The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae class, Magnoliopsida that are mostly shrubs and small trees. Many of the members contain indole alkaloids.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.
The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by oppositely paired, usually compound leaves and bell- or funnel-shaped, bisexual flowers having a five-lobed calyx and corolla.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A plant family of the order Proteales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. Cluster roots, bottlebrush-like clusters of rootlets which form in response to poor soil, are common in this family.
The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. The name derived from ar (fire in Arabic) due to the irritating sap. Flower is a spathe.
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.
A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain DEFICIENS PROTEIN.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
A plant family of the order ZINGIBERALES, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.
A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.
A plant genus of the family THYMELAEACEAE. They are evergreen shrubs much cultivated in garden borders and rock gardens in mild climates. Members contain mezerein, flavonoids, and COUMARINS such as daphnetin and daphnin.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE that grows in salty marshes and is used for phytoremediation of oil spills. The unisexual flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. Members contain trifoliones (DITERPENES).
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
The club-moss plant family of the order Lycopodiales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. The common name of clubmoss applies to several genera of this family. Despite the name this is not one of the true mosses (BRYOPSIDA).
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant family of the order Commelinales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain beta-glucosidases and trypsin inhibitors.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.
A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that is the source of an edible fruit. Members contain TRITERPENES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family SCHISANDRACEAE. Members contain schisandrins (Russian) which are also called gomisins (Japanese) or wuweizins (Chinese). The compounds in this genus are very similar to those in the related KADSURA and medicinal usage is very similar. It is sometimes adulterated with KADSURA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.
A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE. It can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS. SAPONINS have been identified in the root.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
A plant family of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS, which is the source of Oriental TEA.

60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis. (1/687)

Figs (Ficus; ca 750 species) and fig wasps (Agaoninae) are obligate mutualists: all figs are pollinated by agaonines that feed exclusively on figs. This extraordinary symbiosis is the most extreme example of specialization in a plant-pollinator interaction and has fuelled much speculation about co-divergence. The hypothesis that pollinator specialization led to the parallel diversification of fig and pollinator lineages (co-divergence) has so far not been tested due to the lack of robust and comprehensive phylogenetic hypotheses for both partners. We produced and combined the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic trees to date with fossil data to generate independent age estimates for fig and pollinator lineages, using both non-parametric rate smoothing and penalized likelihood dating methods. Molecular dating of ten pairs of interacting lineages provides an unparalleled example of plant-insect co-divergence over a geological time frame spanning at least 60 million years.  (+info)

Adaptive plasticity of floral display size in animal-pollinated plants. (2/687)

Plants need not participate passively in their own mating, despite their immobility and reliance on pollen vectors. Instead, plants may respond to their recent pollination experience by adjusting the number of flowers that they display simultaneously. Such responsiveness could arise from the dependence of floral display size on the longevity of individual flowers, which varies with pollination rate in many plant species. By hand-pollinating some inflorescences, but not others, we demonstrate plasticity in display size of the orchid Satyrium longicauda. Pollination induced flower wilting, but did not affect the opening of new flowers, so that within a few days pollinated inflorescences displayed fewer flowers than unpollinated inflorescences. During subsequent exposure to intensive natural pollination, pollen removal and receipt increased proportionally with increasing display size, whereas pollen-removal failure and self-pollination accelerated. Such benefit-cost relations allow plants that adjust display size in response to the prevailing pollination rate to increase their attractiveness when pollinators are rare (large displays), or to limit mating costs when pollinators are abundant (small displays). Seen from this perspective, pollination-induced flower wilting serves the entire plant by allowing it to display the number of flowers that is appropriate for the current pollination environment.  (+info)

A group-1 grass pollen allergen influences the outcome of pollen competition in maize. (3/687)

Worldwide, 400 million people suffer from hay fever and seasonal asthma. The major causative agents of these allergies are pollen specific proteins called the group-1 grass pollen allergens. Although details of their antigenicity have been studied for 40 years with an eye towards immunotherapy, their function in the plant has drawn scant attention. Zea m 1 constitutes a class of abundant grass pollen allergens coded for by several genes that loosen the walls of grass cells, including the maize stigma and style. We have examined the impact of a transposon insertion into one of these genes (EXPB1, the most abundant isoform of Zea m 1) on the production of Zea m 1 protein, pollen viability, and pollen tube growth, both in vitro and in vivo. We also examined the effect of the insertional mutation on the competitive ability of the pollen by experimentally varying the sizes of the pollen load deposited onto stigmas using pollen from heterozygous plants and then screening the progeny for the presence of the transposon using PCR. We found that the insertional mutation reduced the levels of Zea m 1 in maize pollen, but had no effect on pollen viability, in vitro pollen tube growth or the proportion of progeny sired when small pollen loads are deposited onto stigmas. However, when large pollen loads are deposited onto the stigmas, the transposon mutation is vastly underrepresented in the progeny, indicating that this major pollen allergen has a large effect on pollen tube growth rates in vivo, and plays an important role in determining the outcome of the pollen-pollen competition for access to the ovules. We propose that the extraordinary abundance (4% of the extractable protein in maize pollen) of this major pollen allergen is the result of selection for a trait that functions primarily in providing differential access to ovules.  (+info)

Meteorological input data requirements to predict cross-pollination of GMO maize with Lagrangian approaches. (4/687)

Modeling pollen dispersal to predict cross-pollination is of great importance for the ongoing discussion of adventitious presence of genetically modified material in food and feed. Two different modeling approaches for pollen dispersal were used to simulate two years of data for the rate of cross-pollination of non-GM maize (Zea mays (L.)) fields by pollen from a central 1 ha transgenic field. The models combine the processes of wind pollen dispersal (transport) and pollen competition. Both models used for the simulation of pollen dispersal were Lagrangian approaches: a stochastic particle Lagrange model and a Lagrangian transfer function model. Both modeling approaches proved to be appropriate for the simulation of the cross-pollination rates. However, model performance differed significantly between years. We considered different complexity in meteorological input data. Predictions compare well with experimental results for all simplification steps, except that systematic deviations occurred when only main wind direction was used. Concluding, it can be pointed out that both models might be adapted to other pollen dispersal experiments of different crops and plot sizes, when wind direction statistics are available. However, calibration of certain model parameters is necessary.  (+info)

Gene flow from GM glyphosate-tolerant to conventional soybeans under field conditions in Japan. (5/687)

Natural out-crossing rates were evaluated for conventional soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivated adjacent to genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybeans under field conditions during a four-year period in Japan. A total of 107 846 progeny of 2772 plants harvested from conventional varieties were screened for glyphosate herbicide tolerance. The highest out-crossing rates, 0.19% in 2001 and 0.16% in 2002, were observed in adjacent rows 0.7 m from the pollen source. The highest rate in 2004 was 0.052%, which was observed at 2.1 m. No out-crossing was observed in the rows 10.5 m from the pollen source over the four-year period. The farthest distances between receptor and pollen source at which out-crossing was observed were 7 m in 2001, 2.8 m in 2002, and 3.5 m in 2004. The greatest airborne pollen density during the flowering period, determined by Durham pollen samplers located between the rows of each variety, was 0.368, with the average value at 0.18, indicating that the possibility of out-crossing by wind is minimal. Thrips species and predatory Hemiptera visited the soybean flowers more frequently during the four-year period than any other common pollinators, such as bees.  (+info)

Decreased panicle-derived indole-3-acetic acid reduces gibberellin A1 level in the uppermost internode, causing panicle enclosure in male sterile rice Zhenshan 97A. (6/687)

Cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) rice Zhenshan 97A (ZS97A) has been widely used in hybrid rice production in China. However, ZS97A suffers from serious panicle enclosure, which blocks normal pollination and greatly reduces seed production of hybrid rice. Little is known about the cause of panicle closure in ZS97A. In this study, it was found that the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility caused a deficiency of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in ZS97A panicles, and less IAA was provided to the uppermost internode (UI). Further, it was found that the decreased panicle-derived IAA caused a gibberellin A(1) (GA(1)) deficiency in the UI by the down-regulation of OsGA3ox2 transcript level. Reduced GA(1) level in the UI led to decreases of both cell number and cell elongation, resulting in a shortened UI. The shortened UI was unable to push the panicle out of the flag leaf sheath that remained normal, which resulted in panicle enclosure in ZS97A. These findings suggest that decreased panicle-derived IAA reduces the GA(1) level in the UI, causing panicle enclosure in CMS rice ZS97A.  (+info)

Segregation analyses of partial self-incompatibility in self and cross progeny of Solanum carolinense reveal a leaky S-allele. (7/687)

Natural populations of self-incompatible species often exhibit marked phenotypic variation among individuals in the strength of self-incompatibility (SI). In previous studies, we found that the strength of the SI response in Solanum carolinense, a weedy invasive with RNase-mediated SI, is a plastic trait. Selfing can be particularly important for weeds and other successional species that typically undergo repeated colonization and local extinction events and whose population sizes are often small. We applied a PCR-based protocol to identify the S-alleles present in 16 maternal genotypes and their offspring and performed a two-generation greenhouse study to determine whether variation in the strength of SI is due to the existence of weak and strong S-alleles differing in their ability to recognize and reject self-pollen. We found that allele S9 sets significantly more self seed than the other S-alleles in the population we sampled and that its ability to self is not dependent on interactions with other S-alleles. Our data suggest that the observed variations in self-fertility are likely due to factors that directly influence the expression of SI by altering the translation, turnover, or activity of the S-RNase. The variability in the strength of SI among individuals that we have observed in this and our previous studies raises the possibility that plasticity in the strength of SI in S. carolinense may play a role in the colonization and establishment of this weedy species.  (+info)

Variability in floral scent in rewarding and deceptive orchids: the signature of pollinator-imposed selection? (8/687)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A comparative investigation was made of floral scent variation in the closely related, food-rewarding Anacamptis coriophora and the food-deceptive Anacamptis morio in order to identify patterns of variability of odour compounds in the two species and their role in pollinator attraction/avoidance learning. METHODS: Scent was collected from plants in natural populations and samples were analysed via quantitative gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection was used to identify compounds that are detected by the pollinators. Experimental reduction of scent variability was performed in the field with plots of A. morio plants supplemented with a uniform amount of anisaldehyde. KEY RESULTS: Both orchid species emitted complex odour bouquets. In A. coriophora the two main benzenoid compounds, hydroquinone dimethyl ether (1,4-dimethoxybenzene) and anisaldehyde (methoxybenzaldehyde), triggered electrophysiological responses in olfactory neurons of honey-bee and bumble-bee workers. The scent of A. morio, however, was too weak to elicit any electrophysiological responses. The overall variation in scent was significantly lower in the rewarding A. coriophora than in the deceptive A. morio, suggesting pollinator avoidance-learning selecting for high variation in the deceptive species. A. morio flowers supplemented with non-variable scent in plot experiments, however, did not show significantly reduced pollination success. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas in the rewarding A. coriophora stabilizing selection imposed by floral constancy of the pollinators may reduce scent variability, in the deceptive A. morio the emitted scent seems to be too weak to be detected by pollinators and thus its high variability may result from relaxed selection on this floral trait.  (+info)

ABSTRACT: Pollination is a well-studied and at the same time a threatened ecosystem service. A significant part of global crop production depends on or profits from pollination by animals. Using detailed information on global crop yields of 60 pollination dependent or profiting crops, we provide a map of global pollination benefits on a 5′ by 5′ latitude-longitude grid. The current spatial pattern of pollination benefits is only partly correlated with climate variables and the distribution of cropland. The resulting map of pollination benefits identifies hot spots of pollination benefits at sufficient detail to guide political decisions on where to protect pollination services by investing in structural diversity of land use. Additionally, we investigated the vulnerability of the national economies with respect to potential decline of pollination services as the portion of the (agricultural) economy depending on pollination benefits. While the general dependency of the agricultural economy ...
The ecosystem service pollination is under threat due to declining populations of pollinators. In this project we will study and how climate change might affect plant-pollinator interactions. We will have a broad focus, including entomophilous crops (frui ts and berries), managed pollinators (honeybees), wild pollinators and wild plants and address questions related to how these four constituents of the pollination system affect each other. We will identify important pollinators to focal crops in Norway a nd the home countries of our international partners (Greece, Argentina and Australia) and how their activity patterns vary with temperature. To better understand how the pollinator community is depending on wild floral resources, in addition to our focal crops, we will also study plant-pollinator interactions in the surrounding vegetation. Finally we will assess the importance of honeybees as pollinators to our focal crops and the surrounding floral community. Our goal is to 1) better ...
Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth. These traits include flower shape, size, colour, odour, reward type and amount, nectar composition, timing of flowering, etc. For example, tubular red flowers with copious nectar often attract birds; foul smelling flowers attract carrion flies or beetles, etc. The classical pollination syndromes as they are currently defined (see below) were developed in the 19th century by the Italian botanist Federico Delpino. Although they have been useful in developing our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions, an uncritical acceptance of pollination syndromes as providing a framework for classifying these relationships is rather out of date. These do not attract animal pollinators. Nevertheless, they often have suites of shared traits. Flowers may be small and ...
The influence of space on the structure (e.g. modularity) of complex ecological networks remains largely unknown. Here, we sampled an individual-based plant-pollinator network by following the movements and flower visits of marked bumblebee individuals within a population of thistle plants for which the identities and spatial locations of stems were mapped in a 50 × 50 m study plot. The plant-pollinator network was dominated by parasitic male bumblebees and had a significantly modular structure, with four identified modules being clearly separated in space. This indicated that individual flower visitors opted for the fine-scale division of resources, even within a local site. However, spatial mapping of network modules and movements of bumblebee individuals also showed an overlap in the dense center of the plant patch. Model selection based on Akaike information criterion with traits as predictor variables revealed that thistle stems with high numbers of flower heads and many close neighbours ...
Insect pollination. Macrophotograph of a beetle (Amphicoma sp.) on a crown anemone flower (Anemone coronaria). This beetle is the anemones pollinator, carrying pollen between flowers and fertilising them as it feeds. Magnification unknown. - Stock Image B786/0621
While the importance of floral odours for pollinator attraction relative to visual cues is increasingly appreciated, how they structure community‐level plant-pollinator interactions is poorly understood. Elucidating the functional roles of flowering plant species with respect to their floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and how those roles vary over the growing season is an initial step towards understanding the contribution of floral VOCs to plant-pollinator interaction structure. ...
How to Grow Fruit Trees or Blueberries in Aquaponics - by Colle and Phyllis Davis Here are the main parameters that need to be addressed when considering raising fruit trees with aquaponics: Pollination. Bees do not do well at all inside buildings. Hand pollination is time consuming and expensive. Which fruit(s) should you raise? What … Continue reading ». ...
Hand Pollination in Hanyuan China The farmers of Hanyuan, China, are forced to pollinate pear trees by hand because all the bees died off
Two factors limiting seed production in clover are incomplete pollination and attack by seed eating pests. Clover is totally dependent on pollination by insects, mainly by bumble bees and honey bees. Without insect pollination, the clover seed yield becomes negligible. Clover is also attacked by seed eating pest insects, mainly Apion weevils. The weevils attack the clover flower heads and generally cause serious damage with observed yield losses of over 50 percent.. ...
Bees, flies, butterflies, moths, beetles, hummingbirds and even small mammals are pollinators, meaning they carry pollen on their bodies and move it between flowers. This almost invisible act occurs millions of times each day and creates a third of our food. It also sustains the native plants and habitats on which humans and wildlife depend.. There is a national and global decline in wild pollinators. This is very concerning because pollinators are responsible for one out of every three bites of food we take; they ensure reproduction of over 90 per cent of flowering plants in the world. That is a staggering task! They are vital not only to our existence as human beings but to our planet. The decline of wild pollinators is due to the following threats: habitat loss, pesticide exposure, transfer of disease from domestic bees, and climate change. Habitat loss and agricultural intensification are known to decrease pollinator abundance and diversity. The decline in pollinators is a serious problem ...
The York gum-jam woodlands of southwest Western Australia support diverse annual wildflower communities despite extensive habitat fragmentation, remnant isolation and the invasion of many exotic annual plant species. Few studies have explored the pollinator-plant relationships maintaining these persistently species-rich novel communities. We examine the pollination ecology of five native species common to York gum-jam woodland annual communities to determine whether native pollinators may be mediating impacts of exotic annual plants on native wildflower species. We determined the pollination requirements of native focal species and the diversity and frequency of pollinator visitation to these focal plant species across invasion gradients. We also recorded the pollinator community of a dominant exotic herb in this system: Arctotheca calendula (cape weed). Only two of the five native species examined had significant seed set benefits attributable to insect pollination. One native plant species, ...
Some flowers are pollinated using buzz pollination. Pollination management is a branch of horticulture that seeks to protect and enhance present pollinators and often involves the culture and addition of pollinators in monoculture situations, such as commercial fruit orchards. The largest managed pollination event in the world is in California almonds, where nearly half (about one million hives) of the US honeybees are trucked to the almond orchards each spring. New Yorks apple crop requires about 30,000 hives; Maines blueberry crop uses about 50,000 hives each year. Bees are also brought to commercial plantings of cucumbers, squash, melons, strawberries, and many other crops. Honeybees are not the only managed pollinators. Other kinds of bees are also cultivated as pollinators. The alfalfa leafcutter bee is an important pollinator for alfalfa seed in western United States and Canada. Bumblebees are increasingly cultured and used extensively for greenhouse tomatoes and other crops. The ...
Biology Assignment Help, Pollination, Pollination Pollination refers to the transfer of pollen from dehiscing anthers to the pistil. Unlike animals, plants cannot move to their mates for sexual reproduction. Hence, they need some external device or agency for the transfer of pollen
Pollination bags are designed to fit well over the inflorescence or individual flowers of a plant type. The size, shape and strength of bag should ensure that there is no contact with flowers to avoid development of diseases and physical hindrances in seed development. The size of bag will vary with the size of inflorescence to be covered. Pollination bags may be 2D or 3D. The 3D bags have a gusset for expansion to avoid contact between the plant and the bag. Sometimes pollination bags may have a window to allow examination of inflorescence without removing the bag. Bags with a flap over the window, when provided, protects from strong sunlight. Most pollination bags are produced by general paper bag manufacturers which have branched out into providing pollination bag supplies. Such bags may not suit to the needs of plant breeders of different crops. Some companies such as PBS International UK, Del Star (Delnet) Technologies (Delnet bags) and Focus Packaging manufacture customized bags of ...
Detecting protein complex in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks plays a significant part in bioinformatics field. It enables us to obtain the better understanding for the structures and characteristics of biological systems. In this study, we present a novel algorithm, named Improved Flower Pollination Algorithm (IFPA), to identify protein complexes in multi-relation reconstructed dynamic PPI networks. Specifically, we first introduce a concept called co-essentiality, which considers the protein essentiality to search essential interactions, Then, we devise the multi-relation reconstructed dynamic PPI networks (MRDPNs) and discover the potential cores of protein complexes in MRDPNs. Finally, an IFPA algorithm is put forward based on the flower pollination mechanism to generate protein complexes by simulating the process of pollen find the optimal pollination plants, namely, attach the peripheries to the corresponding cores. The experimental results on three different datasets (DIP, MIPS and
This chapter considers pollination by nonflying vertebrates and other oddities. It begins with a discussion of ectotherm vertebrates visiting flowers; these include fish, amphibians, and reptiles. Fish are not recorded as flower visitors, but they are at least occasionally facilitators of the pollination process for shoreline pond plants, where they prey on animals that compete with or reduce pollinator populations. The chapter proceeds with an analysis of pollination by nonflying mammals such as marsupials, rodents, monkeys, and lemurs as well as flowers that they regularly visit, including ground-level (geoflorous) flowers and arboreal flowers. Finally, it examines pollination by unusual invertebrates ranging from snails and woodlice to land crabs and millipedes.
Yield data on winter sown oilseed rape plants, in relation to pollination by insects and in relation to the ecosystem services provided by beneficial insects. Data includes yield assessed for entire field, whole plant and within different parts of the plant (per raceme and per pod). These data can be linked to the related natural enemy data set and the pollinator data set collected as part of the Wessex BESS project, funded by the NERC Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability research program. Full details about this dataset can be found at ...
Fruit breeding programs usually use controlled hand pollination among cultivars and advanced selections for obtaining segregating populations to select new cultivars. In sweet cherries, however, sometimes in controlled pollination few hybrids are obtained. Caging whole trees with bees and flowers of the pollinating cultivar is sometimes used to obtain larger hybrid populations. To generate large segregating populations for the Chilean Sweet Cherry Breeding Program (run by the Consortium of BioFrutales S.A. and Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias), the initial strategy was to harvest seeds from open pollinated self-incompatible cultivars maintained at the germplasm collection orchard of Univiveros, one of the leading fruit tree nurseries in Chile. While the female parent is known, the male parent is unknown. The pollen source will depend on the cultivars present in the area, the flowering time and the compatibility of the cultivars involved. In order to identify pollinators of the ...
Organic berry and fruit production suffers heavily from the lack of effective disease and pest management tools, and from inadequate insect pollination at times. As a consequence, the expanding demand on organic berries cannot be filled today. The BICOPOLL project aimed to change this and to improve the yield and quality of organic strawberry production significantly and thus farm economics. We used honeybees to (i) target deliver a biological control agent (fungus antagonist) to the flowers of the target crops (strawberries) to provide control of the problem diseases grey mold (Botrytis cinerea) and to (ii) improve the pollination of this organic horticultural crops. The use of bees has many environmental and economic benefits compared to spraying fungicide like in conventional farming systems. As bees, that actually forage in the target crop, is a key essential requirement for the entomovectoring technology, the main focus of this project was to determine, which factors can affect foraging ...
The characteristics of petal epidermal conical cells affect the quality of the signals perceived by various pollinators. This study aimed to identify variations in micromorphological characteristics of flower petals and their relationship to melittophily, ornithophily and chiropterophily pollination systems. The petals of 11 species were analysed using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy and the micromorphological traits were described, measured and compared using Tukeys test, PCA and cluster analysis. Unlike chiropterophily, all melittophilous and some ornithophilous species possessed adaxial epidermal conical cells. Cluster grouping separated chiropterophilous flowers from melittophilous and ornithophilous. PCA analysis showed that the two morphometric profile of conical cells was the attribute that most strongly influenced the grouping of species. When considering the data set of the three pollination systems, melittophilous and ornithophilous plants were more similar to each other
Currently the size and frequency of wildfires are increasing at a global scale, including arid ecosystems that exhibit great sensitivity to disturbance. Fire effects on plant pollination and reproductive success in deserts are largely unknown. Plant dependence on animal pollinators for reproduction can increase the risk of reproductive failure if pollination services are hindered or lost. Species that depend on few taxonomically related pollinator species are expected to be most negatively affected by disturbances that disrupt pollination interactions. To assess fire and isolation effects on reproductive success in desert plant communities, and how wildfire influences the pollination success of generalist and specialist pollinated plants, the number of flowers, fruits, and viable seeds produced by plants surviving in burned and unburned desert landscapes were compared. Fire increased flower production for wind and generalist pollinated plants, and did not affect specialist plant flower production.
Insect pollination played an important role in the evolution of angiosperms. Little is known, however, about ancient pollination insects and their niche diversity during the pre-angiosperm period due to the rarity of fossil evidence of plant-pollinator interactions.. Recently, a research group led by Prof. WANG Bo from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NIGPAS) has provided new insight into the niche diversity, chemical communication, and defense mechanisms of Mesozoic pollinating insects. Its findings were published in Nature Communications on September 17.. One of the most intensely investigated examples of pollination niches is the morphological match between insect proboscis and floral tube length, which Darwin described in a publication in 1877. Kalligrammatid lacewings are among the largest and most conspicuous Mesozoic insects with siphoning mouthparts.. The NIGPAS researchers reported 27 well-preserved kalligrammatids from late ...
Biotic pollen vectors are animals, usually insects, but also reptiles, birds, mammals, and sundry others, that routinely transport pollen and play a role in pollination. This is usually as a result of their activities when visiting plants for feeding, breeding or shelter. The pollen adheres to the vectors body parts such as face, legs, mouthparts, hair, feathers, and moist spots; depending on the particular vector. Such transport is vital to the pollination of many plant species.. Any kind of animal that often visits or encounters flowers is likely to be a pollen vector to some extent. For example, a crab spider that stops at one flower for a time and then moves on, might carry pollen incidentally, but most pollen vectors of significant interest are those that routinely visit the flowers for some functional activity. They might feed on pollen, or plant organs, or on plant secretions such as nectar, and carry out acts of pollination on the way. Many plants bear flowers that favour certain types ...
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Ecosystem services, defined as the benefits to human welfare provided by organisms interacting in ecosystems, are considered to be at risk (Daily 1997; Palmer et al. 2004). Pollination by wild animals is a key ecosystem service. Although crop pollination is commonly cited as an example of an endangered ecosystem service (Corbet 1991; Williams 1994; Ingram et al. 1996; Matheson et al. 1996; Allen-Wardell et al. 1998; Kearns et al. 1998; Kevan & Phillips 2001; Steffan-Dewenter et al. 2005, but see Ghazoul 2005), detailed studies of the crop pollination systems are incomplete or out of date. Animal pollination is important to the sexual reproduction of many crops (McGregor 1976; Crane & Walker 1984; Free 1993; Williams 1994; Nabhan & Buchmann 1997; Westerkamp & Gottsberger 2000) and the majority of wild plants (Burd 1994; Kearns et al. 1998; Larson & Barrett 2000; Ashman et al. 2004), which can also be important for providing calories and micronutrients for humans (Sundriyal & Sundriyal 2004). ...
4.3 Performing multiple pollinations using a glassine bag: If a large number of pollinations are to be made on a single day from one pollen source (as many as 100 pollinations may be made from one tassel) the best procedure is as follows: prepare a glassine bag (2 x 7 ½ [5 x 19 cm] ) by making a Z-shaped fold in the bag about halfway up the length of the bag. Then pour in the contents of the tassel bag. Sift the pollen past the first fold into the bottom fold, taking care to keep the anthers in the top from where they may be discarded. Turn the bag on its side and tear off the upper of the two bottom corners of the bag. Carry the pollen in this bag to the waiting silks where it may be sifted sparingly through the torn corner of the glassine bag into the top of the torn shoot bag covering each ear. Then fold the shoot bag to protect the pollinated silks and move rapidly to the next ear. Speed is essential here because the pollen will remain viable only a short time. Fresh pollen appears ...
Here is this weeks question: Why is this greenhouse cucumber shaped like this? This cucumber is the result of poor pollination. Here is a great description of pollination and pollination problems from the Missouri Botanical Gardens: Cucurbits are monoecious; there are separate male and female blossoms on the same plant. The male flowers tend to…
Of the parameters examined in this paper, the degree of specialization (i.e. pollination niche partitioning) of plant-pollinator interactions proved to be critical for plant coexistence. Given the importance of the level of partitioning of non-mutualist resources for species coexistence (limiting similarity, e.g. [21]), this result is not unexpected. Apart from having a considerable impact on the invasion threshold by itself, the models specialization parameter influences the strength of the effects of other factors such as pollen carryover and the two parameters affecting search costs. Its direct positive impact on plant coexistence can be explained as follows.. When the pollinator A1 enters the system together with the rare plant P1, it initially profits from the fact that its density is far below the carrying capacity set by the limited availability of nesting sites. Hence, this rare pollinators population is able to grow, while the more abundant pollinators population size (A2) is kept ...
Avocados have an odd system of pollination to insure cross pollinization. Each of the inconspicuous green/yellow flowers has both male and female parts, but only one sex is open at a time to prevent self fertilization. There are two kinds of trees, A and B types. The A type trees have their flowers open in the mornings as females. The flowers close by afternoon, and remain closed until the following afternoon, when they reopen with the male parts now producing pollen. The B type trees open their flowers as female in the first afternoon, they close and reopen as males the following morning. Each flower only opens twice. If a grove is properly planted with both types of trees, and if pollinators are present then a good set of fruit is likely. Honeybees do the vast majority of the pollination here, but wild bees, flies, wasps and even hummingbirds are also seen working the flowers ...
Abstract. Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and the quantity and quality of pollinations.. Seed set in small populations is often reduced and genetic variation is expected but not always found to be low. The majority of studies show that low flower densities have reduced pollination success and higher inbreeding. Density effects are stronger than size effects.. Most studies concluded that species richness in flower-visiting insects is directly related to richness in plant species. However, the consequences of low insect species richness for pollination are not always clear, depending on the studied pollinator-plant relationship. The effects of the presence of simultaneously flowering species are highly dependent on the circumstances and may ...
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong. Grant Details Final Report. The overall aim of the research project funded by the Australian Flora Foundation was to examine the factors limiting seed production by Telopea speciosissima (Waratah) in a natural population at Barren Grounds Nature Reserve, near Wollongong, NSW. This project was proposed following a pilot study conducted by Whelan and Goldingay in 1985, in which it was apparent that the low levels of fruit set observed in the field could be increased by experimental outcrossing of flowers using hand pollination. This result contrasted with previous studies on Waratah, in different study sites, by Pyke (1982) and Pyke & Paton (1983).. In order to understand the factors which limit fruit set in nature and to resolve the apparent contradiction between different studies on Waratah, we felt that is was necessary (i) to gain more information about the basic biology of the species: its breeding system and natural pollinators, ...
The contribution of nutrients from animal pollinated world crops has not previously been evaluated as a biophysical measure for the value of pollination services. This study evaluates the nutritional composition of animal-pollinated world crops. We calculated pollinator dependent and independent proportions of different nutrients of world crops, employing FAO data for crop production, USDA data for nutritional composition, and pollinator dependency data according to Klein et al. (2007). Crop plants that depend fully or partially on animal pollinators contain more than 90% of vitamin C, the whole quantity of Lycopene and almost the full quantity of the antioxidants β-cryptoxanthin and β-tocopherol, the majority of the lipid, vitamin A and related carotenoids, calcium and fluoride, and a large portion of folic acid. Ongoing pollinator decline may thus exacerbate current difficulties of providing a nutritionally adequate diet for the global human population.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact sl750.. The genus Petunia comprises species that are pollinated by different animal pollinators including bees, nocturnal hawkmoths and hummingbirds. Transitions in adaptation to these different pollinators have helped drive speciation within the genus. Such transitions require the modification of multiple floral traits, among them visible colour, ultra-violet (UV) absorbance, scent, nectar production and morphology. How can such complex changes happen again and again over short periods of evolutionary time? To help answer this question, I looked at the genes and mutations responsible for transitions in floral colour. Two classes of flavonoids are important for Petunia floral colour: anthocyanins produce the reds and purples, whereas flavonols absorb UV light. In general, differences in anthocyanin and flavonol levels between Petunia species are caused by a limited number of mutations of large phenotypic effect. For instance, mutations in ...
The pollinators are highly selective in their floral visits and shown to choose those flowers which best meet their energetic needs. The energy needs and foraging dynamics of pollinators are dependent upon prevailing weather conditions which regulate the schedule of activities thus influencing the energy budget. In this review, the role of energetics in pollinator-plant interaction, the current and future lines of research for the understanding of pollination biology are discussed.
Pollination is how many plants reproduce. Since plants are immobile they need pollinators, and pollinators are in trouble from pesticides. Learn how to help!
Certains naiment pas monter aux branches préfèrent les longues cannes ornées de plumes de poulets pour polliniser les fleurs.///Some do not like climbing the trees and prefer the long canes adorned with chicken feathers for pollinating the flowers.
The use of artificial light at night, such as street lights, can harm pollination according to researchers at the University of Bern in Switzerland.Pollinators are animals, commonly insects, that transfer pollen from plant to plant as they feed, allowing plants to reproduce. More than 30% of our plant-based food supply depends on animal pollination, which had an estimated
Watermelon, rockmelon and honeydew melon are commonly grown in Australia, and all are dependent on insect pollinators to produce large, evenly shaped fruit. Although their flowers look the same, each melon type has different pollination requirements. Rockmelon and honeydew represent about 29 per cent of the melon industry in Australia.. Each vine contains a mix of male flowers and fruit-producing flowers that have both male and female reproductive parts. These flowers dont need other plants to cross-pollinate, but they do need insect pollinators to dislodge pollen and move it onto the stigma for seed set and fruit development. Melon flowers that are cross-pollinated have been shown to produce heavier fruit than those pollinated from flowers on the same plant.. ...
My wife and I started gardening in Fukuoka (Japan) in 2003. There was nothing but muddy clayey sloping land. At the beginning we made several structure such as steps and paths, and planted turf, fruit trees, roses, herbs etc. In 2010, we visited several famous English gardens, including Sissinghurst Castle Garden, Mottisfont Abbey Garden and Hidcote Manor Garden. We were shocked by the glory of those gardens. Since then, we have been trying to make little but glorious gardens by ourselves. ...
Every year more than 1 million commercial bumblebee colonies are deployed in greenhouses worldwide for their pollination services. While commercial pollinators have been an enormous benefit for crop production, their use is emerging as an important threat. Commercial pollinators have been linked to pathogen spillover, and their introduction outside their native area has had devastating effects on native pollinators. A more pervasive but underappreciated threat is their potential impact on the genetic integrity of native pollinators. A sampling and genotyping?plus?phenotyping protocol was set up to evaluate the presence and extent of hybridization between commercial and native individuals of Bombus terrestris in south?western Spain, a region experiencing a huge propagule pressure of non?native genotypes due to the massive use of commercial colonies for crop pollination. Genomic data show clear evidence of generalized hybridization between native and introduced commercial bumblebee lineages in ...
Today, I did some pollinating. My Peach tree is in full flower, with not a single bee in sight. So I did the only thing I could do in the circumstances and got out my paint-brush for a spot of hand pollination. It was quite relaxing really, dusting the pollen from the stamen to the […]. ...
Juliet will describe her groups latest research on pollinators and crop pollination. As Director of the Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI), she will also share some of the exciting work that is going on in the ESI, finding solutions to environmental change.. ...
Differences between Self-pollination and Cross-pollination: Self-pollination Occurs in the same flower or between two flowers of the same plant. Pollinatio
Interested in sustainable food, gardening in the city, local urban biodiversity?. Help us count down! The Urban Pollination Project, a Seattle citizen science project dedicated to researching and conserving native bees and increasing urban garden crop yields, begins a special version of the Twelve Days of Christmas today-the Twelve Sustainable Days of Christmas Pollination!. Visit or every day between now and New Years Day to learn how pollinators-bees, flies, butterflies, birds, bats, and others-have contributed to your holiday foods and traditions.. ...
It is only recently that the immense economic value of pollination to agriculture has been appreciated. At the same time, the alarming collapse in populations o
Pollination is a process of transferring of pollens from one flower to another. While fertilization is the process after the successful transfer of pollination, which involves the fusion of male gametes and female gametes of plants.
P o l l i n a t o r s are the creatures that pollinate flowers. You know about bees and butterflies, but did you know that there are over 1000 species of pollinating animals in Canada? Together, the plants and their pollinators are an indispensable natural resource, and their daily work is essential for over a billion dollars worth of apples, pears, cucumbers, melons, berries, and many other kinds of Canadian farm produce.. Since 2006, significant declines in pollinator populations have been noted around the world. These beneficial animals are under pressure from loss of habitat (where they nest and eat), pests and disease, pesticides, invasive species and climate change. As pollinator populations are threatened, so too are the foods and plant products we enjoy -- dyes, essences, medicines, fibres, spices -- as well as the wild ecosystems that depend on these pollinators.. Pollinators include bees, wasps, flies, beetles, butterflies and moths, bats and birds (there are no pollinating bats in ...
Subpages}} ,onlyinclude>,div style=float:right;>,font color=darkblue>Bear with me, 0 mystery of existence, as I pluck the occasional thread from your train.,/font>,br> - Wislawa Szymborska, from her poem, Under One Small Star ---- ,/div> {{-}} [[Image:Plants and pollinators.jpg,right,thumb,300px,{{#ifexist:Template:Plants and pollinators.jpg/credit,{{Plants and pollinators.jpg/credit}},br/>,}},small>Buzz of Life: One aspect of the interrelations among living entities. Researchers begin to understand the mechanisms governing the complex network interactions between plants and pollinators, such as hummingbirds, shown in this illustration from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904).,/small>,ref>From: Robinson R. (2007) [ Both barriers and trait complementarity govern pollination network structure.] PLoS Biol 5(2):e54.,/ref>]] Throughout history, we humans devoted much thought, speculation, debate, ...
Leaf and fascicle. Inflorescence - Axillary racemes in the upper 2/3 of the stem. Racemes very bracteate and the inflorescence appearing as just axillary flowers. Flowers single from each leaf (bract) axil, 1-2 per node, opposite. Pedicels 3-5mm long, shorter than or equaling the calyx, glabrous, ascending. Axis of the inflorescence angled, puberulent. Flowers - Corolla pink, to +2cm long, 5-lobed. Corolla tube densely antrorse pubescent externally, mostly glabrous internally, contracted in the basal 5mm (the portion surrounded by the calyx). Corolla tube with pink spots and two yellow stripes internally (ventrally). Corolla lobes rounded, with pilose margins, to +1cm broad, 1cm long, spreading, the upper two pilose-bearded at the base internally. Stamens 4, didynamous, mostly included. Filaments pale pink to whitish, pink pilose, to +1cm long, adnate at the apex of the contracted portion of the corolla tube. Anthers whitish, pilose dorsally, +/-3mm long, 1.5mm broad, with two acute basal lobes. ...
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Pollination[edit]. H. lineata are common pollinators and are known to collect nectar from flowers. As caterpillars they feed on ... with shorter-tongued individuals carrying out the most effective pollination.[8] ...
Pollination[edit]. Main articles: Pollination management and List of crop plants pollinated by bees ... Of all the honey bee species, only A. mellifera has been used extensively for commercial pollination of fruit and vegetable ... The best known honey bee is the Western honey bee which has been domesticated for honey production and crop pollination; modern ... Bees of various types other than honey bees are also domesticated and used for pollination or other means around the world, ...
Pollination and fruit formation depend on meiosis. Meiosis is central to the processes by which diploid microspore mother cells ... This is not the same as self-pollination, despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. That tomatoes pollinate themselves ... In the wild, original state, tomatoes required cross-pollination; they were much more self-incompatible than domestic cultivars ... Union of haploid nuclei from pollen and ovule (fertilization) can occur either by self- or cross-pollination. Fertilization ...
Pollination[edit]. Pollination has driven the coevolution of flowering plants and their animal pollinators for over 100 million ... Main article: Pollination. In pollination, pollinators including insects (entomophily), some birds (ornithophily), and some ... "Types of Pollination, Pollinators and Terminology". CropsReview.Com. Retrieved 2015-10-20.. ... Short-term interactions, including predation and pollination, are extremely important in ecology and evolution. These are short ...
Certain species, such as Lampetia equestris or Eumerus tuberculatus, are responsible for pollination. ... Shi, J.; Luo, Y.B.; Ran, J.C.; Liu, Z.J.; Zhou, Q. (2009). "Pollination by deceit in Paphiopedilum barbigerum (Orchidaceae): a ... also achieves pollination by deceit by exploiting the innate yellow color preference of syrphids.[19] ... "Smells like aphids: orchid flowers mimic aphid alarm pheromones to attract hoverflies for pollination". Proc. R. Soc. B. 278 ...
Pollination[edit]. The pollination of California's almonds is the largest annual managed pollination event in the world, with ... Much of the pollination is managed by pollination brokers, who contract with migratory beekeepers from at least 49 states for ... To partially protect almond growers from the rising cost of insect pollination, researchers at the Agricultural Research ... California production is marked by a period of intense pollination during late winter by rented commercial bees transported by ...
Pollination. In the wild, pineapples are pollinated primarily by hummingbirds.[2][15] Certain wild pineapples are foraged and ... Under cultivation, because seed development diminishes fruit quality, pollination is performed by hand, and seeds are retained ...
Pollination[edit]. The flowers are visited by a wide variety of insects (the generalised pollination syndrome).[9] Some species ...
The pollination of California's almonds is the largest annual managed pollination event in the world, with close to one million ... Much of the pollination is managed by pollination brokers, who contract with migratory beekeepers from at least 49 states for ... To partially protect almond growers from the rising cost of insect pollination, researchers at the Agricultural Research ... causing nationwide shortages of honey bees and increasing the price of insect pollination. ...
Pollination. In the wild, pineapples are pollinated primarily by hummingbirds.[2][11] Certain wild pineapples are foraged and ... pollinated at night by bats.[12] Under cultivation, because seed development diminishes fruit quality, pollination is performed ...
There are four to seven pollination groups in apples, depending on climate: *Group A - Early flowering, 1 to 3 May in England ...
... have highly specialized flowers modified to promote pollination by a specific pollinator that is correspondingly adapted. The ...
Self-pollination[edit]. A. thaliana is a predominantly self-pollinating plant with an outcrossing rate estimated at less than ... A physical mechanism for self-pollination in A. thaliana is through pre-anthesis autogamy, such that fertilisation takes place ... Meioses that lead to self-pollination are unlikely to produce significant beneficial genetic variability. However, these ... 0.3%.[84] An analysis of the genome-wide pattern of linkage disequilibrium suggested that self-pollination evolved roughly a ...
In seed plants, after pollination, a pollen grain germinates, and a pollen tube grows and penetrates the ovule through a tiny ... Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, insemination, pollination,[1 ... This is the point when fertilisation actually occurs; pollination and fertilisation are two separate processes. The nucleus of ...
Pollination is achieved by the plant utilizing brood-site-based pollination, the chloropid fly Elachiptera formosa forms a ... Pollination biology[edit]. In the pistillate stage the spadix of P. virginica is entirely covered by the spathe, not allowing ... "The pollination biology of tuckahoe, Peltandra virginica (Araceae)". American Journal of Botany. 82 (10): 1230-1240. doi: ...
Pollination of legumes[edit]. Legumes can either be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated. Pollination serves the purpose for the ... Self-pollination limits the capability for genetic variation, whereas for cross-pollination the opposite is true. ... Two legumes used for pasture with cross-pollination are: Desmodium intortum and Desmodium uncinatum. When the flower is opened ...
Propagation and pollination[edit]. Kumquats do not grow well from seeds and so are vegetatively propagated by using rootstock ...
Pollination and seed development[edit]. The pine nut (seed) species will take a time that depends on the exact species (e.g. 36 ... For some American species development begins in early spring with pollination. A tiny cone, about the size of a small marble, ...
In a case of self-pollination, this process takes place from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower. Pollen is ... 1911). "Pollination" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2-5. Tosi, S.; Costa, C.; Vesco ... The transfer of pollen grains to the female reproductive structure (pistil in angiosperms) is called pollination. This transfer ... their consumption of nectar in flowers is an important aspect of the pollination process. Bee pollen for human consumption is ...
... is pollen-borne and likely infects during pollination. Bees and other pollinators are the main vectors ... The blueberry shock virus spreads by pollination; therefore, spreading only occurs in spring when pollinators are active. Honey ... "Pollination". Illinois College of Agricultural Consumer & Environmental Sciences. Retrieved December 1, 2014.. ...
Surface pollination is more frequent, and appears to be a transitional phase between wind pollination and true hydrophily. In ... Hydrophily is a fairly uncommon form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by the flow of waters, particularly in rivers ... Cox, P.A. (1988). "Hydrophilous pollination". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 19 (1): 261-279. doi:10.1146/ ... 1911). "Pollination". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2-5.. ...
"Buzz Pollination". Retrieved 11 February 2015. Goulson, Dave; Hawson, Sadie A.; Stout, Jane C. (1998). "Foraging bumblebees ... "Modelling bee pollination: enter the 'flight arena'". Global Food Security. Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research ... Bumblebees are also capable of buzz pollination, in which they dislodge pollen from the anthers by creating a resonant ... A decline in bumblebee numbers could cause large-scale changes to the countryside, resulting from inadequate pollination of ...
"Wasp Pollination". USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 5 August 2015. Sühs; Somavilla; Putzke; Köhler (2009). "Pollen vector wasps ( ... While the vast majority of wasps play no role in pollination, a few species can effectively transport pollen and pollinate ... therefore contributing for potential pollination of several plant species. Pollen wasps in the subfamily Masarinae gather ...
"Cross Pollination". Archived from the original on 2019-03-01. Retrieved 2019-03-01. Gallery, Kamloops Art. " ... 2017 - Cross Pollination, 516 Arts, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. 2017 - AlterNation, Kamloops Art Gallery, Kamloops, British ...
"Pollination Canada". Retrieved 16 November 2014. "Pollination Canada partners". "The Bauta Family Initiative on Canadian Seed ... Pollination Canada has 28 other partner organizations. In February 2013, Gretchen Bauta, Canadian philanthropist and daughter ... Seeds of Diversity initiated a project called Pollination Canada with the aim of increasing awareness of native bees and ... crop genetic diversity and the redesign of pollination strategies". Seeds of Diversity originated in 1984 as the Heritage Seed ...
In addition to other forms of pollination, this plant is adapted to rain-pollination. The Latin specific name means "bone- ... Rain-pollination. I kommission hos E. Munksgaard. Retrieved 26 May 2018. McClintock, David; Fitter, R.S.R. (1961). The Pocket ...
Hagerup, O. (1951) Pollination in the Faroes - in spite of rain and poverty in insects. Biologiske Meddelelser, Kongelige ... Pollination in Liparis and Malaxis). Botanisk Tidsskrift 45: 396-402. Hagerup, O. (1942) The morphology and biology of the ... Ant pollination). Botanisk Tidsskrift 46: 116-123. Hagerup, O. (1944) Notes on some boreal polyploids. Hereditas 30: 152-160. ... Hagerup, O. (1932) On Pollination in the extremely hot air at Timbuctu. Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 8 (1): 1-20. Hagerup, O. (1933) ...
"Wasp Pollination". Retrieved 2021-03-08. Lives of Social Insects Peggy Larson p.13 "About Yellowjackets and the ... although they are capable of pollination). Yellowjackets have lance-like stingers with small barbs, and typically sting ...
reptans (L.) E. Meyer). In addition to other forms of pollination, this plant is adapted to rain-pollination. Ranunculus ... Rain-pollination. I kommission hos E. Munksgaard. Retrieved 26 May 2018. Media related to Ranunculus flammula at Wikimedia ...
In addition to other forms of pollination, this plant is adapted to rain-pollination. Caltha palustris is infertile when self- ... Rain-pollination. I kommission hos E. Munksgaard. Retrieved 26 May 2018. Lundqvist, Arne (1992). "The self-incompatibility ...
... Butterflies are very active during the day and visit a variety of wildflowers. Butterflies are less ...
The "classical" pollination syndromes as they are currently defined (see below) were developed in the 19th century by the ... Pollination syndromes can be thought of as extremes of a continuum of greater or lesser specialization or generalization onto ... Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different ... Many species of plants have the back-up option of self-pollination, if they are not self-incompatible. Whilst it is clear that ...
Pollination can also be accomplished by cross-pollination. Cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen, by wind or animals such ... Disadvantages of self-pollination[edit]. The disadvantages of self-pollination come from a lack of variation that allows no ... Self-pollination can be an advantage when the number of flowers are small or widely spaced. During self-pollination, the pollen ... Self-pollination limits the variety of progeny and may depress plant vigor. However, self-pollination can be advantageous, ...
pollination: Transfer of pollen grains from the stamens, the flower parts that produce them, to the ovule-bearing organs or to ... Types: self-pollination and cross-pollination*Mechanisms that prevent self-pollination. *Mechanisms that permit self- ... The chance of self-pollination, high by the very nature of wind pollination, is minimized by the fact that many species are ... In many instances, successful self-pollination takes place at the end of a flowers life-span if cross-pollination has not ...
Pollination: All conifers are pollinated by wind. Pollen may be produced in enormous quantities, particularly by species of ... which orient them in a pollination droplet exuded by the ovules so that, when the droplet is withdrawn back into the ovule, the ... wind pollinationWindblown pollen from the male cone of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).. Robert J. Erwin/Science Source. ... Pollination. All conifers are pollinated by wind. Pollen may be produced in enormous quantities, particularly by species of ...
Pollination mutualism Phyllanthaceae Epicephala Active pollination Coevolution Leafflower Glochidion Phyllanthus Speciation ... In particular, it focuses on the natural history and evolutionary history of the third example of obligate pollination ... This book offers researchers and students in the field of ecology, botany, evolutionary biology, pollination biology, ... The final chapter presents a review of the evolution and variety of obligate pollination mutualisms. ...
In the United States alone, pollination of agricultural crops is valued at 10 billion dollars annually. Globally, pollination ... Cultural Importance of Pollination. A hummingbird flits among the blossoms of a fireweed. This original design was done in the ... Environmental Benefits of Pollination. Clean Air (Carbon Cycling/Sequestration). Photo by James Henderson. ... Native peoples were the first to recognize the role of pollination and to plant corn in such a way that they could hybridize ...
Pollination depends to a large extent on the symbiosis between species, the pollinated and the pollinator, and often is the ... Indeed, some plant species rely upon a few types of pollinators to provide pollination services. Some pollinators such as bees ... A major activity of the Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture has been the preparation of the FAO- ... To this effect, the Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture addresses a range of issues - some ...
Urban Pollination Project. By Margaret on December 22, 2012 at 8:12 AM ... Help us count down! The Urban Pollination Project, a Seattle citizen science project dedicated to researching and conserving ... You can also find the Urban Pollination Project on Twitter and Facebook. ... begins a special version of the Twelve Days of Christmas today-the Twelve Sustainable Days of Christmas Pollination! ...
One obvious example is that two third of mankind´s food production is dependent on pollinating insects. During the last decades, several reports have reported that the abundance and diversity of insects appears to be decreasing rapidly and that massive bee colony collapse disorders have occurred in different parts of the world. To secure a sustainable future, it is pivotal to explore the causes of this and to develop strategies to combat this negative trend. Our contribution to this consists of research, education and different citizen science activities around these issues. We collaborate with researchers, teachers and different environmental organizations. Welcome to participate! ...
Pollination in Portsmouth. Strawbery Bankes honey project spurred by bees sharp decline. By GRETYL MACALASTER. Sunday News ...
Pollination: The Art and Science of Floral Sexuality Pollination Adaptations. What Is Pollination? A Sticky Question. ... The Natural History of Pollination. Portland, Ore.: Amadeus Press, 1996.. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES. ...
CROSS-POLLINATION. Hey, did anyone notice that Don Rumsfeld stepped down? I dont have anything immediate to say; I think Bens ...
The majority of apple trees require cross-pollination with another variety of apple or crabapple tree to bear fruit. Even those ... apple tree varieties that are self-pollinating will produce better fruit with cross-pollination. The key to finding a suitable ... What Is Cross Pollination?. What Apple Trees Are Compatible for Pollination?. The majority of apple trees require cross- ... What Is Cross Pollination?. Significance. Cross-pollination is a means by which plants are fertilized. It allows for genetic ...
Pollination can be accomplished by cross-pollination or by self-pollination: Cross-pollination, also called allogamy, occurs ... Ornithophily or bird pollination is the pollination of flowering plants by birds. Chiropterophily or bat pollination is the ... Some 98% of abiotic pollination is anemophily, pollination by wind. This probably arose from insect pollination, most likely ... Resources on Pollinators from the National Academies The Pollination Home page Pollination in Hydroponics Pollination syndromes ...
Artificial pollination can be accomplished with the use of a... ... Artificial pollination is the process of applying pollen to ... How Does Pollination Occur?. A: Pollination may occur as cross-pollination between plants, or when bees, insects and birds ... How Does Pollination Take Place?. A: Pollination takes place when bees or other pollinators pick up the pollen from a flowers ... How Does Pollination Differ Between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms?. A: Pollination differs between angiosperms and gymnosperms in ...
To ensure a good crop of pumpkins or squash, especially if there doesnt seem to be a lot of insect activity when the blossoms are open, you can hand pollinate by removing a male blossom from the vine and visiting the female blossoms. As a general rule of thumb, the first blossoms to appear on the vines are male. Then the female blooms begin to develop and appear. You can tell the difference by looking at the stem just behind the blossom. Female blossoms have a swelling directly behind the petals of the flowers. This is the immature ovary, where a squash will develop if the flower has been pollinated. Male flowers have a straight stem directly behind the petals. You can use one male blossom to pollinate several female blossoms. Simply hold the male blossom by the stem and rub the inside of the flower on the inside of the female flower, to transfer the pollen ...
The cross-pollination will not affect the fruits of the plants, but will affect the seeds contained within them. If you saved, ...
Self-pollination is common, but cross-pollination also occurs. Seed set is generally good with or without bees. Bean flowers ... Seedless, triploid watermelon varieties also require pollination. Pollination triggers seed formation and fruit development, ... To optimize pollination, plant both early- and late-blooming pollenizers so that the main variety blooms in between. That way, ... This helps ensure pollination of the female flowers which must be pollinated to set fruit. Bees are the most important ...
JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. ...
Pollination traps interaction with pollinators Pollination traps plants relies on pollinators such as flies, wasps, bees and ... so as to enhance their effectiveness in pollination. The structures of pollination traps can include deep tubular corollas with ... Pollination traps or trap-flowers are plant flower structures that aid the trapping of insects, mainly flies, ... Broderbauer, D; A. Weber & Anita Diaz (2013). "The design of trapping devices in pollination traps of the genus Arum (Araceae) ...
Pollination: its vital to life on Earth, but largely unseen by the human eye. Filmmaker Louie Schwartzberg shows us the ...
In some cases, wild bees do not appear to contribute much to crop pollination, with honeybees doing most of the work. In other ... We are interested in how anthropogenic impacts from farming to logging to cattle grazing affect bee communities and pollination ... Current models predict that selfing should be advantageous for plants experiencing unreliable pollination (selfing increases ... The long-term goal is to help growers use both native and managed bees to provide reliable and economical crop pollination, but ...
Pollination occurs when either the wind or an animal, mostly insects, deliver pollen from a plants male reproductive organ to ... To get a closer look at the pollination event frozen in time, the team used synchrotron X-ray tomography at the European ... Dinosaur-Era Insects Frozen in Time During Oldest Pollination. By Jeanna Bryner, Live Science Managing Editor , May 14, 2012 04 ... This is the oldest direct evidence for pollination, and the only one from the age of the dinosaurs, study researcher Carmen ...
Flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is a computational intelligence metaheuristic that takes its metaphor from flowers ... Flower pollination algorithm Metaheuristic Cuckoo search Genetic algorithm Optimization This is a preview of subscription ... Zhou Y, Wang R, Luo Q (2016b) Elite opposition-based flower pollination algorithm. Neurocomputing 188:294-310CrossRefGoogle ... Abdel-Raouf O, Abdel-Baset M, El-Henawy I (2014a) An improved flower pollination algorithm with chaos. Int J Educ Managt Eng 4( ...
Pollination is a valuable service that warrants fair compensation. See your county Extension agent for help in locating ... If you need honey bees for pollination, you may want to keep your own bees. However, maintaining large numbers of robust hives ... In general, attractants are helpful only under marginal pollination conditions. For example, it may be impossible for a ... Remember, bee attractants encourage bee visitation, not necessarily bee pollination. If the flowers are not appealing to bees, ...
Tag: pollination. Evolution Intelligent Design stasis Beetle trapped in amber 99 mya offers window into prehistoric ecology. ...
Pollination BagsEdit. Pollination bags are designed to fit well over the inflorescence or individual flowers of a plant type. ... Characteristics of pollination bagsEdit. Good pollination bags are those which have most of the following properties: *Enough ... Most pollination bags are produced by general paper bag manufacturers which have branched out into providing pollination bag ... Kraft paper: Pollination bags used in Sorghum and maize are made from strong Kraft paper. These bags multi-layered strong brown ...
Cross-Pollination of Multiple Sync Sources. FIG. 3. shows a cross-pollination sync system, in accordance with aspects of the ... illustrates enabling and disabling cross-pollination, in accordance with aspects of the invention. Cross-pollination sync ... Cross-pollination synchronization of data. US8555187 *. Dec 22, 2010. Oct 8, 2013. Google Inc.. Server-based data sharing in ... As an example of cross-pollination, suppose a user syncs their PDA device (305) with a Home PC (315) and also with a work PC ( ...
Cross Pollination - a featured submission with Mused - the BellaOnline Literary Review is a literary magazine which features ... Cross Pollination. Deborah Guzzi. See the gardener s open hand bring seed to soil,. into the creases beginnings, love, and ...
  • In another legume, soybeans , the flowers open and remain receptive to insect cross pollination during the day. (
  • Pollination can also be accomplished by cross-pollination . (
  • Cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen, by wind or animals such as insects and birds, from the anther to the stigma of flowers on separate plants. (
  • Dandelions are also capable of self-pollination as well as cross-pollination. (
  • Native Americans are known as the "first hybridizers" for their scientific talents in cross-pollination and hybridization. (
  • The majority of apple trees require cross-pollination with another variety of apple or crabapple tree to bear fruit. (
  • Even those apple tree varieties that are self-pollinating will produce better fruit with cross-pollination. (
  • Plant any of these varieties in a grid configuration for successful cross-pollination between them. (
  • Most pear trees require cross-pollination in order to set fruit. (
  • Also choose two varieties resistant to fire blight, since the disease destroys the tree's pollen, making it ineffective for cross-pollination. (
  • Pollination may occur as cross-pollination between plants, or when bees, insects and birds transport and replant pollinated seeds and spores. (
  • The cross-pollination will not affect the fruits of the plants, but will affect the seeds contained within them. (
  • Most apple cultivars are self-sterile and require cross-pollination with another compatible cultivar. (
  • Cross-pollination requirements vary among the three blueberry types. (
  • Rabbiteye varieties are almost completely self-sterile and require cross-pollination with another rabbiteye variety. (
  • 6. The method of claim 1 , further comprising restricting cross-pollination between the data sources. (
  • In commercial production, however, growers generally plant two different varieties within 50 or 60 feet of each other to facilitate cross pollination via wind. (
  • Investigate self-pollination and cross-pollination in this science activity. (
  • First thing I would do, is not plant them directly next to each other, this provides for easy cross pollination - contamination of your crop. (
  • He said cross pollination would not cause it, but rather the roots would have grafted together to cause it. (
  • The cross-pollination is great. (
  • Cross-pollination produces stronger plants. (
  • Wasps are also responsible for the pollination of several plants species, being important pollen vectors, and in some cases, even more efficient pollinators than bees. (
  • However, self-pollination can be advantageous, allowing plants to spread beyond the range of suitable pollinators or produce offspring in areas where pollinator populations have been greatly reduced or are naturally variable. (
  • There are also studies in economics that look at the positive and negative benefits of pollination, focused on bees, and how the process affects the pollinators themselves. (
  • In the case of agricultural ecosystems, pollinators and pollination can be managed ('planned' crop associated biodiversity) to maximize or improve crop quality and yield. (
  • Indeed, some plant species rely upon a few types of pollinators to provide pollination services. (
  • A major activity of the Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture has been the preparation of the FAO-executed global sized GEF-funded project on the ' Conservation and Sustainable Management of Pollinators, through an Ecosystem Approach' . (
  • Pollination traps interaction with pollinators Pollination traps plants relies on pollinators such as flies, wasps, bees and more for their reproductive process. (
  • Pollination takes place when bees or other pollinators pick up the pollen from a flower's stamen and transfer it to another flower's stigma as they move fr. (
  • One type of pollination relies on living things, or pollinators, to move the pollen. (
  • Just like there are different types of pollination, there are different types of pollinators. (
  • It also indicates a probable ancient origin of beetle pollination of cycads at least in the early stage of the Jurassic, some 176 million years ago, long before flowering-plant dominance and the radiation of their pollinators such as bees and butterflies later in the Cretaceous. (
  • We suppose that nectar may play a role in attracting pollinators determining their right position for a successful pollination. (
  • Some gymnosperms and their insect pollinators are co-evolved for pollination. (
  • This workshop teaches you the basics of pollination ecology as well as how to maximize food production by encouraging both native and exotic pollinators. (
  • This book focuses on the specific measures and practices that the emerging science of pollination ecology is identifying to conserve and promote animal pollinators in agroecosystems. (
  • It reviews the expanding knowledge base on pollination services, providing evidence to document the status, trends and importance of pollinators to sustainable agricultural production. (
  • Plants and pollinators (bees and other insects) have developed very intimate associations over time and pollination is a necessary part of the reproductive success of many plants. (
  • Three-quarters of all food crops rely on pollination, and bees and other pollinators have already suffered heavily in recent decades from disease, pesticide use and the widespread loss of the flowery habitats on which they feed. (
  • Declining numbers of bees and other pollinators have been causing growing concern in recent years, as scientists fear that decreased pollination could have major impacts on world food supplies. (
  • Pollination by insects probably occurred in primitive seed plants, reliance on other means being a relatively recent evolutionary development. (
  • The study of pollination by insects is known as anthecology. (
  • Approximately 90 percent of all flowering plant species are specialized for pollination by animals, mostly insects. (
  • Pollination traps or trap-flowers are plant flower structures that aid the trapping of insects, mainly flies, so as to enhance their effectiveness in pollination. (
  • The structures of pollination traps can include deep tubular corollas with downward pointing hairs, slippery surfaces, adhesive liquid, attractants (often deceiving the insects by the use of sexual attractants rather than nectar reward and therefore termed as deceptive pollination), flower closing and other mechanisms. (
  • The general observation of insects being trapped and aiding pollination were made as early as 1872 by Thomas Frederic Cheeseman and did not go unnoticed by Charles Darwin who examined the adaptations of orchids for pollination. (
  • Artificial pollination is the process of applying pollen to plants that would normally be applied by the insects that pollinate plants. (
  • When insects are not pollinating a plant sufficiently, a grower can introduce more insects to the crop or opt for artificial pollination. (
  • Pollination occurs when either the wind or an animal, mostly insects, deliver pollen from a plant's male reproductive organ to the female parts either on the same plant or another one. (
  • The co-evolution of flowering plants and insects, thanks to pollination, is a great evolutionary success story. (
  • In open pollinated plant varieties, pollination can occur from the pollen of related species that sometimes travel great distances (as measured in miles), by insects, wind, and birds. (
  • Pollination by insects is a critical function of all land ecosystems. (
  • You will find that bumblebees are a cut above other insects, such as honeybees, when complete pollination is your goal. (
  • Both hermaphrodite and monoecious species have the potential for self-pollination leading to self-fertilization unless there is a mechanism to avoid it. (
  • Firstly, if a given genotype is well-suited for an environment, self-pollination helps to keep this trait stable in the species. (
  • The plant that develops in that way of pollination cannot make changes in their characters and so the features of a species can be maintained. (
  • Self-pollination can lead to inbreeding depression caused by expression of deleterious recessive mutations, [2] or to the reduced health of the species, due to the breeding of related specimens. (
  • Pollination often occurs within a species. (
  • When pollination occurs between species it can produce hybrid offspring in nature and in plant breeding work. (
  • Pollination depends to a large extent on the symbiosis between species, the pollinated and the pollinator, and often is the result of intricate relationships between plant and animal - the reduction or loss of either affecting the survival of both. (
  • Although we found reduced coffee suitability and bee species diversity for more than one-third of the future coffee-suitable areas, all future coffee-suitable areas will potentially host at least five bee species, indicating continued pollination services. (
  • We studied the pollination biology of four shrubby species of Cytiseae (Cytisophyllum sessilifolium (L.) Lang, Spartium junceum L., Genista radiata (L. (
  • All species resulted obliged xenogamous, insect visits being necessary for successful pollination. (
  • Bat species aid in the pollination of about 530 species of flowering plants worldwide, many of which are economically and/or ecologically important, especially in the southwestern United States, Mexico, and northern South America. (
  • While this mechanism for preventing self-pollination has been relatively well characterized, the mechanism that prevents crossing with plants of other species is much less understood. (
  • The researchers identified a gene expressed in pollen known as a "Cullin1" gene, which interacts genetically with a gene at or near the S-locus to block cross-species pollination. (
  • However in the green-fruited tomato species, most of which block self-pollination, the Cullin1 protein is functional. (
  • We have a specific interest in how species perform within their ecosystems in regard to reproductive functions especially through pollination. (
  • I use a variety of techniques (e.g. pollination experiments in the field and glasshouse, seed bank analyses, seed viability testing, genetic testing) to work out why some species are in decline and how this may be arrested. (
  • One of the important lines of work on threatened endemic species is the plant and pollinator interface Our current focus is the pollination ecology of highly disjunct cool temperate species such as Aristotelia australasica (Eleaocarpaceae). (
  • Insufficient pollination has been found to be one of the important causative factors of low yield and low quality in many fruit tree species [ 3 ]. (
  • They may make a contribution to the pollination of approximately 60 other species, but there is insufficient information to determine their overall effectiveness or importance. (
  • She said the research, published in Current Biology on Thursday, is "the first clear example, supported by long-term data, of the potential for climate change to disrupt critical [pollination] relationships between species. (
  • Professor Anthony Davy, also at UEA and part of the research team, said: "There will be progressive disruption of pollination systems with climatic warming, which could lead to the breakdown of co-evolved interactions between species. (
  • 1990). Ephedra species are not obligately insect-pollinated, as wind pollination may also occur at the same time (Karl Niklas, this volume). (
  • This book offers researchers and students in the field of ecology, botany, evolutionary biology, pollination biology, entomology, and tropical biology fascinating insights into why such a costly pollination system has evolved and why Phyllanthaceae is so diverse despite the inconspicuousness of their flowers. (
  • The work discussed has implications for tropical biology, ecology and pollination studies. (
  • Insect-mediated pollination in gymnosperms and potentially prior to the rise of flowering plants is critical for understanding not only the complex biology of these plants today but also the ecology of pre-angiospermous ecosystems and the history of pollination specializations on gymnosperms. (
  • It is therefore essential to acquire sound knowledge of the pollination ecology of cocoa, which has been largely ignored over the years [ 16 , 17 ]. (
  • Determining the precise mechanisms of wind pollination is anything but a breeze, but Integrative Biology researchers have shed light on how plant movement can affect the way pollen is captured by terrestrial plants - resolving a long debated question in the field of physical ecology in the process. (
  • She has been working at the Manitoba Museum since 2003, conducting research mainly on rare plant and pollination ecology. (
  • We were inspired by the idea that the benefits of pollination could be much larger than known so far. (
  • Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth. (
  • This is called abiotic pollination. (
  • 90% of flowering plants are pollinated by animals, and only 10% use abiotic (non-living) pollination. (
  • Of these abiotic pollinations, 98% is done by wind and just 2% by water. (
  • Pondering all the forms of pollination (biotic & abiotic) in the context of the definition for 'Biological Process' (broad biological goals, such as mitosis or purine metabolism, that are accomplished by ordered assemblies of molecular functions) I too would exclude all forms of pollination from the biol. (
  • Winder and Silva [ 18 ] have observed that in order to enhance knowledge on natural pollination and hence the crop yield, the characteristics of the cocoa tree and its flowers must be considered. (
  • In many cases, natural pollination (both wind and bee) is often unsatisfactory or not constant in the years ( Figure 1 ), because it can be affected by climatic factors, wrong synchronization of male and female flowering, and low attraction for bee since the absence of nectar in the flowers of wind-pollinated (anemophily) plants. (
  • Natural pollination using bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) is an effective way of increasing profits and reducing labor costs. (
  • Their discovery will likely find application in plant breeding, particularly for California's $1.5 billion tomato industry, and in developing a better basic understanding of the biology of pollination. (
  • Aspects of their biology that impact on their potential for crop pollination are reviewed, including generalized flower visiting behavior of colonies, floral constancy of individual bees, flight range, and the importance of natural vegetation for maintaining local populations. (
  • Ephedra reproductive biology, of which the pollination drop is just a part, deserves detailed investigation. (
  • Not being dependent on pollinating agents allows self-pollination to occur when bees and wind are nowhere to be found. (
  • Hi, Quote from Ian Young's Bulb Log ' It is common across many flowers for the pollen to ripen before the stigmatic surface is revealed or receptive, in the hope that a pollinator will bring pollen from another clone as that will give the best fertilisation and the widest spread of genes - if that fails the opportunity is still there for self-pollination to occur. (
  • The time from pollination to fertilization can exceed a year. (
  • In addition, there are incompatibility factors (genetic and physic), long lap time from pollination to fertilization, and alternate bearing, lower economic gain for these fruits, low agronomic input, and low innovation level in the field. (
  • However, this is relatively uncommon (only 2% of pollination is hydrophily) and most aquatic plants are insect-pollinated, with flowers that emerge into the air. (
  • Self-pollination is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants ) or at the ovule (in Gymnosperms ). (
  • As a prerequisite for fertilization, pollination is essential to the production of fruit and seed crops and plays an important part in programs designed to improve plants by breeding. (
  • Furthermore, studies of pollination are invaluable for understanding the evolution of flowering plants and their distribution in the world today. (
  • Some Mesozoic beetles, already adapted to a diet of spores from primitive plants, apparently became pollen eaters, capable of effecting chance pollination with grains accidentally spared. (
  • and even plants themselves, when self-pollination occurs within a closed flower. (
  • Self-pollination results in bean pods, which contain the edible part of soy bean plants. (
  • Current models predict that selfing should be advantageous for plants experiencing unreliable pollination (selfing increases reproductive assurance and decreases pollen and seed discounting) and low inbreeding depression. (
  • Pollination bags , sometimes called crossing bags, isolation bags or exclusion bags, are containers made of various different materials for the purpose of controlling pollination for plants. (
  • Plants grow with the help of nature, pollen and a process called pollination. (
  • When pollination happens, it does not always happen the same way for all plants. (
  • This discovery suggests an ancient origin for beetle pollination of cycads long before the rise of flowering plants. (
  • Little is known about the early evolution of their pollination mode before the rise of angiosperms, or flowering plants, although cycads are well documented from the mid-Mesozoic. (
  • Pollination is part of sexual reproduction in plants . (
  • Review the pollination and fertilization of flowering plants with this science printable. (
  • Most of the plants that need insect pollination are planted outside now, but a few, such as the jungle of tomatoes jostling for light and space and flowering their little hearts out, well they need some extra help in the pollination department. (
  • Pollination is a process that involves the transfer of pollen between a male stamen and a female pistil within a plant, and is used by many plants to reproduce. (
  • Similar to hummingbirds and bees, bats play a vital role in the pollination of plants, many of which people rely on for their livelihood. (
  • Students can put their pollination knowledge to the test with this crossword puzzle about plants, flowers, and seeds. (
  • The joint RMIT, University of Adelaide, Harvard University and University of California, Davis study compared the pollination techniques of Australian native blue banded bees with North American bumblebees, which are commonly used overseas to commercially pollinate tomato plants. (
  • Scientists at the University of Adelaide and Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China have discovered two proteins in rice involved in pollen aperture formation which are essential in the successful pollination of flowering plants. (
  • Prof. Josef Ackerman and former MSc student Dori McCombe made several discoveries that reveal the underlying mechanisms of particle capture by terrestrial plants, a process essential to plants that rely on wind for pollination. (
  • In these plants, the flowers are very small and extremely numerous, so the pollination was difficult to study. (
  • Pollination of crop plants is often the major requirement in achieving sufficient crop set [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • If they are alive but past the pollination stage with very short plants and no kernels, or they have lost most or all of their green color, there's no chance that they can come back,' Nafziger explained. (
  • Flowering plants have several different parts that are important in pollination. (
  • Greenhouse tomato plants (as just one example), as do their outdoor brethren, require pollination to fruit. (
  • The term selfing that is often used as a synonym, is not limited to self-pollination, but also applies to other types of self fertilization. (
  • It is important in horticulture and agriculture, because fruiting is dependent on fertilization: the result of pollination. (
  • What Is the Difference Between Pollination and Fertilization? (
  • Pollination is the process whereby pollen grains move from the anther to the stigma on a flower's style, while fertilization is the fusion of the male game. (
  • Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred to the female reproductive organs of a plant, thereby enabling fertilization to take place. (
  • Gymnosperm pollination drops are involved at some point in the capture and delivery of pollen into ovules, followed by pollen germination and fertilization (Gelbart & von Aderkas, 2002). (
  • The section on Crop Pollination Requirements gives more specific recommendations. (
  • In particular, it focuses on the natural history and evolutionary history of the third example of obligate pollination mutualism, leafflower-leafflower moth association, which was discovered in the plant family Phyllanthaceae by the lead editor and then established by the editors and their coworkers as an ideal model system for studies of mutualism and the coevolutionary process. (
  • We describe the influence of plant volatiles in an obligate pollination mutualism between an Australian Macrozamia cycad (a gymnosperm with male and female individuals) and its specialist thrips pollinator, Cycadothrips chadwicki. (
  • Generally, anything that reduces pollination efficiency (unattractive crop, few wild bees, many competing weeds, poor weather, etc.) calls for more bee hives per acre to compensate. (
  • There is however no empirical evidence as to what staminode-style distance reduces pollination efficiency of cocoa flowers. (
  • One type of automatic self-pollination occurs in the orchid Ophrys apifera . (
  • Pollination occurs when pollen is carried to a flower on another plant or, sometimes even a flower on the same plant. (
  • This is a genetic region responsible for producing distinct proteins in the flower's pollen and in its pistil, the female organ where pollination occurs. (
  • The role of the pollination drop varies according to the pollination mechanism in which it occurs (Tomlinson et al. (
  • Pear trees rely on bees for pollination, yet their blossoms produce less nectar than other flowers, so attracting bees can prove a challenge. (
  • If you need honey bees for pollination, you may want to keep your own bees. (
  • We are interested in how anthropogenic impacts from farming to logging to cattle grazing affect bee communities and pollination services. (
  • Pollination , transfer of pollen grains from the stamens , the flower parts that produce them, to the ovule-bearing organs or to the ovules (seed precursors) themselves. (
  • Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, later enabling fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind. (
  • Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a stamen to a pistil. (
  • The second type of pollination does not rely on living organisms. (
  • About 75% of the world's crops rely on insect pollination. (
  • About 75% of the world's crops rely on insect pollination for yield and quality. (
  • In some cases, wild bees do not appear to contribute much to crop pollination, with honeybees doing most of the work. (
  • Without an alternative pollination solution to reduce the dependency on honeybees in the coming years, food prices might climb sharply, and supply might not meet the growing demand. (
  • Hi Pankaj & Leonore Well, spotted Pankaj & I concur with both of you about the incorrect definition for this term & I support the suggestion of 'post-pollination' being a better parent for the subsequent children. (
  • When pollination relies on a living organism, it is called biotic pollination. (
  • These dynamic interactions represent complex adaptations that enhance the likelihood of pollination and may reflect an intermediate state in the evolution of biotic pollination. (
  • Almond Pollination Company filed as an Articles of Incorporation in the State of California and is no longer active . (
  • Receive an email notification when changes occur for Almond Pollination Company. (
  • These addresses are known to be associated with Almond Pollination Company however they may be inactive or mailing addresses only. (
  • And then a new method called improved Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) is proposed for solving the problem of manufacturing service selection and composition. (
  • Sexual deceit, pressed flowers and Victorian bee collectors are combined in new scientific research which demonstrates for the first time that climate change threatens flower pollination, which underpins much of the world's food production. (
  • Globally, 87 of major food crops depend on animal pollination. (
  • More than 30% of our plant-based food supply depends on animal pollination, which had an estimated economic value of $361 billion in 2007. (
  • Achieving maximum pollination is necessary for optimum yield" [ 15 ]. (
  • Our Natupol solutions guarantee maximum pollination, even under difficult conditions. (
  • This is a gray area for me in that I think it can be argued that cleistogamy involves processes 'that are accomplished by ordered assemblies of molecular functions' within the plant's genome which achieves pollination. (
  • The orchid resembles a female miner bee and exudes the same sex pheromone to seduce the male bee into "pseudocopulation" with the flower, an act which also achieves pollination. (
  • There is evidence that some gymnosperms were insect-pollinated in the Triassic period, but pollination by animals is not the main method in this group. (
  • All other plans compromise some degree of pollination efficiency in favor of convenience at harvest. (
  • More than just a biological curiosity, the discovery could open the door to advances in areas ranging from improving the efficiency of certain crop pollination to better understanding muscular stress and the development of miniature flying robots. (
  • Although they have been useful in developing our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions, an uncritical acceptance of pollination syndromes as providing a framework for classifying these relationships is rather out of date. (
  • When air is the pollinator, the plant will often produce a lot of pollen to ensure pollination. (
  • To celebrate pollinator week guest writer and student D. Gasbarrini offers some points on bat pollination! (
  • During self-pollination, the pollen grains are not transmitted from one flower to another. (
  • The pollen grains of many Pinaceae and Podocarpaceae have air bladders, which orient them in a pollination droplet exuded by the ovules so that, when the droplet is withdrawn back into the ovule, the pollen tube will penetrate the nucellus to the archegonium. (
  • There are two types of self-pollination: In autogamy , pollen is transferred to the stigma of the same flower. (
  • For example, a Madagascar orchid, Angraecum sesquipedale , with a nectar receptacle 20 to 35 cm (8 to 14 inches) long, depends for its pollination exclusively on the local race of a hawkmoth, Xanthopan morganii , which has a proboscis of 22.5 cm (9 inches). (
  • There were some results available about pollination increasing not just yield, but also crop quality. (
  • The decreased number of kernels that fill is likely to be a primary yield barrier in fields under stress during pollination. (
  • The focus of this unique volume is on plant-animal interactions and some of the foundations that create and maintain tropical diversity, especially pollination and the phenomenon of the General Flowering. (
  • What Is Artificial Pollination? (
  • Artificial pollination can be accomplished with the use of a brush to apply the pollen. (
  • There are several benefits to artificial pollination, including gaining greater control over the genetic population of the crops. (
  • When considering artificial pollination, the viability of the flowers must be considered. (
  • Artificial pollination increases fruit size and results in a high conversion of flowers to export fruit. (
  • Inbar believes that "the transformation that Edete hopes to bring about in the world of plant pollination will be no less revolutionary than what artificial insemination using frozen semen brought to dairy farming. (
  • In the last 10 years, kiwifruit vine artificial pollination became a widespread practice useful to increase fruit quality. (
  • Artificial pollination leads also to increase final set, weight, kernel recovery, and, in many cases, fruit quality in terms of nutritional characteristics and shelf life [ 4 ]. (
  • The use of artificial light at night, such as street lights, can harm pollination according to researchers at the University of Bern in Switzerland. (
  • Some varieties of apples are sterile and cannot be used for pollination with any variety. (
  • Researchers looked at strawberries as a model system, setting up a field experiment with nine commercially important strawberry varieties and then accessing the influence of self, wind and bee pollination on crop quantity, quality, shelf life and market value. (
  • Most varieties were made a more intense red color through the process of bee pollination as compared to fruits resulting from wind and self-pollination. (
  • In addition, bee pollination was much more efficient than the other methods, resulting in a higher number of fertilized achenes (seeds) per fruit across all varieties - bee pollination increased the average number of fertilized achenes about 26.8 % compared with wind pollination and about 61.7 % compared with self-pollination. (
  • Continuing with our Seeds of Life series , Willamette Valley organic seed breeder, Frank Morton , explains the benefits of open pollination in plant breeding, and the important role for farmers in the selection process to continually improve plant varieties for better local adaptation. (
  • Self-pollination can be an advantage when the number of flowers are small or widely spaced. (
  • Pollination bags are designed to fit well over the inflorescence or individual flowers of a plant type. (
  • Maize flowers have evolved (changed over time) to use wind for pollination. (
  • One factor that sometimes hinders pollination is temperature, as flowers can be damaged if temperatures dip below 15 degrees Fahrenheit. (
  • Because pollination cannot take place if flowers are damaged by cold temperatures, hazelnut culture in the United States has been limited geographically to the Pacific Northwest. (
  • This study investigated the position of staminodes around the style of cocoa flowers and the stability of cocoa flowers relative to pollination and seasonality. (
  • Although pollination rates of flowers with splay staminodes were the lowest, the overall pollination success of cocoa trees was not significantly affected because of the small proportion of splay flowers.The stability of the cocoa flowers depended on both the season and pollination. (
  • While crawling around on the female flowers, they achieved pollination and numerous copulations were observed. (
  • The pollen is applied on the trees using the company's unique robotic pollination system which utilizes a combination of technologies to disperse an optimal dosage of pollen on the target flowers to achieve effective pollination. (
  • During this first day of opening, and especially during the period when the bad smell is being emitted, the female flowers of the spadix are at their peak receptivity for pollination. (
  • Bumblebees pollinate flowers through a method called "buzz pollination", a rapid vibrating motion which releases large amounts of pollen onto the bee. (
  • The aviary is a marked contrast to the lovely Pollination Garden outside, where butterflies and bees float and drone peacefully between blossoms. (
  • Yes, honey bees are discussed, but this workshop also covers the exciting world of tomato buzz pollination, the rotten world of fly pollination, and the beautiful life of the squash bee. (
  • In most situations, "buzz pollination" will allow a bumblebee to pollinate a flower in a single visit. (
  • wind pollination Windblown pollen from the male cone of a lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ). (
  • Non-woven polyester pollination bags are often used in plant breeding programmes associated with forestry, fruit breeding and some wind pollinated crops. (
  • The study found that bee-pollinated fruits were heavier with better shape and more durable than fruits pollinated by wind or self-pollination. (
  • Pollination of Corylus avellana is by wind. (
  • This flower configuration, according to botanist Martyn Rix, is an adaptation that facilitates wind pollination. (
  • Not even strong wind or moderate rainfall will prevent the bumblebees in your GARDEN from going about their pollination duties. (
  • When they move to another flower, the pollen rubs off of their bodies onto that plant's stigma, resulting in pollination. (
  • When pollen from a plant's stamen is transferred to that same plant's stigma, it is called self-pollination. (
  • Resources for researchers and their assistants who are new to the field of performing controlled pollinations of maize/corn ( Zea mays L. (
  • The researchers identified a tomato pollen gene that encodes a protein that is very similar to a protein thought to function in preventing self-pollination in petunias. (
  • In the ancient genus Ficus (figs and banyan trees), pollination still depends on gall wasps . (
  • Climate change could be affecting pollination by disrupting the synchronised timing of flower opening and bee emergence from hibernation, suggests new US-based research. (
  • This is sobering because it suggests that pollination is vulnerable even in a relatively pristine environment that is free of pesticides and human disturbance but still subject to climate change. (
  • Despite the findings, other experts remained cautious about the influence of climate change on bee pollination. (
  • Pollination starts with two parts of the flower, called an anther and a stigma. (
  • When pollen from the anther of a flower is carried to another flower's stigma, it is called pollination. (
  • The fact that style pollination generally results in more fruit set than stigma pollination makes the ceratopogonid midges efficient pollinating candidates [ 14 ]. (
  • How Does Pollination Differ Between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms? (
  • Pollination differs between angiosperms and gymnosperms in that most angiosperms entice animals to carry their pollen from plant to plant, while most gymno. (
  • We hypothesize that Ephedra pollination drops contain proteins, given that rich and diverse pollination drop proteomes have been recently described from a wide range of gymnosperms (Wagner et al. (
  • Among other gymnosperms, such as the Pinaceae and Cupressaceae, some taxa have pollination drop proteins in common (Wagner et al. (
  • Why is Pollination Important for Native Wildflowers? (
  • The "classical" pollination syndromes as they are currently defined (see below) were developed in the 19th century by the Italian botanist Federico Delpino. (
  • Pollination syndromes are excellent examples of convergent evolution . (