Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Nails: The thin, horny plates that cover the dorsal surfaces of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes of primates.Nail Diseases: Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.PolandBone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Nails, Ingrown: Excessive lateral nail growth into the nail fold. Because the lateral margin of the nail acts as a foreign body, inflammation and granulation may result. It is caused by improperly fitting shoes and by improper trimming of the nail.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Nail Biting: Common form of habitual body manipulation which is an expression of tension.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Onychomycosis: A fungal infection of the nail, usually caused by DERMATOPHYTES; YEASTS; or nondermatophyte MOLDS.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Bone Diseases, MetabolicFoot Dermatoses: Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Yellow Nail Syndrome: A rare condition characterized by the presence of yellow nails, LYMPHEDEMA, and/or PLEURAL EFFUSION with respiratory tract involvement. Abnormal lymphatic network may play a role in its etiology. Occasionally inherited, yellow nail syndrome mostly is sporadic without apparent family history.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Tibial FracturesBone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Hand DermatosesHistory, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Paronychia: An inflammatory reaction involving the folds of the skin surrounding the fingernail. It is characterized by acute or chronic purulent, tender, and painful swellings of the tissues around the nail, caused by an abscess of the nail fold. The pathogenic yeast causing paronychia is most frequently Candida albicans. Saprophytic fungi may also be involved. The causative bacteria are usually Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Streptococcus. (Andrews' Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p271)Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Growth Charts: Graphic displays of height and weight showing development over time.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Beauty CultureOsteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Leg Length Inequality: A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.LacquerFractures, Open: Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Pigmentation DisordersDiaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Head Injuries, Penetrating: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Nail-Patella Syndrome: A syndrome of multiple abnormalities characterized by the absence or hypoplasia of the PATELLA and congenital nail dystrophy. It is a genetically determined autosomal dominant trait.Students, Public Health: Individuals enrolled in a school of PUBLIC HEALTH or a formal educational program in public health.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Onycholysis: Separation of nail plate from the underlying nail bed. It can be a sign of skin disease, infection (such as ONYCHOMYCOSIS) or tissue injury.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Marrow DiseasesTrichophyton: A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Caulimoviridae: A family of DNA plant viruses with isometric or bacilliform virions and no envelope. The host ranges of most species are narrow. There are six genera: CAULIMOVIRUS; BADNAVIRUS; Cavemovirus; Soymovirus; Petuvirus; and TUNGROVIRUS.Fractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Osteogenesis, Distraction: Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Pachyonychia Congenita: A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.Recommended Dietary Allowances: The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Europe, EasternLeg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Missions and Missionaries: To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Concentration Camps: Facilities in which WARFARE or political prisoners are confined.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Clobetasol: A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Ectodermal Dysplasia: A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and hidrotic dysplasias, FOCAL DERMAL HYPOPLASIA, and aplasia cutis congenita.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Clinical Laboratory Services: Organized services provided by MEDICAL LABORATORY PERSONNEL for the purpose of carrying out CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES used for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Humeral FracturesOsteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Bowman Membrane: A layer of acellular matrix that lies beneath the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM and above the CORNEAL STROMA. It consists of randomly arranged COLLAGEN fibers in a condensed bed of intercellular substance. It provides stability and strength to the cornea.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rahnella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, small, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in fresh water.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Mice, Inbred C57BLPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
  • Owner Kathryn Magistrini has selected the Deborah Lippmann line of nail polishes for their healthier eco-friendly approach. (mvtimes.com)
  • On nails, it was a different story: Manicurists steered clear of once-popular greige polish in favor of cement gray (Deborah Lippmann used two coats of her own shade, Waking Up in Vegas, on fingers and toes at Narciso Rodriguez) and pale ash (to create the effect at Rag & Bone, Jin Soon Choi used Revlon Nail Enamel in Smoky Canvas) . (allure.com)
  • A variety of design modifications of the stems has been introduced and examined, including taper slip stems with a polished surface, fixation by intramedullary nails, or use of high-pressure saline to inflate the diameter of a cylindrical implant . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Bones are great, but we know how caloric all that marrow can be. (glamour.com)
  • den Hartigh, A. B., Fink, S. L. Detection of Inflammasome Activation and Pyroptotic Cell Death in Murine Bone Marrow-derived Macrophages. (jove.com)
  • Be a HERO--donate bone marrow, save a life! (3fatchicks.com)
  • We suggest that such use of the medullary canal contradicts the biological purpose of the canal, namely its role as a designated functional cavity for the bone marrow . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control, long-term exposure to the highly flammable chemical causes harmful effects on the blood, including bone marrow. (firerescue1.com)
  • A marrow nail for use in a marrow cavity nailing procedure for the treatment of bone fractures, including a tubular, carbon fiber reinforced plastic nail body having a tip which has a distal end, the nail body being elongated and being curved along its length, and the tip having a conically tapered outer surface which is ground and which tapers toward the distal end. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to a marrow nail for the treatment of bone fractures according to a marrow cavity nailing procedure. (google.com)
  • After complete healing of the fracture, the marrow nail is then removed. (google.com)
  • The desired stabilization of a fracture in such a marrow nailing procedure is realized by clamping the marrow nail in either the transverse or longitudinal direction, with the marrow nail having a variety of permissible cross-sectional configurations. (google.com)
  • However, the known metal marrow nails have several drawbacks. (google.com)
  • Other types of marrow nailing, such as, for example, bundle nailing by means of a bundle of thin elastic steel nails, have the drawback that their stability is not always ensured and that certain treatments are necessarily employed in conjunction with each type of nail. (google.com)
  • For the treatment of pertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures according to the marrow nailing procedure, it is also known to use so-called spring nails which are arranged in the marrow tube in an elastically clamped arrangement and are distributed in a fan shape at the end opposite the point where they are driven in. (google.com)
  • The following program supports your bone health by reducing your exposure to toxins, which can affect your hormones, absorption of bone-building minerals and more. (algaecal.com)
  • To help you avoid such toxins - which can damage your overall health and your bones significantly - I'm thrilled to bring you three do-it-yourself natural alternatives to cleanse, tone, and lubricate skin without the harmful toxins. (saveourbones.com)
  • Once these toxins are absorbed and enter the bloodstream, they can harm your bones in several ways. (saveourbones.com)
  • Creating a truly organic or toxic-free nail polish is virtually impossible, but for those who still want the glamour of beautiful nails and chip resistant, long lasting color, we've developed a formula free of the top 10 toxins used in conventional nail polish. (suzannesomers.com)
  • Her feathery lashes curled upward, nearly hitting her brow bone. (inquisitr.com)
  • Considering I would only put this on my cheekbones and maybe my brow bone, it is a huge amount of product for $20. (makeupalley.com)
  • Start with the highlighting pale peach across the whole lid and brow bone area, shape with the deeper brown and plum colours and define with the deep green liner. (heart.co.uk)
  • Both Right Amount of Evil (orange) and Monster Mash (green) have metallic hex and microbar glitters that make enticing accent nails. (nailpro.com)
  • Ideal for use at the final stage of your manicure, simply apply a drip onto each nail and they will be bone dry in no time at all. (hqhair.com)
  • Nail Art Brand:Lagunamoon Nails Product: Platinum Gel Nail Polish Volume:8ml/0.27fl.oz Certificate:MSDS,SGS Professional Usage Step 1: Clean nails then push back cuticles and trim nail surface as normal manicure process Step 2: Apply Elite99. (bizrate.com)
  • Description:The acrylic nail art decorations with mixed shapes: heart, bowknot, water drop, triangle, etc, can be used alone or used together to create a unique manicure design. (bizrate.com)
  • Manicure Nail Art Decorations Diy Phone Case 3d Tips Tools Jewelryfeaturessuper Value Manicure Nail Art Decorations Set.Perfect For Creating Beautiful Nail Art And Long Lasting Sparkle Nail Tips.Can Also Be Used In Other Diy Projects To Decorate Mobile. (bizrate.com)
  • Being overweight or obese is responsible for the weakness of bones, sprains, strains, and fractures because the bones are not able to bear the excess body weight. (big-library.net)
  • The bad news is that you need to ditch the caffeine right from today as it reduces bone mass and makes the bones susceptible to sprains and fractures. (big-library.net)
  • Various animal studies suggest that fluoride contributes to bone disease and may be carcinogenic. (btoxicfree.com)
  • The vitamin contributes to bone health and helps the immune system. (healthline.com)
  • This time of year, as we expose more and more of ourselves to public scrutiny, things like pasty skin, a few extra pounds, and a couple of leg hairs can be forgiven, but one easy, painless, safe way (as opposed to tanning, dieting, or waxing) to feel ready for summer is to add some color to your nails - both fingers and toes. (mvtimes.com)
  • Dry out both the nail itself and the surrounding skin. (thebeautybrains.com)
  • It measures the changing absorbance at each of the wavelengths , allowing it to determine the absorbances due to the pulsing arterial blood alone, excluding venous blood , skin, bone, muscle, fat, and (in most cases) nail polish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rehabilitation outcomes of the direct transcutaneous prosthetic attachment under either scenario rely on the longevity and strength of the bond between the pylon and bone walls and on the infectionfree seal of skin surrounding the pylon. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Here's how simply applying these products on your skin can hurt your bones. (saveourbones.com)
  • Replenish the skin and nails by drinking lots of water daily to hydrate the body. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • If the discoloration continues to grow forward you are probably ok, if it stays in one place over the next month or so, see a doctor and let he or she determine whether or not the nail bed (the skin under the nail) should be examined. (foot-pain-explained.com)
  • On Sunday, May 21st, Eden Sassoon, owner of EDEN by Eden Sassoon Salon, hosted nail & bone's launch party, where the auction and raffle rounded up over $4,000 for the three non-profit animal charities in attendance. (nailsmag.com)
  • Virtual workshops will inspire, educate and prepare salon owners and nail technicians for the future. (nailsmag.com)
  • The new Sea Spa Salon retail space, left, and the Butter nail polish selection at Katydid. (mvtimes.com)
  • We want your salon to have the spookiest, scariest Halloween ever, so we've compiled these awesome nail product sets made just for the occasion. (nailpro.com)
  • The foot baths and tools at your nail salon need to be cleaned frequently with anti-fungal agents to prevent the spread of certain diseases 3 , so be sure to choose a salon with good cleaning habits. (swansonvitamins.com)
  • Mary Ellen asks: Is it healthy for us to wear nail polish? (thebeautybrains.com)
  • Keep Gel Polish off the cuticle and encase the tip edge to ensure long wear. (beautyexpress.co.uk)
  • The clinical importance of degradation of metal implants is evidenced by particulate corrosion and wear products in tissue surrounding the implant, which may ultimately result in a cascade of events leading to periprosthetic bone loss. (ceraroot.com)
  • Upscale apothecary Rouge Luxe in Oak Bluffs offers makeup and nail polish along with its wonderful selection of skincare products, fragrances, and home scent items. (mvtimes.com)
  • We were expecting to see a bouquet of pinks, peaches, and purples for spring, but a more surprising makeup shade also popped up on runways (including Christian Dior, Valentino, Narciso Rodriguez, and Rag & Bone). (allure.com)
  • When you add up the toxic exposures from nail polish, however "small" they may (or may not) be, with those from fragrances, makeup, body lotions, and more, it can no longer be brushed off as insignificant. (mercola.com)
  • According to their website "Exposure to natural light secures the patent-pending technology, creating an enduring, long-lasting polish. (mvtimes.com)
  • The "ULTRA-THIN" BONE-DRY formula is an outstanding performer but it has one quirk: it crystallizes with prolonged exposure to temperatures below 45°F. This probably will not occur at your location but it might occur in shipping along the way to your place. (solarez.com)
  • Based on the results, long-term exposure to phthalates could have devastating effects on developing bones in young bodies and accelerate deterioration in aging bones. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • For this reason, many are concerned about the effects of phthalate exposure on bone health. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • We love the two-tone sheen on this nail varnish from Nars, which is designed to offer a high-gloss, long-lasting finish. (heart.co.uk)
  • According to the two-step procedure, a titanium fixture is first fitted into the medullary canal of the residuum bone [1- (thefreelibrary.com)
  • According to the one-step procedure, the shaft of a pylon is implanted directly into the bone canal, and bone ossifies around the shaft concurrently with the skin's integration with the pylon collar [4- (thefreelibrary.com)
  • From the article: 'Not only do bones produce a protein hormone, osteocalcin (pictured), that regulates bone formation, but this hormone also protects against obesity and glucose intolerance by increasing proliferation of pancreatic beta cells and their subsequent secretion of insulin. (slashdot.org)
  • Nails of the finger and toe are made up of layers of protein. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • Therefore, the typically lower estrogen levels that are experienced throughout menopause, can throw off the finely tuned moisture balance and protein cell structure of the nails. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • Each section will identify how you can support your overall health and bones - and give actionable recommendations to clean up your health. (algaecal.com)
  • And, as Savers know, these organs have much to do with bone health. (saveourbones.com)
  • Flaxseed oil is rich in omega 3 fatty acids that improve overall health, as well as nails. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • If you are feeling slightly weirded out by this term, then let's set it straight with the fact that vitamin D or the sunshine vitamin is incredibly essential for the health of the bones. (big-library.net)
  • Being overweight or underweight is the worst for the health and strength of the bones. (big-library.net)
  • Beat the Winter Blues This incredible bundle is a $99.99 value and includes: Vitamin D3 5000 IU Supplement Healthy Glow Body Lotion Multiple Stick - Sunrise Vitamin D3 Someone would purchase this product to support overall health in general, and to support bone and muscle health, cardiovascular, endocrine, immune and cognitive health in pa. (suzannesomers.com)