Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Poly C: A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Poly U: A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Poly I-C: Interferon inducer consisting of a synthetic, mismatched double-stranded RNA. The polymer is made of one strand each of polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid.Poly A-U: A double-stranded polyribonucleotide comprising polyadenylic and polyuridylic acids.Poly dA-dT: Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Poly G: A group of guanine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each guanine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Poly I: A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Poly T: A group of thymine nucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each thymine nucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyadenylic acid from ATP. May be due to the action of RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) or polynucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.19). EC 2.7.7.19.Polyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Poly(A)-Binding Protein II: A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).PolynucleotidesPolyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Polyadenylation: The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Interferon Inducers: Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Toll-Like Receptor 3: A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Polyribonucleotide Nucleotidyltransferase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction RNA(n+1) and orthophosphate to yield RNA(n) and a nucleoside diphosphate, or the reverse reaction. ADP, IDP, GDP, UDP, and CDP can act as donors in the latter case. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.7.7.8.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Exoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-PolyvinylsPolyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate: A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors: Factors that are involved in directing the cleavage and POLYADENYLATION of the of MESSENGER RNA near the site of the RNA 3' POLYADENYLATION SIGNALS.NAD+ NucleosidaseMaterials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tankyrases: A group of telomere associated proteins that interact with TRF1 PROTEIN, contain ANKYRIN REPEATS and have poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Polyglutamic Acid: A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.RNA 3' Polyadenylation Signals: Sequences found near the 3' end of MESSENGER RNA that direct the cleavage and addition of multiple ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES to the 3' end of mRNA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.Adenine NucleotidesCarboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Berberine Alkaloids: A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Acrylic ResinsRNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.PolyaminesStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Glycoside HydrolasesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4G: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.PhenanthrenesBenzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.AcrylatesEnzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Uracil NucleotidesEncephalomyocarditis virus: The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP into a series of (2'-5') linked oligoadenylates and pyrophosphate in the presence of double-stranded RNA. These oligonucleotides activate an endoribonuclease (RNase L) which cleaves single-stranded RNA. Interferons can act as inducers of these reactions. EC 2.7.7.-.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.RNA, Heterogeneous Nuclear: Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.Methylnitronitrosoguanidine: A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Apoptosis Inducing Factor: A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Netropsin: A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.RNA 3' End Processing: The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.

The mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway stimulates mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation during Xenopus oocyte maturation. (1/3703)

The Mos protein kinase is a key regulator of vertebrate oocyte maturation. Oocyte-specific Mos protein expression is subject to translational control. In the frog Xenopus, the translation of Mos protein requires the progesterone-induced polyadenylation of the maternal Mos mRNA, which is present in the oocyte cytoplasm. Both the Xenopus p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) signaling pathways have been proposed to mediate progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. In this study, we have determined the relative contributions of the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways to Mos mRNA polyadenylation. We report that progesterone-induced Mos mRNA polyadenylation was attenuated in oocytes expressing the MAPK phosphatase rVH6. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling blocked progesterone-induced Mos protein accumulation. Activation of the MAPK pathway by injection of RNA encoding Mos was sufficient to induce both the polyadenylation of synthetic Mos mRNA substrates and the accumulation of endogenous Mos protein in the absence of MPF signaling. Activation of MPF, by injection of cyclin B1 RNA or purified cyclin B1 protein, also induced both Mos protein accumulation and Mos mRNA polyadenylation. However, this action of MPF required MAPK activity. By contrast, the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of maternal cyclin B1 mRNA was stimulated by MPF in a MAPK-independent manner, thus revealing a differential regulation of maternal mRNA polyadenylation by the MAPK and MPF signaling pathways. We propose that MAPK-stimulated Mos mRNA cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a key component of the positive-feedback loop, which contributes to the all-or-none process of oocyte maturation.  (+info)

Exon shuffling by L1 retrotransposition. (2/3703)

Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1s or L1s) are the most abundant retrotransposons in the human genome, and they serve as major sources of reverse transcriptase activity. Engineered L1s retrotranspose at high frequency in cultured human cells. Here it is shown that L1s insert into transcribed genes and retrotranspose sequences derived from their 3' flanks to new genomic locations. Thus, retrotransposition-competent L1s provide a vehicle to mobilize non-L1 sequences, such as exons or promoters, into existing genes and may represent a general mechanism for the evolution of new genes.  (+info)

Alternative polyadenylation events contribute to the induction of NF-ATc in effector T cells. (3/3703)

The transcription factor NF-ATc is synthesized in three prominent isoforms. These differ in the length of their C terminal peptides and mode of synthesis. Due to a switch from the use of a 3' polyA site to a more proximal polyA site, NF-ATc expression switches from the synthesis of the two longer isoforms in naive T cells to that of short isoform A in T effector cells. The relative low binding affinity of cleavage stimulation factor CstF-64 to the proximal polyA site seems to contribute to its neglect in naive T cells. These alternative polyadenylation events ensure the rapid accumulation of high concentrations of NF-ATc necessary to exceed critical threshold levels of NF-ATc for gene induction in effector T cells.  (+info)

Sufficient length of a poly(A) tail for the formation of a potential pseudoknot is required for efficient replication of bamboo mosaic potexvirus RNA. (4/3703)

RNAs transcribed from a full-length infectious cDNA clone of the bamboo mosaic potexvirus (strain O) genome, pBaMV-O, were infectious to Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Mutant genomes in which the poly(A) tail is absent or replaced by a 3' tRNA-like structure from turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA failed to amplify detectably in N. benthamiana protoplasts. No amplification was detected in protoplasts inoculated with transcripts containing 4, 7, or 10 adenylate residues at the 3' end, whereas transcript inocula with 15 adenylate residues resulted in coat protein accumulation to a level 26% of that resulting from inoculation with transcripts with 25 adenylate residues (designated as wild type). Coat protein accumulation levels of 69 and 98% relative to wild type were observed after inoculation of protoplasts with transcripts bearing poly(A) tails 18 and 22 nucleotides long, respectively. The presence of a putative 3' pseudoknot structure including at least 13 adenylate residues of the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail was supported by enzymatic and chemical structural analysis. The functional relevance of this putative pseudoknot was tested by mutations that affected basepairing within the pseudoknot. These results support the existence of functional 3' pseudoknot that includes part of the 3' poly(A) tail.  (+info)

Synaptic plasticity: regulated translation in dendrites. (5/3703)

Synaptic activity can induce neurons to synthesize proteins important for cognition and brain development. Recent results suggest this activity-induced protein synthesis is partially mediated by regulated translation within neuronal dendrites.  (+info)

Human renin mRNA stability is increased in response to cAMP in Calu-6 cells. (6/3703)

The human carcinoma-derived cell line Calu-6 has previously been demonstrated to endogenously express human renin (hREN) mRNA and to markedly increase steady-state hREN mRNA levels (100-fold after 24 hours) in response to analogues of cAMP and postreceptor activators of adenylyl cyclase such as forskolin. However, both transfection analysis using hREN promoter-reporter constructs and nuclear run-on experiments suggest that transcriptional activity alone cannot account for this level of induction. We performed primer extension, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends to compare hREN mRNA between unstimulated and forskolin-stimulated cells. We demonstrate that hREN mRNA is identical under both conditions with respect to (1) utilization of the appropriate transcription start site, (2) processing of renin mRNA, and (3) utilization of the proper polyadenylation site and length of the poly-A tail. To address the mechanism of induction caused by cAMP, we used transcriptional inhibition and measured decay of hREN mRNA before and after forskolin or phorbol ester treatment. Experiments with both actinomycin D and 5, 6-dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) showed that forskolin treatment markedly stabilized hREN mRNA in Calu-6 cells. A 2.3-fold increase in hREN mRNA half-life was also observed after treatment of Calu-6 cells with phorbol ester. Experiments with DRB demonstrated a similar robust stabilization of hREN mRNA after forskolin and phorbol ester treatment. These data demonstrate that the induction in hREN mRNA in response to both cAMP and phorbol ester occurs by a mechanism involving a posttranscriptional component.  (+info)

The stability, polyadenylic acid content and ribonucleoprotein form of nulcear ribonucleic acid in artichoke. (7/3703)

A nuclear preparation, containing 60-80% of the total tissue DNA and less than 0.5% of the total rRNA, was used to characterize the nuclear RNA species synthesized in cultured artichoke explants. The half-lives of the nuclear RNA species were estimated from first-order-decay analyses to be: hnRNA (heterogeneous nuclear RNA) containing poly(A), 38 min; hnRNA lacking poly(A), 37 min; 2.5 X 10(6)-mol. wt. precursor rRNA, 24 min; 1.4 X 10(6)-mol.wt. precursor rRNA, 58 min; 1.0 X 10(6)-mol.wt. precursor rRNA, 52 min. The shorter half-lives are probably overestimates, owing to the time required for equilibration of the nucleotide-precursor pools. The pathway of rRNA synthesis is considered in terms of these kinetic measurements. The rate of accumulation of cytoplasmic polydisperse RNA suggested that as much as 40% of the hnRNA may be transported to the cytoplasm. The 14-25% of the hnRNA that contained a poly(A) tract had an average molecular size of 0.7 X 10(6) daltons. The poly(A) segment was 40-200 nucleotides long, consisted of at least 95% AMP and accounted for 8-10% of the [32P]orthophosphate incorporated into the poly(A)-containing hnRNA. Ribonucleoprotein particles released from nuclei by sonication, lysis in EDTA or incubation in buffer were analysed by sedimentation through sucrose gradients and by isopycnic centrifugation in gradients of metrizamide and CsCl. More than 50% of the hnRNA remained bound to the chromatin after each treatment. The hnRNA was always associated with protein but the densities of isolated particles suggested that the ratio of protein to RNA was lower than that reported for mammalian cells, The particles separated from chromatin were not enriched for poly(A)-containing hnRNA.  (+info)

Endoribonuclease IV. A poly(A)-specific ribonuclease from chick oviduct. 1. Purification of the enzyme. (8/3703)

A new endoribonuclease, termed endoribonuclease IV, has been described. This enzyme has been isolated from chick oviducts and purified 15 000-fold in a 25% yield nearly to homogeneity. The nuclease, which specifically degrades poly(A), forms oligonucleotides of an average chain length of 10. These (A)-10 fragments are terminated by 3'-hydroxyl and 5'-phosphate groups. The enzyme has a pH optimum at 8.7, requires Mn2+ or Mg2+ as a cofactor, and has a molecular weight of about 45 000.  (+info)

Dept. of Biological Sciences. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1981 .B372. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 40-07, page: . Thesis (M.Sc.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1981.
Multiple dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) mRNAs, differing substantially in abundance, are produced as a result of the utilization of multiple transcription initiation sites and multiple polyadenylation sites. We have shown that dhfr mRNAs initiating from an upstream promoter region utilize the same collection of six polyadenylation sites and generate multiple dhfr mRNAs at the same relative abundance as do the mRNAs initiating from the major transcription promoter region. These results indicate that the 5 and 3 ends of dhfr mRNAs are independently determined. We show that the relative abundance of steady-state dhfr mRNAs was the same in nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA fractions. This finding makes it unlikely that differences in mRNA stability account for differences in the relative abundance of the multiple dhfr mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Our analysis of the dhfr promoter region revealed the existence of stable cytoplasmic polyadenylated transcripts complementary to the first 300 nucleotides of the ...
Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid [poly(A)] at their 3-termini. Although it has been almost two decades since the discovery of these poly(A) tracts, their function(s) have yet to be clarified. Earlier results from our laboratory led us to propose that poly(A) has a role in translation. More specifically, we proposed that an interaction of the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) with a critical minimum length of poly(A) facilitates the initiation of translation of poly(A)+, but not poly(A)-, mRNAs. The results of several different experimental approaches have provided evidence which indirectly supports this hypothesis. These results include: 1) the correlation of specific changes in mRNA poly(A) tail length with translational efficiency in vivo and in vitro; 2) correlations between the abundance and stability of PABPs and the rate of translational initiation in vivo and in vitro; and 3) the demonstration that exogenous poly(A) is a potent and specific inhibitor of the in
The 3 end of almost all eukaryotic mRNAs is polyadenylated. Most eukaryotic genes contain multiple polyadenylation sites (PASs), leading to alternative polyadenylation (APA), which has been increasingly appreciated as an important layer of post-transcriptional regulation. Multiple lines of evidence indicates that 3 end processing and nuclear export are interconnected. However, how mRNA export factors in general regulates APA and how nuclear export of APA isoforms are controlled to precisely regulate gene expression remain unknown ...
Post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene regulation play a prominent role during early development. Because the oocyte and developing embryo go through a phase in which no transcription takes place, gene expression relies on a pool of maternal mRNAs accumulated during oogenesis and is regulated at the level of translation or mRNA stability. It has been shown in several biological systems that poly(A) tail shortening contributes to translational silencing, whereas translational activation requires poly(A) tail extension (Richter, 2000; Tadros and Lipshitz, 2005). Poly(A) tail shortening, or deadenylation, is also the first step in mRNA decay. Subsequent steps occur only after the poly(A) tail has been shortened beyond a critical limit (Meyer et al., 2004; Parker and Song, 2004). Rapid deadenylation of unstable RNAs is caused by destabilizing elements, for example AU-rich elements (AREs) found in the 3′ UTRs of several mRNAs. A number of proteins have been identified that bind to destabilizing ...
摘要 构建重组表达载体是转基因动物生产制备研究中非常关键的一步,包括构建完整的外源基因表达盒,包含目的基因、调控序列(启动子、终止子)和筛选报告基因等。本文概述了转基因大动物制备技术,归纳统计了近10年转基因猪、牛、羊制备过程中常用的载体和频数,统计结果表明,转基因猪中启动子频数从多到少依次为酪蛋白、CAG、CMV启动子,终止子频数依次为兔β-globin poly A、酪蛋白poly A、SV40 poly A和BGH poly A;转基因羊中启动子频数从多到少依次为酪蛋白、BLG和CMV启动子,终止子依次为酪蛋白poly A、BLG poly A、BGH poly A、SV40 poly A和兔β-globin poly A;转基因牛中启动子频数从多到少依次为酪蛋白、CMV、人乳清白蛋白启动子等,终止子依次为SV40 poly A、BGH poly A和酪蛋白poly ...
The protein encoded by this gene has sequence similarity with members of the WD40 repeat-containing protein family. The WD40 group is a large family of proteins, which appear to have a regulatory function. It is believed that the WD40 repeats mediate protein-protein interactions and members of the family are involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, gene regulation, vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal assembly and may play a role in the control of cytotypic differentiation. This gene has multiple polyadenylation sites. It might have multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants but the variants have not been fully described yet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The use of small molecules to specifically control important cellular functions is an area of major current interest at the interface of chemical biology and medicinal chemistry. Recognition of ribonucleic acids (RNA) has emerged more recently as a critical event in many biological pathways of eukaryotic cells and consequently the opportunity of drugs targeting to diverse structures of RNA is abundant. Such RNA targeting molecules must be able to specifically bind to unique structural organizations in RNA to regulate the gene expression. One particular example in this context is the modulation of the mRNA through its polyadenylic acid [poly(A)] tail. All mRNAs in eukaryotic cells have a poly(A) tail at the 3-end This tail of about 200-250 or so adenine residues is an important determinant in maturation, stability of poly(A) and in initiation of translation process. Small molecules that could bind to this poly(A) tail could influence and possibly inhibit mRNA function and subsequent protein ...
PAN, a yeast poly(A) nuclease, plays an important nuclear role in the posttranscriptional maturation of mRNA poly(A) tails. The activity of this enzyme is dependent on its Pan2p and Pan3p subunits, as well as the presence of poly(A)-binding protein (Pab1p). We have identified and characterized the associated network of factors controlling the maturation of mRNA poly(A) tails in yeast and defined its relevant protein-protein interactions. Pan3p, a positive regulator of PAN activity, interacts with Pab1p, thus providing substrate specificity for this nuclease. Pab1p also regulates poly(A) tail trimming by interacting with Pbp1p, a factor that appears to negatively regulate PAN. Pan3p and Pbp1p both interact with themselves and with the C terminus of Pab1p. However, the domains required for Pan3p and Pbp1p binding on Pab1p are distinct. Single amino acid changes that disrupt Pan3p interaction with Pab1p have been identified and define a binding pocket in helices 2 and 3 of Pab1ps carboxy terminus. The
Poly Woven Factory - Select 2018 high quality Poly Woven Factory products in best price from certified Chinese Poly Woven Fabric manufacturers, Woven Poly Bags suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
This site uses cookies to store information on your computer, to improve your experience. One of the cookies this site uses is essential for parts of the site to operate and has already been set. You may delete and block all cookies from this site, but parts of the site will not work. To find out more about the cookies this site uses and how to delete them, please see the privacy notice ...
Looking for poly portables toilets for sale? Here you can find the lowest price products about poly portables toilets for sale. We Provide for you about poly portables toilets for sale page1
Shop Cardinal® 11x17 Poly Portfolio with Fasteners, Black at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of Cardinal® 11x17 Poly Portfolio with Fasteners, Black and get fast & free shipping on select orders.
The ultimate writing experience and bold colours - this is the new Poly Matic mechanical pencil with its unbreakable 0.7mm lead. The Poly Matic comes in bright pink, orange, blue and green, perfectly matching the low-friction Poly Ball XB ballpoint pen. Its innovative XB refill glides smoothly over the paper like no other, is indelible and, of course, refillable. ...
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
Poly A Plus RNA, Human Cancer & Cell Line. Poly A Plus RNA samples are enriched through two rounds of oligo(dT) chromatography. Representative populations with a high percentage of full-length transcripts.
This heavy-duty Strongway™ Poly Garden Wagon has a maintenance-free, 6 cu. ft. poly bed with 1,200-lb. overall capacity and 500-lb. dump capacity. The cart's patented quick-release dump feature allows you to move and remove extra-large loads with less heavy lifting. The combination handle/hitch allows the cart to be pulled by hand, or behind an ATV or lawn tractor.
Uline stocks a wide selection of Heavy Duty Poly Cord. Order by 6 pm for same day shipping. Over 32,500 products in stock. 11 Locations across USA, Canada and Mexico for fast delivery of Heavy Duty Poly Cord.
Find a Constructo Poly Sprayers, NC057, 256 at Staples.ca. Read reviews to learn about the top-rated Constructo Poly Sprayers, NC057, 256.
The Devils Work.shop Low Poly Forest Pack contains 31 Trees 25 Fence 1 Landscape Format : FBX, OBJ, DAE, DFX Mesh: Low Poly UV MAP: Yes Texture: PNG, PSD Tested: Unity 2017 License CC0 1.0 UniversalCredits to the author is always appreciate Credits Ajay Karat | Devils Work.shopwww.devilswork.shop
Its low poly alright - but its 3 of em stuck together and post edited The (single) ship is for said game (same as the Carrier) but the triple version is... Battleship Triage - Low Poly
Roly polys, or pillbugs as theyre also known, eat decomposing vegetation. This includes rotting vegetables, fruits, plants, grasses and weeds. When roly polys are raised in captivity, they can be...
Greet your guests in true island style with our Colorful Poly Leis. Made of scrunched plastic, our Colorful Poly Leis are reusable.
Give your guests an aloha welcome with our Cool Two-Tone Fringe Poly Leis. Our Cool Two-Tone Fringe Poly Leis are made from reusable scrunched plastic.
Transcription. Transcription. Poly A. Poly A. Poly A. GFP. GFP. GFP. intron. PFG. gene silencing mRNA degradation. Translation. DICER. GFP. RISC. PFG. Poly A. CAP. CAP. CAP. CAP. CAP. Poly A. DICER. GFP. p 35S. p 35S. GFP. intron. PFG. No Fluorescence. Fluorescence....
Genemed guarantees that the performance of our products meets our stated claims. No guarantee of performance is made for novel or unknown applications of our products. We will replace, free of charge, any products that does not meet Genemed stated claims. Genemed makes no warranties as to the suitability of the product for a users specific application. The suitability of the product must be determined by the end user. ...
Shop Omnipak.com when looking for 6x4x15 1.5mil Gusset Poly Bags 1000/cs. Fast shipping and low prices makes Omnipak your go to source.
Shop Omnipak.com when looking for 5x8 3mil Clear Poly Bags 2000/cs. Fast shipping and low prices makes Omnipak your go to source.
C-Line Products Two-Pocket Poly Portfolios hold papers and resist tearing. Folders are available without prongs, and in biodegradable.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Neuromi \ CD1, 5x Mono_Poly Conjugate Diluent, 100 ml. \ KF17341-1 for more molecular products just contact us
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , QED \ HA FITC Poly \ 18848F for more molecular products just contact us
نسخه قابل چاپ خلاصه مقاله Gas Separation Properties of Poly(amide-imide) Membrane - گواهی پذیرش مقاله در کنفرانس
Commercial grade homo natural non toxic poly pellets. Great for making weighted blankets and vests and other weighted products. Can be used to add form for shaping crafts into life-like positions. Can ship by the pound.
These tough poly bags protect light to medium weight items from debris and moisture. The popular thickness helps provide necessary strength for shipping and storage applications.
Vetafarm Poly Aid Plus biggest range of avian products and accessories in AUS at the best prices, we are also online www.petsville.com.au
gsl_poly_solve_cubic($a, $b, $c, \$x0, \$x1, \$x2) find the real roots of the cubic equation x**3+$a*x**2+$b*x+$c = 0, return the number of real root (either one or three) and the real roots are returned by $x0, $x1 and $x2 which are deferenced.. ...
WordPress lookup for SODIUM_CRYPTO_AEAD_CHACHA20POLY1305_NPUBBYTES, a WordPress Constant. wpseek.com is a WordPress-centric search tool for developers and theme authors.
Buy flat poly bags, packing and packaging bags, high clarity, 1.5 to 6 mil, heavy duty PP an PE flat bags, food, wet and dry bags.
Anybody use these for poly? They look neat. No clamps, and rated for 400psi. http://www.dawnindustries.com/index.php/products/kwikconnect
Imagine working at Poly Conversions Inc before you get there. Explore the company profile and learn everything from culture to benefits.
Eheim 2215 white poly pads. These pads polish aquarium water before its returned to the aquarium from the filter. These should be changed every month.. ...
Returns an xcb_void_cookie_t. Errors (if any) have to be handled in the event loop.. If you want to handle errors directly with xcb_request_check instead, use xcb_poly_point_checked. See xcb-requests(3) for details.. ...
Dunbar Elite II Polypenco Pipe Chanters - The Dunbar Poly Bagpipe Chanter from J. Dunbar Bagpipe Makers is regularly in stock. The Dunbar chanter is easy to reed and offers excellent sound. Find the Dunbar chanter you need and tested pipe chanter reeds to go with it.
Poly Pacific: Hier ein schöner Wert :A0LGDN Macht euch ein eigenes Bild davon: -| http://www.poly-pacific.com/ Konservative schätz...
This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. Learn more ...
Low Poly Brilliant Backlit Clouds derived from : http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=185406&picture=brightly-backlit-clouds
This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. Learn more ...
This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. Learn more ...
Hide message This site uses cookies. Some of these cookies are essential to make our site work properly and others help us to improve the site by giving us some insight into how it is used. You can read more about how we use cookies on our site. By continuing to browse this site you agree to our use of cookies. ...
Hide message This site uses cookies. Some of these cookies are essential to make our site work properly and others help us to improve the site by giving us some insight into how it is used. You can read more about how we use cookies on our site. By continuing to browse this site you agree to our use of cookies. ...
"California State Polytechnic University, Pomona". California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Retrieved 12 May 2015. " ... Poly., Pomona that records Meadows' Emeritus Status, scroll to "Meadows"". CalState. Retrieved 12 May 2015. Donovan, Thom ( ... and is an Emerita faculty member at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona where she continues to teach, and is ... California State Polytechnic University, Pomona faculty web page http://www.cpp.edu/~dameadows/ MAGI, JILL. "Sound matters". ...
Poly. Sci., 34, 657-676 (l987). Choi, K.-Y. and W.H. Ray. "The Dynamic Behavior of Fluidized Bed Reactors for Solid Catalysed ... Poly. Sci., 28, 407 (1983). Jensen, K.F. and W.H. Ray. "The Bifurcation Behavior of Tubular Reactors." Chem. Eng. Sci., 37, 199 ... "Mixing Effects on Performance and Stability of Low-density Polyethylene Reactors ". AIChE Journal, 51, 3205-3218, (2005). ...
Poly. 12, 380-391 (2015) K.H. Becker, B.B. Godfrey, E.E. Kunhardt, M. Laroussi, L.D. Ludeking, A.A. Neuber, E. Schamiloglu, and ... "Incubators". NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering. Retrieved October 7, 2015. "Faculty Engineers in Residence". NYU ... "Kurt H. Becker Named A Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors". NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering. December 9, 2013. ... Becker joined New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering in March 2007 when he was appointed associate provost for ...
"poly-". Wiktionary. Retrieved 1 March 2016. "clade". Wiktionary. Retrieved 1 March 2016. Boschen, Norma; Goods, Maree; Wait, ...
Poly. J., 1980, 16, pp 895-899. doi:10.1016/0014-3057(80)90122-6 Ninomiya, M., et al. "Selenium-containing heterocycles using ...
23 (1955), 2074 A.C. Ouano and W. Kaye J. Poly. Sci. A1(12) (1974), 1151 Z. Grubisic, P. Rempp, and H. Benoit, J. Polym. Sci., ...
Scroggin, Joshua D. "Cal Poly's Haniger taken by Milwaukee in the Major League Baseball draft , Cal Poly". SanLuisObispo.com. ...
"A woman who led the way for other women". Poly Pantelides. 3 November 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2017. "Stella SOULIOTI". ...
"Stephen Arnold , NYU-Poly". Poly.edu. 2009-02-17. Retrieved 2012-11-20. "John J. Turin Award and Convocation". University of ... Arnold is a University Professor of Physics and Chemical Engineering at the NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering and is the ... Arnold became director of the Othmer Institute for Interdisciplinary Research at NYU Polytechnic July 2003. In February 2009, ... Arnold is a Professor of Physics and Chemical Engineering and the Thomas Potts Professor of Physics at the NYU Polytechnic ...
Source He resigned from Cal Poly in August 2014. "Men's Soccer Head Coach Paul Holocher Resigns". Cal Poly. Photo of Holocher ... He currently coaches the men's soccer team at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. He also earned one caps with the U.S. national team in ... In January 2006, Holocher left UC Santa Cruz to become the head coach at NCAA Division I Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. In his eight ...
École secondaire Poly-Jeunesse (junior high school) École primaire Coeur-Soleil École primaire Des Cèdres École primaire L'Orée ... ". "Poly-Jeunesse." Commission scolaire de Laval. Retrieved on September 24, 2017. "Coeur-Soleil." Commission scolaire de Laval ...
Zhao, Tianyu; Zheng, Yu; Poly, Julien; Wang, Wenxin (21 May 2013). "Controlled multi-vinyl monomer homopolymerization through ... Differences between cyclic and linear PEGylated poly(acrylic acid) comb polymers". Journal of Controlled Release. 140 (3): 203- ...
Wudl, Fred; Kobayashi, M.; Heeger, A. J. (1984-09-01). "Poly(isothianaphthene)". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 49 (18): ...
"Cal Poly Women's Soccer Archives". Go Poly. "Cal Poly Women's Soccer Record Book" (PDF). Go Poly. "Big West Conference Women's ... "Former Cal Poly player named Goalkeeper of the Year in Norway". The San Luis Obispo Tribune. "Keeper of the Year". Kvinner ... Giannetti played four years (2012-2016) with California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo, California (*) - ...
"David G Lefer , NYU-Poly". Poly.edu. Retrieved 2013-07-01. "David Lefer". Harvard Magazine. 2012-12-21. Retrieved 2016-05-01. ... who holds the post of Industry Professor at New York University's Polytechnic Institute, where he directs the Innovation and ...
Amenabar, Iban; Poly, Simon; Nuansing, Wiwat; Hubrich, Elmar H.; Govyadinov, Alexander A.; Huth, Florian; Krutokhvostov, Roman ... Amenabar, Iban; Poly, Simon; Goikoetxea, Monika; Nuansing, Wiwat; Lasch, Peter; Hillenbrand, Rainer (2017-02-15). " ... doi:10.1016/S1350-4495(01)00113-X. Amenabar, Iban; Poly, Simon; Goikoetxea, Monika; Nuansing, Wiwat; Lasch, Peter; Hillenbrand ...
Ranjard, L.; Poly, F.; Lata, J.-C.; Mougel, C.; Thioulouse, J.; Nazaret, S. (1 October 2001). "Characterization of Bacterial ...
"Computer Science and Engineering , NYU-Poly". Poly.edu. Archived from the original on 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2010-07-26. "People ... Computer Science and Engineering , NYU-Poly". Poly.edu. Archived from the original on 2008-12-24. Retrieved 2010-07-26. ... He received his Masters of Science Degree in Computer Science from NYU Poly in 1996, and is an adjunct professor of Computer ... Science at NYU Poly. Colagioia authored the Thue, *W, and RUBE II: Das Klickenklacker programming languages. He is also the co- ...
Films of organosilsesquioxane, e.g., poly(methylsilsesquioxane), have been examined for semiconducting devices. Poly( ... Poly. Sci. Part A-1. 10 (9): 2621-2637. Bibcode:1972JPoSA..10.2621K. doi:10.1002/pol.1972.150100910. ...
1] "Special Programs , NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering". Poly.edu. Retrieved 2014-02-12. "Army ROTC:It's How Students ...
"Poly World Trade Center Block D". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2015-08-10. "Poly World Trade Center Block F". Emporis.com. Retrieved ... "Poly PRNC F2-2 Project 1". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-01-03. "Poly PRNC F2-2 Project 2". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved ... "Poly International Plaza Tower 1". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-01-03. "Poly International Plaza 1". SkyscraperPage.com. ... "Poly International Plaza 2". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2008-01-03. "Poly International Plaza 2". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved ...
Poly - Management. Rocambole - Art cover and design. Patricio Rey y sus Redonditos de Ricota Luzbelito at Allmusic.com Rock.com ...
Collins played four years of college soccer, two years with UCLA Bruins and a further two with the Cal Poly Mustangs. During ... "Cal Poly". "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-19. Retrieved 2014-04-19. http://www.uslsoccer.com/teams/2012 ...
H. R. Allcock; S. R. Pucher; M. L. Turner; R. J. Fitzpatrick (1992). "Poly(organophosphazenes) with Poly(alkyl ether) Side ... Water-soluble poly(organophosphazenes) with oligo-ethyleneoxy side chains can be cross-linked by gamma-radiation techniques. ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Allcock, H. R., Kugel, R. L., Valan, K. J. (1966). "High Molecular Weight Poly( ... Of these early species, poly[bis(trifluoroethoxyphosphazene], [NP(OCH2CF3)2]n, has proved to be the subject of intense research ...
Ranjard, L.; F. Poly; J.-C. Lata; C. Mougel; J. Thioulouse; S. Nazaret (2001). "Characterization of bacterial and fungal soil ...
Donten, Mateusz L; Hamm, Peter (2013). pH-jump induced α-helix folding of poly-l-glutamic acid. Chemical Physics, 422:124-130. ... In this work, the pH jump induced alpha-helix folding of poly-L-glutamic acid is investigated upon proton release from o- ... In this work, the pH jump induced alpha-helix folding of poly-L-glutamic acid is investigated upon proton release from o- ... the folding mechanism of poly-L-glutamic acid is clarified by probing the IR response of the amide I band. Its folding kinetics ...
Food grade Poly-gamma-glutamic acid Synonyms. chitin; chitosan ascorbate; deacetylated chitin biopolymer; N,O-sulfated chitosan ... Food grade Poly-gamma-glutamic acid Browse our wide selection of products for your research needs ...
Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete ... After purification, the monomers can be used to prepare new polyethylene terephthalate. The ester bonds in polyethylene ... KenPlas Industry Ltd.: "What is PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate)". *"WAVE Polymer Technology: PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) ... "poly(ethylene terephthalate) macromolecule_msds".. *^ a b Speight, J. G.; Lange, Norbert Adolph (2005). McGraw-Hill, ed. ...
"Poly - Google Developer , Poly , Google Developers". Google Developers. Retrieved December 5, 2017.. ... Poly is a website created by Google for users to browse, distribute, and download 3D objects. Its features a free library ... Users can search the Poly model library by specific keywords and upload and downloaded models in the OBJ file format.[1] Most ... "Poly , Google Developers". Google Developers. November 29, 2017. Retrieved December 5, 2017.. ...
Important Cal Poly Coursework Dates:. *Early Start: Start of Districts School Year - September 14 (teacher candidates at ...
Poly provides the following APIs and tools for developers:. *. Poly API: a RESTful API that lets you search, download, and (for ... platform-specific wrappers for the Poly API. The Toolkit for Unity also includes a UI for downloading and importing Poly assets ... Poly Plugins for 3rd Party Applications: These plugins, available for Blender, Cinema 4D, Maya, and 3ds Max let you upload ... Poly is an online library where people can browse, share, and remix 3D assets. An asset is a 3D model or scene created using ...
The 3D low-poly subreddit is dedicated to posting stylized low-poly art, landscapes, environments, characters, etc. as well as ... r/low_poly. About. The 3D low-poly subreddit is dedicated to posting stylized low-poly art, landscapes, environments, ... Share low poly in real life over at r/RealLifeLowpoly. Dont forget to flair your submissions with the program used to create ... limit my search to r/low_poly. use the following search parameters to narrow your results:. subreddit:subreddit. find ...
Except as otherwise noted, the content of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License, and code samples are licensed under the Apache 2.0 License. For details, see the Google Developers Site Policies. Java is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.. Last updated 2017-11-17 UTC.. ...
Poly, Flintridge Prep golf. Pasadena Polys Manny Medrano, a Glendale resident, smiles after his tee shot on the second hole in ... Pasadena Polys Manny Medrano, a Glendale resident, smiles after his tee shot on the second hole in the Prep League ... Pasadena Polys Manny Medrano, a Glendale resident, smiles after his tee shot on the second hole in the Prep League ...
See an archive of all natasha poly stories published on the New York Media network, which includes NYMag, The Cut, Vulture, and ... Natasha Poly Signs With LOréal Paris. Poly joins Claudia Schiffer, Liya Kebede, and Doutzen Kroes. ... Natasha Poly Announces Pregnancy on Instagram. How its done these days. By Charlotte Cowles BLOGVERTORIAL/SPONSORSHIP AD CODE ... New Spring Ads: Anne Hathaway for Tods, Natasha Poly for Proenza and Jil Sander. Hathaway was shot by top photo-duo Mert Alas ...
Visit Damian polys CaringBridge website where youll find the latest updates and a place to share messages of love, hope & ... Damian poly First post: Jun 3, 2018 Empfindliche as a result of infectious diseases, gastrointestinal, skin and endocrine ...
... drives past Poly's Aneah Young for a layup during the Basketball Academy at Morgan State. ... Aberdeens Stephanie Jones, right, drives past Polys Aneah Young for a layup during the Basketball Academy at Morgan State. ... Aberdeens Stephanie Jones, right, drives past Polys Aneah Young for a layup during the Basketball Academy at Morgan State. ( ... Aberdeens Stephanie Jones, right, drives past Polys Aneah Young for a layup during the Basketball Academy at Morgan State. ...
Much of the surface of Sputnik Planum, consisting mostly of nitrogen ice, is divided into irregular polygons that are tens of ... Two studies reveal that vigorous convection causes these polygons. See Letters p.79 & 82 NASAs New Horizons spacecraft has ... the surface of which is divided into irregular polygons tens of kilometres across. ... The Sputnik Planum basin of Pluto contains a sheet of nitrogen ice, the surface of which is divided into irregular polygons ...
Service is knowledgeable, but they dont go in for the hard sell at Poly. They dont need to. Sydney is a town with a lot of ... How fitting that chef Mat Lindsay and sommelier Julien Dromgools new walk-in wine bar is called Poly, because its going to ...
The Evelyn Poly Presidents Discretionary Scholarship is open to students at Union College, Nebraska. You must demonstrate ... The Evelyn Poly Presidents Discretionary Scholarship is open to students at Union College, Nebraska. You must demonstrate ...
The biodegradation of poly(l-lactide) (PLA) is reviewed. The important role of actinomycetes in PLA degradation is emphasized. ... actinomycetes biodegradation polyesters poly(l-lactide) poly(l-lactide)-degrading enzyme This is a preview of subscription ... Tsuji H, Ishizaka T (2001) Preparation of porous poly(δ-caprolactone) films from blends by selective enzymatic removal of poly( ... Nishida H, Tokiwa Y (1993) Distribution of poly (δ-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(δ-caprolactone) aerobic degrading microorganisms ...
Become Poly, peripherals, headsets, microphones, keyboards, collaboration tools, enterprise tools, workplace ... Polys recently announced Elara 60 recognizes this is the new normal and joins Polys award-winning mobile headsets to give ... Sarkar said Poly will focus on four specific areas of IT innovation:. * Making workspaces intuitively work for everyone. The ... Polys continued mission will be to utilize the accumulated audio and video expertise of both Plantronics and Polycom along ...
Cal Poly: The Place for Hands-On Experience. Cal Poly is one of the top programs in the nation when it comes to dairy science. ... Cal Poly Dairy , 1 Grand Ave, San Luis Obispo, CA 94301 , Send Email , Copyright 2017 , Site by Alejandra Garcia ... Cal Poly by the numbers...Here is an interactive graph showing how many students are enrolled in the program, where our school ... Continue towards that distinct smell and youll make your way to the Cal Poly Dairy. Here students not only live, but work ...
Shop high quality Poly T-Shirts from CafePress. See great designs on styles for Men, Women, Kids, Babies, and even Dog T-Shirts ... Make a bold statement with our Poly T-Shirts, or choose from our wide variety of expressive graphic tees for any season, ...
Table of laboratory methods panels for Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS). Chemical. Specimen Type. ... Changes in serum concentrations of maternal poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances over the course of pregnancy and predictors of ...
Preview and download your favorite episodes of Polyamory, Season 2, or the entire season. Buy the season for $14.99. Episodes ... New to polyamory and juggling busy careers, they are figuring things out as they go. Leigh Ann is feeling particularly lonely ... Polyamory, Season 2HDTV-MAClosed Captioning. Open iTunes to preview or buy TV shows. ... Season 2 of Polyamory: Married & Dating follows two polyamorous families living in Southern California. New to the show are ...
Motivated Taft Blisters Poly, Earns Rematch. City volleyball: Toreadors will face Monroe in final after storming back from ... Poly, with a starting lineup that included only one senior, became frustrated as the match progressed. The youthful Parrots ... After Poly (13-2) overcame a 14-12 deficit and won the second game, it only infuriated the Toreadors. ... Armed with a group of players that respond when challenged, the Toreadors knocked off visiting Poly, 15-8, 14-16, 15-6, 15-6, ...
Senior Forward Sheri Jennum scored 19 points and Vickie Mitchell added 18 Saturday to lead the the Cal Poly Pomona womens ... Senior Forward Sheri Jennum scored 19 points and Vickie Mitchell added 18 Saturday to lead the the Cal Poly Pomona womens ...
Financial aid programs offered at Cal Poly are funded and regulated through federal, state and local agencies and through the ... Withdrawing from Cal Poly, reducing your hours of enrollment or reaching maximum aid limits can affect your Financial Aid. . ... Financial aid programs offered at Cal Poly are funded and regulated through federal, state and local agencies and through the ... Federal regulations require Cal Poly to establish Satisfactory Academic Progress standards. to ensure students receiving ...
We featured MAKE Flickr pool member kongorillas photograph, showing some of the prototypes for this mask, a couple weeks back. As cool as that picture is, it didnt prepare us for the finished product.
  • 3M™ Protective Tape 3K04 is a clear low density polyethylene tape with a very low-tack adhesive system to help protect many polished metals, plastics and glass materials of electronic devices. (3m.com)
  • 9. A composition comprising a poly(methylene oxalate-co-ethylene oxalate) polymer. (google.co.uk)
  • A poly(phenylene) compound of copolymers that can be prepared with either random or multiblock structures where a first polymer has a repeat unit with a structure of four sequentially connected phenyl rings with a total of 2 pendant phenyl groups and 4 pendant tolyl groups and the second polymer has a repeat unit with a structure of four sequentially connected phenyl rings with a total of 6 pendant phenyl groups. (osti.gov)
  • Poly(arylene) electrolytes including copolymers lacking ether groups in the polymer may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells. (osti.gov)
  • Users can search the Poly model library by specific keywords and upload and downloaded models in the OBJ file format . (wikipedia.org)
  • a RESTful API that lets you search, download, and (for whitelisted accounts ) upload Poly assets. (google.com)
  • A certain class of poly(ester-amide) polymers are disclosed which are particularly suitable as hot melt adhesive compositions particularly advantageous for bonding plastics, such as polyester or polycarbonate polymers. (google.com.au)
  • This invention relates to a certain class of poly(ester-amide) polymers which are particularly suitable as hot melt adhesive compositions particularly advantageous for bonding plastics, such as polyester or polycarbonate polymers. (google.com.au)
  • The present invention relates to anionic exchange polymers including a poly(phenylene) structure. (osti.gov)
  • NEW PRODUCT NEWS: In addition to launching the new name and image of the company, Poly also took the opportunity to launch some new products and versions of products. (eweek.com)
  • Use of other topical products before application of poly-ureaurethane may prevent film formation and reduce effectiveness. (drugs.com)
  • China-based polysilicon and solar wafer maker GCL-Poly indicated that due to impacts of the debt crisis in Europe and continuous price fall of solar products, the firm made small amount of profits in the first quarter but is likely to incur losses in. (digitimes.com)
  • We carry modern frost, crystal embossed and holographic poly covers in various sizes, with eco-friendly products and heavyweight options available. (mybinding.com)
  • Korg - iMono/Poly Korg's original hardware versions of the Mono/Poly and PolySix have been fodder for comparison since 1981. (residentadvisor.net)
  • Users of Korg's acclaimed Gadget production software will however be excited to note that Korg built iMono/Poly with interoperability in the form of a gadget named Montpellier. (residentadvisor.net)
  • Anyone who has seen or used a hardware Mono/Poly will be immediately comfortable with the UI Korg developed for the iOS version. (residentadvisor.net)
  • The enhancements built into iMono/Poly from the physical instrument are nearly identical to those that Korg introduced with the Legacy Collection VST. (residentadvisor.net)
  • The Korg Poly-61 was released in 1982 as the successor to the Polysix. (vintagesynth.com)
  • This means you can only use one instance of iMono/Poly at a time on a given device, a limitation that will likely prevent it from becoming a go-to mobile synth for many producers. (residentadvisor.net)
  • It also uses the same method of programming the Poly-800 and Yamaha DX-7 use, so it's not a very useful synth for real-time-tweaking junkies. (vintagesynth.com)
  • Overall, the Poly-61 is still a decent synth, and it can be acquired for practically nothing! (vintagesynth.com)
  • Pasadena Poly, in its final tuneup before kicking off Prep League play next week, dropped a 24-14 decision at home to Brentwood on Saturday. (sbsun.com)
  • Pasadena Poly (2-3) put together some successful drives in the second and fourth quarters, but the Panthers were stopped twice on critical fourth-quarter drives. (sbsun.com)
  • Senior Forward Sheri Jennum scored 19 points and Vickie Mitchell added 18 Saturday to lead the the Cal Poly Pomona women's basketball team to a 71-59 NCAA Division II quarterfinal win over St. Cloud State at St. Cloud, Minn. (latimes.com)
  • SPORTSCOPE : Cal Poly Pomona Women's Basketball Team to. (latimes.com)
  • POMONA - Cal Poly Pomona sophomore guard Reyana Colson admits she still isn't 100 percent healthy. (presstelegram.com)
  • Moon SI, Urayama H, Kimura Y (2003) Structural characterization and degradability of poly(L-lactic acid)s incorporating phenylsubstituted alpha-hydroxy acids as comonomers. (springer.com)
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases: homology, structural domains and functions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Poly(ester-amide) adhesive compositions have been known for some time in the art, including the use as hot melt adhesives for various substrates such as metals, wood and plastics. (google.com.au)
  • Included in this background of poly(ester-amide) compositions are U.S. Pats. (google.com.au)
  • No. 3,650,999, related to poly(ester-amide) compositions, is generally useful as adhesives to a variety of substrates such as steel, aluminum, wood and plastic substrates. (google.com.au)
  • By the proper selection of reactants and using special polymerization techniques, a block copolymer poly(ester-amide) composition was prepared having certain advantages in high temperature properties over earlier adhesive compositions. (google.com.au)
  • Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. (osti.gov)
  • An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. (osti.gov)
  • NYU-ePoly, the online learning initiative of NYU-Poly, provides 17 online master's degrees and advance certificates. (ansi.org)
  • The graduate degrees offered by NYU-ePoly ( http://www.poly.edu/nyuepoly ) include Bioinformatics, Cybersecurity, Electrical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering, Project Management, and Wireless Innovation. (ansi.org)
  • Polytechnic s offer Bachelor -level higher education degree s equivalent to Bachelor of Arts (Hon) or Bachelor of Science (Hon) Degrees in the UK and the US , the French Licence , the German Diplom Fachhochschule and the Dutch HBO Diploma . (everything2.com)
  • The polytechnic degrees combine theory , practice and individual experience and qualify the graduate s for planning, expert and managerial post s as well as for other professional tasks requiring a high standard of expertise. (everything2.com)
  • Built for medium and large conference rooms, the Poly G7500 integrates content sharing and video conferencing into one interface. (insight.com)
  • Poly collaboration solutions make it easy to share content and work together across voice, video and the web. (insight.com)
  • The particular class of poly(ester-amides) are those which include a polymeric fat acid, and more specifically a dimeric fat acid component, in which the ester segments will contribute from about 20, preferably 35 to about 60 weight percent of the poly(ester-amide) and the amide segment contributing the remainder. (google.com.au)
  • With Poly ® voice and video conferencing tools from Insight, you'll find space for collaboration anywhere your work takes you. (insight.com)
  • Insight and Poly are dedicated to understanding your business needs and creating custom, cost-effective solutions. (insight.com)
  • Sir, As a keen Polygon solver I was surprised on Friday to find myself in the same position as the A-level candidates facing an impossible exam question. (thetimes.co.uk)
  • X-Poly is a software synthesizer plugin for Logic, Garage Band and Cubase employing a unique form of subtractive synthesis. (macupdate.com)
  • Time for some sweet examples of low poly art! (abduzeedo.com)
  • Plumbing contractors I knew at the time still believed in poly, so I borrowed a crimping tool and set about installing a few additional exterior water lines using the material. (oldhouseweb.com)
  • PARP, also known as poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase and poly(ADP-ribose) transferase, transfers the ADP-ribose moiety from its substrate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), to carboxylate groups of aspartic and glutamic residues. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • As a certified and approved vendor of the United States Postal Service, PolyPak features a high clarity poly film , constructed to operate on Form Fill and Seal machines for delivery via parcel post. (prweb.com)
  • There are presently 31 polytechnic s in Finland , most of which are multi-field and operate in several units. (everything2.com)
  • Santa Cruz, Calif.-based Plantronics, which acquired Polycom a year ago for $2 billion , simplified its image to a mere four letters by renaming itself Poly (meaning "many") March 18 and rebranding itself with a new identity logo. (eweek.com)
  • Polycom and Plantronics have combined forces as Poly to deliver a full suite of user-friendly solutions that increase productivity and enhance the customer experience. (insight.com)
  • For the most recent university news, visit Florida Poly News . (prweb.com)
  • U.S. News & World Report, widely known for its ratings of educational institutions, ranks NYU-Poly among the best engineering graduate schools in several measures of the quality of distance learning. (ansi.org)
  • The main challenge for ACT has been OiGO's software development, and that's where Florida Poly comes in. (prweb.com)
  • For some people sex with multiple partners is a very big deal, but for the vast majority of poly people I've communicated with, sex just isn't the main reason for going poly. (stevepavlina.com)
  • Poly is a proven leader in providing high-quality Unified Communications (UC) solutions and consulting services. (insight.com)
  • Enterprise-grade, high-definition voice solutions from Poly ensure everyone hears each other clearly, making your calls more efficient and enjoyable. (insight.com)
  • Colson scored a career-high 26 points and dished out seven assists and two steals to lead Cal Poly to a 77-57 win over Western Oregon in the opening game of the Bronco Invitational Friday at Kellogg Gymnasium. (presstelegram.com)
  • LONG BEACH - The hard work for Poly high jumpers Tara Richmond and Alexis Dalton has just begun. (dailybulletin.com)
  • One of these styles is low poly modeling, a method that truly delivers some super nice results, like the work of Peruan designer Gonzalo Ausejo. (abduzeedo.com)
  • No matter your work environment or communication style, Poly headsets and speakerphones fuel clear, distraction-free conversations. (insight.com)
  • Will X-poly work good on macOS 10.13.4? (macupdate.com)
  • Carsten Nicolai's work poly stella is a highly significant, especially designed public sculpture commissioned for the plaza in front of Kasumigaseki Building in Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan. (e-flux.com)