The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae class, Magnoliopsida that are mostly shrubs and small trees. Many of the members contain indole alkaloids.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.
The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by oppositely paired, usually compound leaves and bell- or funnel-shaped, bisexual flowers having a five-lobed calyx and corolla.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A plant family of the order Proteales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. Cluster roots, bottlebrush-like clusters of rootlets which form in response to poor soil, are common in this family.
The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. The name derived from ar (fire in Arabic) due to the irritating sap. Flower is a spathe.
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.
A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain DEFICIENS PROTEIN.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
A plant family of the order ZINGIBERALES, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.
A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.
A plant genus of the family THYMELAEACEAE. They are evergreen shrubs much cultivated in garden borders and rock gardens in mild climates. Members contain mezerein, flavonoids, and COUMARINS such as daphnetin and daphnin.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE that grows in salty marshes and is used for phytoremediation of oil spills. The unisexual flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. Members contain trifoliones (DITERPENES).
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
The club-moss plant family of the order Lycopodiales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. The common name of clubmoss applies to several genera of this family. Despite the name this is not one of the true mosses (BRYOPSIDA).
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant family of the order Commelinales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain beta-glucosidases and trypsin inhibitors.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.
A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).
Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.
The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE that is the source of an edible fruit. Members contain TRITERPENES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family SCHISANDRACEAE. Members contain schisandrins (Russian) which are also called gomisins (Japanese) or wuweizins (Chinese). The compounds in this genus are very similar to those in the related KADSURA and medicinal usage is very similar. It is sometimes adulterated with KADSURA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.
A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE. It can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS. SAPONINS have been identified in the root.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
A plant family of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS, which is the source of Oriental TEA.

60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis. (1/687)

Figs (Ficus; ca 750 species) and fig wasps (Agaoninae) are obligate mutualists: all figs are pollinated by agaonines that feed exclusively on figs. This extraordinary symbiosis is the most extreme example of specialization in a plant-pollinator interaction and has fuelled much speculation about co-divergence. The hypothesis that pollinator specialization led to the parallel diversification of fig and pollinator lineages (co-divergence) has so far not been tested due to the lack of robust and comprehensive phylogenetic hypotheses for both partners. We produced and combined the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic trees to date with fossil data to generate independent age estimates for fig and pollinator lineages, using both non-parametric rate smoothing and penalized likelihood dating methods. Molecular dating of ten pairs of interacting lineages provides an unparalleled example of plant-insect co-divergence over a geological time frame spanning at least 60 million years.  (+info)

Adaptive plasticity of floral display size in animal-pollinated plants. (2/687)

Plants need not participate passively in their own mating, despite their immobility and reliance on pollen vectors. Instead, plants may respond to their recent pollination experience by adjusting the number of flowers that they display simultaneously. Such responsiveness could arise from the dependence of floral display size on the longevity of individual flowers, which varies with pollination rate in many plant species. By hand-pollinating some inflorescences, but not others, we demonstrate plasticity in display size of the orchid Satyrium longicauda. Pollination induced flower wilting, but did not affect the opening of new flowers, so that within a few days pollinated inflorescences displayed fewer flowers than unpollinated inflorescences. During subsequent exposure to intensive natural pollination, pollen removal and receipt increased proportionally with increasing display size, whereas pollen-removal failure and self-pollination accelerated. Such benefit-cost relations allow plants that adjust display size in response to the prevailing pollination rate to increase their attractiveness when pollinators are rare (large displays), or to limit mating costs when pollinators are abundant (small displays). Seen from this perspective, pollination-induced flower wilting serves the entire plant by allowing it to display the number of flowers that is appropriate for the current pollination environment.  (+info)

A group-1 grass pollen allergen influences the outcome of pollen competition in maize. (3/687)

Worldwide, 400 million people suffer from hay fever and seasonal asthma. The major causative agents of these allergies are pollen specific proteins called the group-1 grass pollen allergens. Although details of their antigenicity have been studied for 40 years with an eye towards immunotherapy, their function in the plant has drawn scant attention. Zea m 1 constitutes a class of abundant grass pollen allergens coded for by several genes that loosen the walls of grass cells, including the maize stigma and style. We have examined the impact of a transposon insertion into one of these genes (EXPB1, the most abundant isoform of Zea m 1) on the production of Zea m 1 protein, pollen viability, and pollen tube growth, both in vitro and in vivo. We also examined the effect of the insertional mutation on the competitive ability of the pollen by experimentally varying the sizes of the pollen load deposited onto stigmas using pollen from heterozygous plants and then screening the progeny for the presence of the transposon using PCR. We found that the insertional mutation reduced the levels of Zea m 1 in maize pollen, but had no effect on pollen viability, in vitro pollen tube growth or the proportion of progeny sired when small pollen loads are deposited onto stigmas. However, when large pollen loads are deposited onto the stigmas, the transposon mutation is vastly underrepresented in the progeny, indicating that this major pollen allergen has a large effect on pollen tube growth rates in vivo, and plays an important role in determining the outcome of the pollen-pollen competition for access to the ovules. We propose that the extraordinary abundance (4% of the extractable protein in maize pollen) of this major pollen allergen is the result of selection for a trait that functions primarily in providing differential access to ovules.  (+info)

Meteorological input data requirements to predict cross-pollination of GMO maize with Lagrangian approaches. (4/687)

Modeling pollen dispersal to predict cross-pollination is of great importance for the ongoing discussion of adventitious presence of genetically modified material in food and feed. Two different modeling approaches for pollen dispersal were used to simulate two years of data for the rate of cross-pollination of non-GM maize (Zea mays (L.)) fields by pollen from a central 1 ha transgenic field. The models combine the processes of wind pollen dispersal (transport) and pollen competition. Both models used for the simulation of pollen dispersal were Lagrangian approaches: a stochastic particle Lagrange model and a Lagrangian transfer function model. Both modeling approaches proved to be appropriate for the simulation of the cross-pollination rates. However, model performance differed significantly between years. We considered different complexity in meteorological input data. Predictions compare well with experimental results for all simplification steps, except that systematic deviations occurred when only main wind direction was used. Concluding, it can be pointed out that both models might be adapted to other pollen dispersal experiments of different crops and plot sizes, when wind direction statistics are available. However, calibration of certain model parameters is necessary.  (+info)

Gene flow from GM glyphosate-tolerant to conventional soybeans under field conditions in Japan. (5/687)

Natural out-crossing rates were evaluated for conventional soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivated adjacent to genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybeans under field conditions during a four-year period in Japan. A total of 107 846 progeny of 2772 plants harvested from conventional varieties were screened for glyphosate herbicide tolerance. The highest out-crossing rates, 0.19% in 2001 and 0.16% in 2002, were observed in adjacent rows 0.7 m from the pollen source. The highest rate in 2004 was 0.052%, which was observed at 2.1 m. No out-crossing was observed in the rows 10.5 m from the pollen source over the four-year period. The farthest distances between receptor and pollen source at which out-crossing was observed were 7 m in 2001, 2.8 m in 2002, and 3.5 m in 2004. The greatest airborne pollen density during the flowering period, determined by Durham pollen samplers located between the rows of each variety, was 0.368, with the average value at 0.18, indicating that the possibility of out-crossing by wind is minimal. Thrips species and predatory Hemiptera visited the soybean flowers more frequently during the four-year period than any other common pollinators, such as bees.  (+info)

Decreased panicle-derived indole-3-acetic acid reduces gibberellin A1 level in the uppermost internode, causing panicle enclosure in male sterile rice Zhenshan 97A. (6/687)

Cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) rice Zhenshan 97A (ZS97A) has been widely used in hybrid rice production in China. However, ZS97A suffers from serious panicle enclosure, which blocks normal pollination and greatly reduces seed production of hybrid rice. Little is known about the cause of panicle closure in ZS97A. In this study, it was found that the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility caused a deficiency of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in ZS97A panicles, and less IAA was provided to the uppermost internode (UI). Further, it was found that the decreased panicle-derived IAA caused a gibberellin A(1) (GA(1)) deficiency in the UI by the down-regulation of OsGA3ox2 transcript level. Reduced GA(1) level in the UI led to decreases of both cell number and cell elongation, resulting in a shortened UI. The shortened UI was unable to push the panicle out of the flag leaf sheath that remained normal, which resulted in panicle enclosure in ZS97A. These findings suggest that decreased panicle-derived IAA reduces the GA(1) level in the UI, causing panicle enclosure in CMS rice ZS97A.  (+info)

Segregation analyses of partial self-incompatibility in self and cross progeny of Solanum carolinense reveal a leaky S-allele. (7/687)

Natural populations of self-incompatible species often exhibit marked phenotypic variation among individuals in the strength of self-incompatibility (SI). In previous studies, we found that the strength of the SI response in Solanum carolinense, a weedy invasive with RNase-mediated SI, is a plastic trait. Selfing can be particularly important for weeds and other successional species that typically undergo repeated colonization and local extinction events and whose population sizes are often small. We applied a PCR-based protocol to identify the S-alleles present in 16 maternal genotypes and their offspring and performed a two-generation greenhouse study to determine whether variation in the strength of SI is due to the existence of weak and strong S-alleles differing in their ability to recognize and reject self-pollen. We found that allele S9 sets significantly more self seed than the other S-alleles in the population we sampled and that its ability to self is not dependent on interactions with other S-alleles. Our data suggest that the observed variations in self-fertility are likely due to factors that directly influence the expression of SI by altering the translation, turnover, or activity of the S-RNase. The variability in the strength of SI among individuals that we have observed in this and our previous studies raises the possibility that plasticity in the strength of SI in S. carolinense may play a role in the colonization and establishment of this weedy species.  (+info)

Variability in floral scent in rewarding and deceptive orchids: the signature of pollinator-imposed selection? (8/687)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A comparative investigation was made of floral scent variation in the closely related, food-rewarding Anacamptis coriophora and the food-deceptive Anacamptis morio in order to identify patterns of variability of odour compounds in the two species and their role in pollinator attraction/avoidance learning. METHODS: Scent was collected from plants in natural populations and samples were analysed via quantitative gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection was used to identify compounds that are detected by the pollinators. Experimental reduction of scent variability was performed in the field with plots of A. morio plants supplemented with a uniform amount of anisaldehyde. KEY RESULTS: Both orchid species emitted complex odour bouquets. In A. coriophora the two main benzenoid compounds, hydroquinone dimethyl ether (1,4-dimethoxybenzene) and anisaldehyde (methoxybenzaldehyde), triggered electrophysiological responses in olfactory neurons of honey-bee and bumble-bee workers. The scent of A. morio, however, was too weak to elicit any electrophysiological responses. The overall variation in scent was significantly lower in the rewarding A. coriophora than in the deceptive A. morio, suggesting pollinator avoidance-learning selecting for high variation in the deceptive species. A. morio flowers supplemented with non-variable scent in plot experiments, however, did not show significantly reduced pollination success. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas in the rewarding A. coriophora stabilizing selection imposed by floral constancy of the pollinators may reduce scent variability, in the deceptive A. morio the emitted scent seems to be too weak to be detected by pollinators and thus its high variability may result from relaxed selection on this floral trait.  (+info)

ABSTRACT: Pollination is a well-studied and at the same time a threatened ecosystem service. A significant part of global crop production depends on or profits from pollination by animals. Using detailed information on global crop yields of 60 pollination dependent or profiting crops, we provide a map of global pollination benefits on a 5′ by 5′ latitude-longitude grid. The current spatial pattern of pollination benefits is only partly correlated with climate variables and the distribution of cropland. The resulting map of pollination benefits identifies hot spots of pollination benefits at sufficient detail to guide political decisions on where to protect pollination services by investing in structural diversity of land use. Additionally, we investigated the vulnerability of the national economies with respect to potential decline of pollination services as the portion of the (agricultural) economy depending on pollination benefits. While the general dependency of the agricultural economy ...
The ecosystem service pollination is under threat due to declining populations of pollinators. In this project we will study and how climate change might affect plant-pollinator interactions. We will have a broad focus, including entomophilous crops (frui ts and berries), managed pollinators (honeybees), wild pollinators and wild plants and address questions related to how these four constituents of the pollination system affect each other. We will identify important pollinators to focal crops in Norway a nd the home countries of our international partners (Greece, Argentina and Australia) and how their activity patterns vary with temperature. To better understand how the pollinator community is depending on wild floral resources, in addition to our focal crops, we will also study plant-pollinator interactions in the surrounding vegetation. Finally we will assess the importance of honeybees as pollinators to our focal crops and the surrounding floral community. Our goal is to 1) better ...
Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth. These traits include flower shape, size, colour, odour, reward type and amount, nectar composition, timing of flowering, etc. For example, tubular red flowers with copious nectar often attract birds; foul smelling flowers attract carrion flies or beetles, etc. The classical pollination syndromes as they are currently defined (see below) were developed in the 19th century by the Italian botanist Federico Delpino. Although they have been useful in developing our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions, an uncritical acceptance of pollination syndromes as providing a framework for classifying these relationships is rather out of date. These do not attract animal pollinators. Nevertheless, they often have suites of shared traits. Flowers may be small and ...
The influence of space on the structure (e.g. modularity) of complex ecological networks remains largely unknown. Here, we sampled an individual-based plant-pollinator network by following the movements and flower visits of marked bumblebee individuals within a population of thistle plants for which the identities and spatial locations of stems were mapped in a 50 × 50 m study plot. The plant-pollinator network was dominated by parasitic male bumblebees and had a significantly modular structure, with four identified modules being clearly separated in space. This indicated that individual flower visitors opted for the fine-scale division of resources, even within a local site. However, spatial mapping of network modules and movements of bumblebee individuals also showed an overlap in the dense center of the plant patch. Model selection based on Akaike information criterion with traits as predictor variables revealed that thistle stems with high numbers of flower heads and many close neighbours ...
Insect pollination. Macrophotograph of a beetle (Amphicoma sp.) on a crown anemone flower (Anemone coronaria). This beetle is the anemones pollinator, carrying pollen between flowers and fertilising them as it feeds. Magnification unknown. - Stock Image B786/0621
While the importance of floral odours for pollinator attraction relative to visual cues is increasingly appreciated, how they structure community‐level plant-pollinator interactions is poorly understood. Elucidating the functional roles of flowering plant species with respect to their floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and how those roles vary over the growing season is an initial step towards understanding the contribution of floral VOCs to plant-pollinator interaction structure. ...
How to Grow Fruit Trees or Blueberries in Aquaponics - by Colle and Phyllis Davis Here are the main parameters that need to be addressed when considering raising fruit trees with aquaponics: Pollination. Bees do not do well at all inside buildings. Hand pollination is time consuming and expensive. Which fruit(s) should you raise? What … Continue reading ». ...
Butterflies and moths are conspicuous flower visitors but their role in plant-pollinator interactions has rarely been quantified, especially in tropical rainforests. Moreover, we have virtually no knowledge of environmental factors affecting the role of lepidopterans in pollination networks. We videorecorded flower-visiting butterflies and hawkmoths on 212 plant species (| 26,000 recorded hrs) along the complete elevational gradient of rainforests on Mount Cameroon in dry and wet seasons. Altogether, we recorded 734 flower visits by 80 butterfly and 27 hawkmoth species, representing only ~ 4% of all flower visits. Although lepidopterans visited flowers of only a third of the plant species, they appeared to be key visitors for several plants. Lepidopterans visited flowers most frequently at mid-elevations and dry season, mirroring their local elevational patterns of diversity. Characteristics of interaction networks showed no apparent elevational or seasonal patterns, probably because of the high
Hand Pollination in Hanyuan China The farmers of Hanyuan, China, are forced to pollinate pear trees by hand because all the bees died off
Two factors limiting seed production in clover are incomplete pollination and attack by seed eating pests. Clover is totally dependent on pollination by insects, mainly by bumble bees and honey bees. Without insect pollination, the clover seed yield becomes negligible. Clover is also attacked by seed eating pest insects, mainly Apion weevils. The weevils attack the clover flower heads and generally cause serious damage with observed yield losses of over 50 percent.. ...
Bees, flies, butterflies, moths, beetles, hummingbirds and even small mammals are pollinators, meaning they carry pollen on their bodies and move it between flowers. This almost invisible act occurs millions of times each day and creates a third of our food. It also sustains the native plants and habitats on which humans and wildlife depend.. There is a national and global decline in wild pollinators. This is very concerning because pollinators are responsible for one out of every three bites of food we take; they ensure reproduction of over 90 per cent of flowering plants in the world. That is a staggering task! They are vital not only to our existence as human beings but to our planet. The decline of wild pollinators is due to the following threats: habitat loss, pesticide exposure, transfer of disease from domestic bees, and climate change. Habitat loss and agricultural intensification are known to decrease pollinator abundance and diversity. The decline in pollinators is a serious problem ...
The York gum-jam woodlands of southwest Western Australia support diverse annual wildflower communities despite extensive habitat fragmentation, remnant isolation and the invasion of many exotic annual plant species. Few studies have explored the pollinator-plant relationships maintaining these persistently species-rich novel communities. We examine the pollination ecology of five native species common to York gum-jam woodland annual communities to determine whether native pollinators may be mediating impacts of exotic annual plants on native wildflower species. We determined the pollination requirements of native focal species and the diversity and frequency of pollinator visitation to these focal plant species across invasion gradients. We also recorded the pollinator community of a dominant exotic herb in this system: Arctotheca calendula (cape weed). Only two of the five native species examined had significant seed set benefits attributable to insect pollination. One native plant species, ...
Some flowers are pollinated using buzz pollination. Pollination management is a branch of horticulture that seeks to protect and enhance present pollinators and often involves the culture and addition of pollinators in monoculture situations, such as commercial fruit orchards. The largest managed pollination event in the world is in California almonds, where nearly half (about one million hives) of the US honeybees are trucked to the almond orchards each spring. New Yorks apple crop requires about 30,000 hives; Maines blueberry crop uses about 50,000 hives each year. Bees are also brought to commercial plantings of cucumbers, squash, melons, strawberries, and many other crops. Honeybees are not the only managed pollinators. Other kinds of bees are also cultivated as pollinators. The alfalfa leafcutter bee is an important pollinator for alfalfa seed in western United States and Canada. Bumblebees are increasingly cultured and used extensively for greenhouse tomatoes and other crops. The ...
Biology Assignment Help, Pollination, Pollination Pollination refers to the transfer of pollen from dehiscing anthers to the pistil. Unlike animals, plants cannot move to their mates for sexual reproduction. Hence, they need some external device or agency for the transfer of pollen
Pollination bags are designed to fit well over the inflorescence or individual flowers of a plant type. The size, shape and strength of bag should ensure that there is no contact with flowers to avoid development of diseases and physical hindrances in seed development. The size of bag will vary with the size of inflorescence to be covered. Pollination bags may be 2D or 3D. The 3D bags have a gusset for expansion to avoid contact between the plant and the bag. Sometimes pollination bags may have a window to allow examination of inflorescence without removing the bag. Bags with a flap over the window, when provided, protects from strong sunlight. Most pollination bags are produced by general paper bag manufacturers which have branched out into providing pollination bag supplies. Such bags may not suit to the needs of plant breeders of different crops. Some companies such as PBS International UK, Del Star (Delnet) Technologies (Delnet bags) and Focus Packaging manufacture customized bags of ...
Detecting protein complex in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks plays a significant part in bioinformatics field. It enables us to obtain the better understanding for the structures and characteristics of biological systems. In this study, we present a novel algorithm, named Improved Flower Pollination Algorithm (IFPA), to identify protein complexes in multi-relation reconstructed dynamic PPI networks. Specifically, we first introduce a concept called co-essentiality, which considers the protein essentiality to search essential interactions, Then, we devise the multi-relation reconstructed dynamic PPI networks (MRDPNs) and discover the potential cores of protein complexes in MRDPNs. Finally, an IFPA algorithm is put forward based on the flower pollination mechanism to generate protein complexes by simulating the process of pollen find the optimal pollination plants, namely, attach the peripheries to the corresponding cores. The experimental results on three different datasets (DIP, MIPS and
This chapter considers pollination by nonflying vertebrates and other oddities. It begins with a discussion of ectotherm vertebrates visiting flowers; these include fish, amphibians, and reptiles. Fish are not recorded as flower visitors, but they are at least occasionally facilitators of the pollination process for shoreline pond plants, where they prey on animals that compete with or reduce pollinator populations. The chapter proceeds with an analysis of pollination by nonflying mammals such as marsupials, rodents, monkeys, and lemurs as well as flowers that they regularly visit, including ground-level (geoflorous) flowers and arboreal flowers. Finally, it examines pollination by unusual invertebrates ranging from snails and woodlice to land crabs and millipedes.
Yield data on winter sown oilseed rape plants, in relation to pollination by insects and in relation to the ecosystem services provided by beneficial insects. Data includes yield assessed for entire field, whole plant and within different parts of the plant (per raceme and per pod). These data can be linked to the related natural enemy data set and the pollinator data set collected as part of the Wessex BESS project, funded by the NERC Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability research program. Full details about this dataset can be found at ...
Fruit breeding programs usually use controlled hand pollination among cultivars and advanced selections for obtaining segregating populations to select new cultivars. In sweet cherries, however, sometimes in controlled pollination few hybrids are obtained. Caging whole trees with bees and flowers of the pollinating cultivar is sometimes used to obtain larger hybrid populations. To generate large segregating populations for the Chilean Sweet Cherry Breeding Program (run by the Consortium of BioFrutales S.A. and Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias), the initial strategy was to harvest seeds from open pollinated self-incompatible cultivars maintained at the germplasm collection orchard of Univiveros, one of the leading fruit tree nurseries in Chile. While the female parent is known, the male parent is unknown. The pollen source will depend on the cultivars present in the area, the flowering time and the compatibility of the cultivars involved. In order to identify pollinators of the ...
Organic berry and fruit production suffers heavily from the lack of effective disease and pest management tools, and from inadequate insect pollination at times. As a consequence, the expanding demand on organic berries cannot be filled today. The BICOPOLL project aimed to change this and to improve the yield and quality of organic strawberry production significantly and thus farm economics. We used honeybees to (i) target deliver a biological control agent (fungus antagonist) to the flowers of the target crops (strawberries) to provide control of the problem diseases grey mold (Botrytis cinerea) and to (ii) improve the pollination of this organic horticultural crops. The use of bees has many environmental and economic benefits compared to spraying fungicide like in conventional farming systems. As bees, that actually forage in the target crop, is a key essential requirement for the entomovectoring technology, the main focus of this project was to determine, which factors can affect foraging ...
The characteristics of petal epidermal conical cells affect the quality of the signals perceived by various pollinators. This study aimed to identify variations in micromorphological characteristics of flower petals and their relationship to melittophily, ornithophily and chiropterophily pollination systems. The petals of 11 species were analysed using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy and the micromorphological traits were described, measured and compared using Tukeys test, PCA and cluster analysis. Unlike chiropterophily, all melittophilous and some ornithophilous species possessed adaxial epidermal conical cells. Cluster grouping separated chiropterophilous flowers from melittophilous and ornithophilous. PCA analysis showed that the two morphometric profile of conical cells was the attribute that most strongly influenced the grouping of species. When considering the data set of the three pollination systems, melittophilous and ornithophilous plants were more similar to each other
Currently the size and frequency of wildfires are increasing at a global scale, including arid ecosystems that exhibit great sensitivity to disturbance. Fire effects on plant pollination and reproductive success in deserts are largely unknown. Plant dependence on animal pollinators for reproduction can increase the risk of reproductive failure if pollination services are hindered or lost. Species that depend on few taxonomically related pollinator species are expected to be most negatively affected by disturbances that disrupt pollination interactions. To assess fire and isolation effects on reproductive success in desert plant communities, and how wildfire influences the pollination success of generalist and specialist pollinated plants, the number of flowers, fruits, and viable seeds produced by plants surviving in burned and unburned desert landscapes were compared. Fire increased flower production for wind and generalist pollinated plants, and did not affect specialist plant flower production.
The Adirondack Pollinator Project is a project of AdkAction in partnership with The Wild Center, The Lake Placid Land Conservancy, and Paul Smiths College, with the mission of inspiring individual and collective action to help pollinators thrive. Creative digital program offerings throughout National Pollinator Week will allow people of all ages to learn about pollinators, gardening with native plants, and more.. Each weekday during National Pollinator Week, The Wild Center will host a noon program focused on pollinators. On Monday, June 22, the Lake Placid Land Conservancy will offer a citizen science training to teach participants how to use the iNaturalist app to identify plants and pollinators. Paul Smiths College will offer a Bee Box Building workshop to create habitat for native bees on Tuesday, and Saranac Lake Community Solar Project will share their plans for creating pollinator habitat under their solar arrays and help interested locals learn how to save on their energy bill while ...
Insect pollination played an important role in the evolution of angiosperms. Little is known, however, about ancient pollination insects and their niche diversity during the pre-angiosperm period due to the rarity of fossil evidence of plant-pollinator interactions.. Recently, a research group led by Prof. WANG Bo from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NIGPAS) has provided new insight into the niche diversity, chemical communication, and defense mechanisms of Mesozoic pollinating insects. Its findings were published in Nature Communications on September 17.. One of the most intensely investigated examples of pollination niches is the morphological match between insect proboscis and floral tube length, which Darwin described in a publication in 1877. Kalligrammatid lacewings are among the largest and most conspicuous Mesozoic insects with siphoning mouthparts.. The NIGPAS researchers reported 27 well-preserved kalligrammatids from late ...
Biotic pollen vectors are animals, usually insects, but also reptiles, birds, mammals, and sundry others, that routinely transport pollen and play a role in pollination. This is usually as a result of their activities when visiting plants for feeding, breeding or shelter. The pollen adheres to the vectors body parts such as face, legs, mouthparts, hair, feathers, and moist spots; depending on the particular vector. Such transport is vital to the pollination of many plant species.. Any kind of animal that often visits or encounters flowers is likely to be a pollen vector to some extent. For example, a crab spider that stops at one flower for a time and then moves on, might carry pollen incidentally, but most pollen vectors of significant interest are those that routinely visit the flowers for some functional activity. They might feed on pollen, or plant organs, or on plant secretions such as nectar, and carry out acts of pollination on the way. Many plants bear flowers that favour certain types ...
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Ecosystem services, defined as the benefits to human welfare provided by organisms interacting in ecosystems, are considered to be at risk (Daily 1997; Palmer et al. 2004). Pollination by wild animals is a key ecosystem service. Although crop pollination is commonly cited as an example of an endangered ecosystem service (Corbet 1991; Williams 1994; Ingram et al. 1996; Matheson et al. 1996; Allen-Wardell et al. 1998; Kearns et al. 1998; Kevan & Phillips 2001; Steffan-Dewenter et al. 2005, but see Ghazoul 2005), detailed studies of the crop pollination systems are incomplete or out of date. Animal pollination is important to the sexual reproduction of many crops (McGregor 1976; Crane & Walker 1984; Free 1993; Williams 1994; Nabhan & Buchmann 1997; Westerkamp & Gottsberger 2000) and the majority of wild plants (Burd 1994; Kearns et al. 1998; Larson & Barrett 2000; Ashman et al. 2004), which can also be important for providing calories and micronutrients for humans (Sundriyal & Sundriyal 2004). ...
4.3 Performing multiple pollinations using a glassine bag: If a large number of pollinations are to be made on a single day from one pollen source (as many as 100 pollinations may be made from one tassel) the best procedure is as follows: prepare a glassine bag (2 x 7 ½ [5 x 19 cm] ) by making a Z-shaped fold in the bag about halfway up the length of the bag. Then pour in the contents of the tassel bag. Sift the pollen past the first fold into the bottom fold, taking care to keep the anthers in the top from where they may be discarded. Turn the bag on its side and tear off the upper of the two bottom corners of the bag. Carry the pollen in this bag to the waiting silks where it may be sifted sparingly through the torn corner of the glassine bag into the top of the torn shoot bag covering each ear. Then fold the shoot bag to protect the pollinated silks and move rapidly to the next ear. Speed is essential here because the pollen will remain viable only a short time. Fresh pollen appears ...
Here is this weeks question: Why is this greenhouse cucumber shaped like this? This cucumber is the result of poor pollination. Here is a great description of pollination and pollination problems from the Missouri Botanical Gardens: Cucurbits are monoecious; there are separate male and female blossoms on the same plant. The male flowers tend to…
Of the parameters examined in this paper, the degree of specialization (i.e. pollination niche partitioning) of plant-pollinator interactions proved to be critical for plant coexistence. Given the importance of the level of partitioning of non-mutualist resources for species coexistence (limiting similarity, e.g. [21]), this result is not unexpected. Apart from having a considerable impact on the invasion threshold by itself, the models specialization parameter influences the strength of the effects of other factors such as pollen carryover and the two parameters affecting search costs. Its direct positive impact on plant coexistence can be explained as follows.. When the pollinator A1 enters the system together with the rare plant P1, it initially profits from the fact that its density is far below the carrying capacity set by the limited availability of nesting sites. Hence, this rare pollinators population is able to grow, while the more abundant pollinators population size (A2) is kept ...
Avocados have an odd system of pollination to insure cross pollinization. Each of the inconspicuous green/yellow flowers has both male and female parts, but only one sex is open at a time to prevent self fertilization. There are two kinds of trees, A and B types. The A type trees have their flowers open in the mornings as females. The flowers close by afternoon, and remain closed until the following afternoon, when they reopen with the male parts now producing pollen. The B type trees open their flowers as female in the first afternoon, they close and reopen as males the following morning. Each flower only opens twice. If a grove is properly planted with both types of trees, and if pollinators are present then a good set of fruit is likely. Honeybees do the vast majority of the pollination here, but wild bees, flies, wasps and even hummingbirds are also seen working the flowers ...
Abstract. Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and the quantity and quality of pollinations.. Seed set in small populations is often reduced and genetic variation is expected but not always found to be low. The majority of studies show that low flower densities have reduced pollination success and higher inbreeding. Density effects are stronger than size effects.. Most studies concluded that species richness in flower-visiting insects is directly related to richness in plant species. However, the consequences of low insect species richness for pollination are not always clear, depending on the studied pollinator-plant relationship. The effects of the presence of simultaneously flowering species are highly dependent on the circumstances and may ...
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong. Grant Details Final Report. The overall aim of the research project funded by the Australian Flora Foundation was to examine the factors limiting seed production by Telopea speciosissima (Waratah) in a natural population at Barren Grounds Nature Reserve, near Wollongong, NSW. This project was proposed following a pilot study conducted by Whelan and Goldingay in 1985, in which it was apparent that the low levels of fruit set observed in the field could be increased by experimental outcrossing of flowers using hand pollination. This result contrasted with previous studies on Waratah, in different study sites, by Pyke (1982) and Pyke & Paton (1983).. In order to understand the factors which limit fruit set in nature and to resolve the apparent contradiction between different studies on Waratah, we felt that is was necessary (i) to gain more information about the basic biology of the species: its breeding system and natural pollinators, ...
The contribution of nutrients from animal pollinated world crops has not previously been evaluated as a biophysical measure for the value of pollination services. This study evaluates the nutritional composition of animal-pollinated world crops. We calculated pollinator dependent and independent proportions of different nutrients of world crops, employing FAO data for crop production, USDA data for nutritional composition, and pollinator dependency data according to Klein et al. (2007). Crop plants that depend fully or partially on animal pollinators contain more than 90% of vitamin C, the whole quantity of Lycopene and almost the full quantity of the antioxidants β-cryptoxanthin and β-tocopherol, the majority of the lipid, vitamin A and related carotenoids, calcium and fluoride, and a large portion of folic acid. Ongoing pollinator decline may thus exacerbate current difficulties of providing a nutritionally adequate diet for the global human population.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact sl750.. The genus Petunia comprises species that are pollinated by different animal pollinators including bees, nocturnal hawkmoths and hummingbirds. Transitions in adaptation to these different pollinators have helped drive speciation within the genus. Such transitions require the modification of multiple floral traits, among them visible colour, ultra-violet (UV) absorbance, scent, nectar production and morphology. How can such complex changes happen again and again over short periods of evolutionary time? To help answer this question, I looked at the genes and mutations responsible for transitions in floral colour. Two classes of flavonoids are important for Petunia floral colour: anthocyanins produce the reds and purples, whereas flavonols absorb UV light. In general, differences in anthocyanin and flavonol levels between Petunia species are caused by a limited number of mutations of large phenotypic effect. For instance, mutations in ...
The pollinators are highly selective in their floral visits and shown to choose those flowers which best meet their energetic needs. The energy needs and foraging dynamics of pollinators are dependent upon prevailing weather conditions which regulate the schedule of activities thus influencing the energy budget. In this review, the role of energetics in pollinator-plant interaction, the current and future lines of research for the understanding of pollination biology are discussed.
Pollination is how many plants reproduce. Since plants are immobile they need pollinators, and pollinators are in trouble from pesticides. Learn how to help!
Certains naiment pas monter aux branches préfèrent les longues cannes ornées de plumes de poulets pour polliniser les fleurs.///Some do not like climbing the trees and prefer the long canes adorned with chicken feathers for pollinating the flowers.
The use of artificial light at night, such as street lights, can harm pollination according to researchers at the University of Bern in Switzerland.Pollinators are animals, commonly insects, that transfer pollen from plant to plant as they feed, allowing plants to reproduce. More than 30% of our plant-based food supply depends on animal pollination, which had an estimated
Watermelon, rockmelon and honeydew melon are commonly grown in Australia, and all are dependent on insect pollinators to produce large, evenly shaped fruit. Although their flowers look the same, each melon type has different pollination requirements. Rockmelon and honeydew represent about 29 per cent of the melon industry in Australia.. Each vine contains a mix of male flowers and fruit-producing flowers that have both male and female reproductive parts. These flowers dont need other plants to cross-pollinate, but they do need insect pollinators to dislodge pollen and move it onto the stigma for seed set and fruit development. Melon flowers that are cross-pollinated have been shown to produce heavier fruit than those pollinated from flowers on the same plant.. ...
My wife and I started gardening in Fukuoka (Japan) in 2003. There was nothing but muddy clayey sloping land. At the beginning we made several structure such as steps and paths, and planted turf, fruit trees, roses, herbs etc. In 2010, we visited several famous English gardens, including Sissinghurst Castle Garden, Mottisfont Abbey Garden and Hidcote Manor Garden. We were shocked by the glory of those gardens. Since then, we have been trying to make little but glorious gardens by ourselves. ...
Every year more than 1 million commercial bumblebee colonies are deployed in greenhouses worldwide for their pollination services. While commercial pollinators have been an enormous benefit for crop production, their use is emerging as an important threat. Commercial pollinators have been linked to pathogen spillover, and their introduction outside their native area has had devastating effects on native pollinators. A more pervasive but underappreciated threat is their potential impact on the genetic integrity of native pollinators. A sampling and genotyping?plus?phenotyping protocol was set up to evaluate the presence and extent of hybridization between commercial and native individuals of Bombus terrestris in south?western Spain, a region experiencing a huge propagule pressure of non?native genotypes due to the massive use of commercial colonies for crop pollination. Genomic data show clear evidence of generalized hybridization between native and introduced commercial bumblebee lineages in ...
Today, I did some pollinating. My Peach tree is in full flower, with not a single bee in sight. So I did the only thing I could do in the circumstances and got out my paint-brush for a spot of hand pollination. It was quite relaxing really, dusting the pollen from the stamen to the […]. ...
Juliet will describe her groups latest research on pollinators and crop pollination. As Director of the Environment and Sustainability Institute (ESI), she will also share some of the exciting work that is going on in the ESI, finding solutions to environmental change.. ...
Differences between Self-pollination and Cross-pollination: Self-pollination Occurs in the same flower or between two flowers of the same plant. Pollinatio
Interested in sustainable food, gardening in the city, local urban biodiversity?. Help us count down! The Urban Pollination Project, a Seattle citizen science project dedicated to researching and conserving native bees and increasing urban garden crop yields, begins a special version of the Twelve Days of Christmas today-the Twelve Sustainable Days of Christmas Pollination!. Visit or every day between now and New Years Day to learn how pollinators-bees, flies, butterflies, birds, bats, and others-have contributed to your holiday foods and traditions.. ...
It is only recently that the immense economic value of pollination to agriculture has been appreciated. At the same time, the alarming collapse in populations o
Pollination is a process of transferring of pollens from one flower to another. While fertilization is the process after the successful transfer of pollination, which involves the fusion of male gametes and female gametes of plants.
P o l l i n a t o r s are the creatures that pollinate flowers. You know about bees and butterflies, but did you know that there are over 1000 species of pollinating animals in Canada? Together, the plants and their pollinators are an indispensable natural resource, and their daily work is essential for over a billion dollars worth of apples, pears, cucumbers, melons, berries, and many other kinds of Canadian farm produce.. Since 2006, significant declines in pollinator populations have been noted around the world. These beneficial animals are under pressure from loss of habitat (where they nest and eat), pests and disease, pesticides, invasive species and climate change. As pollinator populations are threatened, so too are the foods and plant products we enjoy -- dyes, essences, medicines, fibres, spices -- as well as the wild ecosystems that depend on these pollinators.. Pollinators include bees, wasps, flies, beetles, butterflies and moths, bats and birds (there are no pollinating bats in ...
Subpages}} ,onlyinclude>,div style=float:right;>,font color=darkblue>Bear with me, 0 mystery of existence, as I pluck the occasional thread from your train.,/font>,br> - Wislawa Szymborska, from her poem, Under One Small Star ---- ,/div> {{-}} [[Image:Plants and pollinators.jpg,right,thumb,300px,{{#ifexist:Template:Plants and pollinators.jpg/credit,{{Plants and pollinators.jpg/credit}},br/>,}},small>Buzz of Life: One aspect of the interrelations among living entities. Researchers begin to understand the mechanisms governing the complex network interactions between plants and pollinators, such as hummingbirds, shown in this illustration from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904).,/small>,ref>From: Robinson R. (2007) [ Both barriers and trait complementarity govern pollination network structure.] PLoS Biol 5(2):e54.,/ref>]] Throughout history, we humans devoted much thought, speculation, debate, ...
... can be accomplished by cross-pollination or by self-pollination: Cross-pollination, also called allogamy, occurs ... Ornithophily or bird pollination is the pollination of flowering plants by birds. Chiropterophily or bat pollination is the ... Pollination by wind is more common amongst abiotic pollination. Some 98% of abiotic pollination is anemophily, i.e., ... Resources on Pollinators from the National Academies The Pollination Home page Pollination in Hydroponics Pollination syndromes ...
... s interaction with pollinators Pollination traps plants relies on pollinators such as flies, wasps, bees and ... so as to enhance their effectiveness in pollination. The structures of pollination traps can include deep tubular corollas with ... Pollination traps or trap-flowers are plant flower structures that aid the trapping of insects, mainly flies, ... Broderbauer, D; A. Weber & Anita Diaz (2013). "The design of trapping devices in pollination traps of the genus Arum (Araceae) ...
... was a UK social movement which aims to help protect the future of pollinators through learning about them and ... "Free" pollination by bees and other insects is worth over £400 million to UK agriculture each year according to the UK National ... Polli:Nation is the name for schools coming together in clusters to collect data about pollinating insects and make ... the demand from schools to broaden children and young people's understanding of the links between pollination and food security ...
Pollination involving vibrations is called buzz pollination. Honeybees cannot perform buzz pollination. About 9% of the flowers ... Sue Rosenthal, Buzz Pollination, Bay Nature, June 11, 2008. Buzz pollination and bee learning, Vallejo-Marin Lab (Commons ... Media related to Buzz pollination at Wikimedia Commons Buzz Pollination, Anne Leonard Lab. De Luca, P.A.; Vallejo-Marín, M. ( ... Greenhouse grown tomatoes are unproductive without aid in pollination. Traditionally, pollination has been done by shaking ...
Pollination tents are also used for controlled pollination. Good pollination bags are those which have most of the following ... Pollination Cheating (biology) Domestication Fruit tree pollination Hand pollination Paul Knuth Hermann Müller (botanist) Plant ... Most pollination bags are produced by general paper bag manufacturers which have branched out into providing pollination bag ... are containers made of various different materials for the purpose of controlling pollination for plants. Pollination bags are ...
... is the horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or ... 1994, Bee pollination of Georgia crop plants. CES Bulletin 1106 Sihag, R.C. 1995.Pollination Biology: Environmental Factors and ... Pollination Biology: Pollination, Plant Reproduction and Crop Seed Production.Rajendra Scientific Publishers, Hisar, 210p. ... Pollination Biology: Basic and Applied Principles. Rajendra Scientific Publishers, Hisar, 215p. Insect Pollination Of ...
A pollination network is a bipartite mutualistic network in which plants and pollinators are the nodes, and the pollination ... A pollination network is two-modal, i.e., it includes only links connecting plant and animal communities. A key feature of ... The pollination network is bipartite as interactions only exist between two distinct, non-overlapping sets of species, but not ... Another feature that is common in pollination networks is modularity. Modularity occurs when certain groups of species within a ...
The characteristics of the pollination syndrome associated with pollination by mammals which are not bats are: a yeasty odour; ... Pollination syndromes can be thought of as extremes of a continuum of greater or lesser specialization or generalization onto ... Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different ... Many species of plants have the back-up option of self-pollination, if they are not self-incompatible. Whilst it is clear that ...
Hand pollination, also known as mechanical pollination is a technique that can be used to pollinate plants when natural or open ... honeybees or other pollinators are a more efficient approach to pollination management. Despite this, hand-pollination is a ... Hand-pollination is often done with a cotton swab or small brush, but can also be done by removing the petals from a male ... This method of pollination is done by manually transferring pollen from the stamen of one plant to the pistil of another. The ...
... is a pollination technique for agricultural crops in areas dominated by non-crop plant species that are ... Saturation pollination is especially important for those with special pollination problems, such as crops with flowers that are ... Pollination management McGregor, S.E. 1976. Insect Pollination Of Cultivated Crop Plants. USDA [1] Whitcombe, Harry J. and John ... Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants by S. E. McGregor, USDA 1976 (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles ...
Pollination can also be accomplished by cross-pollination. Cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen, by wind or animals such ... Self-pollination is a form of pollination in which pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering ... Self-pollination or cross pollination can be an advantage when the number of flowers is small or they are widely spaced. During ... Self-pollination limits the variety of progeny and may depress plant vigor. However, self-pollination can be advantageous, ...
This can be contrasted with cleistogamy, closed pollination, which is one of the many types of self pollination. When used in ... A second use of the term "open pollination" refers to pollination by insects, birds, wind, or other natural mechanisms. ... Hybrid pollination, a type of controlled pollination in which the pollen comes from a different strain (or species), can be ... open pollination may result in plants that vary widely in genetic traits. Open pollination may increase biodiversity. Some ...
... reproduction and pollination. National Biodiversity Institute, South Africa. Christensen, D. E. (1994). "Fly pollination in the ... but due to their very particular pollination they have sometimes created unique flowers with very strange pollination ... The pollination of orchids is an extremely complex chapter in the biology of this family of plants that are distinguished, ... Pollination mechanisms are the fruit of such co-evolution. In general, such mechanisms are beneficial to both parties: the ...
In fruit trees, bees are an essential part of the pollination process for the formation of fruit. Pollination of fruit trees ... Much is known about fruit tree pollination in temperate climates, but much less is known about fruit tree pollination in ... for cross-pollination. Insects and birds may visit and consume the pollen, but are not a factor in pollination. Edible seeds ... by hand-pollination or by using a pollen sprayer). Cross pollination produces seeds with a different genetic makeup from the ...
The Canadian Pollination Initiative (NSERC-CANPOLIN) is one of nine new Strategic Networks announced in September 2009 and ... The Network will also provide critical information on the economic aspects of pollination and future management needs based on ... enhance pollination by native pollinators and increase our knowledge of flower/pollinator interactions and gene flow in plants ... Welcome to the Canadian Pollination Initiative NSERC News Release 24 September 2009 ...
The mature cycad requires a mutualistic relationship with fauna for its pollination and seed dispersal. Thrips are lured to the ... Female cones also emit a scent when mature, attracting the pollen covered thrips and allowing pollination to occur. Once ... ISBN 978-0-9750206-0-9. "Pollination". The Australian Museum. Retrieved 31 May 2021. "Cycads". Retrieved 31 May ... Mound, Laurence A.; Terry, Irene (2001). "Thrips Pollination of the Central Australian Cycad, Macrozamia macdonnellii ( ...
In a case of self-pollination, this process takes place from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower. Pollen is ... 1911). "Pollination" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2-5. Tosi, S.; Costa, C.; ... The transfer of pollen grains to the female reproductive structure (pistil in angiosperms) is called pollination. This transfer ... their consumption of nectar in flowers is an important aspect of the pollination process. Bee pollen for human consumption is ...
... is pollen-borne and likely infects during pollination. Bees and other pollinators are the main vectors ... "Pollination". Illinois College of Agricultural Consumer & Environmental Sciences. Retrieved December 1, 2014. (Articles with ... The blueberry shock virus spreads by pollination; therefore, spreading only occurs in spring when pollinators are active. Honey ...
Surface pollination is more frequent, and appears to be a transitional phase between wind pollination and true hydrophily. In ... 1911). "Pollination". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2-5. (Articles with short ... Hydrophily is a fairly uncommon form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by the flow of waters, particularly in rivers ... Du, Z.-Y., Wang, Q.-F. (19 December 2014). "Correlations of Life Form, Pollination Mode and Sexual System in Aquatic ...
"Pollination". The California Backyard Orchard. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. Retrieved 25 May ...
"Buzz Pollination". Retrieved 11 February 2015. Goulson, Dave; Hawson, Sadie A.; Stout, Jane C. (1998). "Foraging bumblebees ... "Modelling bee pollination: enter the 'flight arena'". Global Food Security. Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research ... Bumblebees are also capable of buzz pollination, in which they dislodge pollen from the anthers by creating a resonant ... A decline in bumblebee numbers could cause large-scale changes to the countryside, resulting from inadequate pollination of ...
"Wasp Pollination". USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 5 August 2015. Sühs; Somavilla; Putzke; Köhler (2009). "Pollen vector wasps ( ... While the vast majority of wasps play no role in pollination, a few species can effectively transport pollen and pollinate ... therefore contributing for potential pollination of several plant species. Pollen wasps in the subfamily Masarinae gather ...
"Cross Pollination". Archived from the original on 2019-03-01. Retrieved 2019-03-01. Gallery, Kamloops Art. " ... 2017 - Cross Pollination, 516 Arts, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. 2017 - AlterNation, Kamloops Art Gallery, Kamloops, British ...
"Pollination Canada". Retrieved 16 November 2014. "Pollination Canada partners". "The Bauta Family Initiative on Canadian Seed ... Pollination Canada has 28 other partner organizations. In February 2013, Gretchen Bauta, Canadian philanthropist and daughter ... Seeds of Diversity initiated a project called Pollination Canada with the aim of increasing awareness of native bees and ... crop genetic diversity and the redesign of pollination strategies". Seeds of Diversity originated in 1984 as the Heritage Seed ...
In addition to other forms of pollination, this plant is adapted to rain-pollination. The Latin specific name ossifragum means ... Rain-pollination. I kommission hos E. Munksgaard. Retrieved 26 May 2018. McClintock, David; Fitter, R.S.R. (1961). The Pocket ...
Hagerup, O. (1951) Pollination in the Faroes - in spite of rain and poverty in insects. Biologiske Meddelelser, Kongelige ... Pollination in Liparis and Malaxis). Botanisk Tidsskrift 45: 396-402. Hagerup, O. (1942) The morphology and biology of the ... Ant pollination). Botanisk Tidsskrift 46: 116-123. Hagerup, O. (1944) Notes on some boreal polyploids. Hereditas 30: 152-160. ... Hagerup, O. (1932) On Pollination in the extremely hot air at Timbuctu. Dansk Botanisk Arkiv 8 (1): 1-20. Hagerup, O. (1933) ...
"Wasp Pollination". Forest Service, US Dept. of Agriculture. Retrieved July 15, 2021. Larson, Peggy. Lives of Social ... although they are capable of pollination). Yellowjackets have lance-like stingers with small barbs, and typically sting ...
Pollination Biology. Vol. Chapter 9. pp. 265-310. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1942-2_9. ISBN 978-94-007-1941-5. Stewart, Alyssa B.; ... Biotic pollination methods require pollinators such as insects (e.g. bees, butterflies, moths, wasps, beetles, and other ... Angiosperms (flowering plants) require some form of pollination-many of which require another animal to transfer pollen from ... In the event that an animal uses a different pollination source, plants can become reproductively isolated.: 193 Pollinator ...
reptans (L.) E. Meyer). In addition to other forms of pollination, this plant is adapted to rain-pollination. Ranunculus ... Rain-pollination. I kommission hos E. Munksgaard. Retrieved 26 May 2018. Media related to Ranunculus flammula at Wikimedia ...
In addition to other forms of pollination, this plant is adapted to rain-pollination. Caltha palustris is infertile when self- ... Rain-pollination. I kommission hos E. Munksgaard. Retrieved 26 May 2018. Lundqvist, Arne (1992). "The self-incompatibility ...
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Pollination energetics in avian communities: simple concepts and complex realities. Authors:. Carpenter, F. L.. Publication ...
THE POLLINATION PROJECT FOUNDATION. Board of directors as of 06/26/2020 SOURCE: Self-reported by organization ... The Pollination Project believes in the power of ordinary people to do extraordinary things. We make $1000 seed grants to ... THE POLLINATION PROJECT FOUNDATION Think $1000 cant make a difference?. aka The Pollination Project , Berkeley, CA , https:// ...
pollination. * Helping with the germination of algae, crustaceans called idotea are the bees knees of the seas. Nature August ...
Our mission is to empower young people to affect positive change in their communities. You can help build a better tomorrow. It starts right here. Right now ...
... say theyre starting to see mounting evidence that this years crop is going to fall short of its full potential as pollination ... I checked pollination and was disappointed. The tip of the ear did not pollinate. Even a few kernels that didnt pollinate in ... "Indications are that scattered kernels from poor pollination are being found at the base of the ear more than at the tip, which ... "While the weather was generally favorable during the peak period of pollination, it was warm during the third week of July, and ...
And if neonicotinoids are disrupting pollination of apples, they are likely to also be disrupting pollination of many other ... About 30 per cent of agricultural crops depend on pollination by insects or other animals, with an estimated global value to ... "Our work highlights the importance of pollination services, and including that in the debate about whether to ban or restrict ... "There may also be knock-on effects for pollination of wild flowers growing on or near farms." ...
Mechanisms and evolution of deceptive pollination in orchids - Volume 81 Issue 2 ... cross-pollinationfloral deceptiongeitonogamyinbreedingnectarOrchidaceaepollinariarewardself-pollination ... Cross-pollination does, however, result in dramatic increases in seed quality in almost all orchids and has the potential to ... Mechanisms and evolution of deceptive pollination in orchids. Published online by Cambridge University Press: 28 February 2006 ...
X-Pollination (Mark Reeve Remix) [Unrilis] by Mark Reeve on desktop and mobile. Play over 265 million tracks for free on ...
Tag: pollination. Honeybee Die-Offs. *. Researcher Dennis VanEngelsdorp says the rates of honeybee die-offs threaten the ... or even attract other insects to do the pollination work. That increase in pollination could mean an increase in crop yields.. ... Categories News SpotsTags apples, beekeepers, california, cherries, fruit, hives, parasite, pollinate, pollination, produce, ... Categories News SpotsTags allison, bats, bees, honeybees, hummingbirds, national academy of sciences, pollen, pollination, ...
... ... "Bat Foraging Strategies and Pollination of Madhuca latifolia (Sapotaceae) in Southern India," Acta Chiropterologica 11(2), 435- ... "Bat Foraging Strategies and Pollination of Madhuca latifolia (Sapotaceae) in Southern India," Acta Chiropterologica, 11(2), 435 ...
pollination. Wat weten we eigenlijk over bijensterfte en neonicotinoiden?. ma, 02/26/2018 - 10:44 - webmaster Heldere uitleg ... Globally, 87 of major food crops depend on animal pollination. Together these account for 35 % of the world food production ...
Pollination Planet is a nonprofit organization with the mission to educate and inspire communities to protect our food supply ... Pollination Planet is a nonprofit organization with the mission to educate and inspire communities to protect our food supply ... Next, we make the connection between pollination and our food supply by a visit to a local farm. Students learn the important ...
Michigan is an important state for supporting the summer breeding population of monarchs. Here is an update on what we do and dont know about increasing egg laying and survival.
agriculturealmondbeeCaliforniapollinationtangerinetradeoff. Ecosystem services How important are pollination ecosystem services ... In February 2009, the high pollination fee, combined with a temporary reduction in pollination demand due to drought and ... Tag Archives: pollination. Ecosystem services Colony Collapse Disorder: a loss of resilience?. January 9, 2010. Garry Peterson ... agriculturealexandra kleinFAOpollination. Ecosystem services Agriculture unaffected by pollinator declines?. November 2, 2008. ...
Mammillaria Sanchez mejoradae pollination Last post by A_G_R « Sun Jan 31, 2021 7:42 pm. ... Whats the longest wait time youve had from pollination to fruit seed body? Last post by Pereskiopsisdotcom « Fri Jul 12, 2019 ... My testing of pollination! Last post by dwood5513 « Fri Jun 22, 2018 9:34 pm. ... Pollination of mammillarias Last post by juste.dcv « Mon Mar 11, 2019 8:20 pm. ...
While most studies of moth pollination have focused on pollen transferred by the proboscis, this study looked also at pollen ... but their high diversity and abundance may make them critical to pollination in ways that we still need to understand." ...
Click here for more information on kiwi plant pollination in the garden. ... This ensures good kiwi cross pollination and fruit set.. Importance of Kiwi Plant Pollination. For pollination, it is very ... Pollination is critical to kiwi fruit, as each should contain some 1,000 or more seeds. Poor pollination can leave deep valleys ... Read on for more information on kiwi plant pollination.. Is a Kiwi Plant Self-Pollinating?. The simple answer is no. Although ...
... sustainable pollination and (c) measures for the promotion of pollinators and pollination services, and to gain new knowledge ... Agroscope is involved in the "Sustainable Pollination in Europe - Super-B" COST network. Super-B brings together scientists and ...
Wind Pollination, Wind-Pollinated Flower, pollen tube, A series of free Science Lessons for 7th Grade and 8th Grade, KS3 and ... Wind Pollination. Related Topics:. More Science Worksheets. Math Worksheets A series of free Science Lessons for 7th Grade and ... Wind Pollination. During plant reproduction, pollen grains need to move from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another ... This is called pollination. Insects and wind can pollinate flowers. Insect-pollinated flowers are different in structure from ...
Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide only a minimal deterrent to birds. To overcome these limitations we ... In areas where bird damage is problematic bird resistant pollination bags can allow for a reduction in the plot size required ... fabricated pollination bags from spun polyethylene fiber sheeting. No seed yield difference was found between plants bagged ... Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide only a minimal deterrent to birds. To overcome these limitations we ...
Local horticulturist Anders Vidstrand explains why you should create a pollinator garden for local bees, butterflies and other important insects.. ...
Blog / 2013 / Cross-pollination. June 18, 2013 A few days ago, Mistress Clarissa approached me about drawing something to go ...
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A pollination bee broker has questioned the proposal. Currently under the Australian Constitution pollination services cant be ... are going and doing pollination and getting paid for that pollination service," he said. ... Therefore, pollination fees would drop to them and then that would be passed onto almond growers," he said. ... Balancing honey production and pollination. Mr Weatherhead said before a levy could be put into place, AHBIC would need to get ...
History Of Pollination Studies, Evolution Of Pollination, Wind Pollination, Pollination By Animals ... Pollination. Evolution Of Pollination. Botanists theorize that seed plants with morphologically distinct pollen (male) and ... The evolution of pollination coincided with the evolution of seed. Fossilized pollen grains of the seed ferns, an extinct group ... It was once widely believed that insect pollination was the driving force in the evolutionary origin of angiosperms. A cross ...
ScholarSpace is the institutional repository for the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa and is maintained by Hamilton Library ...
Conservation and Pollination. €748,000 Just Transition Funding for conservation of medieval churches and pollinators. ... For more information on any of the sites and progress with the Conservation and Pollination project over the coming years ... At the launch of the Just Transition project "Conservation and Pollination: Medieval Churches in Laois and Offaly" at Dysart ... At the launch of the Just Transition project "Conservation and Pollination: Medieval Churches in Laois and Offaly" at Dysart ...
"We need all beekeepers who want to be involved in pollination activities to do their part by minimising their risk," Mr ... "This plan has been carefully developed through a risk-based approach to enable critical pollination services for crops that we ... The NSW Government has announced a plan to allow the movement of beehives for pollination and honey production, after ... "This plan to allow the movement of commercial beehives for pollination and honey production gives business continuity to the ...
  • The two principal hypotheses as to how deception could increase fitness in plants are (i) reallocation of resources associated with reward production to flowering and seed production, and (ii) higher levels of cross-pollination due to pollinators visiting fewer flowers on non-rewarding plants, resulting in more outcrossed progeny and more efficient pollen export. (
  • iv) packaging of pollen in pollinaria with limited carry-over from flower to flower, thus increasing the risks of geitonogamous self-pollination when pollinators visit many flowers on rewarding plants. (
  • Pollination Planet is a nonprofit organization with the mission to educate and inspire communities to protect our food supply by providing habitat for pollinators. (
  • Moths may appear to be less effective pollinators by comparison, but their high diversity and abundance may make them critical to pollination in ways that we still need to understand. (
  • More research is needed on the pollination system of plants and their vertebrate pollinators at a community level. (
  • Cover Cropping for Pollinators and Beneficial Insects is a helpful bulletin to guide practices that utilize cover crops for multiple beneficial uses, including pollination. (
  • About 30 per cent of agricultural crops depend on pollination by insects or other animals, with an estimated global value to farmers of $360 billion a year. (
  • And if neonicotinoids are disrupting pollination of apples, they are likely to also be disrupting pollination of many other crops, including strawberries, raspberries, oilseed rape, field beans and peas, as well as wild flowering plants. (
  • Globally, 87 of major food crops depend on animal pollination. (
  • If so, what will be the wider economic cost arising from crops that have modest yield increases from honey bee pollination? (
  • These crops cannot pay large pollination fees but have hitherto benefited from an abundance of honey bees providing free pollination. (
  • Many beekeepers send their hives to canola crops after the almond pollination season. (
  • This plan has been carefully developed through a risk-based approach to enable critical pollination services for crops that we rely on so heavily. (
  • Using detailed information on global crop yields of 60 pollination dependent or profiting crops, we provide a map of global pollination benefits on a 5′ by 5′ latitude-longitude grid. (
  • While the general dependency of the agricultural economy on pollination seems to be stable from 1993 until 2009, we see increases in producer prices for pollination dependent crops, which we interpret as an early warning signal for a conflict between pollination service and other land uses at the global scale. (
  • He also proposed legislation to help protect farmers from cross-pollination by GM crops. (
  • Essentially, pollination allows plants and crops to reproduce. (
  • More than 75 per cent of the world's main food crops and 90 per cent of its wildflowers depend at least in part on these animals for pollination. (
  • Nearly 90 percent of flowering plant species and 75 percent of global agricultural crops use animal-mediated pollination to set seed and produce fruit. (
  • Our spatially explicit analysis of global pollination benefit points to hot spots for the generation of pollination benefits and can serve as a base for further planning of land use, protection sites and agricultural policies for maintaining pollination services. (
  • CATCH THE BUZZ- Pollination Levy on Beekeepers in Australia? (
  • In recent times the beekeepers, instead of producing a lot of honey, are going and doing pollination and getting paid for that pollination service," he said. (
  • We need all beekeepers who want to be involved in pollination activities to do their part by minimising their risk," Mr Saunders said. (
  • Right from the outset there has been an approach that has taken into consideration all stakeholders and an understanding of the importance of pollination to beekeepers and a range of food producers that need bees on farm in the weeks ahead. (
  • In February 2009, the high pollination fee, combined with a temporary reduction in pollination demand due to drought and reduced almond prices, resulted in a surplus of hives in California available to pollinate almonds. (
  • Our studies of wild bees in apple orchards are showing how important wild bees are for apple pollination in the eastern U.S.," said Danforth. (
  • Jessica Rath is fascinated with buzz pollination, a co-adaptation between certain bees and specific angiosperms which require sonication, or vibratory resonance to release pollen from their anthers. (
  • These data indicate the presence of temporal patterns for both the bees and the visited plants, and synchronization between them, being the light intensity as a modulator of the rhythms of bees and plant, confirming the importance of the temporal adjustments for pollination efficiency. (
  • Apiarists say honey is flavoured by the local area and that bees aid biodiversity and pollination in the environment. (
  • Apiculture is the management of bees for the purpose of bee breeding, insect pollination and honey production. (
  • Honey bees, among other native and non-native bees, are important to agriculture because of their role in crop pollination. (
  • Though weather conditions weren't the worst during pollination, University of Illinois Extension agronomist Emerson Nafziger says a few specific conditions were just enough to challenge pollinating corn plants to the point where the process was hampered -- not altogether stopped like during last year's drought -- enough that yield potential could have taken a blow. (
  • The evolution of pollination therefore allowed seed plants to colonize terrestrial habitats. (
  • Pollination is all about how pollen is transported from the stamen to the stigma of the pistil, something which may happen through self-pollination (pollen ends up on the stigma of the same flower) or cross-pollination (between different plants by means of, for example, the wind or insects). (
  • Model selection based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) further revealed that tropical plants are more reliant on vertebrate pollination than their temperate counterparts, and bat-pollinated plants are more dependent on vertebrate pollination than those pollinated by other vertebrates. (
  • Here, I created a dataset of the degrees of production dependence of wild and crop plants on vertebrate pollination based on field exclusion experiments. (
  • Pollination is the main mode of sexual reproduction in plants , which occurs when the transfer of pollen (male) from the anther of a flower to a stigma (female) results in fertilization which produces seeds and, in some cases, fruits. (
  • Pollination and Fertilization occur in plants during sexual reproduction . (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Pollination calendar of allergenic plants of Bikaner (Rajasthan). (
  • Gupta KD, Singh J. Pollination calendar of allergenic plants of Bikaner (Rajasthan). (
  • Because production of our most nutritious foods, including many fruits, vegetables and even oils, rely on animal pollination, there is an intimate tie between pollinator and human well-being," said Mia Park, Ph.D. '14, an assistant professor at the University of North Dakota and the paper's first author, who worked on the study as a Cornell entomology graduate student. (
  • Corn is pollinated by wind therefore planting in blocks ensures proper pollination rather than one long single row where the pollen can easily blow away resulting in small, poorly filled-out ears. (
  • For these reasons, some growers are turning to artificial means of pollination. (
  • Therefore, pollination fees would drop to them and then that would be passed onto almond growers," he said. (
  • Other grow-room jobs that growers must perform include pollination, harvesting, and packing. (
  • By the late Cretaceous period (about 70 million years ago), the angiosperms had evolved flowers with complex and specific adaptations for pollination by insects and other animals. (
  • If you do find you've had pollination problems -- though nothing can really be done for this year's crop -- it's important to consider them when selecting corn hybrids for the future, Nafziger advises. (
  • for good pollination, plant the corn in blocks rather than long rows. (
  • The California almond industry alone is worth $2 billion annually and relies on over 1 million honey bee hives for cross-pollination. (
  • Rather, it may be caused by many agents in combination-the interaction between known pests and pathogens, poor weather conditions that diminish foraging, lack of forage (16), and management factors such as the use of pesticides and stress caused by long-distance transport of hives to nectar sources or pollination locations. (
  • Thousands of hives are sent to north-west Victoria for the almond pollination season. (
  • He believes hives in the urban area will aid pollination and increase biodiversity in the suburbs. (
  • February is known as the "Super Bowl of Beekeeping" because it's the largest pollination event in the entire world. (
  • Diseases, pests and the mysterious phenomenon of colony collapse disorder pose a dire threat to the U.S. beekeeping industry and, in turn, to the $20-billion-a-year crop industry that relies on insect pollination. (
  • Our work highlights the importance of pollination services, and including that in the debate about whether to ban or restrict neonicotinoids is very important," says Dara Stanley of Royal Holloway, University of London. (
  • The Australian Honey Bee Industry Council (AHBIC) is calling for apiarists who take part in pollination services to pay a levy. (
  • The resulting map of pollination benefits identifies hot spots of pollination benefits at sufficient detail to guide political decisions on where to protect pollination services by investing in structural diversity of land use. (
  • Additionally, we investigated the vulnerability of the national economies with respect to potential decline of pollination services as the portion of the (agricultural) economy depending on pollination benefits. (
  • The overarching aim of this thesis is to understand how losing pollination services can affect human well-being. (
  • The production dependence in this dataset can be used for economic valuations of pollination services provided by vertebrates to increase understanding of their importance for food production and the maintenance of natural ecosystems, particularly in the tropics, and to better guide conservation actions. (
  • I used expert elicitation techniques to develop a practical tool for the site-scale assessment of pollination services. (
  • The novel tool was applied to estimate the value of pollination services provided by a small protected area in Hampshire, UK. (
  • This particular beekeeper mainly provides pollination services for the various citrus groves in the area as well as farms and orchards on both the coasts. (
  • Pollination services contribute $25 billion to the U.S. economy in the form of increased crop yield alone and $20 billion in additional value to agriculture-related sectors. (
  • Biodiversity underpins the ecological functions and processes that give rise to the benefits provided by ecosystems ("ecosystem services"), including purification of water and air, pest and disease control, pollination, soil fertility, and resilience to climate change. (
  • Pollination occurs and the plant grows fruit and seeds which are crucial to harvesting. (
  • It was once widely believed that insect pollination was the driving force in the evolutionary origin of angiosperms. (
  • Once the angiosperms had evolved, insect pollination became an important factor in their evolutionary diversification. (
  • If we want to produce fruits and vegetables in this country, we need to have honeybees and we need a pollination force. (
  • Cornell Orchards' latest crop offers proof that pollination is possible without commercial honeybees. (
  • While most studies of moth pollination have focused on pollen transferred by the proboscis, this study looked also at pollen carried from flower to flower on the moth's thorax. (
  • Many foods we eat on a daily basis are dependent on some form of pollination. (
  • And, farmers say they're starting to see mounting evidence that this year's crop is going to fall short of its full potential as pollination issues mount. (
  • A significant part of global crop production depends on or profits from pollination by animals. (
  • Cross-pollination does, however, result in dramatic increases in seed quality in almost all orchids and has the potential to increase pollen export (by reducing pollen discounting). (
  • Consulting with bee specialist Dr. Anne Leonard from University of Nevada, Reno, and buzz pollination specialist Dr. Stephen Buchmann from University of Arizona, Tucson, Rath has immersed herself in the scientific resonances around this fascinating phenomenon. (
  • Some 5% to 6% of all the world's angiosperms require buzz pollination, including commercial greenhouse tomatoes and some native manzanitas. (
  • Jessica's exhibition will include wax sculptures for cast bronze based on bee anthers, a series of watercolors, and a "buzz" sound work alluding to buzz pollination tonal values created in collaboration with experimental music composer Robert Hoehn. (
  • ABSTRACT: Pollination is a well-studied and at the same time a threatened ecosystem service. (
  • While the weather was generally favorable during the peak period of pollination, it was warm during the third week of July, and soil water may have been limiting during this period in some fields. (
  • There's not a whole lot that can be done about these kinds of interrupted pollination, but that doesn't lessen the importance of getting into the field to get a feel for whether you're facing pollination trouble. (
  • The warm autumn experienced this year has highlighted the importance of current research into flowering and pollination behaviour of different cultivars at different locations around the country. (
  • Pollination is an ecological process that relies on the matching traits of flower visitors and flowers. (
  • This important point was also recognized by Darwin in his studies of pollination biology. (
  • Pollination Biology of the Yucca! (
  • This behaviour resulted in a reduction in the number of seeds found in the apples, an important indicator of the extent of pollination. (
  • Pollination is critical to kiwi fruit, as each should contain some 1,000 or more seeds. (
  • Poor pollination can leave deep valleys in the fruit where there are no seeds at all. (
  • The orchid family is renowned for its enormous diversity of pollination mechanisms and unusually high occurrence of non-rewarding flowers compared to other plant families. (
  • In areas where bird damage is problematic bird resistant pollination bags can allow for a reduction in the plot size required for breeding and germplasm maintenance operations, increase the productivity of such operations as genetic diversity per unit land area, and make direct measurement of seed yield possible in agronomic field experiments. (
  • What are the benefits of artificial pollination? (
  • I bought 2 Artificial Bonsai from PolliNation such an amazing product and they have a variety of options to choose from. (
  • In California there is currently a new conflict over pollination. (
  • Cross-pollination is often beneficial because it produces offspring which have greater genetic heterogeneity, and are better able to endure environmental changes. (
  • The leg spurs also directly facilitate the pollination process. (
  • (, accessed 21 February 2018). (
  • Agroscope is involved in the "Sustainable Pollination in Europe - Super-B" COST network. (
  • Sunraysia bee broker and north-west Victorian pollination coordinator for the almond season Trevor Monson, is not convinced. (
  • Al Salopek and Sierra Malnove loaded 600 beehives on a truck that will travel from Florida to California for the annual pollination of the state's almond trees. (
  • The unique combination of topics creates a platform where cross-pollination between the areas can occur, and where new co-operations and thoughts can emerge which allows the participants to find new inspiration even from areas outside of their own. (
  • Information on flowering and pollination in your orchard is vital to building up a complete picture of the behaviour of different cultivars throughout the country. (
  • At the launch of the Just Transition project "Conservation and Pollination: Medieval Churches in Laois and Offaly" at Dysart Gallen Church in Spink. (
  • A frequently observed example is the transition from bee pollination to hummingbird pollination. (
  • Indications are that scattered kernels from poor pollination are being found at the base of the ear more than at the tip, which might point toward lack of early pollen production and possible loss of silk receptivity," Nafziger says. (
  • The NSW Government has announced a plan to allow the movement of beehives for pollination and honey production, after consultation with the apiary and horticultural industries. (
  • This plan to allow the movement of commercial beehives for pollination and honey production gives business continuity to the honeybee industry while minimising the risk of spreading varroa mite", Mr Le Feuvre said. (
  • Pollination is vital to the successful production of fruit trees. (
  • Minister for Agriculture Dugald Saunders said the change to the stop movement order is a big step forward and will allow this year's pollination season to get underway. (
  • Currently available tools for pollination service assessment operate at a global or regional scale or rely on high technical expertise. (
  • HSBC Global Asset Management and Pollination will both provide resources to the planned joint venture and it will operate independently. (
  • The Pollination Project believes in the power of ordinary people to do extraordinary things. (
  • HSBC Global Asset Management Limited and Pollination Group Holdings Limited, the specialist climate change advisory and investment firm, today announced that they have entered into a joint venture agreement to establish HSBC Pollination Climate Asset Management - subject to regulatory approval. (
  • Read on for more information on kiwi plant pollination. (
  • D. Gitz III, J. Baker, Z. Xin, R. Lascano, J. Burke and S. Duke, "Research Note: Bird-Resistant Pollination Bags for Sorghum Breeding and Germplasm Maintenance," American Journal of Plant Sciences , Vol. 4 No. 3, 2013, pp. 571-574. (
  • Plant in blocks, 4-5 rows, 24-36" apart to aid with pollination. (
  • For pollination, it is very important for the male and female vines to be planted close together. (
  • For example, a better root system that can pull water a little more effectively can make a large difference in pollination success. (
  • Next, we make the connection between pollination and our food supply by a visit to a local farm. (
  • To create the best pollination environment for your tree, make sure that you check our descriptions to see which pollinating varieties our experts recommend. (
  • Take the impact grant recipients recently announced by The Pollination Project , in partnership with Levi Strauss & Co. These six young people hail from five countries and are dedicated to tackling a broad range of issues. (
  • LS&Co.'s work with The Pollination Project began earlier this year , driven by the desire to support youth who show innovation, vision and leadership. (
  • She received a Change, Inc. Grant from Robert Rauchenberg, a Puffin Foundation Grant, a Pollination Project Grant, A Well Fed World Grant and a LUSH Charity Pot Grant for her public art projects. (
  • But do you know how the pollination process works? (
  • There may also be knock-on effects for pollination of wild flowers growing on or near farms. (
  • Without bee pollination, there would be very few brightly coloured or scented flowers in the countryside or in our gardens and many. (