 September 2015) CHROMATOTEC® was Gold Sponsor of 2015 International Symposium on Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds ... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. *polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysis. *polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons monitoring. * ...
Air levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after the World Trade Center disaster. Joachim D. Pleil, Alan F. ... The particulate air pollutants contained mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). By using an assay ... Abbreviations: WTC, World Trade Center; NYC, New York City, PAH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; PM, particulate matter. ... Air levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after the World Trade Center disaster ...
"polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". Entries tagged with: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. 7 result(s) displayed (1 - 7 of 7): ... Read More: air pollution, barbecue, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Give a Wide Berth to These Four Enemies of Air Quality ... Read More: barbeque, cancer, heterocyclic amines, in utero, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Killer Reasons to Break Up with ... Read More: acrylamides, cooked food, heterocyclic amines, Maillard Reaction, plant based diet, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...
Little is known about how human factors influence the patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the intertidal ... and receives polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from human activities, but how and to what extent anthropogenic factors ... Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on species ratios: a multimedia approach. Environ. Sci. Technol. ... Xu, S. S., Liu, W. X. & Tao, S. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 702-708 (2006 ...
Composed primarily of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C20 through C28 and ... Composed primarily of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C20 through C28 and ... Composed primarily of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C20 through C28 and ... Composed primarily of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C20 through C28 and ...
I: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content and excess lifetime cancer risk from preschool exposure. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, ... Multiphase reactivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is driven by phase separation and diffusion limitations. Shouming ... Conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on diesel particulate matter upon exposure to ppm levels of ozone. Atmos. ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are among the most prominent toxic air pollutants, ...
Carcinogenic Effect of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Some Other Compounds, in Politsiklicheskie uglevodorody (Polycyclic ... Isolated from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contaminated River Sediments, Can. J. Microbiol., 1999, vol. 45, pp. 520-529. ... Zhou, H.W., Guo, C.L., Wong, Y.S., and Tam, N.F.Y., Genetic Diversity of Dioxygenase Genes in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon- ... Cerniglia, C.E., Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Biodegradation, 1992, vol. 3, pp. 351-368.CrossRefGoogle ...
Article Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to polystyrene nanoplastic. Microplastic has become an emerging ... Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to polystyrene .... Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to polystyrene ... No comments were found for Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to polystyrene nanoplastic. Be the first to comment! ...
The table below is the Annex XVII to REACH and includes all the restrictions adopted in the framework of REACH and the previous legislation, Directive 76/769/EEC. Each entry shows a substance or a group of substances or a substance in a mixture, and the consequent restriction conditions. The latest consolidated version of REACH presents the restrictions adopted until the date of publication. Subsequent changes are included in the amending Commission regulations.. ...
This topic contains 4 study abstracts on Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon indicating it may contribute to DNA damage, Prenatal ... Problem Substances : Hydrocarbons, Mineral Oil, N-Nitrosamines, Paraffin, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Adverse ... 14 Abstracts with Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Transplacental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure to the fetus is compromising fetal development.Jun 01, 1999. ...
  • PAHs are uncharged, non-polar molecules, with distinctive properties due in part to the delocalized electrons in their aromatic rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (cdc.gov)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 100 different chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas, garbage, or other organic substances like tobacco or charbroiled meat. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when they enter the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)? (cdc.gov)
  • How can polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • How likely are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)? (cdc.gov)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemicals that occur naturally in coal, crude oil, and gasoline. (cdc.gov)
  • RIKILT is National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for research into environmental contaminants in food and feed such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (wur.nl)
  • RIKILT is National Reference Laboratory for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and is involved in the analysis of PAHs in food and feed. (wur.nl)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent organic pollutants of high environmental concern with known carcinogenic activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of frequently detected organic pollutants in urban stormwater runoff. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies have identified particulate associated PAHs as the most abundant [ 7 - 10 ], which is expected based on their hydrophobic nature and low vapor pressure, especially for PAHs with more than three aromatic rings. (hindawi.com)
  • Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) are a group of compounds comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more aromatic rings and one or more chlorine atoms attached to the ring system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article offers a review on the application of nanoparticles (NPs) that have been used as sorbents in the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (hindawi.com)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise a large group of organic compounds containing two or more fused benzene rings connected in linear, angular, or cluster arrangements. (hindawi.com)
  • Once the more easily processed materials and their breakdown products have completed their complicated journeys through the Gulf ecosystems, that still leaves the toxins that don't break down easily, both the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals like arsenic that are associated with drilling accidents. (edf.org)
  • Low levels of oil and hence polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are naturally present in the marine environment, although levels have increased significantly following human extraction and use of oil and gas. (nih.gov)
  • The intertidal zone-a transitional boundary between terrestrial and marine environments-has important ecological functions, and receives polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from human activities, but how and to what extent anthropogenic factors influence the distribution of PAHs in this important niche remain largely unknown. (nature.com)
  • Balcioglu, E. B. Potential effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine foods on human health: a critical review. (nature.com)
  • PAHs, short for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are a group of chemicals consisting of numerous carbon atoms joined together to form multiple rings. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The particulate air pollutants contained mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (pnas.org)
  • Soot from the fires contained numerous carcinogens, notably polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are ubiquitous products of incomplete combustion. (pnas.org)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most prominent toxic compounds in the air. (pnas.org)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are among the most prominent toxic air pollutants, posing a threat to human health because their metabolites and oxidation products are carcinogenic and mutagenic ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Biodegradation of selected UV-irradiated and non-irradiated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (nih.gov)
  • The primary interest was on 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as priority pollutants by European Union (EU) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (nih.gov)
  • Many members of the sphingomonad genus isolated from different geological areas can degrade a wide variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. (nih.gov)
  • At least some aromatic hydrocarbons, including at least some PAHs exhibit fluorescence , which can be used to detect them. (vaporia.com)
  • In this paper we show that oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) are important cocontaminants that should be taken into account during risk assessment and remediation of sites with high levels of PAHs. (bioone.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that oxy-PAHs are toxic to both humans and the environment, although the toxicity seems to be manifested through other effects than those known to be important for polycyclic aromatic compounds in general, that is, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. (bioone.org)
  • Herein we provide molecular evidence for a pathway involved in the elimination of the female germline due to prepregnancy and/or lactational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), environmental toxicants found in cigarette smoke. (jci.org)
  • It has previously been demonstrated that [14C]-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be oxidized to 14CO2 in anoxic, PAH-contaminated, marine harbor sediments in which sulfate reduction is the terminal electron-accepting process. (nih.gov)
  • Gabet, S. (2004) Mobilisation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils with biological surfactants. (scirp.org)
  • The researchers discovered polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with aliphatic side chains, which have been hypothesized to serve as "seeds" for soot particles in engine emissions . (phys.org)
  • The team found direct evidence that aliphatically-bridged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PAHs with alkyl chains exist in the sampled gases of the soot-forming flame. (phys.org)
  • Sorption is a key factor in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. (mit.edu)
  • Researcher using a combined gas chromatograph and mass selective detector (GC/MSD) to carry out analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of UK air. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Asia: a review from 1999 to 2004. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in both gaseous and particulate phases. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) proclaimed in 1988 requires the Canadian Ministers of the Environment and of National Health and Welfare to assess the toxicity of different substances, including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). (gov.bc.ca)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous contaminant in urban environments. (usgs.gov)
  • This study includes research into using UV light to remove Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from municipal sludge. (ebscohost.com)
  • In this study, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in sewage sludge samples from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Qingdao, China. (ebscohost.com)
  • Analysis for sixteen types of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from samples of raw and treated wastewater, sediments, sludge and plants growing along treated wastewater way was performed in October 1997. (ebscohost.com)
  • The results of investigations on the efficiency of the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from wastewater exposed to UV radiation are presented. (ebscohost.com)
  • In previous studies, the origin of the higher stability of kinked polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was found to be better π-bonding interactions, i.e., larger aromaticity, in kinked as compared to linear PAHs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unregulated electronic-waste recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Guiyu, China. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The objective of this research project is to focus on the central hypothesis of the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite, which is that organic constituents associated with particulate matter-including quinones, other organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], nitro-PAHs, and aldehydes/ketones), and metals-are capable of generating reactive oxygen species and acting as electrophilic agents. (epa.gov)
  • The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) Network, which has operated since 1991, currently monitors the ambient concentrations of PAHs in the UK atmosphere by sampling PAHs at 31 sites across England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. (defra.gov.uk)
  • This new technique was used to develop an analytical method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), comparing the difference under reverse phase and normal phase chromatographic conditions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 100 different chemicals, typically formed during incomplete combustion, which are present in a variety of environmental matrices. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Paraíba do Sul River, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, was studied for its water quality, by determining the levels of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from six sites in two cities, Resende and Campos dos Goytacazes, as they have industrial and agricultural activities. (scielo.br)
  • However, incomplete combustion may produce significant emissions of pollutants that are hazardous to human health, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (uef.fi)
  • Environmental fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a significant issue raising interest in bioremediation. (omicsonline.org)
  • Biodegradation leading to bioremediation and biotransformation techniques have been shown to transform a large range of compounds including poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. (columbia.edu)
  • 5.3 For the purpose of the present test method polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are defined to include substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with functional groups such as carboxyl acid, hydroxy, carbonyl and amino groups, and heterocycles giving similar fluorescence responses to PAHs of similar molecular weight ranges. (astm.org)
  • 1.1 This test method covers a means for quantifying or characterizing total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by fluorescence spectroscopy (Fl) for waterborne samples. (astm.org)
  • Background: Previous studies have suggested that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be associated with breast cancer. (harvard.edu)
  • Human health research associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has raised concerns because certain PAHs are classified as probable human carcinogens [1-4] and have shown tumorigenic activity and endocrine disrupting activity in mammals [5]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen? (nih.gov)
  • The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. (nih.gov)
  • In the modern world, our environment abounds in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived mainly from fossil fuels formed by the anaerobic decomposition of dead organisms over millions of years. (nih.gov)
  • The lipophilic PAHs, which chemically consist of two or more condensed aromatic benzene rings and occur in a large number of isomers, are readily taken up by the human body and distributed to different organs and tissues, including the fetus. (nih.gov)
  • Objectives To test the effects of aging on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette smoke. (bmj.com)
  • In 24 h acute toxicity tests, juvenile N. vectensis showed enhanced sensitivity to combinations of ultraviolet radiation (UV) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, specifically pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and fluoranthene) relative to either stressor alone. (biologists.org)
  • We investigated the utility of unmetabolized naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) in urine as surrogates for exposures to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise a class of chemicals composed of two or more fused aromatic rings. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in bulk atmospheric deposition samples collected at four European high-mountain areas, Gossenköllesee (Tyrolean Alps), Redon (Central Pyrenees), Skalnate Pleso (High Tatra Mountains), and Lochnagar (Grampian Mountains) between 2004 and 2006. (csic.es)
  • To study the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to aerosol and clarify their sources (marine sources, emissions from urban city), PM10 samples along seaside area from five sites in Xiamen and three sites in kinmen were collected during March 2008 to March 2009. (techconnectworld.com)
  • 200 μ m) collected in August and September of 2010 from the northern Gulf of Mexico show evidence of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (usgs.gov)
  • In this study the potential application of phenol-oxidizing and nitrifying bacteria as "priming biocatalysts" was examined in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers, and aromatic ethers. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We also have demonstrated that the nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea can cometabolically degrade a wide range polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aryl ethers and aromatic ethers including naphthalene, acenaphthene, diphenyl ether, dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and anisole. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The activation, hydrogenation, and covalent coupling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are processes of great importance in fields like chemistry, energy, biology, or health, among others. (csic.es)
  • Rianawati, E. and Balasubramanian, R. (2009) Optimization and Validation of Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) Method for Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rainwater and Stormwater. (scirp.org)
  • The new PhotoSpray source provides a sensitive ionization technique for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by LC/MS/MS. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Aerosols by Using One-Dimensional and Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Combined with Mass Spectrometric Method: A Comparative Study. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons usually occurs by breathing air contaminated by wild fires or coal tar, or by eating foods that have been grilled. (cdc.gov)
  • Transplacental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure to the fetus is compromising fetal development. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Study objectives were (1) to investigate the selectivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites for tobacco smoke exposure, and (2) to determine half-lives of PAH metabolites in smokers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Objectives Assess exposure to SHS in the backseat of a stationary vehicle where a child would sit, quantify exposures to fine particulates (PM2.5), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbon monoxide (CO) and nicotine. (bmj.com)
  • Waligóra S, Waligóra A, Damasiewicz-Bodzek A, Gorczyca P, Tyrpień-Golder K. Exposure of children with autism spectrum disorders to mercury and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (termedia.pl)
  • Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a key polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) often associated with soot particles coated by organic compounds, is a known carcinogen and mutagen. (pnas.org)
  • One of the most widely studied carcinogenic hydrocarbons is benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP). (springer.com)
  • Benzo(a)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic compounds are among the diverse products of the incomplete oxidation of organic fuels, such as coal , oil, wood , and organic wastes. (jrank.org)
  • Concentrations of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds - benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHRY), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DahA), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (I123P), and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) - in air were measured as the sum of gas and particle fractions at 32 monitoring stations dispersed across Korea during a 2-year period (February 2006 to January 2008). (hindawi.com)
  • the prototype polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene (BP), and the heavy metal, cadmium (Cd). (epa.gov)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the occupational environment: with special reference to benzo[a]pyrene measurements in Swedish industry. (sjweh.fi)
  • A review is given of measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the work environment in general with emphasis upon Swedish measurements of benzo[a]pyrene not previously published in international literature. (sjweh.fi)
  • M. Samdudin, H. Azahar, A. Abas and Z. Zakaria, "Determination of Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) Contents Using the Lichen Dirinaria picta in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia," Journal of Environmental Protection , Vol. 4 No. 8, 2013, pp. 760-765. (scirp.org)
  • Forest fires are an important natural source of emission of polycyclic aromatic compounds to the atmospheric environment. (jrank.org)
  • However, there is also a more pervasive contamination of the atmospheric environment with polycyclic aromatic compounds, resulting from emissions from power plants, refineries, automobiles, and other sources. (jrank.org)
  • Atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during chimney sweeping. (bmj.com)
  • A biomonitoring study on lichens was conducted to assess the levels of atmospheric heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) at ten sites at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Campus, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. (scirp.org)
  • Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in umbilical cord blood of human neonates from Guiyu, China. (biomedsearch.com)
  • One group of compounds typically found in exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), usually occurs at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust. (sae.org)
  • Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in the muscles and the skin of two fish species, Indian mackerel ( Rastrelliger kanagurta ) Indian scad ( Decaptens russelli ) and marine water collected from different places around the Sultanate of Oman, in February and July 1995. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Air sampled from the breathing zone of chimney sweeps during "dirty work" and soot samples were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). (bmj.com)
  • Sandia National Laboratories scientists Scott Skeen, left, Nils Hansen, center, and Brian Adamson discuss tandem mass spectrometry, which was used for the detection of aliphatically linked polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in soot producing flames. (phys.org)
  • The newly recognized compounds can be used to create more detailed models of combustion that, in turn, can help in the design of cleaner, more efficient engines that emit less soot and fewer harmful hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. (phys.org)
  • The team used an analytical technique called tandem mass spectrometry-using an instrument provided by Lawrence Berkeley Lab and customized by Adamson-to detect gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with aliphatic side chains in flames that produce soot, something never done before. (phys.org)
  • Recent work by Sandia scientist Hope Michelsen, technologist Paul Schrader and former postdoctoral researcher Olof Johansson broke ground by identifying chemical chain-reaction processes where hydrocarbons could form soot. (phys.org)
  • One area of debate is whether the chemical byproducts in soot are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, made solely out of ring-shaped groups of atoms, or contain extra, non-cyclic structures called alkyl, or aliphatic, groups. (phys.org)
  • Il s'agit d';une source d'informations unique sur les substances chimiques fabriquées et importées en Europe. (europa.eu)
  • The most important human exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds are voluntary and are associated, for example, with cigarette smoking and eating barbecued foods. (jrank.org)
  • Both voluntary and non-voluntary exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds are considered to be important environmental problems. (jrank.org)
  • Could saponins be used to enhance bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged-contaminated soils. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • No other reference source gives you access to the most current techniques and methods for the bioremediation of chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. (powells.com)
  • A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ( PAH ) is a hydrocarbon -a chemical compound containing only carbon and hydrogen-that is composed of multiple aromatic rings . (wikipedia.org)
  • The doctoral dissertation of Master of Science Kati Nuutinen , entitled Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from residential wood combustion will be examined at the Faculty of Science and Forestry. (uef.fi)
  • strain P2 have been found to possess a unique group of genes for aromatic degradation, which are distantly related with those in pseudomonads and other genera reported so far both in sequence homology and gene organization. (nih.gov)
  • To date 60 genera of bacteria and 80 genera of fungi have been shown to carry out degradation of hydrocarbons [ 3 , 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • We also characterized the role of AMO in the degradation of aromatic ethers. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This CSEM focuses on the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (cdc.gov)
  • Take the Initial Check to assess your current knowledge about the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (cdc.gov)
  • Broccoli and its phytochemical sulforaphane activate detoxification enzymes that may protect against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon induced toxicity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Because some polycyclic aromatic compounds are strongly suspected as being carcinogens, and are commonly encountered in the environment, they are considered to be an important problem in terms of toxicity potentially caused to humans. (jrank.org)
  • One of the well-established mechanisms by which chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can exert their toxic effects is via the function of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is a cytosolic, ligand-activated transcription receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resveratrol may repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity in cancer cell lines. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Activation of the cell death pathway in immature follicles of exposed females was mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), as ovarian reserve was fully rescued by maternal cotreatment with the Ahr antagonist, resveratrol, or by inactivation of the Ahr gene. (jci.org)
  • DNA reactions, mutagenic action and stealth properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogens [review]. (wiley.com)
  • Harvey, R. G. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Chemistry and Carcinogenicity . (encyclopedia.com)
  • For this purpose, we first validate our methodology for fluid phase equilibria predictions of aromatic hydrocarbons and gas (CO2, C2H6) mixtures. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The simplest of such chemicals are naphthalene , having two aromatic rings, and the three-ring compounds anthracene and phenanthrene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzene-substructure resonance analysis for Clar's rule Phenanthrene Anthracene Chrysene For example, phenanthrene has two Clar structures: one with just one aromatic sextet (the middle ring), and the other with two (the first and third rings). (wikipedia.org)
  • W. M. Baird and P. Brookes, Isolation of the hydrocarbon-deoxyribonucleoside products from the DNA of mouse embryo cells treated in culture with 7-methylbenz(a)anthracene- 3 H, Cancer Res. (springer.com)
  • The terms polyaromatic hydrocarbon [1] or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon [2] are also used for this concept. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, are a family of hydrocarbons containing two or more closed aromatic ring structures, each based on the structure of benzene . (jrank.org)
  • Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polychlorinated Dioxins, and Dibenzofurans. (scirp.org)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of organic compounds having two or more fused benzene rings. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are generated by combustion of organic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • group of organic compounds t wo or more aromatic (benzene) rings are fused together. (slideserve.com)
  • They are structurally similar to other halogenated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the dissolved fraction, 41 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivates were quantified, among them are 16 EPA priority pollutants. (scirp.org)
  • It is one of the primary mechanisms which lead to the elimination of hydrocarbon pollutants. (omicsonline.org)
  • Lunde, G. & Bjorseth, A. Polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons in long-range transported aerosols. (nature.com)
  • Samples of suspended particulate matter, collected at four sites in Zagreb during the heating season were analysed for the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (srce.hr)
  • While usually referring to compounds made of carbon and hydrogen , PAH also may include fused aromatic compounds containing nitrogen , sulfur, or cyclopentene rings. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Composed primarily of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C20 through C28 and having a softening point of 100°C to 220°C (212°F to 428°F) according to DIN 52025. (europa.eu)
  • A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ( PAH ) is a hydrocarbon (i.e., compound of hydrogen and carbon ), more specifically, an aromatic hydrocarbon (including a ring), arranged in benzene rings (rings of six joined carbon atoms) interconnected like chickenwire (fence material of wire joined forming similar six-sided shapes). (vaporia.com)
  • Methane is the simplest hydrocarbon, consisting of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. (windows2universe.org)
  • ISO 7981-1:2005 specifies the determination of six selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in drinking water. (iso.org)
  • ISO 11338-2:2003 specifies procedures for sample preparation, clean-up and analysis for the determination of gas and particle phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in stack and waste gases. (iso.org)
  • Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wastewater, Sediments, Sludge and Plants in Karak Province, Jordan. (ebscohost.com)
  • L. R Bordajandi, M. Dabrio, F. Ulberth and H. Emons, "Optimization of the GC-MS Conditions for the Determination of the 16 EU Foodstuff Priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons," Journal of Separation Science, Vol. 31, No. 10, 2008, pp. 1769-1778. (scirp.org)
  • R. G. Harvey, "Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis", American Chemical Society Symposium Series 283, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C. (1985). (springer.com)
  • Chemical and Ecotoxicological Assessment of Selected Biologically Activated Sorbents for Treating Wastewater Polluted with Petroleum Products with Special Emphasis on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. (ebscohost.com)
  • Fanick, E. and Kroll, S., "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Diesel Engine Exhaust Both with and without Aftertreatment," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1812, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-1812 . (sae.org)
  • Chlorella works for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon detoxification through the epigenetic modulation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Zhang, P. & Chen, Y. G. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in surface soil of China: a review. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, in this molecule the outer rings have greater aromatic character whereas the central ring is less aromatic and therefore more reactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • No comments were found for Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to polystyrene nanoplastic . (environmental-expert.com)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread environmental contaminants that require metabolic activation in order to induce biological effects 1 . (springer.com)
  • Sometimes there is limited substitution of halogens for the hydrogen of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in which case the larger category of chemicals is known as polycyclic aromatic compounds. (jrank.org)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the occupational environment: with. (sjweh.fi)
  • Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis 11 , R. G. Harvey, ed. (springer.com)
  • Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis", R. G. Harvey, ed. (springer.com)
  • Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish and water fr. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Residues of polycyclic aromatic compounds are also found in burnt toast, barbecued meat, smoked fish , and other foods prepared by charring. (jrank.org)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are naturally occurring compounds found in the environment. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • A flame that was sampled by Sandia National Laboratories scientists against the backdrop of mass spectra and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds found inside the flame. (phys.org)
  • Thygesen, RS & Trapp, S 2002, ' Phytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to willow trees ' Journal of Soils and Sediments , vol 2, no. 2, pp. 77-82. (dtu.dk)
  • Sulforaphane inhibit polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced enzyme induction associated with carcinogenesis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Carcinogenesis: Structure-Activity Relationships", B. D. Silverman and S. K. Yang, eds. (springer.com)
  • In the environment, natural populations of bacteria and fungi carry out biodegradation of hydrocarbons to produce end products. (omicsonline.org)
  • To help determine if this is detrimental to the surrounding environment, more information is needed on the extent and pattern of creosote, or more specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), migration from railroad ties and what effects this would have on the surrounding environment. (usda.gov)
  • The fourth study (19) , which was based on normal breast tissue derived from a sample size of 87 breast cancer patients and 29 mammoplasty noncancer controls, noted a significantly higher level of aromatic DNA adducts in the cancer patients than in the controls. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAH) are a very large number of naturally occurring and man-made chemicals. (europa.eu)
  • For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/help/glossary/eper-chemicals-glossary/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pah or scan the QR code. (europa.eu)
  • According to Clar's rule, [17] the resonance structure of a PAH that has the largest number of disjoint aromatic pi sextets -i.e. benzene -like moieties-is the most important for the characterization of the properties of that PAH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EU-RL for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Feed and Food as laid down in Regulation (EU) 2017/625 contributes to the implementation of high quality implementation and uniform results. (wur.nl)