The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae class, Magnoliopsida that are mostly shrubs and small trees. Many of the members contain indole alkaloids.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.
The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by oppositely paired, usually compound leaves and bell- or funnel-shaped, bisexual flowers having a five-lobed calyx and corolla.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A plant family of the order Proteales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. Cluster roots, bottlebrush-like clusters of rootlets which form in response to poor soil, are common in this family.
The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. The name derived from ar (fire in Arabic) due to the irritating sap. Flower is a spathe.
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.
A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain DEFICIENS PROTEIN.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
A plant family of the order ZINGIBERALES, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.
A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.
A plant genus of the family THYMELAEACEAE. They are evergreen shrubs much cultivated in garden borders and rock gardens in mild climates. Members contain mezerein, flavonoids, and COUMARINS such as daphnetin and daphnin.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE that grows in salty marshes and is used for phytoremediation of oil spills. The unisexual flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. Members contain trifoliones (DITERPENES).
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
The club-moss plant family of the order Lycopodiales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. The common name of clubmoss applies to several genera of this family. Despite the name this is not one of the true mosses (BRYOPSIDA).
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant family of the order Commelinales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain beta-glucosidases and trypsin inhibitors.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.
A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that is the source of an edible fruit. Members contain TRITERPENES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family SCHISANDRACEAE. Members contain schisandrins (Russian) which are also called gomisins (Japanese) or wuweizins (Chinese). The compounds in this genus are very similar to those in the related KADSURA and medicinal usage is very similar. It is sometimes adulterated with KADSURA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.
A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE. It can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS. SAPONINS have been identified in the root.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
A plant family of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS, which is the source of Oriental TEA.

60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis. (1/687)

Figs (Ficus; ca 750 species) and fig wasps (Agaoninae) are obligate mutualists: all figs are pollinated by agaonines that feed exclusively on figs. This extraordinary symbiosis is the most extreme example of specialization in a plant-pollinator interaction and has fuelled much speculation about co-divergence. The hypothesis that pollinator specialization led to the parallel diversification of fig and pollinator lineages (co-divergence) has so far not been tested due to the lack of robust and comprehensive phylogenetic hypotheses for both partners. We produced and combined the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic trees to date with fossil data to generate independent age estimates for fig and pollinator lineages, using both non-parametric rate smoothing and penalized likelihood dating methods. Molecular dating of ten pairs of interacting lineages provides an unparalleled example of plant-insect co-divergence over a geological time frame spanning at least 60 million years.  (+info)

Adaptive plasticity of floral display size in animal-pollinated plants. (2/687)

Plants need not participate passively in their own mating, despite their immobility and reliance on pollen vectors. Instead, plants may respond to their recent pollination experience by adjusting the number of flowers that they display simultaneously. Such responsiveness could arise from the dependence of floral display size on the longevity of individual flowers, which varies with pollination rate in many plant species. By hand-pollinating some inflorescences, but not others, we demonstrate plasticity in display size of the orchid Satyrium longicauda. Pollination induced flower wilting, but did not affect the opening of new flowers, so that within a few days pollinated inflorescences displayed fewer flowers than unpollinated inflorescences. During subsequent exposure to intensive natural pollination, pollen removal and receipt increased proportionally with increasing display size, whereas pollen-removal failure and self-pollination accelerated. Such benefit-cost relations allow plants that adjust display size in response to the prevailing pollination rate to increase their attractiveness when pollinators are rare (large displays), or to limit mating costs when pollinators are abundant (small displays). Seen from this perspective, pollination-induced flower wilting serves the entire plant by allowing it to display the number of flowers that is appropriate for the current pollination environment.  (+info)

A group-1 grass pollen allergen influences the outcome of pollen competition in maize. (3/687)

Worldwide, 400 million people suffer from hay fever and seasonal asthma. The major causative agents of these allergies are pollen specific proteins called the group-1 grass pollen allergens. Although details of their antigenicity have been studied for 40 years with an eye towards immunotherapy, their function in the plant has drawn scant attention. Zea m 1 constitutes a class of abundant grass pollen allergens coded for by several genes that loosen the walls of grass cells, including the maize stigma and style. We have examined the impact of a transposon insertion into one of these genes (EXPB1, the most abundant isoform of Zea m 1) on the production of Zea m 1 protein, pollen viability, and pollen tube growth, both in vitro and in vivo. We also examined the effect of the insertional mutation on the competitive ability of the pollen by experimentally varying the sizes of the pollen load deposited onto stigmas using pollen from heterozygous plants and then screening the progeny for the presence of the transposon using PCR. We found that the insertional mutation reduced the levels of Zea m 1 in maize pollen, but had no effect on pollen viability, in vitro pollen tube growth or the proportion of progeny sired when small pollen loads are deposited onto stigmas. However, when large pollen loads are deposited onto the stigmas, the transposon mutation is vastly underrepresented in the progeny, indicating that this major pollen allergen has a large effect on pollen tube growth rates in vivo, and plays an important role in determining the outcome of the pollen-pollen competition for access to the ovules. We propose that the extraordinary abundance (4% of the extractable protein in maize pollen) of this major pollen allergen is the result of selection for a trait that functions primarily in providing differential access to ovules.  (+info)

Meteorological input data requirements to predict cross-pollination of GMO maize with Lagrangian approaches. (4/687)

Modeling pollen dispersal to predict cross-pollination is of great importance for the ongoing discussion of adventitious presence of genetically modified material in food and feed. Two different modeling approaches for pollen dispersal were used to simulate two years of data for the rate of cross-pollination of non-GM maize (Zea mays (L.)) fields by pollen from a central 1 ha transgenic field. The models combine the processes of wind pollen dispersal (transport) and pollen competition. Both models used for the simulation of pollen dispersal were Lagrangian approaches: a stochastic particle Lagrange model and a Lagrangian transfer function model. Both modeling approaches proved to be appropriate for the simulation of the cross-pollination rates. However, model performance differed significantly between years. We considered different complexity in meteorological input data. Predictions compare well with experimental results for all simplification steps, except that systematic deviations occurred when only main wind direction was used. Concluding, it can be pointed out that both models might be adapted to other pollen dispersal experiments of different crops and plot sizes, when wind direction statistics are available. However, calibration of certain model parameters is necessary.  (+info)

Gene flow from GM glyphosate-tolerant to conventional soybeans under field conditions in Japan. (5/687)

Natural out-crossing rates were evaluated for conventional soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivated adjacent to genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybeans under field conditions during a four-year period in Japan. A total of 107 846 progeny of 2772 plants harvested from conventional varieties were screened for glyphosate herbicide tolerance. The highest out-crossing rates, 0.19% in 2001 and 0.16% in 2002, were observed in adjacent rows 0.7 m from the pollen source. The highest rate in 2004 was 0.052%, which was observed at 2.1 m. No out-crossing was observed in the rows 10.5 m from the pollen source over the four-year period. The farthest distances between receptor and pollen source at which out-crossing was observed were 7 m in 2001, 2.8 m in 2002, and 3.5 m in 2004. The greatest airborne pollen density during the flowering period, determined by Durham pollen samplers located between the rows of each variety, was 0.368 grains.cm(-2).day(-1), with the average value at 0.18 grains.cm(-2).day(-1), indicating that the possibility of out-crossing by wind is minimal. Thrips species and predatory Hemiptera visited the soybean flowers more frequently during the four-year period than any other common pollinators, such as bees.  (+info)

Decreased panicle-derived indole-3-acetic acid reduces gibberellin A1 level in the uppermost internode, causing panicle enclosure in male sterile rice Zhenshan 97A. (6/687)

Cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) rice Zhenshan 97A (ZS97A) has been widely used in hybrid rice production in China. However, ZS97A suffers from serious panicle enclosure, which blocks normal pollination and greatly reduces seed production of hybrid rice. Little is known about the cause of panicle closure in ZS97A. In this study, it was found that the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility caused a deficiency of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in ZS97A panicles, and less IAA was provided to the uppermost internode (UI). Further, it was found that the decreased panicle-derived IAA caused a gibberellin A(1) (GA(1)) deficiency in the UI by the down-regulation of OsGA3ox2 transcript level. Reduced GA(1) level in the UI led to decreases of both cell number and cell elongation, resulting in a shortened UI. The shortened UI was unable to push the panicle out of the flag leaf sheath that remained normal, which resulted in panicle enclosure in ZS97A. These findings suggest that decreased panicle-derived IAA reduces the GA(1) level in the UI, causing panicle enclosure in CMS rice ZS97A.  (+info)

Segregation analyses of partial self-incompatibility in self and cross progeny of Solanum carolinense reveal a leaky S-allele. (7/687)

Natural populations of self-incompatible species often exhibit marked phenotypic variation among individuals in the strength of self-incompatibility (SI). In previous studies, we found that the strength of the SI response in Solanum carolinense, a weedy invasive with RNase-mediated SI, is a plastic trait. Selfing can be particularly important for weeds and other successional species that typically undergo repeated colonization and local extinction events and whose population sizes are often small. We applied a PCR-based protocol to identify the S-alleles present in 16 maternal genotypes and their offspring and performed a two-generation greenhouse study to determine whether variation in the strength of SI is due to the existence of weak and strong S-alleles differing in their ability to recognize and reject self-pollen. We found that allele S9 sets significantly more self seed than the other S-alleles in the population we sampled and that its ability to self is not dependent on interactions with other S-alleles. Our data suggest that the observed variations in self-fertility are likely due to factors that directly influence the expression of SI by altering the translation, turnover, or activity of the S-RNase. The variability in the strength of SI among individuals that we have observed in this and our previous studies raises the possibility that plasticity in the strength of SI in S. carolinense may play a role in the colonization and establishment of this weedy species.  (+info)

Variability in floral scent in rewarding and deceptive orchids: the signature of pollinator-imposed selection? (8/687)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A comparative investigation was made of floral scent variation in the closely related, food-rewarding Anacamptis coriophora and the food-deceptive Anacamptis morio in order to identify patterns of variability of odour compounds in the two species and their role in pollinator attraction/avoidance learning. METHODS: Scent was collected from plants in natural populations and samples were analysed via quantitative gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection was used to identify compounds that are detected by the pollinators. Experimental reduction of scent variability was performed in the field with plots of A. morio plants supplemented with a uniform amount of anisaldehyde. KEY RESULTS: Both orchid species emitted complex odour bouquets. In A. coriophora the two main benzenoid compounds, hydroquinone dimethyl ether (1,4-dimethoxybenzene) and anisaldehyde (methoxybenzaldehyde), triggered electrophysiological responses in olfactory neurons of honey-bee and bumble-bee workers. The scent of A. morio, however, was too weak to elicit any electrophysiological responses. The overall variation in scent was significantly lower in the rewarding A. coriophora than in the deceptive A. morio, suggesting pollinator avoidance-learning selecting for high variation in the deceptive species. A. morio flowers supplemented with non-variable scent in plot experiments, however, did not show significantly reduced pollination success. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas in the rewarding A. coriophora stabilizing selection imposed by floral constancy of the pollinators may reduce scent variability, in the deceptive A. morio the emitted scent seems to be too weak to be detected by pollinators and thus its high variability may result from relaxed selection on this floral trait.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pollination" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Pollination is a process in biology, specifically in botany, that refers to the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive organ (anther) of a flower to the female reproductive organ (stigma) of the same or another flower, leading to fertilization and the production of fruits and seeds.

If you have any medical terms or concepts in mind, please provide them so I can offer an accurate definition or explanation.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

"Orchidaceae" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name for the orchid family, which is a group of flowering plants known for their often elaborate and beautiful flowers. The term "orchidaceae" comes from the Greek word "orkhis," meaning "testicle," likely referring to the shape of the twin tubers in some species.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information about what you are looking for.

"Bees" are not a medical term, as they refer to various flying insects belonging to the Apidae family in the Apoidea superfamily. They are known for their role in pollination and honey production. If you're looking for medical definitions or information, please provide relevant terms.

Iridaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to the family of plants known as the Iris family, which includes over 2,000 species distributed across 66 genera. These plants are characterized by their distinctive flowers, which typically have six petal-like structures (three outer and three inner) and a tubular or cup-shaped structure called the perianth tube.

While Iridaceae is not a medical term, some of its member species do have medicinal uses. For example, the roots of certain iris species, such as Iris germanica and Iris versicolor, contain compounds with medicinal properties. These compounds have been used in traditional medicine to treat various conditions, including digestive disorders, skin problems, and respiratory ailments. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants for medicinal purposes should be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can also contain toxic compounds that can cause adverse effects if used improperly.

Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed within an ovary. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek words "angeion," meaning "case" or "capsule," and "sperma," meaning "seed." This group includes the majority of plant species, with over 300,000 known species.

Angiosperms are characterized by their reproductive structures, which consist of flowers. The flower contains male and female reproductive organs, including stamens (which produce pollen) and carpels (which contain the ovules). After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed, while the ovary matures into a fruit, which provides protection and nutrition for the developing embryo.

Angiosperms are further divided into two main groups: monocots and eudicots. Monocots have one cotyledon or embryonic leaf, while eudicots have two. Examples of monocots include grasses, lilies, and orchids, while examples of eudicots include roses, sunflowers, and legumes.

Angiosperms are ecologically and economically important, providing food, shelter, and other resources for many organisms, including humans. They have evolved a wide range of adaptations to different environments, from the desert to the ocean floor, making them one of the most diverse and successful groups of plants on Earth.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

Self-fertilization is not a term typically used in human or animal medicine, but it is a concept in botany. It refers to the fertilization of an ovule (a structure in plants that develops into a seed after fertilization) with pollen from the same plant. This can occur in hermaphroditic flowers, which have both male and female reproductive organs. Self-fertilization can increase genetic similarity within a population of plants, which can have implications for their evolution and survival.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Plant Nectar" is not a term used in medical definitions. Nectar is a sweet liquid produced by plants in flowers to attract pollinators such as insects and birds. It's a sugar-rich substance that serves as a source of energy for these animals. While it may have some nutritional value, it's not something that would be relevant to medical definitions or human health in a direct sense.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Liliaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, specifically it is the family name for plants that include lilies, tulips, and related species. In a medical context, you might be referring to the specific plant species themselves, or possibly the allergic reactions some people can have to the pollen of these plants. If you have any more specific questions about botanical terms in a medical context, I'd be happy to try and help further.

Self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants is a genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization and promotes outcrossing. It is a complex system that recognizes and rejects self-pollen, thus preventing the fusion of sperm and egg from the same plant. This ensures genetic diversity within plant populations and reduces the risk of inbreeding depression.

Self-incompatibility systems are classified into two main types: homomorphic and heteromorphic. Homomorphic SI is found in plants where all individuals have the same morphological appearance, but their pollen is rejected by genetically similar stigmas. Heteromorphic SI occurs in plants with distinct morphological differences between individuals (dimorphic or trimorphic), and pollen from one form is rejected by the stigma of another form.

The genetic basis for self-incompatibility involves a specific gene locus, called the S-locus, which contains two tightly linked genes: the pistil S gene (SP) and the pollen S gene (SR). The SP gene encodes a receptor kinase in the stigma that recognizes and interacts with the SR protein on compatible pollen grains. In self-incompatible interactions, the SP and SR proteins interact in a way that triggers a signal transduction cascade leading to the inhibition of pollen tube growth and subsequent rejection of self-pollen.

Self-incompatibility is an essential mechanism for maintaining genetic diversity and ensuring the long-term survival and adaptability of plant populations.

I apologize for any confusion, but "insects" are not a medical term. Insects are small air-breathing arthropods that have a segmented body with six legs and usually have wings. They make up the largest group of animals on Earth, with over a million described species.

If you're looking for information about a specific medical condition or topic, please provide more details so I can offer a relevant response.

Inflorescence is a term used in the field of botany, which includes the study of plants. However, I understand that you are asking for a medical definition. In the context of medicine, specifically in pathology, inflorescence may refer to the arrangement or growth pattern of lesions or neoplasms (abnormal growths) in a particular area of the body.

To provide a precise medical definition, I would need more context about how the term is being used. Nonetheless, based on the botanical definition, inflorescence refers to the cluster or arrangement of flowers on a stem or branch. It can take various forms, such as spikes, racemes, panicles, umbels, and corymbs, depending on the pattern in which flowers are arranged.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Malpighiaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic name in the field of botany, referring to a family of flowering plants commonly known as the "malpighias" or "cotton-silk flowers." This family includes around 75 genera and 1,300 species of trees, shrubs, and herbs, many of which are tropical in distribution.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those instead!

Gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that include conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes. The name "gymnosperm" comes from the Greek words "gymnos," meaning naked, and "sperma," meaning seed. This refers to the fact that the seeds of gymnosperms are not enclosed within an ovary or fruit, but are exposed on the surface of modified leaves called cones or strobili.

Gymnosperms are vascular plants, which means they have specialized tissues for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant. They are also heterosporous, meaning that they produce two types of spores: male microspores and female megaspores. The microspores develop into male gametophytes, which produce sperm cells, while the megaspores develop into female gametophytes, which produce egg cells.

Gymnosperms are an important group of plants that have been around for millions of years. They are adapted to a wide range of environments, from temperate forests to deserts and high mountain ranges. Many gymnosperms are evergreen, with needle-like or scale-like leaves that are able to resist drought and cold temperatures.

Conifers, which include trees such as pines, firs, spruces, and redwoods, are the most diverse and widespread group of gymnosperms. They are characterized by their woody cones and needle-shaped leaves. Cycads are another group of gymnosperms that are found in tropical and subtropical regions. They have large, stiff leaves and produce large seeds that are enclosed in a fleshy covering. Ginkgo is a unique gymnosperm that has been around for over 200 million years. It is a deciduous tree with fan-shaped leaves and large, naked seeds.

Gnetophytes are a small group of gymnosperms that include the ephedra, welwitschia, and gnetum. They have unique features such as vessels in their wood and motile sperm cells, which are not found in other gymnosperms.

Overall, gymnosperms are an important group of plants that have adapted to a wide range of environments and play a crucial role in many ecosystems.

A pollen tube is a slender, tubular structure that grows out from the germinated grain of pollen and transports the male gametes (sperm cells) to the female reproductive organ in seed plants. This process is known as double fertilization, which occurs in angiosperms (flowering plants).

The pollen tube elongates through the stigma and style of the pistil, following a path towards the ovule. Once it reaches the ovule, the generative cell within the pollen tube divides to form two sperm cells. One sperm fertilizes the egg cell, forming a zygote, while the other sperm fuses with the central cell of the embryo sac, leading to the formation of endosperm - a nutritive tissue for the developing embryo.

In summary, a pollen tube is a crucial component in the reproductive process of seed plants, facilitating the transfer of male gametes to female gametes and ultimately resulting in fertilization and seed development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Petunia" is not a medical term. It's the name of a genus of plants in the family Solanaceae, commonly known as petunias. They are popular ornamental plants due to their vibrant and diverse flowers. If you have any questions about botany or gardening, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

In medical terms, "wind" is not a widely used or recognized term. It might be used informally to describe symptoms such as abdominal bloating, rumbling, or the sensation of gas moving within the intestines. However, these sensations are more accurately described as related to bowel function and gas in the digestive tract. If you're experiencing persistent or severe symptoms that you're describing as "wind," it would be best to consult with a healthcare professional for a proper evaluation.

Gentianaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to the family of plants that includes gentians and related genera. These plants are known for their beautiful, often brightly colored flowers, and are found primarily in temperate and subtropical regions around the world.

Some species of Gentianaceae have been used in traditional medicine for their purported therapeutic properties. For example, gentian root has been used as a bitter tonic to stimulate digestion and appetite, and to treat various gastrointestinal disorders. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants in medical treatment should be based on scientific evidence and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Yucca" is not a medical term. It is a botanical term that refers to a genus of plants native to the hot and dry parts of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Some yucca species are known as "manihot" or "cassava," which are used in medicine and food production. However, the term "Yucca" itself does not have a medical definition.

An ovule is the structure in female plants (including gymnosperms and angiosperms) that contains the female gametophyte and gives rise to the seed after fertilization. It consists of a protective outer layer called the integument, enclosing a small mass of tissue called the nucellus, within which is located the embryo sac or female germ unit.

The embryo sac contains the egg cell (oocyte), two synergids that assist in fertilization, and three antipodal cells at the opposite end. Upon fertilization of the egg cell by a male gamete from pollen, the zygote forms, which develops into an embryo within the ovule. The other male gamete fuses with the central cell (containing two polar nuclei) to form the endosperm, which serves as nutritive tissue for the developing embryo.

Once mature, the ovule transforms into a seed, enclosed by a seed coat formed from the integuments. The seed contains the developed embryo and stored food reserves (endosperm) that support its initial growth after germination.

"Juniperus" is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a genus of evergreen coniferous trees and shrubs that belong to the cypress family (Cupressaceae). There are around 50-70 species in this genus, which are native to the northern hemisphere.

Juniperus species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating digestive disorders, skin conditions, and respiratory ailments. The essential oil extracted from some Juniperus species contains compounds that have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. However, it's important to note that the use of juniper in modern medicine is limited, and its efficacy and safety for specific medical conditions are not well-established.

Therefore, if you're considering using juniper or any of its preparations for medicinal purposes, it's recommended to consult a healthcare professional first to ensure its safe and appropriate use.

Cactaceae is the scientific name for the family of plants that includes cacti. Cacti are a type of succulent plant that are adapted to arid environments, with features such as thick stems and the ability to store water. They are native to the Americas, ranging from Canada to Argentina, with the greatest diversity found in Mexico. Many cacti have spines or are covered in glochids, small hair-like structures that can be very sharp and barbed. Cacti come in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and colors, and some species produce flowers and fruit. Some common examples of cacti include the saguaro, prickly pear, and santa rita.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Bignoniaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes approximately 85 genera and around 1,000 species. These plants are primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in the Americas. The family includes both trees and shrubs, as well as some vines and epiphytes.

Bignoniaceae plants are known for their showy, trumpet-shaped flowers, which can be quite large and often brightly colored. Many species are popular ornamental plants due to their attractive blooms. Some of the more familiar genera in this family include Catalpa, Campsis (trumpet vine), Tecomaria (cape honeysuckle), and Bignonia (cross vine).

The leaves of Bignoniaceae plants are typically simple or palmately compound, with entire or lobed margins. The fruits are usually long, slender capsules that split open to release numerous small seeds. Some species have fleshy fruits that are berry-like in appearance.

In addition to their ornamental value, some Bignoniaceae plants have medicinal uses. For example, the bark of some Catalpa species has been used traditionally to treat a variety of ailments, including fever, rheumatism, and skin conditions. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants for medicinal purposes should only be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard medical term. It falls more within the domain of botany, which is a branch of biology focused on the study of plants.

However, I can provide a general explanation: Plant physiological phenomena refer to the functional processes and activities that occur within plants. This includes various aspects such as photosynthesis (the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth), respiration, plant nutrition (the uptake and assimilation of nutrients from the soil), water relations (how plants absorb, transport, and use water), plant hormone functions, and many other processes.

If you have a term that is used in a medical context which you would like defined, I'd be happy to help with that!

Campanulaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the bellflower family. It includes a wide variety of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and small trees, with over 2000 species distributed worldwide. The family is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical flowers, typically with fused petals forming a bell or funnel shape, hence the common name "bellflower."

The individual flowers of Campanulaceae often have distinct nectar guides and are arranged in various inflorescences such as racemes, panicles, or cymes. The leaves are typically simple and alternate, with entire or lobed margins.

Some notable genera within Campanulaceae include:

* Campanula (bellflowers)
* Lobelia (lobelias)
* Platycodon (balloon flowers)
* Trachelium (throatworts)

The family is of significant horticultural importance, with many species and cultivars widely used as ornamental plants in gardens and landscapes. Additionally, some members of Campanulaceae have medicinal uses, such as Lobelia inflata, which has been used historically to treat respiratory ailments.

Euphorbiaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to the spurge family, which is a large family of flowering plants that includes around 300 genera and 7,500 species. Some members of this family have medicinal uses, but others are toxic or invasive. Therefore, it is important to use caution when handling or consuming any plant material from this family.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "wasps" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Wasps are a type of insect in the order Hymenoptera, and some people can have allergic reactions to their stings. However, there is no medical condition or disease specifically associated with wasps. If you have any specific medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help if I can!

Ericaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as heath family or heather family. It includes a number of genera with over 4000 species, many of which are evergreen shrubs and trees. Some well-known members of this family include blueberries, cranberries, rhododendrons, azaleas, and heathers. These plants typically prefer acidic soils and are often found in woodland, mountain, and coastal habitats.

I'm not aware of a medical definition specifically for "Borneo." Borneo is the third-largest island in the world, located in Southeast Asia and divided among three countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei. It has a rich biodiversity with many plant and animal species, some of which have been studied in medical or scientific research. However, there is no established medical definition for "Borneo" itself.

Agricultural crops refer to plants that are grown and harvested for the purpose of human or animal consumption, fiber production, or other uses such as biofuels. These crops can include grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and legumes, among others. They are typically cultivated using various farming practices, including traditional row cropping, companion planting, permaculture, and organic farming methods. The choice of crop and farming method depends on factors such as the local climate, soil conditions, and market demand. Proper management of agricultural crops is essential for ensuring food security, promoting sustainable agriculture, and protecting the environment.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Proteaceae" is not a medical term. It is a botanical term that refers to a family of flowering plants, found primarily in the southern hemisphere, particularly in Australia, South Africa, and South America. The plants in this family are known for their distinctive flowers and hard, woody seeds.

Apocynaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes shrubs, trees, and vines. It's also known as the dogbane or milkweed family. The plants in this family have milky sap and contain toxic compounds, which can be harmful or even fatal to animals and humans if ingested. Some well-known members of Apocynaceae include the various species of milkweeds (Asclepias spp.), oleander (Nerium oleander), and periwinkle (Vinca spp.).

The family is characterized by having opposite leaves, flowers with five petals and five sepals, and a superior ovary. The fruits are usually paired follicles that contain numerous seeds with tufts of hair to aid in wind dispersal. Many species in this family have medicinal or toxic properties, and some have economic importance as ornamental plants, sources of fiber, or for their use in traditional medicine.

Acanthaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes around 2,500 species distributed across 220-400 genera. These plants are primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, with some extending into temperate zones. The family is characterized by the presence of stiff, spiny bracts, which are often colorful and modified to attract pollinators.

The plants in Acanthaceae can vary widely in form, from herbaceous annuals and perennials to shrubs and trees. They have simple or opposite leaves that may be entire or lobed. The flowers are typically bisexual, with a two-lipped calyx and corolla, and four stamens.

Some well-known members of Acanthaceae include the garden plants Shrimp Plant (Justicia brandegeeana) and Whorled Tubelet (Lepidagathis formosa), as well as the medicinal plant Indian Snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina).

In a medical context, some species of Acanthaceae have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions, fevers, and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants should be done with caution and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can also contain toxic compounds.

Polygalaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to a family of flowering plants commonly known as the milkwort family. The plants in this family are characterized by their small, typically bilateral flowers and often have a pair of large, leaf-like bracts at the base of the flower cluster. Some members of Polygalaceae have medicinal uses, such as the roots of Polygala senega, which have been used historically to induce vomiting and treat respiratory conditions. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant-based remedies for medical purposes.

"Pyrus" is the genus name for the fruit tree species that includes pears. It is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. The fruits produced by these trees are commonly consumed and can have various health benefits, but "Pyrus" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Ecology is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of biology. It refers to the study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment. This includes how organisms interact with each other and with their physical surroundings, such as climate, soil, and water. Ecologists may study the distribution and abundance of species, the flow of energy through an ecosystem, and the effects of human activities on the environment. While ecology is not a medical field, understanding ecological principles can be important for addressing public health issues related to the environment, such as pollution, climate change, and infectious diseases.

Chrysobalanaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes trees and shrubs. It is primarily found in tropical regions, particularly in the Americas and Africa. The family contains around 16 genera and about 450 species, including the well-known genus Parinari, which contains several economically important timber trees.

The plants in Chrysobalanaceae are characterized by their simple, alternate leaves and small, white or cream-colored flowers that are typically arranged in clusters. The fruits of these plants are often drupes, which are fleshy and contain a single seed. Some of the fruits are edible and have been used as food sources by local populations.

In medical contexts, Chrysobalanaceae may be mentioned in relation to the use of its bark or leaves in traditional medicine. For example, some species of Chrysobalanaceae have been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including diarrhea, fever, and skin diseases. However, it is important to note that the safety and efficacy of these remedies have not been thoroughly studied and should be approached with caution.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

"Arum" is a genus name that refers to a group of flowering plants in the family Araceae. These plants are commonly known as calla lilies, jack-in-the-pulpit, and wild arums. Some species of Arum contain calcium oxalate crystals, which can cause irritation and pain if ingested or come into contact with skin or mucous membranes.

It is worth noting that "Arum" is not a medical term per se, but rather a scientific name for a group of plants. However, it is possible to have an allergic reaction or other adverse effects from exposure to these plants, so it is important to be aware of their potential hazards if you come into contact with them.

Rubiaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to the family of flowering plants that includes more than 13,500 species, distributed across approximately 600 genera. Some well-known members of this family include coffee (Coffea arabica), gardenias (Gardenia jasminoides), and madder (Rubia tinctorum).

In a medical context, certain plants from the Rubiaceae family have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes. For example:

* Coffee (Coffea arabica) beans are used to prepare caffeinated beverages that can help with alertness and concentration.
* Gardenia fruits and flowers have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat anxiety, insomnia, and inflammation.
* Madder root (Rubia tinctorum) has been used as a dye and in traditional medicine to treat skin conditions and digestive disorders.

However, it's important to note that the medicinal use of plants from this family should be based on scientific evidence and under the guidance of healthcare professionals, as some of these plants can have side effects or interact with medications.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Rosales" is not a medical term. It is a botanical term used in the classification of plants. Rosales is an order of flowering plants that includes roses, as well as many other plants such as apples, cherries, almonds, and strawberries. The plants in this group are characterized by having flowers with multiple stamens and styles. I hope this clarifies any confusion. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, please let me know!

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "organic agriculture" is not a medical term but rather a term used in the context of farming and food production. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), "organic agriculture" is defined as:

A production system that is managed to respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. Synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, irradiation, and genetic engineering may not be used.

This definition emphasizes the importance of using natural and sustainable methods to grow crops and raise animals without relying on synthetic chemicals or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The goal is to promote a healthy and diverse ecosystem while producing food that is safe and nutritious for consumers.

While "organic agriculture" may not be a medical term, there are potential health benefits associated with consuming organic foods, such as lower exposure to pesticide residues and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, more research is needed to fully understand the health impacts of organic versus conventionally grown foods.

"Nelumbo" is the scientific genus name for the lotus flower, which includes two species: Nelumbo nucifera (also known as Sacred Lotus) and Nelumbo lutea (American Lotus). These aquatic plants are known for their large, beautiful flowers that bloom on the surface of the water. While "Nelumbo" is a term from plant taxonomy and botany, it does not have a specific medical definition as such. However, various parts of Nelumbo plants have been used in traditional medicine across different cultures for treating various health conditions. For instance, the seeds, leaves, and roots of Nelumbo nucifera are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat several ailments like diarrhea, fever, and skin diseases. Nonetheless, it is essential to consult healthcare professionals before using any plant or herbal remedy for medicinal purposes.

'Antirrhinum' is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as "snapdragons." The term 'Antirrhinum' comes from the Greek words "anti" meaning like, and "rhin" meaning nose, which describes the shape of their flowers. Snapdragons are popular ornamental plants known for their unique flower structure, with a "mouth" that can be opened and closed by squeezing the sides of the flower.

While 'Antirrhinum' is a botanical name and not a medical term per se, it is important to note that some species of Antirrhinum contain certain chemical compounds that have been studied for their potential medicinal properties. For instance, certain Antirrhinum species have been found to contain iridoid glycosides, which have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. However, it is essential to note that these studies are still in the early stages, and more research is needed before any definitive medical claims can be made about Antirrhinum or its potential therapeutic benefits.

In medical terms, "breeding" is not a term that is commonly used. It is more frequently used in the context of animal husbandry to refer to the process of mating animals in order to produce offspring with specific desired traits or characteristics. In human medicine, the term is not typically applied to people and instead, related concepts such as reproduction, conception, or pregnancy are used.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "honey" is not typically considered a medical term. It is a natural sweet substance produced by honeybees from the nectar of flowers. Honey is composed primarily of fructose and glucose, with small amounts of other sugars, water, proteins, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and various organic compounds.

While honey does have some potential health benefits, such as its antimicrobial properties and its use in wound healing, it is not a medical treatment or intervention. If you have any questions about the medicinal uses of honey or its role in health, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Marantaceae" is not a medical term. It is a botanical term that refers to a family of flowering plants, also known as the prayer plant family. This family includes several genera of tropical herbs and shrubs, many of which are grown for their ornamental leaves and flowers. If you have any questions about a medical term, I would be happy to help if you could provide it.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Melastomataceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, referring to the Melastomataceae family of plants, also known as the melastome or blueberry family. This family includes around 400 genera and 5,000 species of flowering plants, many of which are found in tropical regions around the world.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help. Please provide me with more information so that I can better assist you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Impatiens" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of flowering plants, also known as touch-me-nots or busy Lizzies. If you have any questions about a medical condition or term, I would be happy to try and help with that instead.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Daphne" is not a medical term or condition. It is a name that can refer to both males and females in Greek mythology and is also used as a given name in modern times. In botany, "Daphne" refers to a genus of shrubs in the thyme family. If you have any questions about a specific medical topic, I would be happy to help clarify or explain it for you.

Inbreeding, in a medical context, refers to the practice of mating closely related individuals within a given family or breeding population. This leads to an increased proportion of homozygous genes, meaning that the same alleles (versions of a gene) are inherited from both parents. As a result, recessive traits and disorders become more likely to be expressed because the necessary dominant allele may be absent.

In human medicine, consanguinity is the term often used instead of inbreeding, and it refers to relationships between individuals who share a common ancestor. Consanguinity increases the risk of certain genetic disorders due to the increased likelihood of sharing harmful recessive genes. The closer the relationship, the higher the risk.

In animal breeding, inbreeding can lead to reduced fertility, lower birth weights, higher infant mortality, and a decreased lifespan. It is crucial to maintain genetic diversity within populations to ensure their overall health and vigor.

"Prunus" is a term that refers to a genus of plants, which includes many familiar fruits such as plums, cherries, peaches, and almonds. It's not a medical term, but rather a botanical one. The fruit of these plants are often used in food medicine due to their nutritional value and health benefits. For example, prunes (dried plums) are known for their laxative effects. However, the plant itself or its extracts can also have medicinal uses, mainly as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cardioprotective agents.

"Ficus" is not a medical term. It is a genus of plants, including the fig tree, which is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of Ficus are used in traditional medicine, but "Ficus" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

I apologize for any confusion, but "agriculture" is not a term that has a medical definition. Agriculture refers to the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. It is an important industry and practice that has been developed over thousands of years and continues to play a critical role in global food production and security.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sagittaria" is not a medical term. It is the genus name of a group of aquatic plants commonly known as arrowheads or sagittarias. These plants are often found in wetlands and are known for their arrow-shaped leaves. If you have any questions about a medical term, I would be happy to help with that instead.

Medical definitions typically focus on the relevance of a term to medical practice, and I'm not sure if there is a specific medical definition for "plant exudates." However, in a broader context, plant exudates refer to the various substances that are released or exuded by plants, often as a result of damage or stress. These can include a wide variety of compounds, such as sap, resins, latex, gums, essential oils, and tannins. Some of these compounds can have medicinal properties and are used in various forms of traditional and modern medicine. For example, the resin from certain pine trees (rosin) has been used to treat respiratory ailments, while willow bark, which contains salicin (a precursor to aspirin), has been used for pain relief for centuries.

A plant stem is not typically defined in a medical context, but rather in the field of botany. However, I can certainly provide a general biological definition for you.

In plants, stems are organs that serve primarily as support structures, holding leaves, flowers, and fruits aloft where they can receive sunlight and exchange gases. They also act as conduits, transporting water, nutrients, and sugars made during photosynthesis between the roots and shoots of a plant.

The stem is usually composed of three main tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. The dermal tissue system forms the outermost layer(s) of the stem, providing protection and sometimes participating in gas exchange. The vascular tissue system contains the xylem (which transports water and nutrients upward) and phloem (which transports sugars and other organic compounds downward). The ground tissue system, located between the dermal and vascular tissues, is responsible for food storage and support.

While not a direct medical definition, understanding the structure and function of plant stems can be relevant in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and environmental science, which have implications for human health.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Zamiaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, specifically a family of plants that includes cycads, which are seed plants with a long fossil history that date back to the Mesozoic Era. They are often mistaken for palms or ferns due to their tropical appearance. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

Araceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the arum or aroid family. It includes a diverse range of species, such as calla lilies, peace lilies, and jack-in-the-pulpit. These plants are characterized by their unique inflorescence structure, which consists of a specialized leaf-like structure called a spathe that surrounds and protects a spike-like structure called a spadix, where the flowers are located.

The flowers of Araceae plants are often small and inconspicuous, and may be surrounded by showy bracts or modified leaves. Many species in this family produce attractive berries or fruits that contain seeds. Some members of Araceae contain calcium oxalate crystals, which can cause irritation to the skin and mucous membranes if handled improperly.

Araceae plants are found worldwide, with a majority of species occurring in tropical regions. They are grown for their ornamental value, as well as for their edible fruits and tubers. Some species have medicinal uses, while others are invasive and can cause ecological damage in certain areas.

Lycopodiaceae is a family of non-flowering plants in the class Lycopodiopsida, also known as clubmosses. These are small, vascular plants that typically grow in damp habitats such as forests, swamps, and bogs. They have slender, creeping stems that produce small, scale-like leaves and reproduce by means of spores produced in strobili or cones.

The family Lycopodiaceae includes several genera, including Lycopodium, Lycopodiella, and Diphasiastrum. These plants have been used traditionally for medicinal purposes, such as treating wounds and skin conditions, but there is limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness. Some species of clubmosses contain alkaloids that can be toxic if ingested in large quantities.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

"Silene" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae. It includes over 700 species that are found worldwide, particularly in temperate regions. These plants are commonly known as catchflies or campions. They are usually herbaceous and can vary in size from small annuals to large perennials. The flowers of Silene species are typically radial symmetrical with five distinct petals, often with notched or lobed ends. Some species have inflated calyxes that enclose the flower buds, giving them a bladder-like appearance.

However, it's important to note that "Silene" is not a medical term and does not have a direct application in human health or medicine.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

Eriocaulaceae is a family of monocotyledonous plants, also known as the Pipewort family. This family includes around 15 genera and about 1,200 species of mostly terrestrial herbs that are characterized by their simple, grass-like or rosette-forming leaves and their distinctive, often solitary flower heads (capitula) that resemble small pipes or vases. The flowers themselves are usually quite small and inconspicuous, with both male and female parts present in each flower.

Eriocaulaceae are found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, although some species can be found in temperate areas as well. Many species prefer wet or moist habitats, such as marshes, swamps, and the edges of ponds and streams. Some species are adapted to grow in nutrient-poor soils or in sandy or rocky habitats.

The family includes a number of economically important plants, including some that are used as ornamental plants in gardens and landscapes. Some species are also used in traditional medicine in various parts of the world.

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hymenoptera" is not a medical term. It is a scientific classification in biology, specifically referring to an order of insects that includes sawflies, bees, ants, and wasps. These insects are characterized by having two pairs of membranous wings (except for some species that have only one pair or are wingless) and a slender waist. Some people may have allergic reactions to the venom of stinging Hymenoptera, such as bees and wasps, which can cause medical issues. However, "Hymenoptera" itself is not a medical term.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Seed Dispersal" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. It is a concept from botany and ecology, referring to the various methods by which plants distribute their seeds away from the parent plant. This can occur through mechanisms such as wind, water, or animal dispersal. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Alocasia is a genus of flowering plants in the arum family, Araceae. It includes several species that are commonly grown as ornamental houseplants for their attractive, often large and colorful leaves. Some popular species include Alocasia amazonica (Elephant's Ear), Alocasia x calidora (Kris Plant), and Alocasia polyphylla (Silver Dragon). These plants are native to tropical regions of Asia and Eastern Australia.

It is important to note that some species of Alocasia contain calcium oxalate crystals, which can cause irritation and discomfort if ingested or come into contact with the skin or eyes. Therefore, it is recommended to handle these plants with care and keep them out of reach of children and pets.

"Lilium" is not a term with a medical definition. It is the genus name for the flowering plants that are commonly called "true lilies." These plants belong to the family Liliaceae and are native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Some examples of species in this genus include the Easter lily, tiger lily, and Madonna lily.

There is no direct medical relevance to the term "Lilium." However, some compounds derived from plants in the Liliaceae family have been used in traditional medicine or as ingredients in pharmaceuticals. For example, certain species of Lilium contain alkaloids that have been studied for their potential medicinal properties. But it is important to note that these studies are still in the early stages and more research is needed before any conclusions can be drawn about the potential medical uses of these compounds.

Diptera is an order of insects that includes flies, mosquitoes, and gnats. The name "Diptera" comes from the Greek words "di," meaning two, and "pteron," meaning wing. This refers to the fact that all members of this order have a single pair of functional wings for flying, while the other pair is reduced to small knob-like structures called halteres, which help with balance and maneuverability during flight.

Some common examples of Diptera include houseflies, fruit flies, horseflies, tsetse flies, and midges. Many species in this order are important pollinators, while others can be significant pests or disease vectors. The study of Diptera is called dipterology.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "tropical climate" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the climate of tropical regions, which are located around the equator. These regions are characterized by high temperatures and consistent rainfall throughout the year.

However, it's worth noting that certain environmental factors, such as climate, can have an impact on human health. For instance, tropical climates can contribute to the spread of certain diseases, like malaria and dengue fever, due to the presence of mosquitoes that thrive in warm, wet environments. But a "tropical climate" itself is not a medical condition or diagnosis.

Cycadophyta, also known as cycads, is a division of plants that includes several species of mostly tropical and subtropical gymnosperms. These plants are characterized by a large crown of compound leaves, a stout trunk often undergrown by other plants, and a cone-like reproductive structure. Cycads are considered to be living fossils because they have remained relatively unchanged for millions of years and are thought to resemble some of the earliest seed plants. They are found in scattered locations around the world, particularly in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Some cycad species are endangered due to habitat loss and overcollection for ornamental purposes.

"Genetic crosses" refer to the breeding of individuals with different genetic characteristics to produce offspring with specific combinations of traits. This process is commonly used in genetics research to study the inheritance patterns and function of specific genes.

There are several types of genetic crosses, including:

1. Monohybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of a single gene or trait.
2. Dihybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of two genes or traits.
3. Backcross: A cross between an individual from a hybrid population and one of its parental lines.
4. Testcross: A cross between an individual with unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual.
5. Reciprocal cross: A cross in which the male and female parents are reversed to determine if there is any effect of sex on the expression of the trait.

These genetic crosses help researchers to understand the mode of inheritance, linkage, recombination, and other genetic phenomena.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malus" is not a medical term. It is a genus name in the plant kingdom, referring to the apple tree. If you have a different term or concept in mind, please provide it so I can give you an accurate definition or explanation.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

In the context of medical terminology, "germination" is not typically used as a term to describe a physiological process in humans or animals. It is primarily used in the field of botany to refer to the process by which a seed or spore sprouts and begins to grow into a new plant.

However, if you are referring to the concept of germination in the context of bacterial or viral growth, then it could be defined as:

The process by which bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms become active and start to multiply, often after a period of dormancy or latency. This can occur when the microorganisms encounter favorable conditions, such as moisture, warmth, or nutrients, that allow them to grow and reproduce. In medical contexts, this term is more commonly used in relation to infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Arecaceae is the scientific name for the family of plants that includes palm trees. It is a large and diverse family with over 2,600 known species, distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plants in this family are characterized by their long, unbranched stems, which can be underground or aboveground, and their large, compound leaves that are arranged in a crown at the top of the stem.

The fruits of many Arecaceae species are also economically important, including coconuts, dates, and acai berries. In addition to their use as food sources, palm trees have many other uses, such as providing materials for construction, fiber for making ropes and baskets, and shade in tropical environments.

"Passiflora" is a genus of flowering plants, commonly known as passion flowers or passion vines. While it is not a medical term itself, certain species of Passiflora are used in herbal medicine. The most common medicinal use of Passiflora is Passiflora incarnata, also known as maypop or purple passionflower. This plant is used as a natural sedative and anxiety reliever due to its calming effects on the nervous system. It contains various chemical compounds such as flavonoids, indole alkaloids, and glycosides which contribute to its medicinal properties. It's often used in teas, supplements, and tinctures for promoting relaxation, reducing insomnia, and treating symptoms of anxiety and stress.

Herbivory is not a medical term, but rather a term used in biology and ecology. It refers to the practice of consuming plants or plant matter for food. Herbivores are animals that eat only plants, and their diet can include leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, and other parts of plants.

While herbivory is not a medical term, it is still relevant to the field of medicine in certain contexts. For example, understanding the diets and behaviors of herbivores can help inform public health initiatives related to food safety and disease transmission. Additionally, research on herbivory has contributed to our understanding of the evolution of plant-animal interactions and the development of ecosystems.

"Southern Africa" is a geographical region that includes several countries located in the southernmost part of the African continent. The specific countries that are included in this region can vary depending on the source, but it generally consists of Angola, Botswana, Eswatini (Swaziland), Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

In medical terms, "Southern Africa" may be used to describe the epidemiology, distribution, or prevalence of various diseases or health conditions in this specific region. For example, a study might examine the burden of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, which has been disproportionately affected by this epidemic compared to other parts of the world. Similarly, researchers might investigate the prevalence of malaria or tuberculosis in Southern Africa, as these diseases are also significant public health challenges in this region.

It's worth noting that while "Southern Africa" is a useful geographical and medical designation, it does not encompass all of the countries on the African continent, and there can be significant variation in disease patterns and health outcomes within this region as well.

"Beetles" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to insects belonging to the order Coleoptera, which is one of the largest orders in the class Insecta. Beetles are characterized by their hardened forewings, known as elytra, which protect their hind wings and body when not in use for flying.

There are many different species of beetles found all over the world, and some can have an impact on human health. For example, certain types of beetles, such as bed bugs and carpet beetles, can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Other beetles, like the Colorado potato beetle, can damage crops and lead to economic losses for farmers. However, it is important to note that most beetles are not harmful to humans and play an essential role in ecosystems as decomposers and pollinators.

'Brassica' is a term used in botanical nomenclature, specifically within the family Brassicaceae. It refers to a genus of plants that includes various vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and mustard greens. These plants are known for their nutritional value and health benefits. They contain glucosinolates, which have been studied for their potential anti-cancer properties. However, it is not a medical term per se, but rather a taxonomic category used in the biological sciences.

The conservation of natural resources refers to the responsible use and management of natural resources, such as water, soil, minerals, forests, and wildlife, in a way that preserves their availability for future generations. This may involve measures such as reducing waste and pollution, promoting sustainable practices, protecting habitats and ecosystems, and engaging in careful planning and decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of these resources. The goal of conservation is to balance the needs of the present with the needs of the future, so that current and future generations can continue to benefit from the many goods and services that natural resources provide.

"Coffea" is the genus name for the Coffea plant, which belongs to the Rubiaceae family. This plant is native to tropical regions of Africa and Asia, and it is widely cultivated for its seeds, commonly known as coffee beans. These beans are used to produce a popular beverage called coffee, which contains caffeine, a stimulant drug that affects the central nervous system.

Coffee has been consumed for centuries and is one of the most traded commodities in the world. It contains several bioactive compounds, including caffeine, chlorogenic acids, diterpenes, and polyphenols, which have been associated with various health benefits, such as improved cognitive function, increased alertness, and reduced risk of certain diseases like type 2 diabetes and Parkinson's disease. However, excessive consumption of coffee can lead to adverse effects, including insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, and rapid heart rate.

It is worth noting that the term "Coffea" refers specifically to the plant genus, while "coffee" refers to the beverage produced from its seeds.

Endosperm is a type of tissue found in the seeds of flowering plants, which provides nutrition to the developing embryo. It is formed from the fusion of one sperm cell with two polar nuclei during double fertilization in angiosperms (flowering plants). The endosperm can be triploid (having three sets of chromosomes) or sometimes diploid (having two sets of chromosomes), depending on the species.

The endosperm can have different forms and functions across various plant species. In some seeds, it serves as a food storage tissue, accumulating starch, proteins, and lipids that are used up by the embryo during germination and early growth. Examples of such seeds include cereal grains like corn, wheat, rice, and barley, where the endosperm makes up a significant portion of the grain.

In other plants, the endosperm may be absorbed by the developing embryo before seed maturation, leaving only a thin layer called the aleurone layer that surrounds the embryo. This aleurone layer is responsible for producing enzymes during germination, which help in breaking down stored nutrients and making them available to the growing embryo.

Overall, endosperm plays a crucial role in the development and survival of angiosperm seeds, acting as a source of nutrition and energy for the embryo.

Beekeeping is not a medical term, but rather it refers to the practice of maintaining bee colonies in hives to collect honey and other products such as beeswax, pollen, and royal jelly. Beekeepers also rent out their hives to farmers for crop pollination. While beekeeping itself is not a medical field, honeybees do play an important role in medicine and health due to the therapeutic properties of some of their products. For example, honey has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects and can be used as a topical treatment for wounds and burns. Additionally, bee venom therapy is an alternative medicine practice that involves the use of controlled bee stings to treat various health conditions such as arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

Rosaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in biology, specifically an family of flowering plants. However, many physicians and dermatologists are familiar with some members of this family because they cause several common skin conditions.

Rosaceae refers to a family of plants that include roses, strawberries, blackberries, and many other ornamental and edible plants. Some genera within this family contain species known to cause various dermatologic conditions in humans, particularly affecting the face.

The most well-known skin disorders associated with Rosaceae are:

1. Acne rosacea (or rosacea): A chronic inflammatory skin condition primarily affecting the central face, characterized by flushing, persistent erythema (redness), telangiectasia (dilated blood vessels), papules, pustules, and sometimes rhinophyma (enlarged, bulbous nose).
2. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea: A subtype of rosacea characterized by persistent central facial erythema, flushing, and telangiectasia without papules or pustules.
3. Phymatous rosacea: A subtype of rosacea characterized by thickening skin, irregular surface nodularities, and enlargement, particularly of the nose (rhinophyma).
4. Ocular rosacea: Inflammation of the eyes and eyelids associated with rosacea, causing symptoms like dryness, grittiness, foreign body sensation, burning, stinging, itching, watering, redness, and occasional blurry vision.

While not a medical term itself, Rosaceae is an essential concept in dermatology due to the skin conditions it encompasses.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mediterranean Region" is not a term with a specific medical definition. The Mediterranean Region typically refers to the geographical area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, including countries in Southern Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the study of diseases or health characteristics typical of certain populations in this region. For example, the "Mediterranean diet" is a popular term in nutrition and medicine, referring to the traditional eating habits in Mediterranean countries, which are associated with numerous health benefits. If you're looking for medical information related to a specific aspect of the Mediterranean Region or its population, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate response.

I am not aware of a standard medical definition for the term "islands." In general, an island is a landmass that is surrounded by water. In a medical context, it might be used to describe isolated areas or structures within the body, such as islands of Langerhans in the pancreas which are clusters of cells that produce hormones like insulin. However, I would need more specific context to provide an accurate definition related to medicine.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Moths" are not a medical term, but rather they are a group of insects closely related to butterflies. They belong to the order Lepidoptera and are characterized by their scales covering their wings and body. If you have any questions about moths or if you meant to ask something else, please let me know!

"Eriobotrya" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rosaceae, which includes several species of trees and shrubs. The most well-known species is Eriobotrya japonica, also known as the loquat tree. The loquat tree is native to southeastern China and has been cultivated for its fruit, leaves, and bark in many parts of the world.

The name "Eriobotrya" comes from the Greek words "erion," meaning wool, and "botrys," meaning cluster of grapes, which refers to the woolly clusters of flowers that the tree produces. The fruits of the loquat tree are small, round, and orange or yellow in color, with a sweet and slightly tart flavor. They are often eaten fresh or used in jams, jellies, and other culinary applications.

In addition to its use as a food source, the loquat tree has also been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including treating coughs, sore throats, and digestive disorders. The leaves of the tree contain several bioactive compounds that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. However, it is important to note that the safety and efficacy of using loquat leaves or other parts of the plant for medicinal purposes have not been thoroughly studied in clinical trials, so they should be used with caution.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Structures" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of botany to refer to the different parts of a plant, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Each of these structures has specific functions that contribute to the overall growth, reproduction, and survival of the plant. If you have any questions related to biology or botany, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Schisandra is not typically defined in the context of medicine as it refers to a type of plant, rather than a specific medical condition or treatment. Schisandra is a genus of plants that includes several species commonly known as "schisandra" or "schizandra." The most well-known species is Schisandra chinensis, also known as Wu Wei Zi in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Schisandra chinensis fruits, also called "magnolia vine berries," have been used in traditional medicine systems, including Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda, for centuries. In TCM, schisandra is often referred to as a "five-flavor fruit" because its taste is said to incorporate all five flavors recognized in TCM: sour, bitter, sweet, pungent, and salty.

Schisandra fruits contain various bioactive compounds, including lignans, which have been studied for their potential health benefits. Some research suggests that schisandra extracts may possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective (liver-protecting), and adaptogenic properties. However, more rigorous scientific studies are needed to confirm these findings and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines for human consumption.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. In medical terms, there is no definition for "tidal waves." However, the term "tidal wave" is commonly used in layman's language to refer to massive waves caused by earthquakes or underwater landslides, which are technically called tsunamis. Tsunamis are rapid, long-wavelength sea waves that can cause extensive coastal damage and loss of life.

If you meant a different term related to medicine or healthcare, please clarify so I can provide an accurate definition.

An ecological system that is closed is a type of ecosystem where there is no exchange of energy, matter, or organisms with the outside environment. It is a self-sustaining system that is able to maintain its own balance and stability without any external inputs or outputs. In a closed ecological system, all the necessary resources for the survival and growth of the organisms within it are recycled and reused, with no waste products leaving the system.

Examples of closed ecological systems are rare in nature, as most ecosystems are open and interconnected with other systems. However, there are some artificial systems that have been designed to be closed, such as space stations or life support systems for spacecraft. These systems are designed to recycle and reuse all resources, including water, air, and nutrients, in order to sustain human life in space.

It is important to note that while a closed ecological system may seem like an ideal model for sustainability, it can also be vulnerable to disturbances and fluctuations within the system. For example, if one species becomes too dominant or if there is a sudden change in environmental conditions, it can have cascading effects on the entire system, potentially leading to its collapse. Therefore, maintaining the balance and stability of a closed ecological system requires careful monitoring and management.

"Citrullus" is a genus of plants that includes watermelon and several other species of vine-like fruits. The name "Citrullus" comes from the Latin word for watermelon, "citrullus lanatus." Watermelons are the most well-known member of this genus and are popular for their juicy, sweet red or pink flesh, which is high in vitamins A and C and contains a high amount of lycopene. Other species in the Citrullus genus include citron melon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) and colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis), also known as bitter apple.

"Viola" is a term that has different meanings in various scientific and medical contexts. Here are some possible definitions related to medicine and biology:

1. Viola tricolor L. (Heartsease or Johnny-jump-up) - A species of flowering plant in the family Violaceae, which is used in herbal medicine for treating skin conditions, coughs, and respiratory issues.
2. Viola odorata L. (Sweet violet) - Another species of flowering plant in the family Violaceae, whose leaves and flowers are used to make teas, syrups, and other medicinal preparations for treating various ailments such as coughs, colds, and skin conditions.
3. In anatomy, "viola" is an archaic term that refers to the human uvula or the conical piece of soft tissue hanging down at the back of the throat.
4. Viola (musical instrument) - While not directly related to medicine, it's worth noting that "viola" is also a stringed musical instrument similar to a violin but slightly larger and with a deeper sound. In some contexts, such as music therapy, musical instruments can have therapeutic applications in healthcare settings.

It's essential to clarify the specific meaning of "Viola" in the given medical or scientific context since it can refer to different things depending on the field.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "weevils" are not a medical term. They are small beetles, typically characterized by their elongated snouts. Some species are known to infest and damage crops such as grains, causing agricultural harm. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to help!

In the context of medicine, "odors" refer to smells or scents that are produced by certain medical conditions, substances, or bodily functions. These odors can sometimes provide clues about underlying health issues. For example, sweet-smelling urine could indicate diabetes, while foul-smelling breath might suggest a dental problem or gastrointestinal issue. However, it's important to note that while odors can sometimes be indicative of certain medical conditions, they are not always reliable diagnostic tools and should be considered in conjunction with other symptoms and medical tests.

The term "cacao" refers to the plant Theobroma cacao, which is native to tropical regions of Central and South America. It is a small evergreen tree that produces large, football-shaped fruits called pods. Each pod contains 20-60 seeds, also known as beans, which are used to make cocoa powder and chocolate.

Cacao beans contain several bioactive compounds, including flavonoids, theobromine, and caffeine, that have been shown to have potential health benefits. However, it is important to note that these benefits are typically associated with moderate consumption of cocoa products, rather than large amounts of chocolate or cacao beans themselves.

In summary, while "cacao" may be used interchangeably with "cocoa" in some contexts, the term technically refers to the plant and its seeds, rather than the processed powder or chocolate that is derived from them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Primula" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of plants in the family Primulaceae, also known as primroses or cowslips. These plants have various medicinal uses in traditional herbal medicine, but "Primula" itself does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions about a particular medical term or concept, I'd be happy to help answer those for you!

Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) refers to the genetic material present in the chloroplasts, which are organelles found in the cells of photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, and some bacteria. Chloroplasts are responsible for capturing sunlight energy and converting it into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

Chloroplast DNA is circular and contains a small number of genes compared to the nuclear genome. It encodes for some of the essential components required for chloroplast function, including proteins involved in photosynthesis, transcription, and translation. The majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and are imported into the chloroplast after being synthesized in the cytoplasm.

Chloroplast DNA is inherited maternally in most plants, meaning that it is passed down from the maternal parent to their offspring through the egg cell. This mode of inheritance has been used in plant breeding and genetic engineering to introduce desirable traits into crops.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

'Plant infertility' is not a standard medical term, as it is typically used in the context of agriculture and plant biology. However, I can provide you with a general definition related to this context:

Plant infertility refers to the inability of a plant to produce viable seeds, fruits, or propagules due to various factors affecting its reproductive system. These factors may include genetic disorders, environmental stressors (such as extreme temperatures, drought, or nutrient deficiencies), pathogens, pests, or poor pollination. In some cases, assisted reproduction techniques, such as hand-pollination or embryo rescue, might be employed to overcome infertility issues in plants.

"Theaceae" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to a family of flowering plants that includes the tea plant (Camellia sinensis), as well as other related genera. Theaceae is part of the order Ericales and contains around 20 genera and about 600 species.

The medicinal relevance of Theaceae comes primarily from the tea plant, which has been used for centuries in traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments, including digestive disorders, headaches, and fatigue. Green and black teas made from the leaves of Camellia sinensis contain bioactive compounds such as catechins, theaflavins, and thearubigins, which have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and potential health benefits. However, it's important to note that while some studies suggest possible health advantages of tea consumption, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and potential therapeutic applications.

... can be accomplished by cross-pollination or by self-pollination: Cross-pollination, also called allogamy, occurs ... Ornithophily or bird pollination is the pollination of flowering plants by birds. Chiropterophily or bat pollination is the ... Pollination by wind is more common amongst abiotic pollination. Some 98% of abiotic pollination is anemophily, i.e., ... Resources on Pollinators from the National Academies The Pollination Home page Pollination in Hydroponics Pollination syndromes ...
... s interaction with pollinators Pollination traps plants relies on pollinators such as flies, wasps, bees and ... so as to enhance their effectiveness in pollination. The structures of pollination traps can include deep tubular corollas with ... Pollination traps or trap-flowers are plant flower structures that aid the trapping of insects, mainly flies, ... Broderbauer, D; A. Weber & Anita Diaz (2013). "The design of trapping devices in pollination traps of the genus Arum (Araceae) ...
... was a UK social movement which aims to help protect the future of pollinators through learning about them and ... "Free" pollination by bees and other insects is worth over £400 million to UK agriculture each year according to the UK National ... Polli:Nation is the name for schools coming together in clusters to collect data about pollinating insects and make ... the demand from schools to broaden children and young people's understanding of the links between pollination and food security ...
Pollination involving vibrations is called buzz pollination. Honeybees cannot perform buzz pollination. About 9% of the flowers ... Sue Rosenthal, Buzz Pollination, Bay Nature, June 11, 2008. Buzz pollination and bee learning, Vallejo-Marin Lab (Commons ... Media related to Buzz pollination at Wikimedia Commons Buzz Pollination, Anne Leonard Lab. De Luca, P.A.; Vallejo-Marín, M. ( ... Greenhouse grown tomatoes are unproductive without aid in pollination. Traditionally, pollination has been done by shaking ...
Pollination tents are also used for controlled pollination. Good pollination bags are those which have most of the following ... Pollination Cheating (biology) Domestication Fruit tree pollination Hand pollination Paul Knuth Hermann Müller (botanist) Plant ... Most pollination bags are produced by general paper bag manufacturers which have branched out into providing pollination bag ... are containers made of various different materials for the purpose of controlling pollination for plants. Pollination bags are ...
... is the horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or ... 1994, Bee pollination of Georgia crop plants. CES Bulletin 1106 Sihag, R.C. 1995.Pollination Biology: Environmental Factors and ... Pollination Biology: Pollination, Plant Reproduction and Crop Seed Production.Rajendra Scientific Publishers, Hisar, 210p. ... Pollination Biology: Basic and Applied Principles. Rajendra Scientific Publishers, Hisar, 215p. Insect Pollination Of ...
A pollination network is a bipartite mutualistic network in which plants and pollinators are the nodes, and the pollination ... A pollination network is two-modal, i.e., it includes only links connecting plant and animal communities. A key feature of ... The pollination network is bipartite as interactions only exist between two distinct, non-overlapping sets of species, but not ... Another feature that is common in pollination networks is modularity. Modularity occurs when certain groups of species within a ...
The characteristics of the pollination syndrome associated with pollination by mammals which are not bats are: a yeasty odour; ... Pollination syndromes can be thought of as extremes of a continuum of greater or lesser specialization or generalization onto ... Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different ... Many species of plants have the back-up option of self-pollination, if they are not self-incompatible. Whilst it is clear that ...
Hand pollination, also known as mechanical pollination is a technique that can be used to pollinate plants when natural or open ... honeybees or other pollinators are a more efficient approach to pollination management. Despite this, hand-pollination is a ... Hand-pollination is often done with a cotton swab or small brush, but can also be done by removing the petals from a male ... This method of pollination is done by manually transferring pollen from the stamen of one plant to the pistil of another. The ...
... is a pollination technique for agricultural crops in areas dominated by non-crop plant species that are ... Saturation pollination is especially important for those with special pollination problems, such as crops with flowers that are ... Pollination management McGregor, S.E. 1976. Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants. USDA [1] Whitcombe, Harry J. and John ... Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants by S. E. McGregor, USDA 1976 (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles ...
Pollination can also be accomplished by cross-pollination. Cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen, by wind or animals such ... Self-pollination is a form of pollination in which pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering ... Self-pollination or cross pollination can be an advantage when the number of flowers is small or they are widely spaced. During ... Self-pollination limits the variety of progeny and may depress plant vigor. However, self-pollination can be advantageous, ...
This can be contrasted with cleistogamy, closed pollination, which is one of the many types of self pollination. When used in ... A second use of the term "open pollination" refers to pollination by insects, birds, wind, or other natural mechanisms. ... Hybrid pollination, a type of controlled pollination in which the pollen comes from a different strain (or species), can be ... open pollination may result in plants that vary widely in genetic traits. Open pollination may increase biodiversity. Some ...
... reproduction and pollination. National Biodiversity Institute, South Africa. Christensen, D. E. (1994). "Fly pollination in the ... "Pollination of the orchid Cryptostylis leptochila." Victorian Naturalist 44: 20-22. Coleman, E. (1929). "Pollination of ... but due to their very particular pollination they have sometimes created unique flowers with very strange pollination ... The pollination of orchids is a complex chapter in the biology of this family of plants that are distinguished by the ...
In fruit trees, bees are an essential part of the pollination process for the formation of fruit. Pollination of fruit trees ... Much is known about fruit tree pollination in temperate climates, but much less is known about fruit tree pollination in ... for cross-pollination. Insects and birds may visit and consume the pollen, but are not a factor in pollination. Edible seeds ... by hand-pollination or by using a pollen sprayer). Cross pollination produces seeds with a different genetic makeup from the ...
The Canadian Pollination Initiative (NSERC-CANPOLIN) is one of nine new Strategic Networks announced in September 2009 and ... The Network will also provide critical information on the economic aspects of pollination and future management needs based on ... enhance pollination by native pollinators and increase our knowledge of flower/pollinator interactions and gene flow in plants ... Welcome to the Canadian Pollination Initiative http://www.uoguelph.ca/canpolin/index.html NSERC News Release 24 September 2009 ...
The mature cycad requires a mutualistic relationship with fauna for its pollination and seed dispersal. Thrips are lured to the ... Female cones also emit a scent when mature, attracting the pollen covered thrips and allowing pollination to occur. Once ... ISBN 978-0-9750206-0-9. "Pollination". The Australian Museum. Retrieved 31 May 2021. "Cycads". www3.nd.edu. Retrieved 31 May ... Mound, Laurence A.; Terry, Irene (2001). "Thrips Pollination of the Central Australian Cycad, Macrozamia macdonnellii ( ...
1911). "Pollination" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2-5. "Mosses and Ferns". ...
Jauker, Frank; Bondarenko, Birgit; Becker, Heiko C.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf (2012). "Pollination efficiency of wild bees and ... pollination". Entomological Research. 38 (4): 276-280. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5967.2008.00187.x. S2CID 84429520. ... "Mass Seasonal Migrations of Hoverflies Provide Extensive Pollination and Crop Protection Services". Current Biology. 29 (13): ...
In a case of self-pollination, this process takes place from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower. Pollen is ... 1911). "Pollination" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2-5. Tosi, S.; Costa, C.; ... The transfer of pollen grains to the female reproductive structure (pistil in angiosperms) is called pollination. Pollen ... their consumption of nectar in flowers is an important aspect of the pollination process. Bee pollen for human consumption is ...
... is pollen-borne and likely infects during pollination. Bees and other pollinators are the main vectors ... "Pollination". Illinois College of Agricultural Consumer & Environmental Sciences. Retrieved December 1, 2014. (Articles with ... The blueberry shock virus spreads by pollination; therefore, spreading only occurs in spring when pollinators are active. Honey ...
Surface pollination is more frequent, and appears to be a transitional phase between wind pollination and true hydrophily. In ... 1911). "Pollination". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2-5. (Articles with short ... Hydrophily is a fairly uncommon form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by the flow of waters, particularly in rivers ... Du, Z.-Y., Wang, Q.-F. (19 December 2014). "Correlations of Life Form, Pollination Mode and Sexual System in Aquatic ...
"Pollination". The California Backyard Orchard. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. Retrieved 25 May ...
She is the Senior Partner and co-founder of West Africa Blue, and Senior Advisor at Pollination, a climate change investment ... "Our people". Pollination Group , Climate Change Advisory & Investment Firm. Retrieved 2022-04-12. "TEAM - Beyond Net Zero". ... "Home". Pollination , Climate Change Investment & Advisory Firm. Retrieved 2023-05-25. "About Us , Albright Stonebridge Group ... Senior Adviser at Pollination (UK, USA, Australia), and Solon Capital Partners, (Sierra Leone), Board of Adviser at General ...
"Buzz Pollination". Retrieved 11 February 2015. Goulson, Dave; Hawson, Sadie A.; Stout, Jane C. (1998). "Foraging bumblebees ... "Modelling bee pollination: enter the 'flight arena'". Global Food Security. Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research ... Bumblebees are also capable of buzz pollination, in which they dislodge pollen from the anthers by creating a resonant ... A decline in bumblebee numbers could cause large-scale changes to the countryside, resulting from inadequate pollination of ...
"Wasp Pollination". USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 5 August 2015. Sühs; Somavilla; Putzke; Köhler (2009). "Pollen vector wasps ( ... While the vast majority of wasps play no role in pollination, a few species can effectively transport pollen and pollinate ... therefore contributing for potential pollination of several plant species. Pollen wasps in the subfamily Masarinae gather ...
"Cross Pollination". www.516arts.org. Archived from the original on 2019-03-01. Retrieved 2019-03-01. Gallery, Kamloops Art. " ... 2017 - Cross Pollination, 516 Arts, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. 2017 - AlterNation, Kamloops Art Gallery, Kamloops, British ...
"Pollination Canada". Retrieved 16 November 2014. "Pollination Canada partners". "The Bauta Family Initiative on Canadian Seed ... Pollination Canada has 28 other partner organizations. In February 2013, Gretchen Bauta, Canadian philanthropist and daughter ... Seeds of Diversity initiated a project called Pollination Canada with the aim of increasing awareness of native bees and ... crop genetic diversity and the redesign of pollination strategies". Seeds of Diversity originated in 1984 as the Heritage Seed ...
In addition to other forms of pollination, this plant is adapted to rain-pollination. The Latin specific name ossifragum means ... Rain-pollination. I kommission hos E. Munksgaard. Retrieved 26 May 2018. McClintock, David; Fitter, R.S.R. (1961). The Pocket ...
Self-pollination is the pollination of the carpel of a flower by pollen from either the same flower or another flower on the ... Cross-pollination is the pollination of the carpel by pollen from a different plant of the same species. Because the genetic ... "Self-Pollination and Cross-Pollination , Biology for Majors II". courses.lumenlearning.com. Archived from the original on 2020- ... Flowers can be pollinated by two mechanisms; cross-pollination and self-pollination. No mechanism is indisputably better than ...
Hagerup, O. (1951) Pollination in the Faroes - in spite of rain and poverty in insects. Biologiske Meddelelser, Kongelige ... Pollination in Liparis and Malaxis). Botanisk Tidsskrift 45: 396-402. Hagerup, O. (1942) The morphology and biology of the ... Ant pollination). Botanisk Tidsskrift 46: 116-123. Hagerup, O. (1944) Notes on some boreal polyploids. Hereditas 30: 152-160. ... Hagerup, O. (1932) On Pollination in the extremely hot air at Timbuctu. Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 8 (1): 1-20. Hagerup, O. (1933) ...
Pollinators, which provide the agriculturally and ecologically essential service of pollination, are under threat at a global ... A horizon scan of future threats and opportunities for pollinators and pollination Mark J F Brown 1 , Lynn V Dicks 2 , Robert J ... A horizon scan of future threats and opportunities for pollinators and pollination Mark J F Brown et al. PeerJ. 2016. . ... Habitat conversion, extinction thresholds, and pollination services in agroecosystems. Keitt TH. Keitt TH. Ecol Appl. 2009 Sep; ...
Kiwi Fruit Pollination Report impact savvy farmers and beekeepers make when using honeybees when farming Kiwi Fruit to increase ... Kiwi Fruit Pollination Report. $9.95. Kiwi Fruit Pollination Report consisting of 35-page ebook PDF and 3-page infographic ... Kiwi Fruit Pollination Report Bundle includes: Kiwi Fruit Pollination Report consisting of 35-page ebook and 3-page infographic ... Carrot Pollination bundle Carrot Seed Pollination Report consisting of 35-page ebook and 3-page infographic detailing impact ...
Pollination. Pollination is rare because most locations contain only male flowers or female flowers. In order for pollination ... If pollination occurs, the flower produces a globular, smooth-skinned fruit measuring up to 5 inches in diameter. It contains ... The unpleasant smell attracts flies to help ensure pollination. The flowers appear with 5 large petals and a reddish-orange ... Pollination is rare because most locations contain only male flowers or female flowers. ...
... potential of pollination service, which is provided by wild bees, mapped using an expert-based habitat model related to land ...
Proper Pollination. Pollination is vital to the successful production of fruit trees. Often, inadequate pollination is the ... To create the best pollination environment for your tree, make sure that you check our descriptions to see which pollinating ... Most fruit trees require another compatible variety for cross-pollination and fruit production; however, to save room and still ...
Pollination. Like winter squash, luffa have male and female flowers. You can hand pollinate the female flowers using this hand ... pollination technique to increase your luffa harvest. This is especially helpful if you dont have a lot of pollinators in your ...
... we monitored commercially managed migratory honey bee colonies involved in California almond pollination in 2014. At each ... colony health and pathogen composition in migratory beekeeping operations involved in California almond pollination. ... we monitored commercially managed migratory honey bee colonies involved in California almond pollination in 2014. At each ... colony health and pathogen composition in migratory beekeeping operations involved in California almond pollination." PloS one ...
Special Issue in Agriculture: Pollination and Agriculture. Special Issue in International Journal of Environmental Research and ...
My first pollination is only 30 days old but both pumpkins are still growing. I need to get to about 45 days to assure viable ... I also checked the late pollinations that I did on the 1421 plant where I pollinated each pumpkin with a cutting (clone) from ...
Pollination: Self Fertile. .variant-selection__variants { display: block !important; } Choose a variant 1 Gallon Pot - $19.99 ...
Pollinators and pollination. *Flowers for pollinators. *Seed formation and dispersal. *Life cycles of the bee ...
Pollination Requirement: requires another almond variety Origin Date: 1945 and beyond. Storage: 3 Months or More ...
All bees are needed, both honeybees and wild bees, according to Maj Rundlöf, a researcher at Lund University. However, it also appears that all bees are at risk of decline. If all bees were to die out, we could be left without fruit and vegetables. We would be forced to.... ...
Plant two or more rows of corn for better pollination.. Ensure that your lawn is getting enough water (1 inch per week). ...
SIVERES, Luiz. The pollination and politicization of knowledge. Psicol. educ. [online]. 2013, n.37, pp. 51-61. ISSN 1414-6975. ... Keywords : knowledge; pollination; politicization; university; education. · abstract in Portuguese , Spanish · text in ... In this context, different aspects could be introduced, but the option for knowledge pollination and politicization has become ...
Pollination Create seed of your own. Topics: 161, Posts: 998 Last post: Re: Can ragonesei and mihanov… by keithp2012, Wed Mar ...
3D pollination biology using micro-computed tomography and geometric morphometrics in Theobroma cacao - (Peer Reviewed Journal ... 3D pollination biology using micro-computed tomography and geometric morphometrics in Theobroma cacao. Applications in Plant ...
Pollination and Growing Zones Shipping Information The Mugo Pine is a very cold hardy tree which grows much like a shrub, ...
Pollination: Occurs in following seasons depending on latitude and elevation: Spring.. Angiosperm - Flowering Dicot: Plants in ...
Pollination and plant resources change the nutritional quality of almonds for human health.PLoS ONE 9. (2):e900822014.; doi:. ... Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape.Oecologia 169. (4):1025-10322012.; doi:. ... Interacting effects of pollination, water and nutrients on fruit tree performance.Plant Biol 17. (1):201-2082015.; doi:. ... "The point is to connect more to the demand for the pollination service based on actual diet, rather than just the supply of the ...
Pollination and plant resources change the nutritional quality of almonds for human health.PLoS ONE 9. (2):e900822014.; doi:. ... Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape.Oecologia 169. (4):1025-10322012.; doi:. ... Interacting effects of pollination, water and nutrients on fruit tree performance.Plant Biol 17. (1):201-2082015.; doi:. ... "The point is to connect more to the demand for the pollination service based on actual diet, rather than just the supply of the ...
Their function is to facilitate pollination. As the plant matures, the pistils change from a white colour to shades of orange, ...
ASCO 2011: How to Increase the Cross-Pollination of Ideas Dr. Marshall: You reminded me of one of my peeves about the meeting ... It gets different audiences, and that may help some of the cross-pollination you have been talking about. ...
Stay aware of the season of pollination which affects you. Pollution in Gentilly Detail ...
Pollination Category I. New headings were added for each NIH Institute. In the past there were only headings for National ...
Impacts of toxic cyanobacteria on bee pollinators and their pollination services. Do you have an interest in water quality, ... However, we know very little on how these toxins operate in colonies, affect bee behavior and subsequently pollination services ... at the individual and colony level and investigate pollination activity post toxin exposure to elucidate impacts to pollination ...
What causes that? butternut squash is doing great so it seems Im getting pollination. bush beans didnt do great this year. ...
Briefly, the huge ag businesses have pounded the small farmers out of business, and sued those farmers for cross pollination of ...
We dont have this cross-pollination.. The Fanon Center that I mentioned earlier had their thumb on the pulse. Such an ...
  • The problem is due to slow pollen tube growth and/or resultant inadequate cross pollination. (ufl.edu)
  • One means of overcoming self-incompatibility is cross-pollination with a compatible pollen . (ufl.edu)
  • As part of a public health investigation of a manufacturing facility, we performed paired environmental and human sampling to evaluate cross-pollination of microbes between environment and host and possible effects on lung pathology present among workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions: Evaluation of a manufacturing facility with a cluster of workers with respiratory disease supports cross-pollination of microbes from MWF to humans and suggests the potential for exposure to these microbes to be a health hazard. (cdc.gov)
  • Management that enhances floral resources can be an effective way to support pollinators and pollination services. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The study of pollination by insects is known as anthecology. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there are different ways plants can be pollinated - including wind, animals and gravity - blueberries depend greatly on insects, primarily bees, for pollination. (beeculture.com)
  • 90% of pollination takes place with animal assistance, primarily insects such as bees and wasps and vertebrates such as birds and bats. (sswm.info)
  • As with all insect pollination, the weather during flowering is hugely influential on the availability of nectar and activity level of insects. (beeinformed.org)
  • We established nesting and wildflower habitat interventions in 24 UK apple orchards and measured effects on flower-visiting insects and the pollination they provide, exploring how this was affected by landscape context. (reading.ac.uk)
  • Reduced biodiversity among pollinating insects often leads to poorer pollination. (lu.se)
  • Pollination is primarily performed by insects such as bumblebees, solitary bees and honeybees. (lu.se)
  • Use this powerful pheromone to attract honey bees for improved crop pollination. (planetnatural.com)
  • Attracts honey bees for improved crop pollination! (planetnatural.com)
  • Bee-Scent is a pheromone-based liquid formulation containing attractants that can direct honey bees to treated blossoms for improved crop pollination. (planetnatural.com)
  • An evolutionary perspective should be taken into account to ensure long-term crop pollination. (lu.se)
  • The paper by Mikael Pontarp and colleagues, recently published in Biological Reviews, use this knowledge as a starting point for understanding how an important ecosystem function, crop pollination, is affected by global environmental change. (lu.se)
  • However, how crop pollination is affected by changes in the environment is not straightforward. (lu.se)
  • There are also studies in economics that look at the positives and negatives of pollination, focused on bees, and how the process affects the pollinators themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • From almonds to avocados, honey bees are vital for the pollination and production of many of our favourite foods. (agrifutures.com.au)
  • Animal pollinators, mostly bees, provide pollination services to the majority of flowering plants and benefit crop yields. (lu.se)
  • This project aims to identify and quantify the effects of pesticide exposure (risks) and forage availability (benefits) to bees so that agricultural landscapes can be managed for healthy bee populations and reliable pollination services. (lu.se)
  • Even if more bees in cities is not the solution for the countryside pollination problems, a diversity of bee species in cities could help us with urban farming and local food production, but primarily with creating a pleasant and sustainable environment. (lu.se)
  • Biodiversity underpins the ecological functions and processes that give rise to the benefits provided by ecosystems ("ecosystem services"), including purification of water and air, pest and disease control, pollination, soil fertility, and resilience to climate change. (who.int)
  • How we construct a city affects biodiversity and this diversity in turn determines which ecosystem services, such as pollination, we can benefit from. (lu.se)
  • Biodiversity is the basis for the maintenance of functions and processes in the ecosystems, and thus it is central in the generation of ecosystem services (such as pollination and biological control). (lu.se)
  • Bumblebees are ideal for the pollination of tomato crops. (koppert.com)
  • It is recommended that a stocking rate of at least two colonies per acre be used to ensure adequate pollination of clover seed crops. (beeinformed.org)
  • For example, the simplification of the agricultural landscape in the last century may have resulted in the disadvantage of specialized pollinators, with negative effects on the pollination of wild plants or crops that need these pollinators. (lu.se)
  • We investigated the spatial distribution and overall level of: (i) flower density and diversity, (ii) pollinator density and diversity and (iii) pollination services provided to Californian poppy (Eschscholzia californica) potted phytometer plants. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We studied the diet, time-budget, and densities of its principal pollinator, bellbirds ( Anthornis melanura , Meliphagidae), at Craigieburn to find out what aspect of bellbird ecology may be limiting pollination. (newzealandecology.org)
  • Practical and effective approaches are needed to maintain wild pollinator populations within agroecosystems so they can deliver critical pollination services which underpin crop production. (reading.ac.uk)
  • The overall goal of this project is to enable stakeholders, including beekeepers, crop growers, land managers and policy makers, to manage agricultural landscapes to support healthy pollinator populations and reliable pollination service delivery. (lu.se)
  • Altogether 43 999 hectares (81% of the total pome and stone fruit plantings) require pollination. (hortgro.co.za)
  • You don't just need your candles, you also need your air purifier for when the electricity is on and stuff is burning," said Zoe Whitton, managing director and head of impact at climate change advisory firm Pollination. (afr.com)
  • Landscape transformation, invasive organisms, climate change and other human-induced changes lead to altered population sizes and species composition - changes in biodiversity - which in turn can negatively affect functions such as carbon capture, pollination and pest control. (lu.se)
  • Pollination is extremely important for blueberries as little to no fruit forms without it," said Mallinger, a UF/IFAS assistant professor of entomology. (beeculture.com)
  • As mistletoe fruit and nectar were preferred foods when in season, and bellbird counts were low at Craigieburn, we conclude that it is the probable low number of bellbirds in the area, and not their choice of diet, which limits mistletoe pollination and dispersal. (newzealandecology.org)
  • The important fruit types that require annual pollination are apples, pears, fresh apricots, and plums. (hortgro.co.za)
  • Between 70 - 90% of the deciduous fruit industry is dependent on pollination. (hortgro.co.za)
  • How effective these different approaches are for supporting pollination services at the farm scale is unknown. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Pollination services were higher on organic farms overall compared to CG or ELS. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The findings support organic farming practices that increase floral resources in crop habitats, such as sowing clover or reduced herbicide usage, as mechanisms to enhance pollination services. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Other pressures that limit the bellbird population size, particularly predation from introduced mammals, would appear more likely explanations for poor pollination and disperser services to mistletoes at Craigieburn. (newzealandecology.org)
  • However, we know very little on how these toxins operate in colonies, affect bee behavior and subsequently pollination services. (lu.se)
  • In this project, we will evaluate how toxic cyanobacteria under different temperatures affect bee health at the individual and colony level and investigate pollination activity post toxin exposure to elucidate impacts to pollination services. (lu.se)
  • This validated landscape quality index will then be related to the health of the bee colonies in these fields and the pollination services that they provide. (lu.se)
  • These provide clean air, fresh water, medicines, food and nutrition security and support critical ecosystem functions and services such pest and disease regulation, pollination, climate regulation, and mitigating the impacts of extreme events. (who.int)
  • Examples of such services are pollination, water and air purification, flood management and leisure activities. (lu.se)
  • Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther of a plant to the stigma of a plant, later enabling fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important in horticulture and agriculture, because fruiting is dependent on fertilisation: the result of pollination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred in the reproduction of plants, thereby enabling fertilisation and sexual reproduction. (sswm.info)
  • We quantified the extent of pollination deficits and assessed whether the management of wild pollinators can reduce deficits and deliver improved outcomes for growers over three years. (reading.ac.uk)
  • It is important that growers understand how pollination works and why it is important to only use registered beekeepers to ensure good pollination practices. (hortgro.co.za)
  • One third of Australian food that ends up on our plate is dependent on honey bee pollination. (agrifutures.com.au)
  • Pollination often occurs within a species. (wikipedia.org)
  • When pollination occurs between species, it can produce hybrid offspring in nature and in plant breeding work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pollination may occur within flowers of the same plant, between flowers of the same plant, or between flowers of different plants (or combinations thereof). (ipbes.net)
  • Here are three cases where pollination didn't occur properly. (farmprogress.com)
  • After pollination, seeds are formed on the margin of large, brown, scaly leaves in the female. (lu.se)
  • According to Kotze pollination is a critical component of integrated orchard management practices. (hortgro.co.za)
  • The article presents a model that can help us understand and predict pollination under different agricultural landscape management. (lu.se)
  • and even plants themselves, when self-pollination occurs within a closed flower. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yes, it has to do with sex, er, pollination and plants can sometimes use a little help. (planetnatural.com)
  • Pollination is a very important process that enables plants to reproduce and survive. (lu.se)
  • The AgriFutures Honey Bee & Pollination Program invests in research, development and extension (RD&E) to foster a more productive, sustainable and profitable Australian beekeeping industry. (agrifutures.com.au)
  • That meant the window for good conditions needed to ensure good pollination in every field was wider than usual. (farmprogress.com)
  • More information on problems with pollination can be found on this release from University of Maryland Extension . (planetnatural.com)
  • The pollination process as an interaction between flower and pollen vector was first addressed in the 18th century by Christian Konrad Sprengel. (wikipedia.org)
  • A healthy crop and the presence of sufficient healthy flowers form the basis for good pollination . (koppert.com)
  • Pollination is therefore an important ecosystem service that also has high economic value. (lu.se)
  • In recent years, Doug Phillips, the UF/IFAS blueberry Extension coordinator, has surveyed farmers at the end of each growing season and included a few questions about pollination. (beeculture.com)
  • There is increasing evidence that farmers in many areas are achieving below maximum yields due to insufficient pollination. (reading.ac.uk)
  • AgriFutures Honey Bee & Pollination Program Industry Development Grants are now open for the 2023-24 application period. (agrifutures.com.au)
  • A single visit results in the transfer of enough pollen for pollination. (koppert.com)
  • Consequently, pollination, and the extent of economic output deficits, also vary between orchards and years. (reading.ac.uk)
  • If very hot weather is compounded by drought, that can provide disastrous results for pollination, Nanda says. (farmprogress.com)