Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A family of gram negative, aerobic, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacteria.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Damages to reproductive health prior to conception (FERTILIZATION), a legal term for torts liability concerning environmental safety issues. Preconception injuries may involve either the male or the female, such as chromosomal mutations in the OVA or the SPERMATOZOA.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.
Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for the root used in hot SPICES. It is also the source of HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE which is widely used in laboratories.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.
A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
An organochlorine insecticide that is carcinogenic.
The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.
Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.
Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.
Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Supplies used in building.
The number of males per 100 females.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.

Identification of an enhancer element of class Pi glutathione S-transferase gene required for expression by a co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl. (1/1428)

3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB), one of the most toxic co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, specifically induces class Pi glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) as well as cytochrome P-450 1A1 in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells [Aoki, Matsumoto and Suzuki (1993) FEBS Lett. 333, 114-118]. However, the 5'-flanking sequence of the GSTP1 gene does not contain a xenobiotic responsive element, to which arylhydrocarbon receptor binds. Using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay we demonstrate here that the enhancer termed GSTP1 enhancer I (GPEI) is necessary for the stimulation by PenCB of GSTP1 gene expression in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells. GPEI is already known to contain a dyad of PMA responsive element-like elements oriented palindromically. It is suggested that a novel signal transduction pathway activated by PenCB contributes to the stimulation of GSTP1 expression.  (+info)

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos. (2/1428)

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes.  (+info)

Potential mechanisms of thyroid disruption in humans: interaction of organochlorine compounds with thyroid receptor, transthyretin, and thyroid-binding globulin. (3/1428)

Organochlorine compounds, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alter serum thyroid hormone levels in humans. Hydroxylated organochlorines have relatively high affinities for the serum transport protein transthyretin, but the ability of these compounds to interact with the human thyroid receptor is unknown. Using a baculovirus expression system in insect cells (Sf9 cells), we produced recombinant human thyroid receptor ss (hTRss). In competitive binding experiments, the recombinant receptor had the expected relative affinity for thyroid hormones and their analogs. In competitive inhibition experiments with PCBs, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and several organochlorine herbicides, only the OH-PCBs competed for binding. The affinity of hTRss for OH-PCBs was 10,000-fold lower (Ki = 20-50 microM) than its affinity for thyroid hormone (3,3',5-triiodothyronine, T3; Ki = 10 nM). Because their relative affinity for the receptor was low, we tested the ability of OH-PCBs to interact with the serum transport proteins--transthyretin and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). With the exception of one compound, the OH-PCBs had the same affinity (Ki = 10-80 nM) for transthyretin as thyroid hormone (thyroxine; T4). Only two of the OH-PCBs bound TBG (Ki = 3-7 microM), but with a 100-fold lower affinity than T4. Hydroxylated PCBs have relatively low affinities for the human thyroid receptor in vitro, but they have a thyroid hormonelike affinity for the serum transport protein transthyretin. Based on these results, OH-PCBs in vivo are more likely to compete for binding to serum transport proteins than for binding to the thyroid receptor.  (+info)

Effects of acute exposure to PCBs 126 and 153 on anterior pituitary and thyroid hormones and FSH isoforms in adult Sprague Dawley male rats. (4/1428)

3,3'4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) were administered to adult male rats in order to identify sensitive indicators of endocrine disruption. We tested the hypothesis that PCB exposure modifies follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) pituitary isoforms, as well as the pituitary and serum concentrations of FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Effects on serum levels of thyroxine (T4) and testosterone (T), and prostate androgen receptor content, were also tested. In one experiment, 5 groups of 8 rats each received two i.p. injections, one day apart, of either corn oil or 6.25, 25, 100 or 400 micrograms/kg/day of PCB 126. Decreases (p < 0.05) in the serum concentrations of T4 and LH started at doses of 25 and 100 micrograms/kg/day, respectively. Serum FSH concentrations were reduced (p = 0.07) in the highest dose group. In contrast, pituitary content of FSH and LH increased with PCB-126 doses (p = 0.004, p = 0.002, respectively). Despite changes in reproductive hormones, PCB-126 had no effect on the androgen receptor content of the prostate. The effect of PCB-126 was tested in the hemicastrated rat, and suggested adverse effects on testosterone secretion. To test the effects of PCB exposure on FSH pituitary isoforms, 4 groups of 10 male rats received two i.p. injections, one day apart, of either corn oil, PCB 153 (25 mg/kg/day), estradiol-17 beta (E2; 20 micrograms/kg/day), or PCB 126 (0.1 mg/kg/day). Serum T4 levels were higher (p < 0.01) in the E2 and PCB 153 groups, and slightly reduced in the PCB 126-treated groups, compared to controls. Simultaneous purification of pituitary FSH and TSH isoforms was performed by HPLC, using two chromatofocusing columns in series. In contrast to TSH isoforms, the distribution of FSH isoforms over the chromatography run differed slightly between treatment groups; the amounts of FSH isoform eluted during the pH gradient were lower (p < 0.05) in E2 and PCB 153-treated rats than in control or PCB 126-treated rats. The similarity between the effects of E2 and PCB 153 on T4 and FSH isoforms supports the contention that PCB 153 possesses estrogenic properties. Serum LH and T4 concentrations were the most sensitive and practical endocrine indicators of PCBs 126 and 153 exposure in male rats.  (+info)

Construction and characterization of two recombinant bacteria that grow on ortho- and para-substituted chlorobiphenyls. (5/1428)

Cloning and expression of the aromatic ring dehalogenation genes in biphenyl-growing, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-cometabolizing Comamonas testosteroni VP44 resulted in recombinant pathways allowing growth on ortho- and para-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) as a sole carbon source. The recombinant variants were constructed by transformation of strain VP44 with plasmids carrying specific genes for dehalogenation of chlorobenzoates (CBAs). Plasmid pE43 carries the Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142 ohb genes coding for the terminal oxygenase (ISPOHB) of the ortho-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, whereas plasmid pPC3 contains the Arthrobacter globiformis KZT1 fcb genes, which catalyze the hydrolytic para-dechlorination of 4-CBA. The parental strain, VP44, grew only on low concentrations of 2- and 4-CB by using the products from the fission of the nonchlorinated ring of the CBs (pentadiene) and accumulated stoichiometric amounts of the corresponding CBAs. The recombinant strains VP44(pPC3) and VP44(pE43) grew on, and completely dechlorinated high concentrations (up to 10 mM), of 4-CBA and 4-CB and 2-CBA and 2-CB, respectively. Cell protein yield corresponded to complete oxidation of both biphenyl rings, thus confirming mineralization of the CBs. Hence, the use of CBA dehalogenase genes appears to be an effective strategy for construction of organisms that will grow on at least some congeners important for remediation of PCBs.  (+info)

Anaerobic dehalogenation of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans. (6/1428)

Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) from congeners such as 3,3',5, 5'-tetrachloro-4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl.  (+info)

Reduction of thyroid hormone levels by methylsulfonyl metabolites of tetra- and pentachlorinated biphenyls in male Sprague-Dawley rats. (7/1428)

Male Sprague-Dawley rats received four consecutive intraperitoneal (i.p.) doses of five kinds of methylsulfonyl (MeSO2) metabolites of tetra- and pentachlorinated biphenyls (tetra- and pentaCBs) to determine their effects on thyroid hormone levels. The five MeSO2 metabolites, which were the major MeSO2-PCBs detected in human milk, liver and adipose tissue were 3-MeSO2-2,2',4',5-tetraCB (3-MeSO2-CB49),3-MeSO2-2,3',4',5-tetraCB (3-MeSO2-CB70), 3-MeSO2-2,2',3',4',5-pentaCB (3-MeSO2-CB87), 3-MeSO2-2,2',4',5,5'-pentaCB (3-MeSO2-CB101), and 4-MeSO2-2,2',4',5,5'-pentaCB (4-MeSO2-CB101). All five tested MeSO2 metabolites (20 mumol/kg once daily for 4 days) reduced serum total thyroxine levels 16-40% on days 2, 3, 4, and 7 (after the last dosage). The total triiodothyronine level was reduced 37% by treatment with 3-MeSO2-CB49 at day 7, but was increased 35% and 38% by 3-MeSO2-CB70 and 4-MeSO2-CB101 at days 3 and 4, respectively. The reductions in thyroid hormone levels led to an increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels by 3-MeSO2-CB49, 3-MeSO2-CB87 and 3-MeSO2-CB101. A 30% increase in thyroid weight was produced by 3-MeSO2-CB101 treatment. Thus, it is likely that all five tested MeSO2 metabolites could influence thyroid hormone metabolism. The results show that the tested 3- and 4-MeSO2 metabolites of tetra- and pentaCBs reduce thyroid hormone levels in rats, suggesting that the metabolites may act as endocrine-disrupters.  (+info)

Organochlorines in breast milk from two cities in Ukraine. (8/1428)

Reports of environmental problems in the former Soviet Union, including excess use of pesticides, have led to concerns about high levels of contamination in humans, but little information is available to assess whether these concerns are warranted. Samples of breast milk from 197 women from two cities in Ukraine were analyzed for p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, ss-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and results were compared to previous reports from Europe. The median ss-HCH concentration was 731 ng/g milk fat, which is higher than other reports from Europe but lower than reports from other parts of the world. The median DDE concentration was 2,457 ng/g milk fat, which is higher than most but not all other reports from Europe. Concentrations of other chemicals were comparable to or lower than other reports from Europe. Concentrations from the city of Kyiv were generally lower than those from Dniprodzerzhinsk, but the magnitudes of these differences were modest.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Improved separation of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. AU - Focant, Jean François. AU - Sjödin, Andreas. AU - Patterson, Donald G.. N1 - Funding Information: J.-F. Focant is financially supported by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility managed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). PY - 2004/6/25. Y1 - 2004/6/25. N2 - The separation of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners has been studied using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). Four column combinations based on thermally stable phases, DB-1/HT-8, DB-XLB/HT-8, DB-XLB/BPX-50, and HT-8/BPX-50, have been investigated. The HT-8/BPX-50 set produced the best separation. The distribution of the 100 to 150 ms wide peaks was highly structured in the chromatographic space and based on the ...
The addition of the dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for their detection and quantitation. Most of these procedures are based on established sample preparation and analytical techniques employing high resolution gas chromatography/ high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), which are used for the analyses of dioxin/furans at low parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels. A significant and widespread problem that arises when using these sample preparation procedures for the analysis of coplanar PCBs is the presence of background levels of these congeners. Industrial processes, urban incineration, leaking electrical transformers, hazardous waste accidents, and improper waste disposal practices have released appreciable quantities of PCBs into the environment. This contamination has ...
Polychlorinated dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that bioaccumulate in lipids and may enter the food chain through animal products. Recently, Polish authorities discovered a free range farm whose eggs exceeded national standards for dioxin contamination two-fold. Piskorska-Pliszczynska et al.1 evaluated samples from that farm to determine the likely source of the dioxin exposure and to quantify the bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the tissues and eggs of the affected hens. They took specimens from the commercial feed and the soil of the free range areas. A veterinarian also performed necropsies and sampled muscle, abdominal fat, liver tissue, ovarian follicles, and whole eggs present in the oviducts. The researchers identified 35 PCDD/F and PCB congeners of interest, including dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs), using gas chromatography ...
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread in aquatic systems. These toxicants bioaccumulate in the tissues of aquatic organisms, especially fish as they occupy a position near the top of the aquatic food web. Teleost fish respond to stressors, including toxicants, by activating a co-ordinated network of adaptive responses, collectively termed the integrated stress response, which allows animals to regain homeostasis. Depending on the nature of the stressor, this stress response may be a generalised endocrine response that occurs at the organismal level and/or a cellular response involving protein synthesis. The cellular response to PCB insult involves aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and the induction of biotransformation enzymes, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A). However, little is known about the mode of action of PCBs in affecting the adaptive stress response in animals. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the role ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent environmental chemicals that are known thyroid hormone disrupters. Frequently the disruption of one endocrine axis and the timing of the disruption have an impact on other interdependent hormonal responses. Although the mechanisms for the interdependency of thyroid hormones and leptin have not been fully characterized, both are linked to development and regulation of metabolism. Furthermore, PCB accumulation in depot fat could potentially alter leptin production. In the present study 15-and 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed gestationally and lactationally to 1.25 ppm of Aroclor 1254®, a mixture of 52 PCB congeners, via maternal diet, to determine the effect on leptin and thyroid hormones. Additionally, young adult female rats were fed 1.25 PCB for 21 days and the same hormones were assessed. Serum leptin concentrations were determined by a sensitive murine leptin ELISA (DSL, Inc., Webster, TX). Serum thyroid hormone levels were determined ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chemical structure and activity. T2 - A birth cohort study. AU - Park, Hye Youn. AU - Hertz-Picciotto, Irva. AU - Sovcikova, Eva. AU - Kocan, Anton. AU - Drobna, Beata. AU - Trnovec, Tomas. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to defined subsets of PCBs and neurodevelopment in a cohort of infants in eastern Slovakia enrolled at birth in 2002-2004. Methods: Maternal and cord serum samples were collected at delivery, and analyzed ...
Article Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl in human blood from Japanese. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) of whole blood sam...
TY - THES. T1 - Thyroid hormone binding proteins as novel targets for hydroxylated polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) : possible implications for toxicity. AU - Lans, M.C.. N1 - WU thesis 1990 Proefschrift Wageningen. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Some toxic effects caused by polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) develop through alterations in the reproductive and thyroid hormone regulatory systems, thereby affecting (brain) development, reproduction and behaviour of several species (Stone, 1995, Birnbaum, 1994, for review: Brouwer et al. , 1995, Peterson et al. , 1993). In this thesis we have focused on the effects of different classes of PHAHs, eg. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo- p -dioxins (PCDDs) and their hydroxylated metabolites on thyroid hormone homeostasis. These changes seem to be partly caused by Ah-receptor mediated changes in thyroid hormone glucuronidation, and effects on the thyroid gland affecting hormone production and ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (often shortened to PCBs) are organic chemical compounds that contain chlorine atoms. They were used in industrial chemistry, and to make certain transformers, capacitors, and cooling fluids. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants declared them to be among the worst chemical pollutants. Their use has been banned worldwide, since 2001. The mode of action of these substances is similar to that of dioxin. Polychlorinated biphenyls were widely used, and they can be found in the atmosphere, the soil, and the bodies of water anywhere on the earth. In the short term, these substances are not very toxic, but they accumulate in the body. They are teratogens, and may cause cancer. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polychlorinated biphenyls disturb differentiation of normal human neural progenitor cells. T2 - Clue for involvement of thyroid hormone receptors. AU - Fritsche, Ellen. AU - Cline, Jason E.. AU - Nguyen, Ngoc Ha. AU - Scanlan, Thomas S.. AU - Abel, Josef. PY - 2005/7. Y1 - 2005/7. N2 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental chemicals that accumulate in adipose tissues over the food chain. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that PCBs influence brain development. Children who are exposed to PCBs during development suffer from neuropsychologic deficits such as a lower full-scale IQ (intelligence quotient), reduced visual recognition memory, and attention and motor deficits. The mechanisms leading to these effects are not fully understood. It has been speculated that PCBs may affect brain development by interfering with thyroid hormone (TH) signaling. Because most of the data are from animal studies, we established a model using primary normal human neural ...
PCBs are industrial chemicals that have neurotoxic effects, and studies indicate that they interfere with normal functions of the endocrine system. Although the manufacturing of PCBs was banned in the 1970s, they remain a major contaminant of the environment and of human tissues. Epidemiological studies show that exposure to PCBs during intrauterine development is highly associated with measurable neurological deficits in the offspring. In addition, deficits associated with PCBs are inversely associated with maternal thyroid hormone (TH) levels. This suggests that PCBs interfere with TH action in the fetal brain. Using in situ hybridization to measure HES-1 and HES-5 mRNA (direct markers of Notch activity), our laboratory has found that both maternal thyroid status and maternal exposure to PCBs influences Notch signaling in the fetal rat brain. We found that Aroclor 1254 produces a dose-dependent increase in HES-1 expression in the ventricular zone. Recent evidence suggests that Notch signaling ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polychlorinated biphenyls promote 1-nitropyrene-induced lung tumorigenesis without the induction of K-ras gene mutation in A/J mice. AU - Nakanishi, Yoichi. AU - Bai, Feng. AU - Inoue, Koji. AU - Takayama, Koichi. AU - Pei, Xin Hai. AU - Harada, Taishi. AU - Izumi, Miiru. AU - Kimotsuki, Kanehito. AU - Tokiwa, Hiroshi. AU - Hara, Nobuyuki. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Although the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on human lung carcinogenesis are suggested from the massive PCBs poisoning that occurred in Japan designated Yusho, the detailed molecular mechanism are unknown. 1 nitropyrene (1-NP), an ubiquitous and abundant environmental pollutant, is known to be detected in lung tissues derived from patients with lung cancer in Japan, and its relation to lung carcinogenesis is also suggested. We investigated the effects of PCBs (Kanechlor-400) on l-NP-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. PCBs were administered intraperitoneally followed by ip injection of 1-NP. The ...
Aquatic organisms passively accumulate hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, even when ambient water concentrations of the contaminant are below analytical detection limits. However, contaminant concentrations in tissue samples are subject to an inherently high level of variability due to differences in species, life stage, and gender bioconcentration potentials. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample Aroclor 1254, a mixture of readily bioconcentrated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in a contaminated wetland near Flat Top, WV. The devices consisted of triolein, a lipid found in fish, enclosed in a polyethylene membrane. SPMDs were deployed in the water column and in direct contact with wetland sediments along a previously identified concentration gradient of PCBs. The devices were retrieved after a 25-day exposure period. Analytes were recovered by dialyzing the devices in nanograde hexane. Hexane dialysates were condensed and analyzed by gas
EWGs Tap Water Database Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) results for Madison Water Works | Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Find out what is in your tap water
EWGs Tap Water Database Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) results for Phoenixville Water Dept | Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Find out what is in your tap water
Background and aims: Despite the endocrine system activity exhibited by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), recent studies have shown little association between PCB exposure and breast cancer mortality. To evaluate the relation between PCB exposure and breast cancer incidence, a more sensitive endpoint than mortality, we studied women exposed to PCBs while employed in capacitor manufacturing facilit
In vitro analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PCDF) cellular toxicity in PLC/PRF/5 cell proliferation--the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid, inchin-gorei-san and shou-saiko-to on cell toxicity.
Other data set: Additional PCB congeners are reported under data file name PCBPOL_F. Among these PCB congeners PCB 105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 has a toxic equivalence factor (TEF) and may be used with this data set for calculating a total TCDD equivalence.. Subsample Weights. PCDDs, PCDFs, and cPCBs were measured in a one-third subsample of participants 12 years and older. Special sample weights are required to analyze these data properly. Specific sample weights for this subsample are included in this data file and should be used when analyzing these data.. Samples were pooled in groups of 8 samples per pool within 40 demographic groups. The analysis of NHANES 2009-2010 pooled-sample data must be conducted with the basic demographic variables provided in this data file. This pooled-sample data file cannot be linked to other NHANES 2009-2010 data. Because each sample person does not have an equal probability of selection, sample weighting is needed to produce correct population ...
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are fat soluble chemical substances that persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in the food chain. Through long-range environmental transportation by air, water and migratory species they are transferred to new locations distant from the source of release and might cause adverse effects to human health and to the environment. POPs comprise pesticides, industrial chemicals and unwanted by-products. The European Commission has implemented food and feed legislations concerning maximum permitted levels (MPLs) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Fish and consequently fishmeal and fish oil has been identified as one of the most important contributors to the level of dioxins and DL-PCBs in food and feed products. Fish caught in some of the North-European fishing areas contain high dioxin and PCB levels resulting ...
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic chemicals. Uses include plasticisers in paints, plastics & rubber PCBs are a persistent organic pollutant
The microbial synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from organic wastes is a valuable process to valorize available renewable resources, such as food wastes and biological sludge. Bioplastics find many applications in various sectors, from medical field to food industry. However, persistent organic pollutants could be transferred from wastes to the final product. The present paper demonstrates that the use of municipal wastes in PHA production is safe for the environment and human health and provides a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) profile in both commercial and waste-based PHA samples. PCB analysis in several PHA samples showed very low concentrations of the target analytes. Commercial PHA samples showed a similar PCB level with respect to PHA samples from municipal waste/sludge and higher than PHA samples from fruit waste. For all analyzed PCBs, detected concentrations were consistently lower than the ones reported in regulatory framework or guidelines.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of synthetic organic chlorine compounds known as an organic pollutant in food sources, which play important ro
The developing central nervous system is particularly vulnerable to environmental contaminants such as non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs). This study investigated the potential oxidative effects in mice pups exposed via lactation to the sum of the six indicator NDL-PCBs (Sigma 6 NDL-PCBs) at 0,1, 10 and 100 ng/kg per 14 days, constituting levels below the guidance values fixed by French food safety agencies for humans at 10 ng/kg body weight per day. For this purpose, the oxidative status was assessed by flow cytometry via dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate in the cerebellum of juvenile male offspring mice during brain growth spurt [postnatal day (PND) 14]. No significant differences were found in the levels of reactive oxygen species in the cerebellar neurons or glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia) of lactationally exposed male mice at PND 14 (p | 0.05). Concordantly, oxidative-stress related gene expression was measured by qPCR for catalase, copper zinc
Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) interfere with thyroid hormone action both in vitro and in vivo. However, epidemiologic studies on the link between PCB exposure and thyroid function have yielded discordant results, while very few data are available for HO-PCBs. Objectives: Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between clinically available markers of thyroid metabolism and serum levels of both PCBs and HO-PCBs. Subjects and Methods: In a group of 180 subjects, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (fT4), 29 PCBs (expressed both in lipid weight and in wet weight) and 18 HO-PCBs were measured in serum. Results: In regression models, adjusted for gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels, serum levels of 3HO-PCB118 and 3HO-PCB180, and PCB95lw, PCB99lw and PCB149lw were independent, significant predictors of fT4. A stepwise, multiple regression with gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure may affect serum concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by inhibiting desaturases Δ5 and Δ6 that drive their synthesis from precursor fatty acids. Such changes in the composition of fatty acids may affect cardiovascular disease risk, which is thought to increase at elevated PCB exposures. This population-based cross-sectional study examined 712 Faroese men and women aged 70-74 years. The serum phospholipid fraction of fasting blood samples was used to determine the PUFA profile, including linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and other relevant fatty acids. Ratios between precursor and metabolite fatty acids were used as proxies for Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase activity. Tertiles of serum-PCB concentrations were used in multiple regression analyses to determine the association between the exposure and desaturase activity. In multiple regression models, PCB exposure was inversely related to the estimated ...
The most common technique used for the analysis of Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at trace level is gas chromatography coupled to an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Click to read more...
This industrial hygiene summary report summarizes available information about workers who manufactured polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) filled capacitors at plant 3. Production started in October 1957 and ended in March 1977. Complete work history records for 3,603 workers were microfilmed in March 1977 and 40 personal and 16 area air samples were collected for the evaluation of PCB exposures (NIOSH
Chromosomal abnormalities contribute substantially to reproductive problems, but the role of environmental risk factors has received little attention.,We evaluated the association of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p-DDE) exposures with sperm sex-chromosome disomy.,We conducted a cross-sectional study of 192 men from subfertile couples. We used multiprobe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosomes X, Y, and 18 to determine XX, YY, XY, and total sex-chromosome disomy in sperm nuclei. Serum was analyzed for concentrations of 57 PCB congeners and p,p-DDE. Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for disomy by exposure quartiles, controlling for demographic characteristics and semen parameters.,The median percent disomy was 0.3 for XX and YY, 0.9 for XY, and 1.6 for total sex-chromosome disomy. We observed a significant trend of increasing IRRs for increasing quartiles of p,p-DDE in XX, XY, and total ...
Dioxin-like chemicals and brominated flame retardants are ubiquitous in the environment, despite the introduction of international prohibitions and restrictions. These chemicals do not remain in the vicinity of their source, instead they can be transported over long distances, in fact even to pristine areas in the northern latitudes. However, there have been rather few time series experiments monitoring the trends in the levels of chlorinated and brominated forms of these chemicals in the environment. In this study, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in the liver and muscle of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) caught in a remote area in Finnish Lapland during 1986-2007. Five time points were selected: years 1986, 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2007. The levels of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs declined from 1986 until 2003 in both females and males, but tended to increase again in 2007. The peak
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of Sex-Specific Transcriptome Responses to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). AU - Espin-Perez, Almudena. AU - Hebels, Dennie G. A. J.. AU - Kiviranta, Hannu. AU - Rantakokko, Panu. AU - Georgiadis, Panagiotis. AU - Botsivali, Maria. AU - Bergdahl, Ingvar A.. AU - Palli, Domenico. AU - Spath, Florentin. AU - Johansson, Anders. AU - Chadeau-Hyam, Marc. AU - Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.. AU - Kleinjans, Jos C. S.. AU - de Kok, Theo M. C. M.. PY - 2019/1/24. Y1 - 2019/1/24. KW - PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS. KW - GENE-EXPRESSION ANALYSIS. KW - CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE. KW - CARCINOMA-CELLS. KW - IMMUNE-SYSTEM. KW - CANCER. KW - LYMPHOMA. KW - EXPOSURE. KW - SUPPRESSION. KW - HEALTH. U2 - 10.1038/s41598-018-37449-y. DO - 10.1038/s41598-018-37449-y. M3 - Article. C2 - 30679748. VL - 9. SP - 1. EP - 12. JO - Scientific Reports. JF - Scientific Reports. SN - 2045-2322. M1 - 746. ER - ...
Despite production having stopped in the 1970s, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) represent persistent organic pollutants that continue to pose a serious human health risk. Exposure to PCBs has been...
Several studies have suggested that exposure to persistent pollutant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), may increase the risk of developing endometriosis
Background: Multiple studies have suggested a relationship between adult exposures to environmental organochlorines and fecundability. There is a paucity of data, however, regarding fetal exposure to organochlorines via the mothers blood and fecundability of adult female offspring. Methods: Data from a two-generation cohort of maternal fisheaters was investigated to assess female offspring fecundability. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (DDE) in Michigan female anglers were serially measured between 1973 and 1991 and used to estimate in utero exposure in their female offspring using two different methods. The angler cohort included 391 women of whom 259 provided offspring information. Of 213 daughters aged 20-50, 151 participated (71 %) and provided information for time intervals of unprotected intercourse (TUI). The daughters reported 308 TUIs (repeated observations), of which 288 ended in pregnancy. We estimated the ...
PCBs are a group of synthetic organic chemicals that can cause a number of different harmful effects. There are no known natural sources of PCBs in the environment. PCBs are either oily liquids or solids and are colorless to light yellow. Some PCBs are volatile and may exist as a vapor in air. They have no known smell or taste. PCBs enter the environment as mixtures containing a variety of individual chlorinated biphenyl components, known as congeners, as well as impurities
A mortality study was conducted in workers with at least 90 days exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs between 1946 and 1977. Vital status was established for 98.7% of the 7075 workers studied. In hourly male workers, the mortality from all cancers was significantly below expected standardized mortality ratio SMR=81 ; 95% confidence...
A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g....
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) were investigated in human adipose tissue samples collected from 20 women undergoing surgery. Mean sum of PCB and sum of OH-PCB levels were 737ng/g of lipid and 8pg/g of lipid, respectively. Among PCBs, congeners 180, 153, 138 and 170 were the most frequent and abundant, and together constituted 72% of the total amount of PCBs in adipose tissue. The PCB congener pattern and the frequencies and concentrations of non-dioxin-like and non-hydroxylated congeners observed in adipose tissue were similar in distribution and order of magnitude to the profile previously published in Spain but lower than that found in other European countries. Among OH-PCB congeners studied, 4-OH-PCB 107/118 was found at the highest concentrations followed by 3-OH-PCB 180 and 3-OH-PCB 138. To date, no information on levels of PCB metabolites in the Spanish population is available for comparison. These three predominant OH-PCBs contributed 97% of all OH-PCBs. ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. In the past, many commercial technologies have been used to clean up highly contaminated areas, but these methods are often very costly. An anaerobic/aerobic bioremediation process would be a simpler and cheaper alternative, but many aspects of this process are not understood, making the process of bioremediation difficult to implement. Aerobic PCB oxidation has been widely studied and microorganisms capable of this action have been isolated. Anaerobic dechlorination has also been well documented, but the responsible microorganisms have not been identified. Understanding the microbial community structure is required for optimizing an acceptable bioremediation process. This study attempted to address this lack of knowledge, in part, with two objectives. The first objective involved establishing cultures capable of dechlorinating 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB) and its dechlorination products, 2,3,5-CB, 2,4,5-CB and 3,5-CB. ...
Linh hoạt thay thế cho Chất thải xử lý ô nhiễm Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) và các hợp chất thơm khác được khử trùng bằng clo được phân phối trong đất, bùn cặn, cửa sông, vv, tại hơn 400 trang web trong Hoa Kỳ một mình. Clo béo hydrocarbon (CAHs), rộng rãi được sử dụng để tẩy dầu mỡ và làm sạch động cơ, phụ tùng ô tô, và các thành phần điện tử, chất gây ô nhiễm nghiêm trọng tại 358 lớn các trang web trong chất thải nguy hại Hoa Kỳ. ...
Article Abundances, Depositional Fluxes, and Homologue Patterns of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Dated Sediment Cores from the Pearl River Delta, China. Despite the recent efforts to investigate the distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutan...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and prostate cancer risk. T2 - A case-cohort study. AU - Lim, Jung eun. AU - Nam, Chungmo. AU - Yang, Jiyeon. AU - Rha, KoonHo. AU - Lim, Kyung Min. AU - Jee, Sun Ha. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - It is still unclear whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exposure increases the prostate cancer incidence risk. This prospective cohort study evaluated the associations between serum POPs concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Within a case-cohort study, we identified 110 people diagnosed with prostate cancer and randomly selected 256 sub-cohort participants without prostate cancer. Serum concentrations of 32 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for determining the associations between POPs and risk of prostate cancer were estimated using the weighted Cox regression model. Compared to the lowest tertile, ...
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent environmental pollutants which ubiquitously occur as complex mixtures and accumulate in the food and feed chain due to their high lipophilic properties. Of the 419 possible congeners, only 29 share a common mechanism of action and cause similar effects, the so called dioxin-like compounds. Dioxin-like compounds evoke a broad spectrum of biochemical and toxic responses, i.e. enzyme induction, dermal toxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity as well as adverse effects on reproduction, development, and the endocrine system in laboratory animals and in humans. Most, if not all, of the aforementioned responses, are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. In the present work, the elicited biochemical effects of a selection of dioxin-like compounds and the non dioxin-like PCB 153 were examined in mouse (in vivo) and in human liver cell models (in vitro). Emphasis was given to the main ...
5,5-Bis-trifluoromethyl-2,2-dichlorobiphenyl (5,5CF3-2,2PCB) is representative of a unique class of trifluoromethyl polychlorinated biphenyls (CF3-PCBs) found in sediments and fish of Lake Ontario, the Niagara river, and their tributaries. The potential hazard of 5,5CF3-2,2PCB was assessed by …
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a family of organic compounds with one or several of the hydrogens in the dibenzofuran structure replaced by chlorines. For example, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) has chlorine atoms substituted for each of the hydrogens on the number 2, 3, 7, and 8 carbons (see structure in the upper left corner of the second image). Polychlorinated dibenzofurans are much more toxic than the parent compounds, with properties and chemical structures similar to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. These groups together are often inaccurately called dioxins. They are known teratogens, mutagens, and suspected human carcinogens. PCDFs tend to co-occur with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). PCDFs can be formed by pyrolysis or incineration at temperatures below 1200 °C of chlorine containing products, such as PVC, PCBs, and other organochlorides, or of non-chlorine containing products in the presence of chlorine donors. Dibenzofurans are known persistent organic ...
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They are mostly by-products of various industrial processes - or, in case of dioxin-like PCBs and PBBs, part of intentionally produced mixtures. They include: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), or simply dioxins. PCDDs are derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxin. There are 75 PCDD congeners, differing in the number and location of chlorine atoms, and seven of them are especially toxic, the most dangerous being 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), or furans. PCDFs are derivatives of dibenzofuran. There are 135 isomers, ten have dioxin-like properties. Polychlorinated/polybrominated biphenyls (PCBs/PBBs), derived from biphenyl, of which twelve are dioxin-like. Under certain conditions PCBs may form dibenzofurans/dioxins through partial oxidation. Finally, dioxin may refer to 1,4-Dioxin proper, the basic chemical unit of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Study of polychlorinated biphenyls as potential modifiers of developmental neurotoxicity of methylmercury. AU - Coccini, Teresa. AU - Castoldi, Anna F.. AU - Roda, Elisa. AU - Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis A.. AU - Manzo, Luigi. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - The developing brain is the most susceptible target for methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity. Typical features of developmental MeHg neurotoxicity include the delayed onset of symptoms and the persistency of dysfunction. One of the factors which may modulate MeHg neurotoxicity is co-exposure to other neurotoxic pollutant, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the same dietary sources. Because PCBs themselves can induce subtle neurodevelopmental deficiencies, recent epidemiological and research studies have focused on the potential hazard resulting from mixtures of PCBs and MeHg. This work summarizes our experimental findings on several endpoints of the cholinergic and aminergic systems in the developing rat brain, following two ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure-dependent reduction in DNA I-compound adducts by polychlorinated dibenzofurans in female Sprague-Dawley rat liver. AU - Randerath, K.. AU - Randerath, E.. AU - Reddy, R.. AU - Narasimhan, T. R.. AU - Wang, X.. AU - Safe, S.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The effects of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) on hepatic I-compound DNA adducts in female Sprague-Dawley rats were determined at 2 dose levels. In the first experiments, rats (4 per group) were treated with each of 3 polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners at 20 μg/kg/week or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at 10 μg/kg/week for 4 weeks. Effects on total I-compound levels when compared with age-matched control animals (corn oil) were as follows: control (116) , 1,2,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) (112) , 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF (93) , 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (91) , TCDD (72) where the numbers in parentheses were the number of I-compounds in 109 DNA nucleotides. In the second experiment, rats (5 per group) ...
Changes in atropisomer composition of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their mono- and dihydroxylated metabolites (OH- and diOH-PCBs) via rat cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) mediated biotransformation were investigated in vitro. Rat CYP2B1 could stereoselectively biotransform chiral PCBs to generate meta-OH-PCBs as the major metabolites after 60 min incubations. Nonracemic enantiomer fractions (EFs: concentration ratios of the (+)-atropisomer or the first-eluting atropisomer over the total concentrations of two atropisomers) of 5-OH-PCBs, were 0.17, 0.20, 0.85, 0.77, and 0.41 for incubations with PCBs 91, 95, 132, 136, and 149, respectively. CYP-mediated stereoselective formation of diOH-PCBs from OH-PCBs was observed for the first time. After 60 min stereoselective biotransformation, the EFs of both 4-OH-PCB 95 and 5-OH-PCB 95 changed from racemic (i.e., 0.50) to 0.62 and 0.46, respectively. These transformations generated statistically nonracemic 4,5-diOH-PCB 95, with EFs of 0.53 and 0.58 for
Spens, K. (2003) Community strategy on dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls and the EU Implementation of the Stockholm Convention and the UN ECE Protocol on POPs. Persistent Toxic Substances Contamination of the European Region as a reflection of results of the GEF/UNEP Regional Based Assessment of Persistent Toxic Substances (RBA PTS) in Europe, the implementation of the Stockholm Convention and Community Strategy for Dioxins, Furans and PCBs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of intercellular communication and induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity by polychlorobiphenyls, -dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in mouse hepa1c1c7 cells.. AU - de Haan, L.H.J.. AU - Halfwerk, S.. AU - Hovens, S.E.L.. AU - de Roos, B.. AU - Koeman, J.H.. AU - Brouwer, A.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. U2 - 10.1016/1382-6689(95)00006-2. DO - 10.1016/1382-6689(95)00006-2. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 27. EP - 37. JO - Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. JF - Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. SN - 1382-6689. ER - ...
Since 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) carried out global surveys on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk. This study presents a review of the three most recent surveys from 2000 to 2010, including DDT. The objective was to identify global quantitative differences and provide baseline information for 52 countries or provide time-trends for countries with previous data. Individual human milk samples were collected following a WHO-designed procedure and combined to form a national pooled sample. Here, we report global levels for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and the sum of o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDE, o,p′-DDD and p,p′-DDD (ΣDDTs). A concise risk-benefit evaluation related to human milk contamination with these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was also done. Large global and regional differences were observed. Levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were highest in India and some European and ...
Chiral PCB congeners are main the different parts of PCB mixtures and undergo enantioselective biotransformation to hydroxylated (OH-)PCBs by cytochrome P450 enzymes. 91, 95, 132 and 149. The OH-PCBs had been extracted through the microsomal incubations, derivatized with diazomethane and examined as the particular methoxylated (MeO-)PCB derivatives using chosen columns. The 5-hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs 91, 95, 132 and 149 had been the main metabolites, which can be in keeping with PCBs biotransformation by cytochrome P450 2B enzymes. All 5-hydroxylated metabolites shown a definite, congener-specific enantiomeric enrichment. General, this scholarly research demonstrates for the very first time that chiral PCBs, such as for example PCB 91, 95, 132 and 149, are metabolized to OH-PCBs by cytochrome P450 enzymes enantioselectively. and lactational exposures to multiple-substituted PCB congeners correlate with reduced intelligence quotients, impaired learning and memory, attentional deficits, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Feasibility of non-coplanar tomotherapy for lung cancer stereotactic body radiation therapy. AU - Yang, Wensha. AU - Jones, Ryan. AU - Lu, Weiguo. AU - Geesey, Constance. AU - Benedict, Stanley H. AU - Read, Paul. AU - Larner, James. AU - Sheng, Ke. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - To quantify the dosimetric gains from non-coplanar helical tomotherapy (HT) arcs for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer, we created oblique helical arcs by rotating patients CT images. Ten, 20 and 30 degrees of yaws were introduced in the treatment planning for a patient with a hypothetical lung tumor at the upper, middle and lower portion of the right lung, and the upper and middle left lung. The planning target volume (PTV) was 43 cm 3. 60 Gy was prescribed to the PTV. Dose to organs at risk (OARs), which included the lungs, heart, spinal cord and chest wall, was optimized using a 2.5 cm jaw, 0.287 pitch and modulation factor of 2.5. Composite plans were generated by dose ...
Dioxins refers to a group of persistent chlorinated chemical compounds that have similar chemical structures and properties, and have similar biological characteristics, including toxicity. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) has conducted an analytical survey of dioxins in a range of food sampled in Australia with the purpose of assessing the level of risk to human health associated with the dietary exposure of the Australian population to dioxins. The overall conclusion of this report is that, on the basis of the available data, taking into account all the inherent uncertainties and limitations, the public health and safety risk for all Australians from exposure to dioxins from foods is very low.. Dioxins includes the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs or dioxins), the closely related polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs or furans) and polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs, or PCBs). These compounds can accumulate in the body fat of animals and humans and have a tendency ...
In this work, we examined the profile of metabolites produced from the doubly para-substituted biphenyl analogs 4,4-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4,4-dichlorobiphenyl, and 3,3-dihydroxy-4,4-chlorobiphenyl by biphenyl-induced Pandoraea pnomenusa B356 and by its biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO). 4-Hydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl was hydroxylated principally through a 2,3-dioxygenation of the hydroxylated ring to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl and 3,4-dihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl after the removal of water. The former was further oxidized by the biphenyl dioxygenase to produce ultimately 3,4,5-trihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl, a dead-end metabolite. 3-Hydroxy-4,4-dichlorobiphenyl was oxygenated on both rings. Hydroxylation of the nonhydroxylated ring generated 2,3,3-trihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl with concomitant dechlorination, and 2,3,3-trihydroxy-4-chlorobiphenyl was ultimately metabolized to 2-hydroxy-4-chlorobenzoate, but hydroxylation of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of the bphA and bphB Genes of Pseudomonas sp. Strain KKS102 Involved in degradation of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls. AU - Fukuda, Masao. AU - Yasukochi, Yuji. AU - Kikuchi, Yutaka. AU - Nagata, Yuji. AU - Kimbara, Kazuhide. AU - Horiuchi, Hiroyuki. AU - Takagi, Masamichi. AU - Yano, Keiji. PY - 1994/7/29. Y1 - 1994/7/29. N2 - The nucleotide sequence of the upstream region of the bphC gene from Pseudomonas sp. strain KKS102 was determined. Four genes were found in this region. Deduced amino acid sequences of the first, second, third and fourth genes showed significant homology with a large subunit of iron-sulfur protein, a small subunit of iron-sulfur protein, ferredoxin and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, respectively, from other bacteria which degrade biphenyl/polychlorinated biphenyls, toluene and benzene. E. coli, in which the four genes, bphC and the gene for ferredoxin reductase from benzene degrading bacterium were expressed, was able to produce ...
POLYCHLORINATED NAPHTHALENE (PCN) AND DIBENZOFURAN (PCDF) CONGENER PATTERNS FROM PHENOL PRECURSORS IN THERMAL PROCESS: [II] EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM DICHLOROPHENOLS (DCPs) - Municipal waste incinerator;Thermal process;Combustion;Polychlorinated Naphthalenes;Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans;Chlorophenol;
Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic chemicals that persist in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Their presence in the environment in Europe has declined since the 1970s, following concerted efforts by public authorities and industry.. In the context of EFSAs work, dioxins refers to two groups of compounds: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Dioxins have no technological or other use, but are generated in a number of thermal and industrial processes as unwanted and often unavoidable by-products. In contrast to dioxins, PCBs had widespread use in numerous industrial applications, and were produced in large quantities for several decades with an estimated total world production of 1.2-1.5 million tonnes, until they were banned in most countries by the 1980s.. Dioxins and PCBs are found at low levels in many foods. Longer-term exposure to these substances has been shown to cause a range of adverse effects on the nervous, immune ...
Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic chemicals that persist in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Their presence in the environment in Europe has declined since the 1970s, following concerted efforts by public authorities and industry.. In the context of EFSAs work, dioxins refers to two groups of compounds: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Dioxins have no technological or other use, but are generated in a number of thermal and industrial processes as unwanted and often unavoidable by-products. In contrast to dioxins, PCBs had widespread use in numerous industrial applications, and were produced in large quantities for several decades with an estimated total world production of 1.2-1.5 million tonnes, until they were banned in most countries by the 1980s.. Dioxins and PCBs are found at low levels in many foods. Longer-term exposure to these substances has been shown to cause a range of adverse effects on the nervous, immune ...
Human transition milk was sampled from 88 mothers at the Faroe Islands, where the seafood diet includes pilot whale meat and blubber. Milk mercury concentrations (median, 2.45 micrograms/liter) were significantly associated with mercury concentrations in cord blood and with the frequency of pilot wh …
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a large group of chemicals widely used and produced in various industrial applications. Many cell culture/animal studies have shown that POPs can induce oxidative stress. Since such data is lacking in humans, we conducted a large population-based study to analyze associations between POPs and oxidative stress markers. We measured following POPs; 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and polybrominated diphenyl ether 47, and oxidative stress markers; homocysteine, reduced [GSH] and oxidized glutathione [GSSG], glutathione ratio [GSSG/GSH], total glutathione, oxidized low-density lipoprotein [ox-LDL], ox-LDL antibodies, conjugated dienes, baseline conjugated dienes of LDL, and total anti-oxidative capacity in plasma samples collected from 992 70-year old individuals (50% women) from the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. Linear ...
Emissions of a number of compounds categorised as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) - e.g. hexachlorobenzene (HCB, by 92%), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, by 85%), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, by 75%), dioxins & furans (by 83%), and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, by 61%) - decreased between 1990 and 2012 in the EEA-33 countries. While the majority of countries report that POPs emissions fell during this period, a number report that increased emissions occurred. In 2012, the most significant sources of emissions for these POPs included Commercial, institutional and households (10% of HCB, 32% of dioxins and furans, 16% of PCBs) and Industrial processes (70% of HCB, 32% of HCH, 27% of PCBs) sectors.
Served as the lead human health risk assessment consultant in the preparation of a focused feasibility study and remedial action plan, and notification plan specifically for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for a former cast plate facility. Managed the development of site-specific risk-based screening levels for various chemicals in soil or soil vapor, including PCBs as Aroclor mixtures and dioxin-like congeners, for multiple receptors and exposure pathways. As part of the development of risk-based remediation goals, conducted a series of regression analyses to evaluate the relationship between the results of Aroclor mixture and dioxin-like PCB congener analyses and estimate a formula that could be used to: 1) estimate dioxin toxic equivalent concentrations for samples only analyzed for Aroclors, 2) support (or refine) proposed risk-based remediation goals based on Aroclor concentrations, and 3) support remediation confirmation sampling at a significantly reduced cost.. ...
1 PublKat: A11 (Artikkel i internasjonalt vitenskapelig tidsskrift med referee) Instit: Universitetet i Bergen, Det matematisk-naturvitenskapelige fakultet, Molekyl rbiologisk institutt Forf: Aas, Endre Medforf: Beyer, Jonny Medforf: Goks yr, Anders UiB, Molekyl rbiologisk institutt Tittel: PAH in fish bile detected by fixed wavelength fluorescence Tidskr: Marine Environmental Research Red: Widdows, J Red: Luoma, S.N. ISSN: 0141-1136 r: 1998 Volum: 46 Hefte: 1-5 Side(r): 225-228 Utgiver: Elsevier Spr k: eng PublID: r99000791 2 PublKat: C15 (Hovedfagsoppgave) Instit: Universitetet i Bergen, Det matematisk-naturvitenskapelige fakultet, Molekyl rbiologisk institutt Forf: Addo, Matthew Glover Tittel: The effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on cod (Gadus morhua) zona radiata, prolactin and cytochrome P4501A gene expression Serie: cand.scient.-oppgave r: 1998 Side(r): IX, 57 bl. Tilgang: UBBRB Emneord: molekyl rbiologi Spr k: eng PublID: r98025975 StatKat: f 3 PublKat: C15 (Hovedfagsoppgave) Instit: ...
EEA-33 emissions of a number of compounds categorised as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have decreased between 1990 and 2011, including hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by 96%, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) by 95%, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by 73%, dioxins & furans by 84%, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by 58%. While the majority of individual countries report that POP emissions have fallen during this period, a number report that increases in emissions of one or more pollutants have occurred. In 2011, the most significant sources of emissions for these POPs included the sectors Commercial, institutional and households (61% for PAHs, 19% of HCB, 39% of dioxins and furans, 15% of PCB emissions) and Industrial processes (43% of HCB, 75% of HCH, 38% of PCB emissions). Important emission sources of PAH include residential combustion processes (open fires, coal and wood burning for heating purposes etc.), industrial metal production processes, and the road transport sector. Emissions
High quality reference standard solutions for use in environmental/analytical testing and toxicological research. Wellington Laboratories offers an extensive inventory of individual certified reference standards and solution mixtures of native and mass-labelled halogenated organic compounds including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. Wellington Laboratories also offer a variety of calibration sets and support solutions designed to be used for common regulatory methods or modified in-house methods
In 1865 the first PCB-like chemical was discovered, and was found to be a byproduct of coal tar. Years later in 1881, German chemists synthesized the first PCB in a laboratory. Between then and 1914, large amounts of PCBs were released into the environment, to the extent that there are still measurable amounts of PCBs in feathers of birds currently held in museums.[57]. In 1935, Monsanto Chemical Company (now Solutia Inc) took over commercial production of PCBs from Swann Chemical Company which had begun in 1929. PCBs, originally termed chlorinated diphenyls, were commercially produced as mixtures of isomers at different degrees of chlorination. The electric industry used PCBs as a non-flammable replacement for mineral oil to cool and insulate industrial transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also commonly used as heat stabilizer in cables and electronic components to enhance the heat and fire resistance of PVC.[58]. In the 1930s, the toxicity associated with PCBs and other chlorinated ...
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This standard is developed for the purposes of enforcing the Law of the Peoples Republic of China on Environmental Protection, protecting the environment, safeguarding the public health, and setting standards for PCBs in soil and sediment. This standard specifies the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of PCBs in soil and sediment. It is the original version.. ...
Air and seawater samples were collected on board the RV Polarstern during a cruise from Bremerhaven, Germany to Cape Town, South Africa from October-November 2005. Broad latitudinal trends were observed with the lowest Σ27PCB air concentration (10 pg m−3) in the South Atlantic and the highest (1000 pg m−3) off the west coast of Africa. ΣICESPCBs ranged from 3.7 to 220 pg m−3 in air samples and from 0.071 to 1.7 pg L−1 in the dissolved phase seawater samples. Comparison with other data from cruises in the Atlantic Ocean since 1990 indicate little change in air concentrations over the remote open ocean. The relationship of gas-phase partial pressure with temperature was examined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation; significant temperature dependencies were found for all PCBs over the South Atlantic, indicative of close air-water coupling. There was no temperature dependence for atmospheric PCBs over the North Atlantic, where concentrations were controlled by advection of contaminated ...
BACKGROUND: We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between personal characteristics and lipid-adjusted serum concentrations of certain PCB congeners and chlorinated pesticides/metabolites among 323 pregnant primiparous women from Uppsala County (age 18-41 years) sampled 1996-1999. METHODS: Extensive personal interviews and questionnaires about personal characteristics were performed both during and after pregnancy. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in serum lipids in late pregnancy were analysed by gas chromatography. Associations between personal characteristics and serum levels of organochlorine compounds were analysed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Participation rate was 82% (325 of 395 women). Serum concentrations of PCB congeners IUPAC no. 28, 52, 101, 105 and 167, and o, p-DDT and -DDE, p, p-DDT and -DDD, oxychlordane, and gamma- and alpha-HCH were in many cases below the limit of quantification (LOQ). No statistical analysis of associations with personal ...
The biphenyl molecule is made up of two connected rings of six carbon atoms each, and a PCB is any molecule having multiple chlorines attached to the biphenyl nucleus. Two distinct classes of bacteria have now been identified that biodegrade PCBs by different mechanisms, including aerobic bacteria which live in oxygenated environments and anaerobic bacteria which live in oxygen free environments such as aquatic sediments. The aerobes attack PCBs oxidatively , breaking open the carbon ring and destroying the compounds. Anaerobes, on the other hand, leave the biphenyl rings intact while removing the chlorines. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were introduced into the biosphere on a large scale as by-products from the manufacture of chlorinated phenols and the incineration of wastes. Due to their high toxicity they have been the subject of great public and scientific scrutiny. The evidence in the literature suggests that PCDD/F compounds are subject ...
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) guidelines allow removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soils via solvent extraction. This option holds promise for removal of other recalcitrant organic contaminants as well. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of solvent extraction with two tandem degradation techniques. The degradation techniques were chemical dehalogenation with immobilized reagents and γ-ray irradiation. The integrated approach was evaluated with contaminated soils from wood treatment and electric power substation sites. Evaluations were carried out on a bench scale in the laboratory and on a semi-pilot scale at a contaminated site. Binary solvent mixture of alkanes and alcohols yielded the highest extraction efficiencies. Extraction efficiencies in excess of 90% were obtained for PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Extracted PCBs were rapidly degraded through chemical dehalogenation or
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Pacific Standard reports: On April 19, 1979, the United States Environmental Protection Agency announced a five-year plan to phase out nearly all uses of polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs. The synthetic chemicals had been used in the manufacture of electronic equipment, motor oil, adhesive tapes, paint, and many other products.. Although PCBs are no longer being produced in this country, we will now bring under control the vast majority of PCBs still in use, EPA administrator Douglas M. Costle boasted at the time. This will help prevent further contamination of our air, water, and food supplies from a toxic and very persistent manmade chemical.. It turns out Costle celebrated too early - way, way too early. More than 36 years after being banned, PCBs continue to pollute ecosystems, according to a study released in the journal PLoS One. They pose a particular challenge to the survival of marine mammals like porpoises, whales, and dolphins. [Continue reading…] ...
Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants (POP) that are consumed because of their bioaccumulation through the food chain. Recent studies have suggested the implication of POPs in the development of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, this relationship is not entirely consistent, and has not been investigated in longitudinal studies. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the association between dietary intake of PCBs and the incidence of obesity in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Project.. ...
Isotopic dilution gas chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has overwhelming advantages with respect to the accuracy of congener-specific ultratrace analysis of complex persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental matrices. However, an isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method for analysis of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs) using 13C-labelled congeners as internal standards has not been established. In this study, a method for identification and quantification of 38 congeners of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in atmosphere and stack gas samples from waste incinerators was developed using the isotopic dilution GC/HRMS technique. The instrumental detection limits of the GC/HRMS method ranged from 0.2pg to 1.8pg for Cl-PAH congeners, and 0.7pg to 2.7pg for Br-PAH congeners, which were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of the GC/quadrupole MS method. This new method developed was also the first to enable ...
1) Bastiansen, O.; Samdal, S., Structure and barrier of internal rotation of biphenyl derivatives in the gaseous state: Part 4. Barrier of internal rotation in biphenyl, perdeuterated biphenyl and seven non-ortho-substituted halogen derivatives, J. Mol. Struct., 1985, 128, 115-125, DOI: 10.1016/0022-2860(85)85044-4.. (2) Sancho-Garcia, J. C.; Cornil, J., Anchoring the Torsional Potential of Biphenyl at the ab Initio Level: The Role of Basis Set versus Correlation Effects, J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2005, 1, 581-589, DOI: 10.1021/ct0500242.. (3) Johansson, M. P.; Olsen, J., Torsional Barriers and Equilibrium Angle of Biphenyl: Reconciling Theory with Experiment, J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2008, 4, 1460-1471, DOI: 10.1021/ct800182e.. ...
Between 1929 and 1989 an estimated 1.7 million metric tons of PCBs were produced commercially worldwide.2 These commercial PCBs were sold in the United States under dozens of different trade names, of which the most commonly known was Aroclor. These products were mixtures that contained different PCB congeners, each with between 1 and 10 chlorine atoms.3 (Unintentionally produced PCBs also typically occur as mixtures of congeners.) Each of the total 209 PCB congeners has a distinct structure that influences how it behaves environmentally and how it interacts with living cells and organisms.. Although large amounts of commercially produced PCBs remain in the environment, monitoring conducted at a number of sites around North America in the past five years or so has detected notable air concentrations of PCB congeners that are not part of the historical, now-banned commercial PCB products. These congeners have also been detected in U.S. water bodies including the Delaware River, the New York-New ...
Numerous industrial or burial sites contaminated by persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides were discovered in China recently. Due to improper choice of technology, many remediation cases had cost too much; however, failed to attain expected goals. In this study, the distribution and transport of PCBs at a burial site were investigated using tested PCBs concentration in order to support the choice of remediation technology and estimate the remediation results. Site characterization was carried out in order to investigate the hydrogeological condition and PCBs pollution nearby the capacitor burial site located in Shanxi, China. Results of PCBs measurement indicated that the proportion of contaminated soil with concentration above 500 mg/kg is 7.8 % and the value for soil with concentration between 50 and 500 mg/kg is 18.0 %. Considering adsorption and biodegradation, the two-dimensional PCBs transport model was established based on ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls are human carcinogens, and can also have a negative effect on the human immune, reproductive, and ... Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a wide array of now-banned organic chemicals with a variety of industrial applications. At ... Polychlorinated biphenyls were produced from 1929 to 1979, when they were banned by the Toxic Substances Control Act. ... "Health Effects." Polychlorinated Biphenyls. 8 Aug. 2008. Environmental Protection Agency. 14 Oct. 2008. "Kalamazoo River ...
... polychlorinated biphenyls; hydrocarbons (oil); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BETEX); methyl ethyl ketone (MEK); ...
"Prioritization, risk evaluation, and regulation of chemical substances and mixtures; Polychlorinated biphenyls." 15 U.S.C. § ...
"Learn about Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)". Washington, D.C.: EPA. 2016. Schmidt, Charles W. (December 2001). "Of PCBs and ... Between 1947 and 1977, General Electric polluted the Hudson River by discharging polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), causing a ... "Health Effects of PCBs". Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). EPA. 2016-09-15. Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, Beacon, NY. "History ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs also pollute the soil. PCBs are released into the environment through "spills, leaks from ... "Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)". Illinois Department of Public Health. Retrieved 31 October 2012. "Weeds Remediate ...
PCB, or Polychlorinated biphenyls, are mixtures of colorless chemicals with no taste or smell. PCBs were originally produced to ... "Tox Town - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) - Toxic chemicals and environmental health risks where you live and work". Toxtown. ... The contaminants include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semiVOCs and heavy ... "Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)". Toxtown.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 25 September 2017. "Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)". ...
This is a complete list of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Congener descriptors give a shorthand notation for ... PCB ID - Toxicity Equivalency Factors (TEFs) , Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) , US EPA PCB Congeners BZ was named after ... "Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by glass capillary gas chromatography". Fresenius' Zeitschrift für Analytische ... The first group of 20 congeners consists of those with chlorine substitution at none of the ortho positions on the biphenyl ...
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). EPA.gov (June 28, 2006). "PCBs: Production, Import/Export, Use, and Disposal", Agency for ... Until it ended production in 1977, Monsanto was the source of 99% of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) used by U.S. industry ... In the late 1960s, the Monsanto plant in Sauget, Illinois, was the nation's largest producer of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) ... Erickson, Mitchell D.; Kaley, II, Robert G. (2011). "Applications of polychlorinated biphenyls" (PDF). Environmental Science ...
Known teratogens include: thalidomide, mercury, alcohol, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The term was borrowed in ... Jacobson, J (May 1997). "Teratogen update: polychlorinated biphenyls". Teratology. 5 (55): 338-47. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9926( ...
ISBN 978-0-8493-3778-9. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo...[Environ Res. 2001] - PubMed Result Disease ID ... organics like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other substances resistant to ...
ASTM D2668 Polychlorinated biphenyls content; e.g., ASTM D4059 Relative density (specific gravity); e.g., D 1298, ASTM D1524 ...
"Learn about Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)". EPA. Brennen 2005, pp. 7-10. Brennen 2005, p. 16. Brennen 2005, p. 19. Brennen ... typically a hydrocarbon substance like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), for cooling and sometimes as a neutron moderator as well ... As part of this work, Mine Safety Appliances studied a variety of potential biphenyl coolants. In 1956-75, Aerojet conducted ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have properties that once favored their use as a dielectric coolant, though concerns over ... "ASTDR ToxFAQs for Polychlorinated Biphenyls". 2001. Retrieved June 10, 2007. Kulkarni & Khaparde 2004, pp. 2-3 Mehta, S.P.; ...
PCB, or polychlorinated biphenyl, is a chlorine compound that was once widely found in dielectric and coolant fluids used in ... "Learn about Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) , US EPA". US EPA. Retrieved 2018-10-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( ... "Estimation of the atmospheric and nonatmospheric contributions and losses of polychlorinated biphenyls to Lake Michigan on the ...
ToxFAQs™ for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Web. . Blaauboer B. 2003. Biokinetic and Toxicodynamic modeling and its role in ... This mechanism can include such toxicants as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organic pollutants that are still present in our environment today, despite being banned ... "Learn about Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)". US EPA. 2015-08-19. Retrieved 2019-03-10. Bourret V, Couture P, Campbell PG, ...
Polychlorinated biphenyl was banned by the United States Congress in 1979 and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic ... Prior to 1971, Monsanto marketed a series of polychlorinated biphenyl-(PCB)-containing heat transfer fluids designated as ... "Applications of polychlorinated biphenyls" (PDF). Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. Springer-Verlag. ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are various biphenyl based artificial products that are widely used as a dielectric fluid, ... "Bioremediation of soils and sediments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls". Microbiology. 76 (6): 639-653. doi:10.1134/ ... "Phytoremediation and bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): State of knowledge and research perspectives". Journal ... "Strategies for bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 65 (3): 250-258. doi: ...
Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are two groups of predominately man-made toxic chemicals which, when consumed, ... Masuda, Y (2003). "Health Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Related Compounds" (PDF). J Health Sci. 49 (5): 333-336. doi: ... p. 6. ISBN 0-309-10258-8. Faroon, Obaid M.; Keith, L. Samuel; Smith-Simon, Cassandra (2003). Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Human ... See also Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins 2013 horse meat scandal List of food contamination incidents Pork in Ireland "Ireland ...
Until the 1970s, when the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was banned due to health and environmental concerns, PCBs ... Kuratsune M, Masuda Y (April 1972). "Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Non-carbon Copy Paper". Environmental Health Perspectives. ... "Identification and quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls in paper and paper board using fused silica capillary gas ...
Polychlorinated Biphenyls Functional alterations - e.g. Retinoic Acid derivatives, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Phenobarbitol, ... Lead Gasoline Methylmercury Polychlorinated biphenyl Toluene toxicity Biological Agents Cytomegalovirus Rubella Herpes simplex ...
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) was reported (published in 2009) in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic ... Hu, D; Hornbuckle, KC (2010). "Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments". Environ Sci Technol. 44 (8 ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of chlorinated compounds used as industrial coolants and lubricants. PCBs are ... Polychlorinated biphenyls and terphenyls, Environmental Health Criteria monograph No. 002, Geneva: World Health Organization, ... Sinks T, Steele G, Smith AB, Watkins K, Shults RA (August 1992). "Mortality among workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls ... Brown DP (1987). "Mortality of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls--an update". Arch. Environ. Health. 42 (6): 333-9. ...
"Carcinogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls". Lancet Oncology. 14 (4): 287-288. doi:10.1016/s1470 ... Some chemicals, like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diphenylhydantoin, dioxin, and phenoxy herbicides. Medical treatments, ... Zani C, Toninelli G, Filisetti B, Donato F (2013). "Polychlorinated biphenyls and cancer: an epidemiological assessment". J. ... "Current Status of the Epidemiologic Evidence Linking Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, and the Role of Immune ...
Asbestos and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical examples. Asbestos was used heavily in ship construction until it was ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are primarily degraded through cometabolism. There are also some fungi that can degrade the ... Studies show an increase in PCB degradation when biphenyl is added to the site due to cometabolic affects the enzymes used to ... degrade biphenyl have on PCBs. Due to in situ bioremediation taking place at the site of contamination there is a lessened risk ...
Consumer Factsheet on: polychlorinated biphenyls US Environment Protection Agency. Tubiana M, Feinendegen LE, Yang C, Kaminski ... The LNT model is sometimes applied to other cancer hazards such as polychlorinated biphenyls in drinking water. The association ...
Whale meat can also be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Critics claim that, because of contamination, it ...
DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) Toxaphene Monomethylmercury. ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of 209 congeners. Polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers ... Similarly polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated terphenyls, polychlorinated ...
Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ... This process is similar to induction of CYP1A1 by certain polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins. Seemingly, CYP1A1 activity in ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (often shortened to PCBs) are organic chemical compounds that contain chlorine atoms. They were used ... Polychlorinated biphenyls were widely used, and they can be found in the atmosphere, the soil, and the bodies of water anywhere ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polychlorinated_biphenyl&oldid=5795636" ...
... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides along the lower 12 miles (19 km) of the river, in Portland.[139] As a result, ...
... including Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).[178] European harbour seals have problems in reproductive and immune functions ...
Hazardous waste[15] or PCB waste:[16] Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) landfills that are monitored in the United States by the ... "Disposal and Storage of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Waste". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved May 10, ...
"Identification of a Bacterium That Specifically Catalyzes the Reductive Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls with Doubly ... such as the toxic chlorinated ethenes and polychlorinated biphenyls) as electron acceptors. ...
... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds (such as pyridine or quinoline), ...
Polychlorinated/polybrominated biphenyls (PCBs/PBBs), derived from biphenyl, of which twelve are "dioxin-like". Under certain ... Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ... Furst P (2006). "Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, ... and polychlorinated biphenyls". J. Occup. Environ. Med. 47 (3): 199-211. doi:10.1097/01.jom.0000158704.27536.d2. PMID 15761315. ...
... the debris is highly likely to be contaminated with PAHs and probably with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and furan ...
... most discussed pollution of the Hudson River is General Electric's contamination of the river with polychlorinated biphenyls ( ...
Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ...
Contaminants monitored in fish include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), certain ... fish indicator species have been used to monitor contamination of Puget Sound by chemicals such as poly-chlorinated biphenyls ( ...
Some of the chemicals that were restricted included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos, lead-based paint, and radon.[16 ...
Toxic chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) also become concentrated on the surface of plastics at sea and are ...
Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ...
Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (e.g., TCDD), dibenzofurans, biphenyls) ...
... analgesic mixtures containing Plants containing aristolochic acid Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin-like Processed meats, ...
These include chemical pesticides, bacteria, arsenic, dioxins, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB).[173] ...
... s accumulate high levels of persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and chlorinated ...
Pagkatapos nang pagtatapon ng General Electric ng mga polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) sa Hudson River mula 1947 hanggang 1976, ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls. *Retrocomputing. *Radio Row. Policy and conventions:. *Basel Action Network (BAN) ...
"Marine Distribution, Life History Traits, and the Accumulation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Chinook Salmon from Puget Sound, ... or PBDEs and polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs. Each of these have detrimental physiological effects on orca, and can be found ...
... the company's research was focused on the production of phosphoric acid and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).[3] Fenn and his ... working in the Phosphate Division and producing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Fenn and his colleague James Mullen became ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls. *Radon and other natural sources of radioactivity. *Soil pollution. *Tobacco smoking ...
... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls". Journal of Chromatography A. 1216 (3): 540-566. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have properties that once favored their use as a dielectric coolant, though concerns over ...
The earliest flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were banned in the U.S. in 1977 when it was discovered that ... polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in South China". Environmental Science & Technology. 41 (16): 5647- ... including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, measured in maternal serum ... and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) in the United States population: 2003-2004". Environmental Science & Technology. 42 (4): 1377 ...
... process or distribute in commerce or use any polychlorinated biphenyl in any manner other than in a totally enclosed manner." ... and disposal of chemical substances including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos, radon and lead-based paint.[19] ... including regulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) products and bans certain activities with respect to elemental mercury.[ ... "Hudson River and other waterways by polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), the threat of stratospheric ozone depletion from ...
Polychlorinated biphenyl. *Quadrature booster. *Resolver. *Resonant inductive coupling. *Severity factor. *Short-circuit test ...
Polychlorinated biphenyl-28. CAS No. 7012-37-5. serum or plasma. Polychlorinated biphenyl-66. CAS No. 33025-41-1. serum or ... Polychlorinated biphenyl-74. CAS No. 32690-93-0. serum or plasma. Polychlorinated biphenyl-99. CAS No. 38380-02-8. serum or ... Polychlorinated biphenyl-105. CAS No. 32598-14-4. serum or plasma. Polychlorinated biphenyl-114. CAS No. 74472-37-0. serum or ... Polychlorinated biphenyl-146. CAS No. 51908-16-8. serum or plasma. Polychlorinated biphenyl-153. CAS No. 35065-27-1. serum or ...
What are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)?. Polychlorinated biphenyls are mixtures of up to 209 individual chlorinated ... What happens to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when they enter the environment?. *How might I be exposed to polychlorinated ... How do polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) affect children?. *How can families reduce the risk of exposure to polychlorinated ... This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). For more information ...
... is to strengthen national capacity for management of Persistent Organic Pollutants and in particular Polychlorinated Biphenyls ... is to strengthen national capacity for management of Persistent Organic Pollutants and in particular Polychlorinated Biphenyls ...
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetically produced chemicals formerly used to manufacture electrical capacitors. ... Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and the Risk of Disease. 2006. Study Background. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are ... Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) may increase the risk for certain diseases. Below are agencies with their addresses, telephone ... 2006]. Polychlorinated biphenyls and neurodegenerative disease mortality in an occupational cohort. Epidemiology 17(1):8-13. ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; CAS number 1336-36-3 ) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10 chlorine atoms attached ... to biphenyl, which is a molecule composed of two benzene rings. The chemical formula for PCBs is C12H10-xClx. PCBs were widely ...
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx. Polychlorinated biphenyls were ... "41 Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans". Reproductive and ... Aoki, Yasunobu (May 2001). "Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polychloronated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans as ... Safe, Stephen; Hutzinger, Otto (1984). "Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs): Biochemistry, ...
Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile ... Toxicological profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public ...
polychlorinated biphenyl or PCB, any of a group of organic compounds originally widely used in industrial processes but later ... Polychlorinated biphenyl is a fat-soluble, water-insoluble hydrocarbon containing chlorine. It is extremely stable, ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) results for Griffin , ... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Griffin. PCBs are synthetic chemicals banned in the U.S. since the 1970s because of their ...
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Return of PCB Waste From U.S. Territories Outside the Customs Territory of the United States ... Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Return of PCB Waste From US Territories Outside the Customs Territory of the United States ... Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations. EPA updated and clarified several sections of the PCB ... Transfer of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Cleanup and Disposal Program from the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic ...
Registering Transformers Containing Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) PCB transformer owners must register their transformer(s) ...
Information about possible exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during military service, health-related problems and VA ... Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are manufactured organic chemicals that are no longer ...
Residential Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Childhood Leukemia. Ward, Mary H.* ... Home , November 2009 - Volume 20 - Issue 6 , Residential Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organo... ... Residential Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Childhood Leukemia ... We measured concentrations (ng/g) of six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (105, 118, 138, 153, 170, 180) and the ...
... to reassess the carcinogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). On the basis of sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are serious environmental pollutants that threaten both the natural ecosystem and human health ... Master ER, Mohn WW (2001) Induction of bphA, encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, in two polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacteria ... a key transcriptional regulator of bph genes involved in polychlorinated biphenyl/biphenyl degradation in Pseudomonas sp. ... Enhanced biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls after site-directed mutagenesis of a biphenyl dioxygenase gene. Appl ...
This topic contains 23 study abstracts on Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicating it may contribute to Breast Cancer, ... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Related Articles. Ten Thousand Chemicals in Food and Food Packaging: What Are These Substances ... 50 Abstracts with Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Higher polychlorinated biphenyl residues are found in fat samples from women with malignant breast cancer. Mar 01, 1992. ...
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx. Polychlorinated biphenyls were ... Polychlorinated biphenyl. (Redirected from Polychlorinated biphenyls). "PCBs" redirects here. For printed circuit boards, see ... Aoki, Y (2001). "Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polychloronated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans as Endocrine ... Aoki, Yasunobu (May 2001). "Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polychloronated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans as ...
... Environ Res. 2018 Jan;160:298-305. ... Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate if blood polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with high ...
OBJECTIVE-Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are important and persistent organic ... Vasiliu O, Cameron L, Gardiner J, Deguire P, Karmaus W: Polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated biphenyls, body weight, and ... Increased Risk of Diabetes and Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dioxins. Shu-Li Wang, Pei-Chien Tsai, Chiu-Yueh Yang, Yueliang ... Increased Risk of Diabetes and Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dioxins. Shu-Li Wang, Pei-Chien Tsai, Chiu-Yueh Yang, Yueliang ...
Change in polychlorinated biphenyl emissions This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make sure ... 20environment/change-in-polychlorinated-biphenyl-emissions or scan the QR code. ...
22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB). Body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol ... Low dose organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls predict obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among ... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) : CK(320) : AC(50). Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Endocrine Disruptor : CK(527) : AC(105) ...
The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has requested an evaluation of health hazards by exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo ... Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) 19-12-2013. The Danish Environmental ... dibenzofurans and biphenyls. This resulted in 2004 in the present report which includes estimation of a quality criterion for ... Protection Agency has requested an evaluation of health hazards by exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, ...
Changes in polychlorinated biphenyl emissions (1990-2014) This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please ... 20 Dec 2013 - Change in polychlorinated biphenyl emissions 20 Dec 2012 - Change (%) in PCB emissions 1990-2010 (EEA member ...
Polychlorinated biphenyls (often shortened to PCBs) are organic chemical compounds that contain chlorine atoms. They were used ... Polychlorinated biphenyls were widely used, and they can be found in the atmosphere, the soil, and the bodies of water anywhere ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polychlorinated_biphenyl&oldid=5795636" ...
The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to ... The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to ...
... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) represent persistent organic pollutants that continue to pose a serious human health risk. ... Aoki Y. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as endocrine disrupters ... Polychlorinated biphenyls and links to cardiovascular disease. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23(3):2160-72.PubMedCrossRef ... Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2015;45(3):245-72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle ...
Home , January 2006 - Volume 17 - Issue 1 , Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Neurodegenerative Disease Mort... , Image Gallery ... Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Neurodegenerative Disease Mortality in an Occupational Cohort Epidemiology17(1):8-13, January ...
Effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides on thyroid function during pregnancy.. Chevrier ... In this study, the authors objective was to determine whether serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ... Effects of Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides on Thyroid Function during Pregnancy ...
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (cdc.gov)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a mixture of individual chemicals which are no longer produced in the United States, but are still found in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when they enter the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)? (cdc.gov)
  • How can polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of the project is to strengthen national capacity for management of Persistent Organic Pollutants and in particular Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and develop in-country storage facilities for PCBs until their environmentally sound disposal can be achieved. (worldbank.org)
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetically produced chemicals formerly used to manufacture electrical capacitors. (cdc.gov)
  • 2006]. Mortality among workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an electrical capacitor manufacturing plant in Indiana: an update. (cdc.gov)
  • 2006]. Mortality and exposure response among 14,458 electrical capacitor manufacturing workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (cdc.gov)
  • 2006]. Update: cohort mortality study of workers highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during the manufacture of electrical capacitors, 1940-1998. (cdc.gov)
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) may increase the risk for certain diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • The PCBs used in these products were chemical mixtures made up of a variety of individual chlorinated biphenyl components known as congeners . (epa.gov)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are manufactured organic chemicals that are no longer produced in the United States, but are still in the environment and can cause health problems. (va.gov)
  • The bromine analogues of PCBs are polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), which have analogous applications and environmental concerns. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCBs are derived from biphenyl, which has the formula C12H10, sometimes written (C6H5)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In PCBs, some of the hydrogen atoms in biphenyl are replaced by chlorine atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of chemicals that have extremely high boiling points and are practically nonflammable. (oregon.gov)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are serious environmental pollutants that threaten both the natural ecosystem and human health. (springer.com)
  • PCBs are derived from biphenyl , which has the formula C 12 H 10 , sometimes written (C 6 H 5 ) 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate if blood polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with high cholesterol and related parameters in Canadian Inuit, known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE -Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are important and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with long half-lives in the human body, and they may act as endocrine disruptors and exhibit endocrine system effects ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Yucheng ("oil disease") cohort was estimated to have consumed an average of 1 g (range 0.77-1.84) of PCBs and 3.8 mg polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) during an average of nine months' exposure to the contaminated oil. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • POPs measured in 1987-88 (year 2) sera included 8 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic chemicals that were manufactured for use in various industrial and commercial applications - including oil in electrical and hydraulic equipment, and plasticisers in paints, plastics and rubber products - because of their non-flammability, chemical stability, high boiling point and electrical insulation properties. (greenspec.co.uk)
  • This publication is a report of the study of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in equipment owned by the electric utility industry. (eei.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (often shortened to PCBs ) are organic chemical compounds that contain chlorine atoms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Despite production having stopped in the 1970s, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) represent persistent organic pollutants that continue to pose a serious human health risk. (springer.com)
  • Giesy JP, Kannan K. Dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): implications for risk assessment. (springer.com)
  • In this study, the authors' objective was to determine whether serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) are associated with thyroid function during pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. (hindawi.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chemicals commonly used during the 20th century as flame retardants and in industrial products, disrupt the performance of astrocytes, leading to impaired function. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Association of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) with Hyperthyroidism in Domestic Felines, Sentinels for Thyroid Hormone Disruption. (canarydatabase.org)
  • The aim of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between attainment of menarche and levels of 6 environmental pollutants to which children are commonly exposed at low levels, ie, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mirex, lead, and mercury. (nih.gov)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be dissolved in wastewater or adsorbed on particulate. (hindawi.com)
  • Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample Aroclor 1254, a mixture of readily bioconcentrated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in a contaminated wetland near Flat Top, WV. (usgs.gov)
  • 1.1 This test method describes a quantitative determination of the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in electrical insulating liquids by gas chromatography. (astm.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) interfere with thyroid hormone action both in vitro and in vivo . (mdpi.com)
  • Although most chlorinated POPs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, were banned several decades ago, and the emission of dioxins are strictly regulated in most developed countries, the exposure to these chemicals in the general population still occurs because they have widely contaminated our food chain ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Once in the water, microbeads easily absorb endocrine-disrupting and cancer-causing chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (prn.fm)
  • The New York Times reported last month that Congressional Republicans have clandestinely inserted a provision into the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) reauthorization bill that will give Monsanto permanent immunity from liability for injuries caused by its toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (prn.fm)
  • PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyls, were manufactured in the U.S. from 1929 until being banned in 1979, and, according to reporting by the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Monsanto was the primary manufacturer of them. (prn.fm)
  • In this research, the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in the marine sediments of Asaluyeh harbor, in the Persian Gulf. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some species of Great Lakes fish have necessitated the recommendation that persons limit, or eliminate, their die- tary intake of these fish. (epa.gov)
  • ABSTRACT Event rainfall samples were collected in Chicago, Illinois and on Beaver Island, Michigan and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (epa.gov)
  • 1.1 This practice covers the sampling of air for a variety of common pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and provides guidance on the selection of appropriate analytical measurement methods. (astm.org)
  • We also found that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene, dieldrin, dioxins, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers occurred at higher concentrations in European farm-raised salmon than in farmed salmon from North and South America. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This project, which is part of the execution of the National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), addresses the sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Tunisia, such as Oils and wastes and aims to eliminate equipment and materials that contain and / or are contaminated with PCBs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mashnouk signed on Tuesday a cooperation agreement with Electricite du Liban's Chairman Kamal Hayek to execute the Polychlorinated Biphenyls (POP) management in the electricity sector and implement a national strategy to get rid of the Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Historical serum samples from a residential cohort exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels approximately 2-3 fold higher than the average U.S. population were used to identify microRNA biomarkers of PCB exposure. (epa.gov)
  • The trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was characterized for zooplankton (primarily Paracalanus spp. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls commonly known as PCBs are man made chemicals that never existed in nature until the 1900's when they started to be released into the environment by manufacturing companies and consumers. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • PCBs consist of a biphenyl (two benzene rings with a carbon to carbon bond between carbon 1 on one ring and carbon 1' on the second ring) with a varying number of chlorines. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) evaluated the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in general consumer products. (glrppr.org)
  • An epidemiologic assessment of exposure of children to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a Toronto community. (arctichealth.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are food-chain contaminants that have been shown to induce adverse developmental effects in humans. (arctichealth.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants of environmental and human health concern. (omicsonline.org)
  • PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) in New York's Hudson River: Where Does the Buck Stop? (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • Despite the recent efforts to investigate the distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, very little was known about the temporal change of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environmental ecosystem of China. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Butyltins (BTs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in a mid-latitude environment of the Patagonian coast, distant from significant pollutant sources. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A previous study of six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners showed that PCBs with four or fewer chlorines and ortho substitution stimulate uterine contraction frequency in vitro, whereas congeners with a greater number of chlorines or non-ortho substitution are inactive in vitro. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants previously used in transformers, in the manufacture of paints, and for various other industrial purposes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly toxic environmental contaminants that can cause irreversible damage in humans and wildlife. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The structural variation within the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was characterized by using principal component analysis (PCA). (diva-portal.org)
  • The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) comprise a group of 209 congeners varying in the number of chlorine atoms and substitution patterns. (diva-portal.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. (aau.dk)
  • Exposure to environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is now taken into account to partly explain the worldwide decline of amphibians. (mcponline.org)
  • Causes of this decline are assumed to result from man-made alterations of the environment, and exposure to environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 1 is now taken into account ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-mainly from fatty fish- may affect melanogenesis and promote melanoma progression, while long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids seem to exert antineoplastic actions in melanoma cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in particular, have been associated with well-established risk factors of HF such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. (ovid.com)
  • Enantioselective biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been suggested from studies showing differential occurrence of PCB enantiomers in environmental samples, including river and riparian biota and sediments ( 19 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (harvard.edu)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic, persistent pollutants of worldwide concern whose cleanup using conventional methods like incineration or relocation to specialized landfills is often prohibitively expensive. (asm.org)
  • Chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of ubiquitous environmental toxicants, causes neurocognitive anomalies. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage sludge amended agricultural soils. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Four metal enriched sewage sludges containing different concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were applied to two field soils in the UK in 1968. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • People have attempted the measurement of HLC for persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but due to the difficulty in estimation, there is a variation of approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude in reported values of HLC for PCBs in the literature. (springer.com)
  • Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread in aquatic systems. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), in UK Air and Deposition. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Atlantic salmon accumulate high levels of contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in their lipids during the adult growth phase spent at sea. (lu.se)
  • Determination of total (gas and particle-phase) polychlorinated dioxin-like biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). (bsigroup.com)
  • Despite bans and restrictions for their adverse health effects including endocrine disruption, due to their stability in the environment, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still of concern for their residues in several matrices. (iwaponline.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon chemicals that have been used in heat exchangers, transformers, and hydraulic fluids, and as additives in paints, oils, joint caulking, and floor tiles ( Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 2000 ). (iwaponline.com)
  • Rowles, Teri K. 2018-02-01 00:00:00 The potential impact of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the health and survival of cetaceans continues to be an issue for conservation and management, yet few quantitative approaches for estimating population level effects have been developed. (deepdyve.com)
  • The EPA and companies responsible for the waste in this area, which includes a three-mile section of Portage Creek as well as part of the Kalamazoo River, into which it flows, are currently involved in an effort to reduce the amount of toxic waste at the site, which is contaminated by PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) from paper mills and other factories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls are mixtures of up to 209 individual chlorinated compounds (known as congeners). (cdc.gov)
  • Billingsley KA, Backus SM, Ward OP (1999) Effect of surfactant solubilization on biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by Pseudomonas LB400. (springer.com)
  • Environmental occurrence, abundance, and potential toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners: considerations for a congener-specific analysis. (springer.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Nineteen POPs (14 polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] congeners, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 brominated diphenyl ether, and 1 dioxin) were measured in plasma collected at baseline in 725 participants, aged 70 years, of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) of whole blood samples taken from 24 healthy adult Japanese volunteers (12 males and 12 females, age range 25-46 years). (environmental-expert.com)
  • In vitro reproductive toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners 153 and 126. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Accumulation patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Steller. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls make up a group of 209 individual chlorinated biphenyl rings known as congeners. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • BPDO_{B356}\), a heterohexameric \((αβ)_3\) Rieske oxygenase (RO), catalyzes the insertion of dioxygen with stereo- and regioselectivity at the 2,3-carbons of biphenyl, and can transform a broad spectrum of PCB congeners. (harvard.edu)
  • Bamford HA, Poster DL, Baker JE (2000) Henry's law constants of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and their variation with temperature. (springer.com)
  • The bioPd(0) nanoparticles thus obtained had the ability to reductively dehalogenate polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in aqueous and sediment matrices. (ugent.be)
  • A large selection of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was determined in tissues from several British bird species including three sea birds, four birds of prey, and herons (Ardea cinerea). (lancs.ac.uk)
  • It renders their structure similar to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and allows them to act like PCDDs, as an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has requested an evaluation of health hazards by exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls. (mst.dk)
  • ta are compiled and reviewed of the physical-chemical properties of chlorinated benzenes, biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans, which control air-water partitioning, namely vapor pressure, aqueous solubility, and Henry's law constant over the environmentally relevant temperature range of 5 C to 50 C. Recommended values at 25 C, and nist-equations for estimating these properties over the temperature range of 5 C to 50 C, are provided. (nist.gov)
  • Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a group of chemical compounds, collectively known as "dioxins", produced by chemical processes, combustion and waste incineration, involving chlorine [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Worldwide contamination by dioxins [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF)] and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is of great concern due to the persistency, bioaccumulative nature, and toxicity of these compounds (SAVINOVA et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum and adipose tissue from Bolivia. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Low dose organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls predict obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among people free of diabetes. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Butyltins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments and bivalve mollusks in a mid-latitude environment from the Patagonian coastal zone. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Breast adipose tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls are associated with breast cancer risk. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Aquatic organisms passively accumulate hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, even when ambient water concentrations of the contaminant are below analytical detection limits. (usgs.gov)
  • Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations in Larus dominicanus. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Unfortunately, as a field remedial strategy, addition of biphenyl is problematic due to the low water solubility of biphenyl, the necessity of repeated application, and concerns about biphenyl toxicity. (asm.org)
  • CAS number 1336-36-3 ) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10 chlorine atoms attached to biphenyl , which is a molecule composed of two benzene rings . (princeton.edu)
  • polychlorinated biphenyl or PCB, any of a group of organic compounds originally widely used in industrial processes but later found to be dangerous environmental pollutants. (infoplease.com)
  • Gilbert ES, Crowley DE (1997) Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. (springer.com)
  • Other compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans, polybrominated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated naphthalenes may be efficiently collected from air by this practice, but guidance on their analytical determination is not covered by this practice. (astm.org)
  • A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. (usgs.gov)
  • Firefighters working in the rubble of the World Trade Center were exposed to potentially hazardous aerosolized dust consisting of pulverized cement, glass fibers, asbestos, lead, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls , and polychlorinated furans and dioxins produced as combustion byproducts from the collapsed and burning buildings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Residential Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organo. (lww.com)
  • Effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides on thyroid function during pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • Assessment of pre- and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: lessons from the Inuit Cohort Study. (arctichealth.org)
  • Abraham WR, Nogales B, Golyshin PN, Pieper DH, Timmis KN (2002) Polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading microbial communities in soils and sediments. (springer.com)
  • Analogue enrichment with biphenyl has been shown to increase the numbers of aerobic PCB-degrading bacteria in soil microcosms ( 12 , 51 ) and to enhance PCB degradation rates in soils ( 6 , 12 ) and in situ sediments ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Bopp RF, Simpson HJ, Olsen CR, Kostyk N (1981) Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the tidal Hudson River, New York. (springer.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent environmental chemicals that are known thyroid hormone disrupters. (osu.edu)
  • Human receptor activation by aroclor 1260, a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture. (springer.com)
  • Weathered soils contaminated with commercial-grade Aroclor 1260 from three sites in Canada were used to investigate the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) phytoextraction potential of nine plant species (Festuca arundinacea, Glycine max, Medicago sativa, Phalaris arundinacea, Lolium multiflorum, Carex normalis, and three varieties of Cucurbita pepo ssp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Due to poor disposal system in the country, contaminants like Polychlorinated Biphenyls ( PCB) and bezo( a) pyrene which are major components of pesticides enter into fish that may further enter into the human bodies through food chain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls. (springer.com)
  • Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas of Japan. (springer.com)
  • A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx. (wikipedia.org)
  • A polychlorinated biphenyl ( PCB ) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C 12 H 10−x Cl x . (wikipedia.org)
  • Valentino, F. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Profile in Polyhydroxy-alkanoates Synthetized from Urban Organic Wastes. (mdpi.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a wide array of now-banned organic chemicals with a variety of industrial applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advances and perspective in bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The major dechlorination products were tetrachlorinated biphenyls with unflanked chlorines. (umd.edu)
  • More than 90% decrease of PCB 21 (2,3,4-chloro biphenyl) coupled to formation of its dechlorination products PCB 5 (2,3-chloro biphenyl) and PCB 1 (2-chloro biphenyl) was obtained at a concentration of 1 mg l(-1) within 5 h at 28degreesC. (ugent.be)
  • For example: 4,4'-Dichlorobiphenyl is a congener comprising the biphenyl structure with two chlorine substituents - one on each of the #4 carbons of the two rings. (epa.gov)
  • Congener-specific levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. (springer.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in tissues from a selection of British birds. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in t. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Erickson BD, Mondello FJ (1993) Enhanced biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls after site-directed mutagenesis of a biphenyl dioxygenase gene. (springer.com)
  • Fava F, Bertin L, Fedi S, Zannoni D (2003) Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin-enhanced solubilization and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in two aged contaminated soils. (springer.com)
  • Golyshin PM, Fredrickson HL, Giuliano L, Rothmel R, Timmis KN, Yakimov MM (1999) Effect of novel biosurfactants on biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by pure and mixed bacterial cultures. (springer.com)
  • Here, we report its draft genome sequence with the aim of facilitating an understanding of polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation mechanisms. (unt.edu)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls were produced from 1929 to 1979, when they were banned by the Toxic Substances Control Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spurgeon, David J. . 2006 Factors influencing the national distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in British soils. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • 2000. Assessing the role of ortho -substitution on polychlorinated biphenyl binding to transthyretin, a thyroxine transport protein. (cdc.gov)
  • Tumour promotion induction by complex mixtures of 2-4 and 0-1 ortho polychlorinated biphenyls in female sprague Dawley rats. (wur.nl)
  • Stimulation of Contraction of Pregnant Rat Uterus in Vitro by Non-Dechlorinated and Microbially Dechlorinated Mixtures of Polychlorinated Biphenyls. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We tested the hypothesis that PCB mixtures stimulate uterine contractions in a manner inversely related to the degree of chlorination and the presence of chlorines in the ortho- position of the biphenyl constituents of the mixtures. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These results show that increased uterotonic activity was associated with decreased chlorination and increased ortho substitution of the biphenyl constituents of the mixtures. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Syncore Analyst: Evaporation to a defined volume with appendix, chiller and keeper solvent Polychlorinated biphenyls are suspected endocrine disruptors. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls are human carcinogens, and can also have a negative effect on the human immune, reproductive, and endocrine systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain LB400 and other biphenyl-utilizing bacteria. (springer.com)
  • The abundance, identities, and degradation abilities of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria associated with five species of mature trees growing naturally in a contaminated site were investigated to identify plants that enhance the microbial PCB degradation potential in soil. (asm.org)
  • Barriault D, Plante MM, Sylvestre M (2002) Family shuffling of a targeted bphA region to engineer biphenyl dioxygenase. (springer.com)
  • Bruhlmann F, Chen W (1999b) Tuning biphenyl dioxygenase for extended substrate specificity. (springer.com)
  • 2006]. Polychlorinated biphenyls and neurodegenerative disease mortality in an occupational cohort. (cdc.gov)
  • A cohort study of behavioral problems and intelligence in children with high prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1973. Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicityin rats by pretreatment with polychlorinated biphenyls. (cdc.gov)