A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Enterovirus B, Human
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Viral Plaque Assay
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Viral Core Proteins
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Amino Acid Sequence
Low temperature and pressure stability of picornaviruses: implications for virus uncoating. (1/2233)The family Picornaviridae includes several viruses of great economic and medical importance. Poliovirus replicates in the human digestive tract, causing disease that may range in severity from a mild infection to a fatal paralysis. The human rhinovirus is the most important etiologic agent of the common cold in adults and children. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. These viruses have in common a capsid structure composed of 60 copies of four different proteins, VP1 to VP4, and their 3D structures show similar general features. In this study we describe the differences in stability against high pressure and cold denaturation of these viruses. Both poliovirus and rhinovirus are stable to high pressure at room temperature, because pressures up to 2.4 kbar are not enough to promote viral disassembly and inactivation. Within the same pressure range, FMDV particles are dramatically affected by pressure, with a loss of infectivity of more than 4 log units observed. The dissociation of polio and rhino viruses can be observed only under pressure (2.4 kbar) at low temperatures in the presence of subdenaturing concentrations of urea (1-2 M). The pressure and low temperature data reveal clear differences in stability among the three picornaviruses, FMDV being the most sensitive, polio being the most resistant, and rhino having intermediate stability. Whereas rhino and poliovirus differ little in stability (less than 10 kcal/mol at 0 degrees C), the difference in free energy between these two viruses and FMDV was remarkable (more than 200 kcal/mol of particle). These differences are crucial to understanding the different factors that control the assembly and disassembly of the virus particles during their life cycle. The inactivation of these viruses by pressure (combined or not with low temperature) has potential as a method for producing vaccines. (+info)
unr, a cellular cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein with five cold-shock domains, is required for internal initiation of translation of human rhinovirus RNA. (2/2233)Initiation of translation of the animal picornavirus RNAs occurs via a mechanism of direct ribosome entry, which requires a segment of the 5' UTR of the RNA, known as the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In addition, translation of the enterovirus and rhinovirus (HRV) subgroups requires cellular trans-acting factors that are absent from, or limiting in rabbit reticulocytes, but are more abundant in HeLa cell extracts. It has been shown previously that HeLa cells contain two separable activities, each of which independently stimulates HRV IRES-dependent translation when used to supplement reticulocyte lysate; one of these activities was identified as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB). Here, the purification of the second activity is achieved by use of an RNA-affinity column based on the HRV 5' UTR. It comprises two components: a 38-kD protein (p38), which is a novel member of the GH-WD repeat protein family and has no intrinsic RNA-binding activity; and a 96- to 97-kD protein doublet, which was identified as unr, an RNA-binding protein with five cold-shock domains. Coimmunoprecipitation with antibodies against either protein shows that the two proteins interact with each other, and thus p38 is named unrip (unr-interacting protein). Recombinant unr acts synergistically with recombinant PTB to stimulate translation dependent on the rhinovirus IRES. In contrast, unr did not significantly augment the PTB-dependent stimulation of poliovirus IRES activity. (+info)
Characterization of the nucleoside triphosphatase activity of poliovirus protein 2C reveals a mechanism by which guanidine inhibits poliovirus replication. (3/2233)The highly conserved non-structural protein 2C of picornaviruses is involved in viral genome replication and encapsidation and in the rearrangement of intracellular structures. 2C binds RNA, has nucleoside triphosphatase activity, and shares three motifs with superfamily III helicases. Motifs "A" and "B" are involved in nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) binding and hydrolysis, whereas a function for motif "C" has not yet been demonstrated. Poliovirus RNA replication is inhibited by millimolar concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). Resistance and dependence to GdnHCl map to 2C. To characterize the nucleoside triphosphatase activity of 2C, we purified poliovirus recombinant 2C fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST-2C) from Escherichia coli. GST-2C hydrolyzed ATP with a Km of 0.7 mM. Other NTPs, including GTP, competed with ATP for binding to 2C but were poor substrates for hydrolysis. Mutation of conserved residues in motif A and B abolished ATPase activity, as did mutation of the conserved asparagine residue in motif C, an observation indicating the involvement of this motif in ATP hydrolysis. GdnHCl at millimolar concentrations inhibited ATP hydrolysis. Mutations in 2C that confer poliovirus resistant to or dependent on GdnHCl increased the tolerance to GdnHCl up to 100-fold. (+info)
Poliomyelitis in intraspinally inoculated poliovirus receptor transgenic mice. (4/2233)Mice transgenic with the human poliovirus receptor gene develop clinical signs and neuropathology similar to those of human poliomyelitis when neurovirulent polioviruses are inoculated into the central nervous system (CNS). Factors contributing to disease severity and the frequencies of paralysis and mortality include the poliovirus strain, dose, and gender of the mouse inoculated. The more neurovirulent the virus, as defined by monkey challenge results, the higher the rate of paralysis, mortality, and severity of disease. Also, the time to disease onset is shorter for more neurovirulent viruses. Male mice are more susceptible to polioviruses than females. TGM-PRG-3 mice have a 10-fold higher transgene copy number and produce 3-fold more receptor RNA and protein levels in the CNS than TGM-PRG-1 mice. CNS inoculations with type III polioviruses differing in relative neurovirulence show that these mouse lines are similar in disease frequency and severity, demonstrating that differences in receptor gene dosage and concomitant receptor abundance do not affect susceptibility to infection. However, there is a difference in the rate of accumulation of clinical signs. The time to onset of disease is shorter for TGM-PRG-3 than TGM-PRG-1 mice. Thus, receptor dosage affects the rate of appearance of poliomyelitis in these mice. (+info)
Serum albumin inhibits echovirus 7 uncoating. (5/2233)Echoviruses induce a wide spectrum of diseases in man, the most severe being meningitis. In neonates, however, a severe systemic infection can be observed, leading to death. Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma and most interstitial fluids, and its functions include osmoregulation and transport and delivery of hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids and steroids. The results of cold-synchronized one-step growth analysis of echovirus 7 infection and sucrose-gradient analysis of A-particles suggest that physiological concentrations of albumin block echovirus 7 infection by inhibiting uncoating. The blockage was reversible and was still effective when albumin was added 30 min after virus adsorption. Inhibition of uncoating was confirmed by using rhodanine, a known specific inhibitor of echovirus uncoating. After removal of the albumin blockage, addition of rhodanine perpetuated the inhibition. Serum and interstitial albumin concentrations may limit echovirus infection in vivo and thereby act as an extracellular determinant for echovirus tropism. (+info)
Cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by exogenously added hybrid proteins containing poliovirus 2Apro in HeLa cells: effects on gene expression. (6/2233)Efficient cleavage of both forms of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G-1 and eIF4G-2) has been achieved in HeLa cells by incubation with hybrid proteins containing poliovirus 2Apro. Entry of these proteins into cells is promoted by adenovirus particles. Substantial levels of ongoing translation on preexisting cellular mRNAs still continue for several hours after eIF4G degradation. Treatment of control HeLa cells with hypertonic medium causes an inhibition of translation that is reversed upon restoration of cells to normal medium. Protein synthesis is not restored in cells lacking intact eIF4G after hypertonic treatment. Notably, induction of synthesis of heat shock proteins still occurs in cells pretreated with poliovirus 2Apro, suggesting that transcription and translation of these mRNAs takes place even in the presence of cleaved eIF4G. Finally, the synthesis of luciferase was examined in a HeLa cell line bearing the luciferase gene under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter. Transcription of the luciferase gene and transport of the mRNA to the cytoplasm occurs at control levels in eIF4G-deficient cells. However, luciferase synthesis is strongly inhibited in these cells. These findings indicate that intact eIF4G is necessary for the translation of mRNAs not engaged in translation with the exception of heat shock mRNAs but is not necessary for the translation of mRNAs that are being translated. (+info)
Polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTB) is necessary, but not sufficient, for efficient internal initiation of translation of human rhinovirus-2 RNA. (7/2233)Initiation of translation of the animal picornavirus RNAs is via a mechanism of direct internal ribosome entry, which requires a substantial segment of the viral 5'-untranslated region, generally known as the IRES (for "internal ribosome entry site"). Because, however, translation of the RNAs of members of the enterovirus, and more especially, the rhinovirus subgroups of the Picornaviridae is restricted in the reticulocyte lysate system, but is greatly stimulated by the addition of HeLa cell extracts, the implication is that, in these cases, internal initiation also requires cellular trans-acting factors that are more abundant in HeLa cell extracts than in rabbit reticulocytes. This was used as the basis of a functional assay for the purification of the HeLa cell factors required for translation dependent on the human rhinovirus-2 (HRV) IRES. There are two such HeLa cell factors separable by ion-exchange chromatography, each of which is individually active in the assay, although their combined effect is synergistic. One of these activities is shown to be polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTB) on the grounds that (1) the activity copurifies to homogeneity with PTB and (2) recombinant PTB expressed in Escherichia coli stimulates HRV IRES-dependent translation with a specific activity similar to that of the purified HeLa cell factor. Furthermore, it is shown that recombinant PTB also stimulates the translation of RNAs bearing the poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney) IRES. (+info)
A double-selective tissue culture system for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage applied in a long-term environmental surveillance. (8/2233)We describe a simple, cost-efficient, double-selective method for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage samples containing vaccine polioviruses and other enteroviruses, with a detection limit of 18 to 50 PFU per 1 to 2 liters of sewage. By this method we were able to process 1,700 sewage samples collected between 1991 and 1996, from which 10,472 plaques were isolated, 41 of them being identified as wild-type polioviruses. (+info)
An aspartic acid at amino acid 108 is required to rescue infectious virus after transfection of a poliovirus cDNA containing a...
The poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3Dpol) contains a region of homology centered around the amino acid motif YGDD (amino acids 326 to 329), which has been postulated to be involved in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Previous studies from this laboratory have used oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis to substitute the tyrosine amino acid at this motif with other amino acids (S. A. Jablonski and C. D. Morrow, J. Virol. 67:373-381, 1993). The viruses recovered with 3Dpol genes with a methionine mutation also contained a second mutation at amino acid 108 resulting in a glutamic acid-to-aspartic acid change (3D-E-108 to 3D-D-108) in the poliovirus RNA polymerase. On the basis of these results, we suggested that the amino acid at position 108 might interact with the YGDD region of the poliovirus polymerase. To further investigate this possibility, we have constructed a series of constructs in which the poliovirus RNA polymerases contained a mutation at amino acid 108 (3D-E-108 to ...
Cadureso - Two out of three wild poliovirus strains eradicated. Global eradication of wild poliovirus type 3 declared on World...
24 October 2019 - In an historic announcement on World Polio Day, an independent commission of experts concluded that wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) has been eradicated worldwide. Following the
A single mutation in poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase confers resistance to mutagenic nucleotide analogs via increased...
Here we describe the generation of ribavirin-resistant poliovirus by serial passage in the presence of the drug. Interestingly, no drug-resistant virus was isolated from passages in 400 μM ribavirin. Instead, data in Fig. 1C suggest that passage of virus at a lower concentration of ribavirin was necessary to allow the accumulation of mutations before the stringent selection for resistant variants provided by passage in 400 μM ribavirin. In hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients treated with ribavirin, estimates of the drug concentrations in blood plasma range from 10 to 30 μM, though the concentration in hepatocytes may be higher (20, 21). Although it is uncertain whether the concentration of ribavirin required to inhibit poliovirus growth is similar to the concentration required to inhibit HCV growth, the results presented here suggest that treatment with low concentrations of the drug could facilitate later selection of resistant variants. In fact, clinical data from HCV patients have ...
Evaluation of poliovirus antibody titers in orally vaccinated semi-captive chimpanzees in Uganda. - Semantic Scholar
BACKGROUND To understand immunological responses in chimpanzees vaccinated with live-attenuated vaccine (oral polio vaccine; OPV), serum neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were investigated over time. METHODS The neutralizing antibody titers against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were determined by microneutralization test using 100 ID(50) of poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 (Sabin strains). RESULTS Neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were detected in 85.7%, 71.4%, and 65% of the serum from 42 chimpanzees tested 9 years post-vaccination. The neutralizing antibody titers in chimpanzees were similar to the documented levels in human studies as an indicator of vaccine efficacy. CONCLUSIONS This study reveals persistence of neutralizing antibodies in chimpanzees for at least 9 years after vaccination with OPV. This first study in chimpanzees provides useful information for the evaluation of the success of vaccination with OPV in other captive apes.
Implications of a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus in Nigeria. - Oxford Big Data Institute
BACKGROUND: The largest recorded outbreak of a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), detected in Nigeria, provides a unique opportunity to analyze the pathogenicity of the virus, the clinical severity of the disease, and the effectiveness of control measures for cVDPVs as compared with wild-type poliovirus (WPV). METHODS: We identified cases of acute flaccid paralysis associated with fecal excretion of type 2 cVDPV, type 1 WPV, or type 3 WPV reported in Nigeria through routine surveillance from January 1, 2005, through June 30, 2009. The clinical characteristics of these cases, the clinical attack rates for each virus, and the effectiveness of oral polio vaccines in preventing paralysis from each virus were compared. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the clinical severity of paralysis among the 278 cases of type 2 cVDPV, the 2323 cases of type 1 WPV, and the 1059 cases of type 3 WPV. The estimated average annual clinical attack rates of type 1 WPV, type 2 cVDPV, and type 3 WPV
Poliovirus 3A Protein Limits Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and Beta Interferon Secretion during Viral Infection | Journal of...
Poliovirus 3A protein is known to have numerous functions in the viral replicative cycle, but the relationship between these functions is not known. Mutations in the 3A coding region, including the 3A-2 mutation at the restrictive growth temperature, are known to cause defects in viral RNA synthesis (3, 23). The larger polypeptide 3AB, which contains the 22-amino-acid protein primer for viral RNA synthesis fused to its carboxyl terminus, binds to 3D, the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (27, 66) and, when purified in the presence of detergent, stimulates polymerase activity (33, 45, 48, 51, 66). Recently, we have shown that viral proteins 2BC and 3A, expressed together, can mimic the ultrastructure and membrane rearrangements of poliovirus-infected cells (60), suggesting a role for 3A in vesicle formation during infection.. When expressed in isolation, viral 3A protein localizes to the ER, where it causes a three- to fivefold reduction in the rate of ER-to-Golgi traffic. In the presence ...
Plains Feeder: Poliovirus Infections in Minnesota vaccine-derived
The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) has identified a vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in an unvaccinated, immunocompromised infant girl aged 7 months and in three siblings in a separate household. All four children live in an Amish community largely unvaccinated for polio. The infant girl has no paralysis, and the source of her infection is unknown. VDPVs are derived from the Sabin poliovirus strains in oral polio vaccine, which was discontinued in the United States in 2000 ...
Antibodies against a synthetic peptide of the poliovirus replicase protein: reaction with native, virus-encoded proteins and...
A carboxy-terminal peptide of the poliovirus replicase protein (p63) was chemically synthesized, coupled to bovine serum albumin carrier, and injected into rabbits. The resulting antisera reacted with six virus-specific proteins from HeLa cells infected with poliovirus: NCVP 0b, NCVP 1b, NCVP 2, a protein of about 60,000 daltons, p63, and NCVP 6b. The identity of the 60,000-dalton protein is not known, but the other results were consistent with previous experimental approaches which demonstrated that p63 and the other four polypeptides have common coding sequences. An amino-terminal peptide of p63 failed to elicit an immune response in rabbits. Antibodies raised against the p63 carboxy-terminal peptide inhibited poliovirus replicase and polyuridylic acid polymerase activities in vitro, providing strong support for earlier suggestions that these activities are a property of a single virus-specific polypeptide. ...
PLOS Pathogens: Identification and Manipulation of the Molecular Determinants Influencing Poliovirus Recombination
Author Summary Viral recombination is critical to understanding the evolution of viral groups and impacts vaccine design, but is poorly understood. In the poliovirus vaccine, recombination is one potential mode of failure where vaccine strains recombine to produce a pathogenic product. We combine gene synthesis and deep sequencing to generate a high-resolution recombination map of poliovirus, both as a model RNA virus and a continuing threat that has yet to be eradicated. This map shows that recombination is concentrated into hotspots and suggests that predictable and alterable motifs in the RNA sequence are associated with recombination frequency. We demonstrate the utility of these observations by re-designing a poliovirus strain to recombine more frequently than normal, facilitating future studies on the role of viral recombination during infection. This result suggests that a large-scale redesign of the entire poliovirus genome to dampen recombination may be feasible, with implications for producing
Sabin and wild type polioviruses from children who presented with acute flaccid paralysis in Nigeria | African Health...
Results: The study confirmed the presence of 22(18.3%) enteroviral isolates comprising 19(86.4%) polioviruses and 3(13.6%) non-polio enteroviruses. These 19 polioviruses include: Sabin-type poliovirus-1 (15.8%), poliovirus-2 (10.5%), poliovirus-3 (10.5%) and wild-type poliovirus-1 (63.2%) isolates. It showed that poliovirus infection was higher in children ages 6-11 months (18.9%), females (18.4%), northern states (91.0%) with no vaccination record (75.0%). Wild-type poliovirus-1 was isolated from the stool samples of 12(54.6%) children from northern states and in all age groups except 18-23 months. No significant differences (P ,0.05) between poliovirus infection and age (18.9% vs. 17.7%; 81.9% vs. 18.2%) and sex (18.3% vs. 18.4%). There was significant differences (P,0.05) between poliovirus infection and location (91.0% vs. 9.0%) and history of polio vaccination (75.0% vs. 0.0%). No wild-type poliovirus was found in those with complete vaccination ...
Deconvolving mutational patterns of poliovirus outbreaks reveals its intrinsic fitness landscape | Nature Communications
Vaccination has essentially eradicated poliovirus. Yet, its mutation rate is higher than that of viruses like HIV, for which no effective vaccine exists. To investigate this, we infer a fitness model for the poliovirus viral protein 1 (vp1), which successfully predicts in vitro fitness measurements. This is achieved by first developing a probabilistic model for the prevalence of vp1 sequences that enables us to isolate and remove data that are subject to strong vaccine-derived biases. The intrinsic fitness constraints derived for vp1, a capsid protein subject to antibody responses, are compared with those of analogous HIV proteins. We find that vp1 evolution is subject to tighter constraints, limiting its ability to evade vaccine-induced immune responses. Our analysis also indicates that circulating poliovirus strains in unimmunized populations serve as a reservoir that can seed outbreaks in spatio-temporally localized sub-optimally immunized populations. Poliovirus has a higher mutation rate than HIV,
ASMscience | Poliovirus RNA Replicati
Poliovirus RNA replicates in membrane-associated replication complexes in the cytoplasm of infected cells. By using a reversible inhibitor of poliovirus RNA replication, it is possible to synchronize viral RNA replication. The processing of the viral polyprotein results in the formation of the individual viral proteins along with stable intermediates in the processing pathway. To expand the utility of the in vitro complementation assay, experiments were designed to determine if all of the viral replication proteins could be provided in trans to support the replication of mutant RNA templates. The authors engineered two transcript RNAs (DJB2 and DJB15) that contained large out-of-frame deletions in the polyprotein coding sequence. The results to date using the in vitro complementation assay indicate that the 5 cloverleaf, the 3 nontranslated region (NTR), and the poly(A) tail are the minimum sequences required for negative-strand synthesis. Previous studies have shown that the 5 cloverleaf plays an
Characterization of Poliovirus Variants Selected for Resistance to the Antiviral Compound V-073 | Antimicrobial Agents and...
The National Research Council of the National Academies has recommended that at least one, preferably two, polio antiviral drugs be developed as a supplement to the tools currently available for control of polio outbreaks posteradication (4, 5). Pursuant to this recommendation, poliovirus-specific capsid inhibitor V-073 is being advanced clinically to assess the potential utility of poliovirus antiviral drugs in the treatment of chronic poliovirus infections and management of polio incidents. As with the application of any antiviral drug, the issue of treatment-emergent drug resistance presents a potential obstacle to implementation. It is important to understand the potential for and consequences of antiviral resistance.. We show here that poliovirus variants with reduced susceptibility to V-073 can be isolated in cell culture from otherwise drug-susceptible virus populations. The frequency of these variants in virus populations was estimated at 3.20 × 10−5 to 42.7 × 10−5 (geometric mean, ...
As this eMedTV article explains, vaccine-derived poliovirus (a rare strain of poliovirus that has been found in the live oral vaccine) can cause polio in unvaccinated people. This page offers a look at the occurrence and transmission of this virus.
Looking for every last poliovirus in global sample collections - GPEI
To supplement Global Action Plan III for the containment of polioviruses, WHO has published guidance for non-polio facilities to help them identify, destroy, or safely and securely handle and store sample collections potentially infectious for poliovirus.. Dr Mark Pallansch from CDC explains what the guidance means for facilities worldwide.. Poliovirus potentially infectious materials (PIM) include fecal, nasopharyngeal, or sewage samples collected in a time and place where wild polioviruses/vaccine-derived polioviruses (WPV/VDPV), or OPV-derived viruses were circulating or oral polio vaccines (OPV/Sabin) were in use. Non-polio research facilities with a high probability of storing such materials include those working with rotavirus or other enteric agents, hepatitis viruses, influenza/respiratory viruses, and measles virus. Other facilities could include those conducting nutrition research or environmental facilities.. ...
Avian Flu Diary: PNAS: A Vaccine Evading Variant Poliovirus
In 2010, a large outbreak of poliomyelitis involving 445 laboratory-confirmed cases occurred in the Republic of Congo. The 47% case-fatality rate was unusually high. Outbreak severity was attributed to low immunization coverage but vaccine-mediated immunity against the outbreak virus was never investigated. We isolated the poliovirus type 1 responsible for the outbreak and located its evolutionary origins to Southeast Asia. Fatal cases showed evidence for previous vaccination against polioviruses and the outbreak virus was refractive against neutralization by monoclonal and vaccine-derived antibodies. This pointed to immune escape contributing to the severity of the outbreak. Sustained vaccination regimens in polio-free regions, together with clinical and environmental poliovirus surveillance will be necessary to combat antigenetically variant polioviruses in the poliomyelitis eradication endgame. ...
Synthetic Peptides from Four Separate Regions of the Poliovirus Type 1 Capsid Protein VP1 Induce Neutralizing Antibodies -...
Peptides from different regions of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 were synthesized. Antibodies raised against these peptides in rabbits and rats recognized the cognate peptides and denatured VP1. Peptides from four regions of VP1 generated antisera with neutralizing titers specifically against poliovirus type 1. Antisera against all other regions of VP1 failed to neutralize virus infectivity, although some of the antisera clearly bound to native virions. Thus, the neutralizing determinants on VP1 reside in specific noncontiguous regions of the protein and can be defined by specific peptides from these regions. ...
Poliovirus - Wikipedia
The primary determinant of infection for any virus is its ability to enter a cell and produce additional infectious particles. The presence of CD155 is thought to define the animals and tissues that can be infected by poliovirus. CD155 is found (outside of laboratories) only on the cells of humans, higher primates, and Old World monkeys. Poliovirus is, however, strictly a human pathogen, and does not naturally infect any other species (although chimpanzees and Old World monkeys can be experimentally infected). The CD155 gene appears to have been subject to positive selection. The protein has several domains of which domain D1 contains the polio virus binding site. Within this domain, 37 amino acids are responsible for binding the virus. Poliovirus is an enterovirus. Infection occurs via the fecal-oral route, meaning that one ingests the virus and viral replication occurs in the alimentary tract. Virus is shed in the feces of infected individuals. In 95% of cases only a primary, ...
How Poliovirus Infects Our Bodies
two children polio-stricken children attending physical therapy circa 1963. Three classifications of Polio. Spinal Polio This is the classification when the poliovirus kills the motor neurons in the gray matter of the ventral horn of the spinal column. As the cells in the region are dying off the muscles of the limbs are not able to receive signals from the CNS so they begin to atrophy and become weak. In a few days, the patient will be fully paralyzed. This is the most common form of polio. Bulbar polio This form of polio is not as common as spinal polio. It is classified by this when the poliovirus infects and kills neurons in the bulbar region of the brain stem. This affects the muscles we use to speak, swallow, and breathe. Bulbospinal Polio. About 20 percent of people will get bulbospinal polio where they have both bulbar and spinal infection. In this situation poliovirus infects the upper part of the cervical spinal cord making the diaphragm paralyzed. Structure of Polio - An article by ...
Microbiology Society Journals | Complete protein linkage map between the P2 and P3 non-structural proteins of poliovirus
All of the non-structural proteins of poliovirus, including their processing precursors, are involved in the replication of the viral RNA genome. These proteins assemble into a replication complex, which also contains the viral RNA and cellular factors. An understanding of how these viral proteins interact with each other would enhance our understanding of the molecular events occurring during poliovirus infection of the cell. Previously, we have employed the yeast two-hybrid system to construct two separate linkage maps for the polioviral P2 and P3 proteins, respectively. In the present study, we have searched for interacting pairs between the P2 and P3 proteins in a similar inducible yeast two-hybrid system. Although, the primary functions of the proteolytic products of the P2 and P3 domains of the polyprotein in the viral life cycle are different, we observed significant interactions between 2CATPase and 3AB; 2Apro and 3A, 3Cpro or 3Dpol; 2B and 3A or 3AB. All of the interactions were measured in the
WHO | Wild poliovirus in the Horn of Africa - update
Three suspected cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) from South Sudan are currently being investigated. All three patients are girls, two of whom are approximately two-years-old and one is eight-years-old. All had previously been immunized with oral polio vaccine (OPV).
Poliovirus | virology | Britannica.com
Poliovirus: …viruses that cause polio (poliovirus) and other diseases. (Until this time, the poliovirus could be grown only in the brains of chimpanzees or the spinal cords of monkeys.) Culturing cells on glass surfaces opened the way for diseases caused by viruses to be identified by their effects on cells…
Poliovirus kills off cancer cells, stops tumor regrowth - Smoke Kills
The team was jointly led by Dr. Matthias Gromeier, a professor in the Department of Neurosurgery, and Prof. Smita Nair, who is an immunologist in the Department of Surgery.. The new research - which is published in the journal Science Translational Medicine - shows how a modified poliovirus enables the body to use its own resources to fight off cancer. The modified virus bears the name of recombinant oncolytic poliovirus (PVS-RIPO).. PVS-RIPO has been in clinical trials since 2011 and preliminary results have offered hope to patients with one of the most aggressive forms of brain tumor: recurrent glioblastoma. So, the researchers set out to investigate more deeply how exactly PVS-RIPO works.. Explaining the rationale behind their research endeavor, Dr. Gromeier says, Knowing the steps that occur to generate an immune response will enable us to rationally decide whether and what other therapies make sense in combination with poliovirus to improve patient survival.. Also Read:- 11 WAYS THAT A ...
Abstracts | Orthopädie Prof. Wimmer
7. Butschek R, Wimmer C (1995): Fallbericht: Hüftluxation im Alter von 3 Monaten bei primär zentrierter, nur gering reifungsverzögerter Hüfte. Orthopädie Mitteilung 3: 58.. 8. Wimmer C, Gluch H, Krismer M (1995) Die Inzidenz von Pseudoarthrosen bei homologem und autologem Knochenspan ventraler, lumbaler Fusionen. Orthopädie Mitteilungen 3: 25.. 9. Wimmer C, Sterzinger W, Achammer T, Biedermann H (1996) Die lumbale Fusion eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung. Abstract book. XVII International vascular workshop: 21.. 10. Said M, Flora G, Achammer T, Wimmer C (1996) Vaskuläre Komplikationen nach Hüftchirurgischen Eingriffen. Abstract book. XVII International vascular workshop: 25.. 11. Achammer T, Rachbauer F, Flora G, Wimmer C (1996) Orthopädische Behandlung von Knochen und Weichteiltumoren in Zusammenarbeit mit den Gefäßchirurgen. Abstract book. XVII International vascular workshop: 45.. 12. Gluch H, Schreiber U, Wimmer C (1996) Ergebnisse der operativen Behandlung der Deformitäten ...
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After that I was very interested in viruses, and the concept of viruses, but I wanted to learn more about molecular virology. Jeff Almond offered me a Postdoc, and hed been decoding the basis of vaccine attenuation for the Sabin strains of poliovirus vaccine strain, Sabin strain, and that seemed the perfect opportunity to learn how to clone, how to manipulate viruses. I was just bowled over by the fact that you can make a virus de-novo, and I loved doing that - understanding the replication, the way that the cis-acting signals in the poliovirus genome controlled the packaging and the replication of the genome, the piece of RNA.. So I learnt how to do that with poliovirus, which people had been able to do for some years already, and then at a conference I met Peter Palese, and he had just discovered how to get that to work with negative-strand RNA viruses and flu, and he offered me a Postdoc. So I went off to New York and did that. It was funny because at that time I wasnt even thinking of flu ...
Safety and Immunogenicity of a New Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine in Infants - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
A new inactivated polio vaccine based on attenuated poliovirus strains was developed to transfer the technology to manufacturers in low- and middle-income countries. This vaccine was produced in different dosages and in different formulations. In healthy adults the safety of the highest dose was comparable to that of the existing inactivated polio vaccine. The purpose of this trial is to determine the safety of the different dosages and formulations of the vaccine in infants. The second goal of this study is to analyse the immune response after three doses in infants ...
Revaxis Vaccination - Immunization & Vaccine - MedHelp
I had this injection on the 3rd May which includes Diphtheria toxoid/Human poliovirus type 1 inactivated/Human poliovirus type 2 inactivated/Human poliovirus type 3 inactivated/Tetanus toxoid and since...
The effect of incubation at 37C on the neutralization test with various encephalitis viruses including Lansing strains of...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The effect of incubation at 37C on the neutralization test with various encephalitis viruses including Lansing strains of poliomyelitis virus. by Peter K. Olitsky et al.
Africa now free of wild poliovirus, but polio threat remains | CBS 42
JOHANNESBURG (AP) - Health authorities on Tuesday declared the African continent free of the wild poliovirus after decades of effort, though cases of vaccine-derived polio are still sparking outbreaks of the paralyzing disease in more than a dozen countries. The declaration leaves Pakistan and neighboring Afghanistan as the only countries thought to still have the […]
Cancer immunotherapy with recombinant poliovirus induces IFN-dominant activation of dendritic cells and tumor antigen-specific...
Disruption of the immunological masking of tumors and expansion of the antitumor immune repertoire are eminent objectives for cancer immunotherapy. The inspiration for using PVSRIPO to this end had its origin in specific cytopathogenicity for cells derived from virtually any solid cancer, due to widespread CD155 expression in solid malignancy (7). PVSRIPO was granted breakthrough therapy designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research in May 2016, due to promising early clinical results against glioblastoma. Here, we define PVSRIPOs immunotherapeutic potential, in terms of its ability to engage tumors immunologically and to induce tumor antigen-specific antitumor immunity. Our studies suggest that, in addition to lytic damage to malignant cells, this potential rests on noncytotoxic infection of APCs/DCs.. PVSRIPO infection of primary human DCs did not produce cytopathogenicity or cell killing but induced type I IFN responses that exceeded ...
Poliovirus 1 Mouse anti-Virus, Alexa Fluor 350, Clone: 9B4, Novus Biologicals | Fisher Scientific
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Poliovirus 1 Mouse anti-Virus, Alexa Fluor 350, Clone: 9B4, Novus Biologicals Poliovirus 1 Antibody; Alexa Fluor
Poliovirus Type 2 Antibody | SCBT - Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Buy poliovirus type 2 antibodies from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. Monoclonal antibodies are available to most protein immunogens.
CellNEWS: Artificial Polio Virus Could Make Safe New Vaccine
Six years ago, Eckard Wimmer, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology at Stony Brook University, and colleagues synthesized and generated poliovirus, the first artificial synthesis of any virus. Dr. Wimmer and other scientists within the Department built on that finding in their recent work. Synthesizing the wild-type poliovirus was an essential and important first step toward our current research, says Dr. Wimmer, noting that the new method involves impeding the synthesis of viral proteins, a new approach to developing attenuated vaccines. This type of vaccine is created by mutating the virus so it cannot cause disease. Generally, attenuated vaccines are easy to administer, inexpensive, and sometimes offer the best protection against disease. As all viruses depend on their hosts cellular machinery to produce their proteins, targeting the synthesis of viral proteins by the host may be universally applicable to creating weakened strains of other ...
Geographic distribution of wild poliovirus type 1 genotypes - Fingerprint - Scholars @ UT Health San Antonio
antibody - Page 2
Antigenic variation is a hallmark of influenza virus that allows the virus to evade host defenses. Consequently influenza vaccines need to be reformulated frequently to keep up with changing viruses. In contrast, antigenic variation is not a hallmark of poliovirus - the same poliovirus vaccines have been used for nearly 60 years to control infections by this virus. An exception is a poliovirus type 1 that caused a 2010 outbreak in the Republic of Congo.. The 2010 outbreak (445 paralytic cases) was unusual because the case fatality ratio of 47% was higher than typically observed (usually less than 10% of patients with confirmed disease die). The first clue that something was different in this outbreak was the finding that sera from some of the fatal cases failed to effectively block (neutralize) infection of cells by the strain of poliovirus isolated during this outbreak (the strain is called PV-RC2010). The same sera effectively neutralized the three Sabin vaccine viruses as well as wild type 1 ...
Seroprevalence of Poliovirus Antibodies in the United States Population, 2009-2010 | BMC Public Health | Full Text
Poliovirus seroprevalence did not differ by gender but was higher among those aged 6-11 years compared to those aged 12-19, 20-39 and 40-49 years (p , 0.001 for each comparison, Table 1, Fig.1). Those aged 12-19 and 40-49 years had a higher seroprevalence than those aged 20-39 years (p , 0.05 and p , 0.001, respectively). When stratified by gender, those aged 6-11 years had a higher seroprevalence than those aged 12-19, 20-39, and 40-49 for both males and females (p , 0.05, p , 0.001, and p , 0.001, respectively for males and p , 0.001, p , 0.001, and p , 0.05, respectively for females). Those aged 40-49 years had a higher seroprevalence than those aged 12-19 and 20-39 years for females (p , 0.05 and p , 0.001, respectively) and those aged 12-19 years had a higher seroprevelance than those aged 20-39 years for males (p , 0.05). Among those aged 40-49 years, males had a higher seroprevalence than females (p , 0.05). Within the other age groups, no differences by gender were observed. No ...
Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus receptor bound to poliovirus | PNAS
The homology models for d1, d2, and d3 were fitted into the reconstruction (Fig. 3b). Because the density map exhibits constrictions between the domains, determining the placement of the domains was mainly a matter of fixing their orientations about their long axes. The d1 model could be fitted into the density map in either of two orientations, 180o apart. One orientation was entirely consistent with mutational data implicating the C′C and DE loops of Pvr, and the EF (166-169) and GH (213-236) loops of VP1, the EF loop of VP2 (140-144), and the GH loop of VP3 (182-186) as important interaction sites; the other was inconsistent with these data. The orientations of d2 and d3 were unambiguous. β-Strand and loop assignments in the final model (Fig. 3b Inset) are given in Fig. 3c.. The d1 model (residues 29-142) fits the reconstructed density well and exhibits notable complementarity with the virus surface. Adaptation of the initial homology model to fit the density map required major changes in ...
Antigenic and immunogenic properties of recombinant hepatitis A virus 14S and 70S subviral particles<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigenic and immunogenic properties of recombinant hepatitis A virus 14S and 70S subviral particles. AU - Stapleton, Jack T.. AU - Raina, Vijay. AU - Winokur, Patricia L.. AU - Walters, Kathy. AU - Klinzman, Donna. AU - Rosen, Elliot. AU - McLinden, James H.. PY - 1993/2. Y1 - 1993/2. N2 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has an immunodominant neutralization antigenic site. By using a panel of monoclonal antibodies targeted against the HAV neutralization antigenic site, it was shown that three epitopes within this site are present on 14S subunits (pentamers of the structural unit). In contrast, two other epitopes within this site are formed upon assembly of 14S subunits into capsids. Thus, the epitopes recognized by these two monoclonal antibodies are formed either by a conformational change in the antigenic site or by the juxtaposition of epitope fragments present on different 14S subunits during assembly of 14S into 70S particles. Both 14S and 70S particles elicited HAV-neutralizing ...
Two determinants in the capsid of a persistent type 3 poliovirus exert different effects on mutant virus uncoating |...
Mutant polioviruses (PV) have been previously found to be capable of establishing persistent infections in HEp-2c cells. Together, two amino acid substitutions in the viral capsid of a type 3 poliovirus (PV-3), at positions VP213 and VP1290, are sufficient to confer the persistent phenotype to a normally lytic virus. When susceptible cells are infected, the double mutant T7L+2L 131N290 undergoes unique conformational changes in the capsid, modifying its sedimentation coefficient from 160S to 147S. In the present study, we have further investigated mutant PV decapsidation and, in particular, the effect of each determinant independently. Our results indicate that the novel 147S form was also generated by a mutant carrying only the determinant 1N290. This form was not produced as a result of inherent capsid instability and it was generated only upon specific PV-host cell interactions. The second viral determinant, 2L13, also modified receptor-induced conformational changes, although differently from 1N290.
VackvSuG: Misleading events which transport Polio Virus Receptors in Man.
Furthermore, human cells but not rodent cells are killed by poliovirus in vitro. Monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell and in human spinal cord poliovirus receptor site (PVR locus* 19q13.2-q13.3) the human receptor for polio virus CD155 additional refinments or modifinments are required to permit attachment of PVR and nectin that localize in the cell-matrix adhesions and binding of a soluble DNAM-1-Fc molecule [DNAX accessory molecule 1] was detected at the apical surface of the endothelium above the endothelial cell junctions, DANM cooperated with NKp30 in the NK-mediated nectin-1 Mabs killing of both immature and mature dendritic cells mediated by UL141 Merlin blocking surface expression of CD155 (natural cytotoxicity receptors) to lysis of NK-mediated killing in the degree of autolysis in the probabilities of the two lytic enzymes exotoxin and endotoxin nectins and not the lysogenic lifecycle before induction by the daughter cell considerations are at the cell junctions during ...
Poliovirus | The Pirbright Institute
Poliovirus (PV) infects humans and is highly infectious. It belongs to the genus Enterovirus, under the family Picornaviridae. There are three serotypes; PV1, PV2, and PV3, but PV1 is the most common serotype. PV has a single stranded RNA genome, a capsid that encases it, but no envelope. Associated diseases: PV causes the disease Poliomyelitis (also known as polio). It is highly infectious, and in endemic areas polio varies widely in the symptoms it causes;
RCSB PDB - 4K4W: Poliovirus polymerase elongation complex (r5+2 form) Methods Report Page
4K4W: Structures of coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and poliovirus polymerase elongation complexes solved by engineering RNA mediated crystal contacts.
Poliovirus serotypes 1-3 - Guide to Services - CNPHI
Web Experience Toolkit (WET) includes reusable components for building and maintaining innovative Web sites that are accessible, usable, and interoperable. These reusable components are open source software and free for use by departments and external Web communities
Poliovirus is a highly contagious virus that only affects humans; as this eMedTV article explains, it is also the cause of polio. This page describes the virus in detail, including information on its transmission, history, and possible eradication.
AID 775057 - Antiviral activity against 20 PFU poliovirus infected in human RD cells assessed as plaque forming unit pretreated...
BioAssay record AID 775057 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against 20 PFU poliovirus infected in human RD cells assessed as plaque forming unit pretreated at 125 uM for 72 hrs followed by viral infection and compound treatment at 250 uM for 7 hrs by plaque assay (Rvb = 1.2 x 10-9 PFU/ml).
Use of Preservative Agents and Antibiotics for Increased Poliovirus Survival on Positively Charged Filters - pdf descargar
Use of Preservative Agents and Antibiotics for Increased Poliovirus Survival on Positively Charged Filters. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Dukes Poliovirus Therapy Shows Survival Benefit in Early Patients
Contact: Sarah Avery Phone: 919-660-1306 Email: [email protected] https://www.dukehealth.org ASCO Abstract #2061 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE on Monday, June 6, 2016 DURHAM, N.C. - An early group of patients who received a modified form of the poliovirus to treat recurrent glioblastoma brain tumors showed survival improvement over historical controls, according to researchers at the Presto...
Active Poliovirus Baked From Scratch | Science
With mail-order DNA and more than 2 years of painstaking work, researchers for the first time have assembled a virus from its chemical code. The lab-built poliovirus, described online this week by Science, killed mice and was almost indistinguishable from the original. Biologists disagree on how difficult it would be to construct far bulkier viruses such as smallpox to create bioweapons. ...
Poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 : usage, side effects, expert advice and...
Poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 is used in the treatment of .get complete information about poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 at 1mg.com
Ala67Thr Mutation in the Poliovirus Receptor CD155 is a Potential Risk Factor for Vaccine and Wild-Type Paralytic Poliomyelitis
Poliovirus infections can be asymptomatic or cause severe paralysis. Why some individuals develop paralytic poliomyelitis is unknown, but a role for host genetic factors has been suggested. To investigate if a polymorphism, Ala67Thr, in the poliovirus receptor, which has been found to facilitate increased resistance against poliovirus-induced cell lysis and apoptosis, is associated with increased risk of paralytic poliomyelitis, poliovirus receptor genotyping was undertaken among Italian subjects with vaccine-associated (n = 9), or with wild-type paralytic poliomyelitis (n = 6), and control subjects (n = 71), using RFLP-PCR and pyrosequencing. Heterozygous poliovirus receptor Ala67Thr genotype was found in 13.3% of the patients with paresis and in 8.5% of the controls (Odds Ratio = 1.667). The frequency of Ala67Thr among the controls is in agreement with earlier published data. It is concluded that the Ala67Thr mutation in the poliovirus receptor is a possible risk factor for the development of ...
Wild poliovirus type 2 declared eradicated - Outbreak News Today
Earlier this week it was reported that Nigeria has interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus and is no longer a polio endemic country. Now, in some belated news from the polio eradication front, the Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCC) on Sep. 20 concluded that wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) has been eradicated worldwide. The last detected WPV2 dates to 1999, from Aligarh, northern India.. There are three wild poliovirus serotypes: WPV1, WPV2 and WPV3. WPV3 has not been detected globally since November 2012 (in Nigeria); the only remaining endemic WPV1 strains are now restricted to the two remaining endemic countries, Pakistan and Afghanistan.. This declaration will support the final decision on whether the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine will be made as scheduled in April 2016, which will be decided by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization next month.. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) says oral polio ...
Number of children receiving oral poliovirus in the Congo | Zanran
Data & statistics on Number of children receiving oral poliovirus in the Congo: Number of children aged 0-59 months*, number receiving oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) during National Immunization Days † (NIDs), number of reported cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and nonpolio AFP rates, by province - Democratic Republic of Congo, 1999, Immune response of age group 1 to 12 months children against oral poliovirus vaccine., Mean changes before and after for all practices for immunizations in 2-year-olds, as measured by the percentage of children who were up to date for each of the immunizations and for the combination of all immunizations. DTP indicates diphtheriatetanus-pertussis; OPV, oral poliovirus; MMR, measles-mumpsrubella; Hib, Haemophilus inﬂuenza type b; HepB, hepatitis B; VZ, varicella zoster vaccine of disease; ......
Poliovirus neutralising antibody in infants and cord blood. | [email protected]
Singapore participated in the WHO EPI protocol for rapid assessment of serological response to three doses of standard oral poliovirus vaccine. The 100% seropositive finding of thirty infants below one year old is no proof of seroconversion rate to the Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (TOPV) administered. Investigation of 100 cord blood samples showed that passively transferred maternal poliovirus neutralising antibody cannot be relied upon for protection of infants against poliomyelitis. This paper emphasises the importance of vaccine potency testing and serves as a timely reminder that although the last case of indigenous poliomyelitis was recorded in 1974, non Sabin-like (wild) polioviruses are being isolated from imported cases and foreigners hospitalised in Singapore, and unexpectedly, from the conjunctiva and pharynx of Singaporeans treated for conjunctivitis. It discusses the WHO (World Health Organization) Plan of Action for Eradication of Polio in the Western Pacific Region which ...
Increased immunogenicity of oral poliovirus vaccine administered in mass vaccination campaigns compared with the routine...
To compare the immunogenicity of routine versus mass campaign doses of oral poliovirus vaccine OPV, serum neutralizing antibodies were measured in 254 children before and after two mass vaccination campaigns in Jordan. Precampaign seroprevalences to poliovirus types 1,2, and 3 in children who had received three, four, or five routine doses of...
Poliovirus | definition of poliovirus by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of poliovirus in the Medical Dictionary? poliovirus explanation free. What is poliovirus? Meaning of poliovirus medical term. What does poliovirus mean?
Quantitative study of the formation of poliovirus antigens in infected HeLa cells<sup>2</sup> 2 Abbreviations employed: RNA =...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative study of the formation of poliovirus antigens in infected HeLa cells2 2 Abbreviations employed. T2 - RNA = ribonucleic acid; PFU = plaque-forming unit; FPA =dl-p-fluorophenylalanine.. AU - Scharff, Matthew D.. AU - Levintow, Leon. PY - 1963/4. Y1 - 1963/4. N2 - Methods based on the specific interaction between isotopically labeled poliovirus antigens and their specific antisera have been used to study the course of antigen formation in infected HeLa cell cultures. No appreciable amounts of either D antigen or C antigen are formed prior to the onset of maturation. While D antigenicity is a property of structurally complete particles, C antigenicity is associated with particles which lack RNA. Both sorts of particles are primary products of the infectious process, being formed in roughly equal amounts along the course of maturation. Appreciable amounts of both antigens are formed in the presence of low concentrations of fluorophenylalanine (FPA) which inhibit ...
Wild Poliovirus Type 1 and Type 3 Importations --- 15 Countries, Africa, 2008--2009
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative began in 1988; by 2006, indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) type 2 infection had been interrupted globally, and indigenous transmission of type 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) infection had been interrupted in all but four countries worldwide (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan) (1). Despite this success in controlling indigenous transmission, during 2002--2006, 20 previously polio-free countries* in Africa and Asia had importations of WPV1 originating from Nigeria (2--4), and three polio-free countries in Africa had WPV1 importations originating from India (1). By the end of 2007, control efforts in all countries except Angola, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Niger, and Sudan had stopped transmission of WPV1 caused by these importations. However, during 2008--2009, multiple importations of WPV from countries with ongoing transmission resumed in Africa. This report describes 32 WPV importations into 15 African countries, resulting ...
Summary of Poliovirus Genome in Patients with Post-Polio Syndrome | Post Polio: Polio Place
Joan L. Headley, Executive Director, PHI. In late 2013, Post-Polio Health International awarded $100,000 to the team of Antonio Toniolo, MD; Andreina Baj, MD; Martina Colombo, PhD - Laboratory of Medical Microbiology and Virology, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria Medical Center, Varese, Italy, to expand its search for poliovirus genome in various populations.. The teams work is enhanced by the expertise of Konstantin Chumakov, PhD, Associate Director for Research, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation Research, Silver Spring, Maryland.. The goals are: 1) to complete the systematic search of poliovirus genomes in the Italian cohort of post-polio syndrome cases, and 2) to verify if poliovirus genomes are also present in aging polio survivors with stable polio (those aged ,60 years that have not developed post- polio syndrome).. A Mid-Study Report was submitted to PHI and published in Post-Polio Health, Volume 31, Number ...
Saúde Pública - Importation and circulation of poliovirus in Bulgaria in 2001 Importation and circulation of poliovirus in...
Epidemiological investigation and specimen collection. Teams of epidemiologists from districts and from the central level investigated each case of acute flaccid paralysis and reviewed clinical records. Vaccination records were reviewed for children who lived in the same household, immediate neighbours, and hospital contacts of cases; people in these groups were given oral poliovirus vaccine. Faecal specimens were collected from children exposed in the hospital to case- patients and from children who lived in the same households as these exposed children.. Serological surveys Between 19 April and 8 May 2001, we sampled 71 children aged 0 83 months who were from minority populations and were hospitalized in any of five district hospitals before the first mass vaccination campaign. We reviewed these childrens vaccination records and collected blood specimens. The Bulgaria National Enterovirus Laboratory measured antibody titres to types 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus in sera by using neutralization ...
Difference between revisions of Polio Disease Transmission Model - Eclipsepedia
Back to Available Models Polioviruses Transmission Model  Global efforts to eradicate wild polioviruses continue, with types 1 and 3 wild polioviruses remaining endemic in three countries (Nigeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan). Since 13 January 2011, India has had no case of wild poliovirus and has not detected the virus in sewage sampling. Even though India is thus considered to have interrupted transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus , there is a critical need to maintain immunity to poliovirus in India as well as other wild polio-free countries until global eradication is achieved. Wild polioviruses still cause fewer than 2000 global cases of paralytic polio annually . While wild polioviruses circulate in these areas, the rest of the world must continue to keep polio vaccination levels very high , due to the risk of outbreaks in susceptible people in polio-free countries. In addition, post-eradication policy planning must anticipate that outbreaks (defined as one or more cases of ...
045.03 ACUTE PARALYTIC POLIOMYELITIS SPECIFIED AS BULBAR, POLIOVIRUS TYPE III
ICD-9 045.03 is acute paralytic poliomyelitis specified as bulbar, poliovirus type iii (04503). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for infectious and parasitic diseases.
Managing the risk of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus during the endgame: oral poliovirus vaccine needs. - PubMed - NCBI
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Effect of booster doses of poliovirus vaccine in previously vaccinated by Atif Habib, Sajid Soofi et al.
Background: Considering the current polio situation Pakistan needs vaccine combinations to reach maximum population level immunity. The trial assessed whether inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) can be used to rapidly boost immunity among children in Pakistan. Methods: A five-arm randomized clinical trial was conducted among children (6-24 months, 5-6 years and 10-11 years). Children were randomized in four intervention arms as per the vaccines they received (bOPV, IPV, bOPV + vitamin A, and bOPV + IPV) and a control arm which did not receive any vaccine. Baseline seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies and serological immune response 28 days after intervention were assessed.Results: The baseline seroprevalence was high for all serotypes and the three age groups [PV1: 97%, 100%, 96%, PV2: 86%, 100%, 99%, PV3: 83%, 95%, 87% for the three age groups respectively]. There was significantly higher rate of immune response observed in the study arms which included IPV (95-99%) compared with bOPV only arms (11
Eckard Wimmer - Wikipedia
Originally trained as an organic chemist, Wimmer developed a deep understanding and fascination for viruses as replicating (living) biological entities as well as (non-living) aggregates of organic compounds, or, as chemicals with a life cycle. After working on the structure of tRNAs and the structure of a plant RNA virus (satellite tobacco necrosis virus), Wimmer chose to study poliovirus in 1968. Poliovirus is the cause of the horrific disease poliomyelitis, which can cause irreversible flaccid paralysis and even death. Neither the molecular biology of poliovirus proliferation nor the mechanism of its pathogenesis was understood in the nineteen sixties. Wimmers major early accomplishment, spearheaded by Naomi Kitamura and other members of his laboratory, was the elucidation in 1981 of the structure and genetic organization of the poliovirus genome, the first sequence of a eukaryotic RNA virus. The primary structure of the genome was unique at the time amongst RNA viruses as it was ...
H5N1: WHO: Poliovirus detected from environmental samples in Egypt
Via WHOs Global Alert and Response page: Poliovirus detected from environmental samples in Egypt. Excerpt: In Egypt, wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was isolated from sewage samples collected on 2 and 6 December 2012 in two areas of greater Cairo....
RePub, Erasmus University Repository: Shedding of vaccine viruses with increased antigenic and genetic divergence after...
For the final stages in the eradication of poliovirus type 1 (P1), the World Health Organization advocates the selective use of monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1). To compare the immunogenicity of mOPV1 with that of trivalent OPV (tOPV) in infants, a study was performed in Egypt in 2005. Newborns were vaccinated with mOPV1 or tOPV immediately after birth and were challenged with mOPV1 after 1 month. Vaccination with mOPV1 at birth resulted in significantly higher seroconversion against P1 viruses and lower excretion of P1 viruses than vaccination with tOPV. Intratypic differentiation of the viruses shed by the newborns revealed the presence of remarkably high numbers of antigenically divergent (AD) P1 isolates, especially in the mOPV1 study group. The majority of these AD P1 isolates (71%) were mOPV1 challenge derived and were shed by newborns who did not seroconvert to P1 after the birth dose. Genetic characterization of the viruses revealed that amino acid 60 of the VP3 region ...
Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Poliovirus Vaccine
DIPHTHERIA TOXOID, TETANUS TOXOID, ACELLULAR PERTUSSIS VACCINE, DTaP; HEPATITIS B VACCINE, RECOMBINANT; INACTIVATED POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, IPV (dif THEER ee uh TOK soid, TET n us TOK soid, ey SEL yuh ler per TUS iss VAK seen, DTaP; hep uh TAHY tis B VAK seen; in ak tuh vey ted poh lee oh vahy ruhs VAK seen, IPV ) is used to prevent infections of diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis B, and poliovirus.. ...
Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Poliovirus Vaccine
DIPHTHERIA TOXOID, TETANUS TOXOID, ACELLULAR PERTUSSIS VACCINE, DTaP; HEPATITIS B VACCINE, RECOMBINANT; INACTIVATED POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, IPV (dif THEER ee uh TOK soid, TET n us TOK soid, ey SEL yuh ler per TUS iss VAK seen, DTaP; hep uh TAHY tis B VAK seen; in ak tuh vey ted poh lee oh vahy ruhs VAK seen, IPV ) is used to prevent infections of diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis B, and poliovirus.. ...
Poliovirus Vaccine: Salk and sabin vaccine - microbeonline
IPV was the first vaccine used against poliomyelitis. It contains the three types of poliovirus inactivated by formaldehyde and is administered parenterally. The use of IPV in the late 1950s was followed by a 90% reduction of poliomyelitis cases when it was replaced in many countries by the more easily administered OPV around 1960. Newer IPVs have higher immunogenic potency which has led to a reintroduction of IPV in many developed and developing countries ...
CARPHOLOGY BY Rajendra | Practical Neurology
The newer high potency monovalent oral type 1 poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1) is three times more effective than the conventional trivalent oral polio vaccine, according to a study done under field conditions in India. Poliomyelitis persists in some parts of the world including parts of India and eradicating the illness has proved challenging. Researchers tested the protective efficacy of mOPV1 and of the conventional vaccine in a case-control study involving over 2000 matched case-control pairs of confirmed cases of poliomyelitis caused by type 1 wild poliovirus and cases of non-polio acute flaccid paralysis in India. The authors say that achieving high coverage with this new vaccine in areas of persistent poliovirus transmission should substantially improve the probability of rapidly eliminating transmission of the disease.. ...
045.22 ACUTE NONPARALYTIC POLIOMYELITIS, POLIOVIRUS TYPE II
ICD-9 045.22 is acute nonparalytic poliomyelitis, poliovirus type ii (04522). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for infectious and parasitic diseases.
Results for cd07704
Second immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of nectin-3 (also known as poliovirus receptor related protein 3), nectin-4 (poliovirus receptor related protein 4) and similar proteins. Ig2_Nectin-3-4_like: domain similar to the second immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of nectin-3 (also known as poliovirus receptor related protein 3) and nectin-4 (poliovirus receptor related protein 4). Nectin-3 and nectin-4 belong to the nectin family comprised of four transmembrane glycoproteins (nectins-1 through 4). Nectins are synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) which facilitate adhesion and signaling at various intracellular junctions. Nectins form homophilic cis-dimers, followed by homophilic and heterophilic trans-dimers involved in cell-cell adhesion. Nectin-2 and nectin-3 localize at Sertoli-spermatid junctions where they form heterophilic trans-interactions between the cells that are essential for the formation and maintenance of the junctions and for spermatid development. Nectin-3 has also been shown to form a ...
The poliovirus-induced shut-off of cellular protein-synthesis persists in the presence of 3-methylquercetin, a flavonoid which...
The poliovirus-induced shut-off of cellular protein-synthesis persists in the presence of 3-methylquercetin, a flavonoid which blocks viral protein and RNA-synthesis ...
Polio eradication: Type 3 virus not detected for more than two years after vaccination campaigns - BelleNews.com
CDC experts think a second of the three forms of poliovirus has been eliminated after mass vaccination campaigns.. Wild poliovirus type 3 has not been detected for more than two years. Type 2 was eradicated in 1999.. Experts said the world was closer than ever to defeating polio but the situation in Pakistan was worrying.. Polio is highly infectious and causes paralysis in up to one in 200 people. Some children die when the muscles that help them breathe stop working.. However, there has been huge progress in eliminating the disease. Cases have fallen from 350,000 in 1988 to 416 in 2013.. According to the CDC report, the last case of type 3 poliovirus was detected in Pakistan in November 2012.. We may have eradicated a second of three; thats a major milestone, said Dr. Stephen Cochi, a senior adviser at the CDCs Centre for Global Health.. However, a formal process - involving the Polio Global Certification Commission - is required before type 3 can be officially declared eradicated. That ...
Department of Health | Annual report of the Australian National Poliovirus Reference Laboratory and summary of acute flaccid...
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 26, No 3, September 2002 describes poliovirus testing undertaken by the National Poliovirus Reference Laboratory at the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory during 2001.
Poliovirus therapy for recurrent glioblastoma | EurekAlert!
DURHAM, N.C. -- A genetically modified poliovirus therapy developed at Duke Cancer Institute shows significantly improved long-term survival for patients with recurrent glioblastoma, with a three-year survival rate of 21 percent in a phase 1 clinical trial.. Comparatively, just 4 percent of patients at Duke with the same type of recurring brain tumors were alive at three years when undergoing the previously available standard treatment. Phase 1 clinical trial results of the poliovirus therapy are being presented June 26 at the 22nd International Conference on Brain Tumor Research and Therapy in Norway and simultaneously published in The New England Journal of Medicine.. Glioblastoma remains a lethal and devastating disease, despite advances in surgical and radiation therapies, as well as new chemotherapy and targeted agents, said Darell D. Bigner, M.D., Ph.D., emeritus director of The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke and senior author of the study.. There is a tremendous need ...
Polio | B-health blog
Polio is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes paralysis, difficulty breathing and sometimes death.. The poliovirus resides only in humans and enters the environment in the feces of someone whos infected. Poliovirus spreads primarily through the fecal-oral route, especially in areas where sanitation is inadequate. Poliovirus can be transmitted through contaminated water and food or through direct contact with someone infected with the virus. Polio is so contagious that anyone living with a recently infected person is likely to become infected too. Although people carrying the poliovirus are most contagious seven to 10 days before and after signs and symptoms appear, they can spread the virus for weeks in their feces.. Youre at greatest risk of polio if you havent been immunized against the disease. In areas with poor sanitation and sporadic or nonexistent immunization programs, the most vulnerable members of the population - pregnant women, the very young and those ...
NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Poliomyelitis (Polio)
Poliomyelitis is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by three types of poliovirus. The poliovirus is a virus most recognized for its destruction to the nervous system, causing paralysis. According to the CDC, the majority of individuals who are infected with polio, have no symptoms and a few have mild symptoms. Of those persons who do acquire the infection, 1 percent or fewer may develop paralytic disease. Since the introduction of the polio vaccine in 1955, infections from the poliovirus have nearly been eradicated. In the U.S., there have been no known infectious or wild cases of polio since 1979.. In countries that are poor, underdeveloped and do not have access to the vaccine, polio is still a concern, especially for infants and children. The World Health Organization continues its efforts to eradicate the virus worldwide.. ...
British Library EThOS: Studies on the genome structure of neurovirulent and attenuated polioviruses
The RNA genomes of neurovirulent and attenuated type 3 polioviruses have been cloned in E. cola using an efficient RNA.cDNA hybrid technique. The complete nucleotide sequence of the vaccine-associated neurovirulent revertant P3/119 and, in collaboration with others, the attenuated vaccine strain P3/Leon 12 a1b, have been determined. These have been compared with that of the neurovirulent parent strain P3/Leon/3 7. Ten nucleotide sequence differences were observed between the parent P3/Leon/37 and the vaccine P3/Leon 12 a1b, three of which resulted in amino acid substitutions. Between the vaccine and the revertant P3/119, seven nucleotide sequence differences were observed. Three of these resulted in amino acid substitutions. The possible significance of individual nucleotide sequence differences to the attenuation of and reversion to neurovirulence in poliovirus type 3 is discussed. The nucleotide sequence of P3/Leon 12 a1b was the first to be determined for a type 3 poliovirus. Comparison of ...
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More than 80 percent of children need to be vaccinated to keep poliovirus from spreading in a community. The first vaccine-derived polio outbreak to be detected occurred in the Dominican Republic and Haiti two decades ago, in areas with low vaccination. That allowed altered vaccine virus, shed in the stool of the immunized, to spread largely unchecked and, over time, return to a form that causes paralysis (SN: 8/10/04). The full process of vaccine virus reverting to disease-causing virus is rare and takes many months of moving around a community.. Today, vaccine-derived outbreaks are primarily found in Afghanistan, Pakistan and countries in Africa. Most of these outbreaks - which have been responsible for more polio cases in the last few years than the remaining type of wild poliovirus - are linked to vaccine virus type 2. Vaccination campaigns, which had used an oral vaccine containing weakened versions of all three types of poliovirus, switched to using a formulation with just types 1 and 3 in ...
Hilary Koprowski, MD | Post Polio: Polio Place
Articles found at HighWire Press® Stanford University. (*Asterisk denotes article is free of subscription fee.). Immune Responses In Human Volunteers Upon Oral Administration Of A Rodent-Adapted Strain Of Poliomyelitis Virus. Hilary Koprowski, Geobge A. Jervis, And Thomas W. Norton. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jan 1952; 55: 108 - 126.. Preparation Of Poliovirus Vaccines In A Human Fetal Diploid Cell Strain. Leonard Hayflick, Stanley A. Plotkin, Thomas W. Norton, And Hilary Koprowski. Am. J. Epidemiol., Mar 1962; 75: 240 - 258.. Strategies For The Development Of Vaccines Against Viruses In The Htlv Family: Unconventional Vaccines: Immunization with Anti-Idiotype Antibody against Viral Diseases.* H. Koprowski. Cancer Res., Sep 1985; 45: 4689s - 4690s.. Immunization of Humans with A Chick Embryo Adapted Strain of Mef1 Poliomyelitis Virus. M. Roca-Garcia, H. Koprowski, G. A. Jervis, T. W. Norton, T. L. Nelson, and H. R. Cox J. Immunol., Aug 1956; 77: 123 - 131.. Persistence Of Neutralizing Antibodies In ...
Publications & Data | European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Europe has remained polio-free since 2002. The latest assessment by the European RCC of Poliomyelitis Eradication concludes that there was no wild poliovirus or vaccine-derived poliovirus transmission in the WHO European Region in 2014, but the risk of importation and subsequent transmission remains high in some countries. ...
THE ULTRACENTRIFUGE AS AN AID IN THE DETECTION OF POLIOMYELITIS VIRUS | JEM
1. By means of differential ultracentrifugation, a purified and concentrated macromolecular fraction has been regularly obtained from infected human, monkey, and chimpanzee stools. This fraction was isolated from sixteen stools in which virus was thought to be present, and inoculated intracerebrally into sixteen monkeys, of which fifteen developed poliomyelitis.. 2. Eleven stool specimens in which virus was suspected, when tested separately in eleven monkeys by the intra-abdominal-intranasal method, produced poliomyelitis in two of these animals. When the same specimens were tested separately by the ultracentrifugal-intracerebral method, poliomyelitis developed in ten monkeys out of eleven inoculated.. 3. With the intra-abdominal-intranasal method, it has been customary to inoculate the virus present in 1.6 gm. of stool. With the ultracentrifugal-intracerebral method, the virus present in as much as 30 gm. of stool has been inoculated.. 4. From one titration experiment it would appear that the ...
The Legacy of Albert B. Sabin | Sabin
The Sabin Vaccine Institute is founded on the legacy and global vision of one of the pre-eminent scientific figures in the history of medicine, Dr. Albert B. Sabin. Best known as the developer of the oral live virus polio vaccine, Dr. Sabin not only dedicated his entire professional career to the elimination of human suffering though his groundbreaking medical advances, he also waged a tireless campaign against poverty and ignorance throughout his lifetime.. It was in this spirit of commitment and dedication that his longtime friends and colleagues, led by Heloisa Sabin, his widow, and Dr. H.R. Shepherd, the Founding Chairman, established the Sabin Vaccine Institute in 1993 at the time of Dr. Sabins death.. Dr. Sabin was born on August 26, 1906, in Bialystok, Poland. He emigrated to the United States with his parents in 1921 in order to avoid the persecutions directed against Jews prevalent during that era. He received his M.D. from New York University in 1931 and immediately began research on ...
receptors and transcytosis
This is in response to David Coates question about whether animal viruses can transcytose. There is a new model for how enteric viruses (Poliovirus and reovirus, so far) cross the gut barrier. A (relatively) newly identified cell type, called M cells may nonspecifically transcytose the contents of the gut lumen into the underlying lymph tissue. The evidence that this occurs in a natural infection is, so far, indirect. For technical reasons, it still is not known whether the poliovirus receptor is expressed at the lumenal face of the intestinal mucosa. The reovirus receptor has not been identified. The M cells (from biopsies) This is in response to David Coatesquestion about whether animalcan transcytose poliovirus in culture ...
Related Page | Rotary Club of West Chester
In Pakistan, the primary problems reside in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), in particular North Waziristan. During the high season in the past four months, 52 cases of wild poliovirus have been reported from FATA, with evidence of widespread geographic transmission across the country. Areas within Pakistan are being re-infected, as is neighboring Afghanistan, and the outbreak in the Middle East originated in Pakistan. North Waziristan is the area with the largest number of children being paralyzed by poliovirus in Pakistan. Immunization activities have been suspended by local leaders since June 2012. It is critical that children in all areas are vaccinated and protected from poliovirus. Immunizations in neighboring high-risk areas are being intensified, to further boost population immunity levels in those areas and prevent further spread of this outbreak ...
Translation control of Enterovirus A71 gene expression | Journal of Biomedical Science | Full Text
Upon EV-A71 infection of a host cell, EV-A71 RNA is translated into a viral polyprotein. Although EV-A71 can use the cellular translation machinery to produce viral proteins, unlike cellular translation, which is cap-dependent, the viral RNA genome of EV-A71 does not contain a 5′ cap and the translation of EV-A71 protein is cap-independent, which is mediated by the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) located in the 5′ UTR of EV-A71 mRNA. Like many other eukaryotic viruses, EV-A71 manipulates the host cell translation devices, using an elegant RNA-centric strategy in infected cells. During viral translation, viral RNA plays an important role in controlling the stage of protein synthesis. In addition, due to the cellular defense mechanism, viral replication is limited by down-regulating translation. EV-A71 also utilizes protein factors in the host to overcome antiviral responses or even use them to promote viral translation rather than host cell translation. In this review, we provide an introduction
WHO/Europe | European Region marks tenth anniversary of polio-free certification
Today, the WHO European Region marks 10 years since it was certified free of poliomyelitis (polio). Stopping transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus in the 53 countries in the Region was a landmark in the effort to eradicate polio globally, and helped accelerate international momentum towards that goal.
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Fairview Diagnostic Laboratories
The presence of neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus implies immunity. The serum neutralization test is serotype specific. Antibodies against one type does not indicate immunity against type three antibodies. Reference Interval applies to Poliovirus Types 1 and 3 ...
New Jobs at World Health Organisation Recruiting: Scientist Laboratory - Jobs in Zambia and Zimbabwe
DESCRIPTION OF DUTIES. The incumbent will perform the following duties:- Develop laboratory-backed surveillance including Development of Laboratory work plans, Virus isolation and identification using recommended WHO guidelines and procedures, Tissue culture maintenance and propagation, Specimen processing and handling- Liaise with other partners in support of AFP laboratory-backed surveillance- Ensure WHO guidelines and standards operating procedures are strictly adhered to as recommended by WHO- Provide technical support to the other countries of the region in Polio eradication and other activities when need arise- Implementation of the Real Time PCR for Intratypic Differentiation (ITD) for polio molecular epidemiology.- improved quality assurance through accreditation & proficiency testing programmes implementation of validated, standard laboratory procedures- provision of training for laboratory personnel- linking of laboratory data and activities to surveillance for diseases of public ...
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The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus-transmission in a timely manner. We evaluate the national EV laboratory surveillance, to generate recommendations for system strengthening. The system was analysed for completeness of viral typing analysis and clinical information and timeliness of specimen collection, laboratory results and reporting of clinical information. Of 23,720 specimens screened, 2,202 (9.3%) were EV-positive. Submission of cerebrospinal fluid and faecal specimens from primary diagnostic laboratories was 79.5% complete (845/1,063), and varied by laboratory and patient age. EV genotypes were determined in 68.5% (979/1,430) of laboratory-confirmed cases, clinical information was available for 63.1% (903/1,430). Primary diagnostic results were
Contemporary Pediatrics, Digital Edition, October 2011
Screening adolescents for Bariatric Surgery : When diet, exercise just arent enough Bats! 3 steps for rabies exposure prophylaxis Dermcase : Atrophic scars and poor wound healing in young boy Puzzler : Abrupt, intermittent pain and fever, but no apparent cause Updates : Infant formula, CDC on Flu vaccination, Medication poisoning, Antibiotics, AAP on Poliovirus, Varicella, Hepatitis A and Tdap
Oral Vaccination by Poliovirus-Like Particle Protein Chips | Grand Challenges
Hajime Mori of Kyoto Institute of Technology in Japan will develop protein chips that encapsulate poliovirus-like particles (PLP) for use as a safe and effective polio vaccine. When the PLP-protein chips are orally administered, they pass through the stomach without degradation and then are gradually released into the gut to induce a strong immunity against poliovirus infection.. ...
poliomyelitis | FactMonster
pō˝lēōmī˝əlī´tĭs [key], polio, or infantile paralysis, acute viral infection, mainly of children but also affecting older persons. There are three immunologic types of poliomyelitis virus exposure to one type produces immunity only to that
3D View - 4K4X: Coxsackievirus B3 polymerase elongation complex (r2 form), rna 3D View Report Page
4K4X: Structures of coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and poliovirus polymerase elongation complexes solved by engineering RNA mediated crystal contacts.
... poliovirus. DNA encoding the RNA genome of poliovirus was introduced into cultured mammalian cells and infectious poliovirus ... There are three poliovirus serotypes: types 1, 2, and 3. Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and a protein capsid. The ... Poliovirus infects human cells by binding to an immunoglobulin-like receptor, CD155 (also known as the poliovirus receptor or ... Drake demonstrated that poliovirus is able to undergo multiplicity reactivation. That is, when polioviruses were irradiated ...
Poliovirus receptor-related 1
"Entry of alphaherpesviruses mediated by poliovirus receptor-related protein 1 and poliovirus receptor". Science. 280 (5369): ... Poliovirus receptor-related 1 (PVRL1), also known as nectin-1 and CD111 (formerly herpesvirus entry mediator C, HVEC) is a ... "Entrez Gene: PVRL1 poliovirus receptor-related 1 (herpesvirus entry mediator C; nectin)". Cocchi F, Lopez M, Menotti L, Aoubala ... "The Ectodomain of a Novel Member of the Immunoglobulin Subfamily Related to the Poliovirus Receptor Has the Attributes of a ...
Poliovirus receptor-related 2
... (PVRL2), also known as nectin-2 and CD112 (formerly herpesvirus entry mediator B, HVEB), is a ... "Entrez Gene: PVRL2 poliovirus receptor-related 2 (herpesvirus entry mediator B)". Eberlé F, Dubreuil P, Mattei MG, et al. (1995 ... 2002). "The poliovirus receptor related 2 (PRR2) and apolipoprotein E genes and coronary heart disease". Journal of ... 1999). "The human poliovirus receptor related 2 protein is a new hematopoietic/endothelial homophilic adhesion molecule". Blood ...
Global Polio Eradication Initiative
Efforts were built upon those used to control wild poliovirus in the Americas in the early 1980s, and on lessons from smallpox ... In 1995 the Global Certification Commission was created to oversee the certification of the eradication of wild-type poliovirus ... ". "Africa eradicates wild poliovirus". "Data Monitoring". Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Retrieved June 20, 2016. ...
Eradication of infectious diseases
"Global Wild Poliovirus 2015 -2020" (PDF). "Global Wild Poliovirus 2016-2021" (PDF). GPEI. 4 January 2022. Retrieved 16 January ... "Africa eradicates wild poliovirus". WHO Regional Office for Africa. Branswell H (8 June 2017). "Polio outbreak is reported in ... "Wild Poliovirus 2008 - 2013" (PDF). Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2013. ... There have been no cases caused by wild strains of poliovirus in Nigeria since August 2016, though cVDPV2 was detected in ...
Global Certification Commission
Wild poliovirus type 1 is the only type of wild poliovirus that remains uninterrupted globally. The GCC held its 21st meeting ... The GCC certified the worldwide eradication of indigenous wild poliovirus type 2 on 20 September 2015, and wild poliovirus type ... "The poliovirus transmission in Lao People's Democratic Republic has ceased" (Press release). World Health Organization (WHO). 6 ... The GCC certified the global eradication of wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) at its 14th meeting on 20 September 2015. which led ...
"Africa eradicates wild poliovirus". WHO. August 25, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2020. "Jeff Bezos Becomes The First Person Ever ...
Nigeria had become a net exporter of the poliovirus to its African neighbors. People in the northern states were also reported ... "Wild poliovirus 2000-2008" (PDF). Global Polio Eradication Initiative. February 5, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... poliovirus, smallpox, tetanus, diphtheria, typhoid, typhus, and yellow fever. However, the diseases mainly prevalent in Vietnam ... Cutter Laboratories produced 120,000 doses of the Salk polio vaccine that inadvertently contained some live poliovirus along ...
Elizabeth Acuei Yor
"South Sudan eradicates wild poliovirus". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 2022-10-18. AfricaNews (2022-03-24). "South Sudan leader ... free of wild polio virus. She was sacked by a presidential decree of Salva Kiir Mayardit after being appointed to the position ...
Although poliovirus transmission has been interrupted in much of the world, transmission of wild poliovirus does continue and ... "Poliomyelitis prevention: recommendations for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live oral poliovirus vaccine. American ... type 2 poliovirus), and Saukett (type 3 poliovirus), grown in a type of monkey kidney tissue culture (Vero cell line), which ... since no long-term carrier state exists for poliovirus in individuals with normal immune function, polio viruses have no non- ...
1916 New York City polio epidemic
List of disasters in New York City by death toll Melnick J (July 1, 1996). "Current status of poliovirus infections". Clin ...
John Franklin Enders
"Technology for cultivating polio virus". The Lasker Foundation. Retrieved 13 February 2021. "Enders, John F. (1897-1985) , ... Jonas Salk applied the Enders-Weller-Robbins technique to produce large quantities of poliovirus, and then developed a polio ... and Frederick Chapman Robbins reported successful in vitro culture of an animal virus-poliovirus. The three received the 1954 ...
Vaccination and religion
"Wild poliovirus 2000-2008" (PDF). Global Polio Eradication Initiative. 2008-02-05. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09- ...
List of disasters in New York City by death toll
Melnick, Joseph L. (July 1, 1996). "Current status of poliovirus infections". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 9 (3): 293-300. ...
Active poliovirus baked from scratch". Science. 297 (5579): 174-5. doi:10.1126/science.297.5579.174b. PMID 12114601. S2CID ... In 2002 researchers at Stony Brook University succeeded in synthesizing the 7741 bp poliovirus genome from its published ...
History of polio
The Salk vaccine, or inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), consists of an injected dose of killed poliovirus. In 1954, the ... Exposure to poliovirus was therefore delayed until late childhood or adult life, when it was more likely to take the paralytic ... The last cases of paralytic poliomyelitis caused by endemic transmission of poliovirus in the United States were in 1979, when ... CBC Digital Archives - Polio: Combating the Crippler-Video and radio reports related to polio Poliovirus in New Zealand 1915- ...
Defective interfering particle
Lundquist RE, Sullivan M, Maizel JV (November 1979). "Characterization of a new isolate of poliovirus defective interfering ... "Nonreplicative RNA recombination in poliovirus". Journal of Virology. 73 (11): 8958-8965. doi:10.1128/JVI.73.11.8958-8965.1999 ... can occur within nearly every class of both DNA and RNA viruses both in clinical and laboratory settings including poliovirus, ...
"Polio Vaccine: Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus , CDC". 25 March 2021. "Vaccines: Breaking down and debunking 10 myths". USA Today. ... reversion mutations that reactivate the virus can give rise to disease-causing circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) ...
Melnick, Joseph L. (1996-07-01). "Current Status of Poliovirus Infections" (PDF). Clinical Microbiology Reviews. American ...
Ouzilou L, Caliot E, Pelletier I, Prévost MC, Pringault E, Colbère-Garapin F (September 2002). "Poliovirus transcytosis through ...
Yogo, Y; Wimmer, Eckard (1972). "Sequence studies of Poliovirus RNA II Polyadenylic Acis at 3'-Terminus of Poliovirus RNA". ... Wimmer chose to study poliovirus in 1968. Poliovirus is the cause of the horrific disease poliomyelitis, which can cause ... He is best known for his seminal work on the molecular biology of poliovirus and the first chemical synthesis of a viral genome ... The poliovirus synthesis caught global attention, high praise, ridicule and fierce condemnation. Several years later, Wimmer ...
CRISPR gene editing
HIV and poliovirus are such viruses. Bacteria with Cas13 make molecules that can dismember RNA, destroying the virus. Tailoring ...
Rapid changes in the sequence of the binding domain have restricted the host range of the poliovirus. Targeting of the brain ... "NMAH - Polio: How the Poliovirus Works". Si.edu. 1 February 2005. Retrieved 28 July 2015. Bruno, R.; Frick, N.; Creange, S.; ... Racaniello VR (2006). "One hundred years of poliovirus pathogenesis". Virology. 344 (1): 9-16. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2005.09.015 ... Kauder SE, Racaniello VR (2004). "Poliovirus tropism and attenuation are determined after internal ribosome entry". Journal of ...
The attenuated poliovirus in the Sabin vaccine replicates very efficiently in the gut, the primary site of wild poliovirus ... Three serotypes of poliovirus have been identified - wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1), type 2 (WPV2), and type 3 (WPV3) - each ... The Salk vaccine, or inactivated poliovirus vaccine, is based on poliovirus grown in a type of monkey kidney tissue culture ( ... "Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases". Global Polio Eradication Initiative. 23 December 2015 ...
... es share many characteristics with poliovirus. With control of poliovirus infections in much of the world, more ... which also includes poliovirus and echovirus. Enteroviruses are among the most common and important human pathogens, and ... viruses from the gastrointestinal tract that were unrelated to poliovirus, and some of which were oncogenic (cancer-causing). ...
First synthetic polio virus (2002) - Cello, Jeronimo; Paul, Aniko V.; Wimmer, Eckard (9 August 2002). "Chemical Synthesis of ... The first man-made infectious viruses generated without any natural template were of the polio virus and the φX174 ... Bioterrorism Disease X Cello, Jeronimo; Paul, Aniko V.; Wimmer, Eckard (2002-08-09). "Chemical Synthesis of Poliovirus cDNA: ... Poliovirus cDNA: Generation of Infectious Virus in the Absence of Natural Template". Science. 297 (5583): 1016-1018. Bibcode: ...
The plaque assay was developed using poliovirus; the discovery of viral replication in culture was also with poliovirus in 1949 ... and a poliovirus clone was the first infectious DNA clone made of an RNA virus in animals. Along with rhinovirus, poliovirus ... For this reason, poliovirus could not be made in many laboratories until transgenic mice having a CD155 receptor on their cell ... For example, poliovirus receptor is glycoprotein CD155, which is special receptor for human and some other primate species. ...
Drake demonstrated that poliovirus is able to undergo multiplicity reactivation. That is, when polioviruses were irradiated ... Poliovirus can undergo genetic recombination when at least two viral genomes are present in the same host cell. Kirkegaard and ... Poliovirus is a positive single-stranded RNA virus in the family Picornaviridae. Coinfections appear to be common and several ... Kirkegaard K, Baltimore D (November 1986). "The mechanism of RNA recombination in poliovirus". Cell. 47 (3): 433-43. doi: ...
"Efficacy of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in India". Science. 345 (6199): 922-925. Bibcode:2014Sci...345..922J. doi:10.1126/ ...
... (serotype) - A serotype of poliovirus. This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title formed as a ...
Poliovirus Containment | CDC
See if your institution should take the National Inventory for Poliovirus Containment (NIPC). ... You may have poliovirus potentially infectious materials and not know it. ... Poliovirus containment is focused on eradicated polioviruses. WPV2 and WPV3 were declared eradicated globally in 2015 and 2019 ... Audits by U.S. NAC of facilities that intend to store eradicated poliovirus and to certify them as poliovirus-essential ...
Browsing EB132 by Subject "Poliovirus"
Poliovirus vaccine: commentary.
Limited Supplies of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine -- United States
... MMWR 43(32);595-596 Publication date: 08/19/1994. Table of ... never-vaccinated persons aged greater than 18 years who are at risk for exposure to wild poliovirus (e.g., who will be ... There is a shortage of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the ... Inadequately or fully vaccinated adults who have previously received IPV or OPV and need poliovirus vaccine can be given OPV (1 ...
Implementation of novel oral polio vaccine type 2 (nOPV2) for circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2)...
Transmission des poliovirus vaccinaux : nos connaissances sont lacunaires : discussion / Paul E. M. Fine
Live Polio Virus Vaccine | Science News
Something scary for Halloween - polio virus | ScienceBlogs
To explore poliovirus, I opened Molecule World** and downloaded structure 1XYR (Bubeck, et. al) from the Molecular Modeling ... In the first image, each protein in the poliovirus capsid is shown in a different color. The resolution isnt great, because ... Be sure to check out Jason Beaubiens article and the amazing graphics showing poliovirus cases dropping across the world. ... Since we have the luxury of distance, vaccines, and molecular modeling apps, we can explore the scary poliovirus from the ...
Wild poliovirus in Kenya - GPEI
Officials weighing options as poliovirus silently spreads in New York counties
... poliovirus was detected suggesting the virus is spreading in the community. ... This 2014 illustration made available by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention depicts a polio virus particle. On ... The CDC said that most people infected with poliovirus, the virus that causes polio, do not experience symptoms. In severe ... Health officials are expressing concerns as poliovirus has been detected in wastewater in Rockland County, New York. ...
Orimune - Poliovirus Vaccine - Live, Oral, Monovalent - Sabin Strain Type 1 | Smithsonian Institution
Polio Virus Found in London Sewage Puts U.K. on High Alert - WSJ
Poliovirus Found in London Sewage | Smart News| Smithsonian Magazine
Poliovirus Found in London Sewage. No cases have been reported and the overall risk to the public is low, but public health ... In the U.K. and the United States, individuals are vaccinated using an inactivated form of poliovirus, which does not present ... "Vaccine-derived poliovirus has the potential to spread, particularly in communities where vaccine uptake is lower," says ... Public health officials have detected poliovirus-the virus that can cause a disabling, life-threatening disease in humans-in ...
Global initiative unveils multibillion-dollar plan to end poliovirus by 2026 | The Straits Times
Global initiative unveils multibillion-dollar plan to end poliovirus by 2026 A health worker administers a polio vaccine to ... About 90 per cent of polio outbreaks are a result of this vaccine-induced poliovirus. In 2020, there were more than 1,000 cases ... Outbreaks of wild poliovirus - the original scourge - now occur only in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Since 2018, vaccination ... In August, African countries were declared free of wild poliovirus, leaving Afghanistan and Pakistan as the only two countries ...
No further spread of polio virus after contamination employee | RIVM
The employee of a Dutch vaccine manufacturer, who was infected with the polio virus in early April, is no longer carrying the ... The excretion of the polio virus ended after 29 days, and there is no more risk of contamination of the environment. The ... Because the employee was vaccinated, he himself could not develop the paralytic illness caused by the polio virus. However, the ... The Municipal Health Service frequently tested the employee and his surroundings for the presence of the polio virus. ...
Universal test for assessing potency of inactivated poliovirus vaccines could facilitate their global production and...
... poliovirus vaccines (IPV): the conventional one (cIPV) made from wild highly virulent polioviruses and the new one made from ... In rare cases, the OPV virus can accumulate changes over time and become like wild poliovirus (WPV). These new viruses are ... OPV is trivalent, that is, it is made using polioviruses Types 1, 2, and 3. The trivalent formulation was widely used in ... After eradication of wild type 2 polioviruses in 2015 and to prevent the emergence of Type 2 VDPVs, the trivalent OPV was ...
Poliovirus neutralizing antibody levels among preschool children.
Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral Research Article Serologic Tests Socioeconomic Factors ... Title : Poliovirus neutralizing antibody levels among preschool children. Personal Author(s) : Poland, Jack D.;Plexico, Kathryn ... Background:After global oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE ...
Eradication of poliomyelitis: when can one be sure that polio virus transmission has been terminated?
... Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Apr ... Most polio virus infections are silent. Vaccination reduces the incidence of infection, and the period between clinical cases ... Even after 5 years without cases, the probability of silent polio virus transmission can still be in the range of 0.1-1.0%. ... certain that there has been local extinction of the wild polio virus infection. ...
LOINC LP14059-7 - Polio virus 2
Poliovirus 2. fr-CAFrench (Canada). Poliovirus 2. it-ITItalian (Italy). Polio virus 2. Synonyms: Virus poliomielitico 2. ru-RU ... Polio virus 2. Synonyms: Polio virus tipo II. tr-TRTurkish (Turkey). Polio virüsü 2. LOINC Copyright. Copyright © 2022 ... Source: Wikipedia, Polio virus 2 (Wikipedia). Basic Part Properties. Name. Polio virus 2. Type. Component. Created On. 2000-05- ... LP14059-7Polio virus 2Active. Description. LP14059-7 Polio virus 2. Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, ...
Poliovirus Infection, Nonparalytic| CDC
Rapid risk assessment: International spread of wild-type poliovirus in 2014 declared a Public Health Emergency of International...
On risk of importing wild-poliovirus to the EU. Previous assessments on the risk of poliovirus importation and re-introduction ... Rapid Risk Assessment: Outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 in Ukraine, 4 September 2015 4 Sep 2015 - This ... 10 Dec 2013 - The confirmed circulation of wild-type poliovirus (WPV) in Israel and the outbreak of poliomyelitis in Syria ... These recommendations apply to people who visit or live in countries where poliovirus is still circulating and have direct and ...
Wild Poliovirus Importation, Central African Republic
Oral poliovirus vaccine Cite CITE. Title : Oral poliovirus vaccine Personal Author(s) : Burney, Leroy E. Published Date : Oct ... Expert Review on Poliovirus Immunity and Transmission Cite CITE. Title : Expert Review on Poliovirus Immunity and Transmission ... Successfully managing risks to achieve wild polioviruses (WPVs) eradication and address the complexities of oral poliovirus ... Title : Wild Poliovirus Importation, Central African Republic Personal Author(s) : Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela;Mazitchi, ...
Department of Health and Aged Care | Annual report of the Australian National Poliovirus Reference Laboratory, 2007
... is accredited by WHO as the national laboratory for the isolation and characterisation of poliovirus from clinical specimens ... The National Poliovirus Reference Laboratory (NPRL), based within the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL ... Poliovirus ELISA was also performed on 16 July with a result of non-Sabin-like poliovirus type 1. The wild poliovirus 1 isolate ... Poliovirus serology is only performed for cases with a clinical suspicion of acute poliovirus infection. Eighteen requests for ...
Plan de Acción para la Erradicación de la Transmisión Autoctona del Poliovirus Salvaje en las Américas
Differentiation between vaccine-related and wild-type polioviruses using a heteroduplex mobility assay
Differentiation of vaccine-related type 1 polioviruses from wild polioviruses by PCR-RFLP. Zhonghua Weishengwuxue He Mianyixue ... Improvement of methods for intratypic differentiation of polioviruses part 2 use of strain specific anti sera cross adsorbed ... Improvement of methods for intratypic differentiation of polioviruses part 3 neutralization test with cross adsorbed sera for ... Improvement of methods for intratypic differentiation of polioviruses. I. Agar gel diffusion precipitation test with repeated ...
Poliovirus type 1 antigen (formaldehyde inactivated): Uses, Interactions, Mechanism of Action | DrugBank Online
Poliovirus type 1 antigen is a suspension of poliovirus Type 1 (Mahoney) used in the active immunization of infants (as young ... Poliovirus type 1 antigen is a suspension of poliovirus Type 1 (Mahoney) used in the active immunization of infants (as young ... Poliovirus type 2 antigen (formaldehyde inactivated) (8 DU/5mL) + Poliovirus type 3 antigen (formaldehyde inactivated) (32 DU/ ... Poliovirus type 2 antigen (formaldehyde inactivated) (8 DU/0.5ml) + Poliovirus type 3 antigen (formaldehyde inactivated) (32 DU ...
Vaccine-derived poliovirusesPoliomyelitisSabinFree of wild poliovirusWPV1SerotypeVDPV2Outbreak of circulating vaccine-deriveVaccinationContainmentCase of wild poliovirus typeCenters for DiseasIsolatesInfectionWastewaterOralPolio eradicationImmunizationPresence of circulatinPeople infected with poliovirusVaccinesWild poliovirus transmissionEradication of wildInfectionsStrain of poliovirusImportationIMSEAR at SEAROSerotypesWorld Health OrganAntibodiesImmunityVDPVsCVDPVSewageResurgenceTransmissionLaboratoryOutbreaksAntibody1999NigeriaParalysisCapsidCauses polioViralMonovalentParalyticDetectionCausative
- These new viruses are called vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV) and can cause polio disease. (fda.gov)
- We consider the analogous potential for undetected transmission of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
- Vaccine-derived polioviruses can emerge on rare occasions in under-immunized populations, when the attenuated virus contained in a vaccine mutates and recombines with other viruses, to create a circulating vaccine-derived strain. (technologynetworks.com)
- Helen Jenkins, the lead author of the study from the Medical Research Council Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling at Imperial College London, said: "Our research shows that vaccine-derived polioviruses must be taken seriously and that we have the right tools to tackle them. (technologynetworks.com)
- Senior study author Dr Nicholas Grassly, also from the Medical Research Council Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling at Imperial College London, added: "There has been some debate about the significance of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses for the eradication initiative. (technologynetworks.com)
- Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) are rare strains of poliovirus that have genetically mutated from the strain contained in the oral polio vaccine. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
- Evolution and Circulation of Type-2 Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses in Nad Ali District of Southern Afghanistan during June 2009-February 2011. (medscape.com)
- In July 2007, wild poliovirus type 1 was isolated from a patient suffering poliomyelitis in Melbourne, Australia with onset in Pakistan. (health.gov.au)
- During 2007, 1,313 cases of poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus infection were reported world-wide: 1,207 occurring in the 4 remaining polio endemic countries and 106 cases reported in 5 non-endemic countries. (health.gov.au)
- Poliovirus type 1 antigen is a suspension of poliovirus Type 1 (Mahoney) used in the active immunization of infants (as young as 6 weeks of age), children, and adults for the prevention of poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus Type 1. (drugbank.com)
- Polioviruses can cause poliomyelitis , which causes muscle paralysis. (medscape.com)
- News:On the World Polio Day,independent Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication(GCC) has declared that wild poliovirus type 3(WPV3) has been eradicated worldwide. (forumias.com)
- Since 1997 when the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued revised guidelines for the prevention of poliomyelitis, substantial progress in global eradication of poliomyelitis has occurred and the use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) has increased considerably in the United States with a corresponding decrease in the use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). (elsevier.com)
- Public Health Response to a Case of Paralytic Poliomyelitis in an Unvaccinated Person and Detection of Poliovirus in Wastewater - New York, June-August 2022. (medscape.com)
- Prevention of poliomyelitis: recommendations for use of only inactivated poliovirus vaccine for routine immunization. (medscape.com)
- nation fragments Sabin 2/Sabin 1 in polioviruses (VDPVs) ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- Scientists at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have modified a standard laboratory test so that it can evaluate two types of inactivated (killed) poliovirus vaccines (IPV): the conventional one (cIPV) made from wild highly virulent polioviruses and the new one made from safer attenuated Sabin strains (sIPV). (fda.gov)
- 3 As of November 2005, the Australian National Immunisation Program moved to the exclusive use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), in place of the live attenuated Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). (health.gov.au)
- Sabin vaccine strains of poliovirus (PV) contain major attenuation determinants in the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES), an area that directs viral protein synthesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity in the type 1 poliovirus Sabin vaccine. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Reversion to neurovirulence of the live-attenuated Sabin type 3 oral poliovirus vaccine. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Groups of infants were immunized with one or two doses of orally inoculated live attenuated Sabin poliovirus vaccine (OPV group) or with one or two doses of enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine (EIPV) administered parenterally followed by one or two doses of OPV (EIPV-OPV group). (wordpress.com)
Free of wild poliovirus3
- In August, African countries were declared free of wild poliovirus , leaving Afghanistan and Pakistan as the only two countries where polio is endemic. (straitstimes.com)
- Five of six WHO Regions are today certified free of wild poliovirus and two of three wild poliovirus strains have been globally eradicated. (who.int)
- The independent Africa Regional Certification Commission (ARCC) for Polio Eradication has officially declared that the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region is free of wild poliovirus. (commonwealthbc.com)
- An investigation team is in Dadaab, Kenya following reports of a child paralyzed by wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1). (polioeradication.org)
- The type-1 wild poliovirus (WPV1) was confirmed in a child from North Waziristan April 22 by the Pakistan national polio laboratory at the National Institute of Health in Islamabad, with the onset of paralysis on 9 April. (khybernews.tv)
- The need to detect new variants of WPV serotype 1 (WPV1) and the containment of all serotype 2 polioviruses (PV2) in 2015 required changes to the previous version of the method . (bvsalud.org)
- Nigeria is one of three remaining polio endemic countries (along with Pakistan and Afghanistan) and has not seen a wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) since Aug. 2016. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
- We find that prolonged circulation in the absence of cases and thus undetectable by case-based surveillance may occur if vaccination keeps population immunity close to but not over the threshold required for the interruption of transmission, as may occur in northwestern Nigeria for serotype 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus in the event of insufficient tOPV use. (biomedcentral.com)
- Their analysis showed that this serotype 2 cVDPV is as easily transmitted and likely to cause severe disease as wild-type poliovirus of the same serotype. (technologynetworks.com)
- Briefly, 80-100 CCID50 of each poliovirus serotype and two-fold serial dilutions of serum were combined and pre-incubated at 35°C for 3 hours before addition of HEp-2(C) cells. (cdc.gov)
- This research was a preliminary study of developing MSCs line from bone marrow of femur and tibia of mice as a cellular model for diagnosing poliovirus.Tissue Culture Infective Dose50%(TCID50) was used to measure titration ofpoliovirus serotype 1 performed on MSCs, RD and L20B cell line. (kemkes.go.id)
- Importation and Circulation of Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Serotype 2, Senegal, 2020-2021. (rsdjournal.org)
- All facilities that continue to handle and store poliovirus type 2 (WPV2/VDPV2 and OPV2) and WPV3/VDPV3 will require certification as a poliovirus-essential facility (PEF). (cdc.gov)
- Epidemiologists are classifying the virus as a "vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2" (VDPV2), which is rare but can cause serious symptoms in unvaccinated individuals. (smithsonianmag.com)
- Because the patient had not traveled internationally during the potential exposure period, detection of Vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (VDPV2) in the patient's stool samples indicates a chain of transmission within the USA originating with a person who received a type 2-containing oral polio vaccine (OPV). (precisionvaccinations.com)
- The WHO said that "type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV2)" has been found in environmental samples in the British capital. (trtworld.com)
Outbreak of circulating vaccine-derive1
- In response to an outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) type 2 in the Philippines in 2019-2020, several rounds of supplementary immunization activities using the monovalent type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) were conducted for the first time in the Western Pacific Region. (who.int)
- If supplies are not available locally, poliovirus vaccination of persons for whom OPV is contraindicated should be delayed until IPV becomes available. (cdc.gov)
- Because no case of polio resulting from indigenously transmitted wild poliovirus has been reported in the United States since 1979, postponing vaccination for these persons until IPV is available is not likely to pose a risk to those persons. (cdc.gov)
- Unvaccinated adults who may be exposed to wild poliovirus during travel to polio-endemic areas and cannot obtain IPV should consider vaccination with OPV but should be informed that the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic polio is slightly higher in adults than in children (1,2). (cdc.gov)
- A 10 yearly supplemental vaccination for 'at-risk' groups such as health-care workers and travellers to countries known to contain active transmission of wild poliovirus is also recommended. (health.gov.au)
- They also say that should wild-type poliovirus be eradicated, routine vaccination with oral polio vaccines will need to cease, in order to prevent further vaccine-derived strains of the virus from emerging. (technologynetworks.com)
- For example, in March 2022, Israel confirmed poliovirus was present and launched the 'Two Drops' vaccination program for millions of children. (precisionvaccinations.com)
- "However, we must stay vigilant and keep up vaccination rates to avert a resurgence of the wild poliovirus and address the continued threat of the vaccine-derived polio," said Dr Moeti. (commonwealthbc.com)
- One Full or Two Fractional Doses of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine for Catch-up Vaccination in Older Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Bangladesh. (rsdjournal.org)
- This example provides instructions for supervision of an integrated poliovirus vaccination (mOPV2) and vitamin A supplementation campaign. (campaigneffectiveness.org)
- These sample guidelines provide instructions for an integrated poliovirus vaccination (mOPV2) and vitamin A supplementation campaign in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. (campaigneffectiveness.org)
- The U.S. National Authority for Containment of Poliovirus, located within CDC's Center for Preparedness and Response, has three main objectives. (cdc.gov)
- for any materials that are still needed, facilities need to prepare to implement containment measures for eradicated polioviruses recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). (cdc.gov)
- The National Inventory for Poliovirus Containment survey is designed to identify and audit facilities that possess any materials that may contain poliovirus to ensure compliance with requirements established in the WHO Global Action Plan (GAPIII). (cdc.gov)
- Find out if your institution should take the National Inventory for Poliovirus Containment (NIPC) survey . (cdc.gov)
- The United States National Authority for Containment of Poliovirus , U.S. NAC, was established to carry out and manage the World Health Organization Global Action Plan which describes the requirements for containment of eradicated polioviruses. (cdc.gov)
- Poliovirus containment is focused on eradicated polioviruses. (cdc.gov)
- Welcome and thank you for participating in the U.S. National Inventory for Poliovirus Containment! (cdc.gov)
- This survey is supported by the U.S. Poliovirus National Authority for Containment (NAC), at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Preparedness and Response (formerly the Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response). (cdc.gov)
- Progress Toward Containment of Poliovirus Type 2 - Worldwide, 2017. (medscape.com)
Case of wild poliovirus type1
- Of the 3 strains of wild poliovirus (type 1, type 2, and type 3), wild poliovirus type 2 was eradicated in 1999 and no case of wild poliovirus type 3 has been found since the last reported case in Nigeria in November 2012. (aho.org)
Centers for Diseas2
- Moreover, genomic sequencing suggests that poliovirus has been circulating in New York for about one year, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (precisionvaccinations.com)
- Samples were tested in triplicate using a standard microneutralization assay for antibodies to poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 according to established protocols at the Global Polio Specialized Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)[1,2]. (cdc.gov)
- The NPRL is also designated as a Regional Reference Laboratory for the WHO Western Pacific Region (WPR) and receives poliovirus isolates for further characterisation from National Polio Reference Laboratories of the WPR. (health.gov.au)
- A heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) was developed for intratypic differentiation between poliovirus isolates. (eurekamag.com)
- The results of this study demonstrate that heteroduplex analysis is a simple, rapid, and sensitive means for differentiating between vaccine-like and wild-type poliovirus isolates. (eurekamag.com)
- Vaccine-like type 2 poliovirus (PV2) isolates were found in multiple sewage samples collected from the London Beckton Sewage Treatment Works between February and June 2022. (precisionvaccinations.com)
- As a consequence, the incidence fl uctuated (106-109 copies/mL in the greater genetic diversity), the patient of vaccine-like poliovirus detection in paralysis-affected person), decreasing had a more active infection (that re- recently vaccinated children, which after each immunoglobulin therapy sponded to the therapy) than did the was relatively common up to that time dose (Figure 1 in online Technical Ap- contacts. (cdc.gov)
- The NPRL, in collaboration with the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit, co-ordinates surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), a major clinical presentation of poliovirus infection. (health.gov.au)
- During 2007, 119 specimens were referred to the NPRL, 70 from AFP cases and 49 from other sources, including contacts of the wild poliovirus importation, all negative for poliovirus infection. (health.gov.au)
- These results indicate that, in cells cured of persistent PV infection, poliovirus multiplication was restricted at several stages and particularly at two steps of virus entry: adsorption and/or the uncoating transitions following adsorption onto the receptor. (pasteur.fr)
- Infection with poliovirus, an enterovirus that primarily infects the intestinal tract, typically causes a flu-like illness. (precisionvaccinations.com)
- Polio is a disease caused by infection with the poliovirus. (medlineplus.gov)
- Poliovirus infection was once a common and dreaded disease. (fourhiddenkeys.com)
- When someone has adequate poliovirus antibodies in the blood, it means that their immune system is familiar with what poliovirus looks like and has the immune memory to fight off an infection should contact with a person infected with the poliovirus occur. (accesalabs.com)
- Polio is a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus which causes paralysis (paralysis) and often death due to respiratory failure or secondary infection with other opportunistic pathogens such as meningitis (inflammation of membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), pneumonia, etc. (alltechfind.com)
- Health officials are expressing concerns as poliovirus has been detected in wastewater in Rockland County, New York. (wtxl.com)
- Poliovirus in wastewater: Should we be concerned? (fourhiddenkeys.com)
- There are two vaccines used to protect against polio disease, oral polio vaccine and inactivated poliovirus vaccine. (cdc.gov)
- They usually have one to three poliovirus detections in the country's sewage every year, but these are usually one-off findings that quickly dissipate and are likely shed by someone who was recently vaccinated overseas with the live oral polio vaccine, which produces a weakened polio virus that only causes disease in exceptionally rare cases. (smithsonianmag.com)
- The ability of the FDA test to measure the potency of both cIPV and sIPV is important because it could help meet the increased demand for more IPV that is gradually replacing the use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) worldwide. (fda.gov)
- Neurovirulence test for oral live poliovaccines using poliovirus-sensitive transgenic mice. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Circulating poliovirus type 2 is different to wild poliovirus, with infections occurring when a weakened strain of poliovirus contained in the oral polio vaccine circulates among under-immunized populations for long periods. (medscape.com)
- There are two types of vaccines that can prevent polio, the Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and the Oral poliovirus vaccine, which is offered abroad. (precisionvaccinations.com)
- Oral vaccines stimulate long-lived immune responses in the lining of the intestines, where polioviruses replicate. (fourhiddenkeys.com)
- Please note that wild poliovirus eradication is attributed to the use of a different vaccine, OPV or oral poliovirus vaccine. (wordpress.com)
- Established in 1994 by the Australian Commonwealth Government, the National Poliovirus Reference Laboratory (NPRL), based within the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL), has played a major role in Australia's commitment to the WHO polio eradication program. (health.gov.au)
- The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) continues to make progress toward eliminating all paralytic cases caused by wild polioviruses (WPVs). (biomedcentral.com)
- JOHANNESBURG/LONDON, March 17 (Reuters) - Health officials in Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) have detected cases of vaccine-derived poliovirus, the World Health Organization and Global Polio Eradication Initiative said. (medscape.com)
- The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) said in a statement that circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 was found in six children in the DRC's eastern Tanganyika and South Kivu provinces. (medscape.com)
- "Africa has demonstrated that despite weak health systems, significant logistical and operational challenges across the continent, African countries have collaborated very effectively in eradicating wild poliovirus," said Dr Pascal Mkanda , Coordinator of WHO Polio Eradication Programme in the African Region. (commonwealthbc.com)
- The Global Polio Eradication Initiative said the virus can mutate and take on a form that can cause paralysis just like the wild poliovirus. (businessday.ng)
- One case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 has been reported this week in Baruten LGA, Kwara state, Nigeria, according to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
- The national and provincial polio emergency operations centres have deployed teams to conduct a full investigation of the recent case, while emergency immunization campaigns are underway to prevent further spread of the wild poliovirus in Pakistan," the health secretary added. (khybernews.tv)
- We describe the emergence of vaccine-derived poliovirus unrelated to the outbreak detected after supplementary immunization activities using the monovalent type 2 OPV. (who.int)
- To prevent the emergence and further spread of cVDPV type 2, several interventions could be implemented including optimizing outbreak responses by using the monovalent type 2 OPV, accelerating the availability of the novel type 2 OPV, strengthening routine immunization using inactivated polio vaccine and eventually replacing OPV with inactivated poliovirus vaccine for routine immunization. (who.int)
- The suspension of several polio campaigns and other health programmes in 2020, as well as disruptions to routine immunization because of the COVID-19 pandemic, created further immunity gaps which led to new and wider outbreaks and further increased transmission of the circulating mutant poliovirus both globally and within Nigeria. (businessday.ng)
Presence of circulatin1
- Five other samples from environmental surveillance of waste water confirmed the presence of circulating poliovirus type 2 in Burundi, the WHO added in a statement. (medscape.com)
People infected with poliovirus2
- The CDC said that most people infected with poliovirus, the virus that causes polio, do not experience symptoms. (wtxl.com)
- Most people infected with poliovirus have inapparent infections. (medlineplus.gov)
- Since we have the luxury of distance, vaccines, and molecular modeling apps, we can explore the scary poliovirus from the safety of a phone or iPad. (scienceblogs.com)
Wild poliovirus transmission2
- ENDORSES the orientations contained in the information document AFR/RC54/INF/DOC.5 addressing the resurgence of wild poliovirus transmission in the African Region. (who.int)
- Despite being capable of preventing wild poliovirus transmission, use of OPV was phased out long ago in the USA and replaced with IPV due to safety concerns. (wordpress.com)
Eradication of wild2
- After eradication of wild type 2 polioviruses in 2015 and to prevent the emergence of Type 2 VDPVs, the trivalent OPV was replaced by an OPV that contained only two polioviruses, Types 1 and 3. (fda.gov)
- While the eradication of wild poliovirus from the WHO African Region is a major achievement, 16 countries in the region are currently experiencing cVDPV2 outbreaks, which can occur in under-immunized communities. (commonwealthbc.com)
- Most poliovirus infections occur with no symptoms and this leads to the possibility of silent circulation, which complicates the confirmation of global goals to permanently end poliovirus transmission. (biomedcentral.com)
- We report the isolation and characterization of HEp-2c cell clones obtained after two successive persistent poliovirus (PV) infections. (pasteur.fr)
- Although poliovirus infections in the USA are rare and have not been identified outside New York State, risk factors vary regionally, so it's prudent to be aware of any local risk or sign of the disease, wrote Howard Larkin. (precisionvaccinations.com)
- Poliovirus infections in four unvaccinated children--Minnesota, August-October 2005. (medscape.com)
Strain of poliovirus1
- A vaccine-derived strain of poliovirus that has spread in recent years is serious but it can be tackled with an existing vaccine, according to a new study published in the New England Journal of Medicine. (technologynetworks.com)
- WHO issued temporary recommendations for reducing and controlling the spread (i.e. importation) of wild polioviruses from polio-infected countries. (europa.eu)
- Previous assessments on the risk of poliovirus importation and re-introduction of polio transmission in the EU following WPV circulation in Israel and Syria (link to previous RA) do not need to be changed in light of the declaration of a PHEIC and the WHO temporary recommendations. (europa.eu)
- There are 4 remaining endemic countries, Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan with a further 8 countries reporting importation of poliovirus from endemic regions in June 2008. (health.gov.au)
IMSEAR at SEARO2
- Another monoclonal antibody that recognizes and binds to all three serotypes of poliovirus was used to detect and quantify the captured protective antigen. (fda.gov)
- The results revealed MALDI-TOF MS to be an effective and inexpensive tool for the identification of the three poliovirus serotypes. (microbiomedigest.com)
World Health Organ1
- In order to continue to provide protection against Type 2 poliovirus, the World Health Organization (WHO) directed that OPV administration be supplemented with an IPV that contained Type 2, as well as Types 1 and 3. (fda.gov)
- Poliovirus neutralization epitopes: analysis and localization with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. (wikidata.org)
- This particular polio blood titer checks for antibodies to poliovirus types 1 and 3 (PV1 and PV3). (accesalabs.com)
- Once the blood is drawn, the polio antibody levels are measured to see if the immune system has antibodies specific to the poliovirus. (accesalabs.com)
- If poliovirus antibodies are detected, the polio titer results will show that on the final lab report. (accesalabs.com)
- The presence of an adequate amount of antibodies to polio on the blood test result suggests immunity to poliovirus. (accesalabs.com)
- Countries will need to maintain vigilance in their surveillance for polioviruses and recognize that their risks of undetected circulation may differ as a function of their efforts to manage population immunity and to identify cases or circulating live polioviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
- Additionally, the polio antibody test is helpful if someone is traveling in an area where poliovirus still exists and wants to confirm immunity after having previously received the vaccine. (accesalabs.com)
- These polio blood antibody lives imply immunity to those poliovirus strains because they are above the reference ranges which imply no immunity. (accesalabs.com)
- The polio test that we offer checks for immunity to the poliovirus but does not check if one is infected with the poliovirus. (accesalabs.com)
- Poliovirus immunity among adults in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a cross-sectional serosurvey. (rsdjournal.org)
- Until poliovirus eradication is achieved worldwide, importations of both wild polioviruses and VDPVs into the United States are possible,' says the CDC . (precisionvaccinations.com)
- In addition, as a small mRNA virus, OPV can lose its attenuating mutations and vaccine-related viruses revert back toward WPV to become a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), which occurs in the context of prolonged circulation in populations with high susceptibility and can lead to outbreaks [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The authors examined data from 278 children paralyzed by this cVDPV, and compared them with children paralyzed by wild-type poliovirus in the country. (technologynetworks.com)
- The research shows that it is even more effective against cVDPV than against the wild-type polioviruses that are currently circulating, which can also be targeted with a different vaccine. (technologynetworks.com)
- The U.K. Health Security Agency raised the alarm on Wednesday after it found several closely related polioviruses in sewage samples taken from a treatment facility in east London between February and May. (wsj.com)
- Public health officials have detected poliovirus-the virus that can cause a disabling, life-threatening disease in humans-in sewage samples in London. (smithsonianmag.com)
- Health officials say the poliovirus that's in Long Island sewage right now - it's genetically linked to the paralytic case that was recorded in Rockland County earlier this summer, which was the first such case in nearly a decade in the United States. (ctpublic.org)
- Resurgence of wild poliovirus types 1 and 3 in 15 African countries, January 2008-March 2009. (medscape.com)
- We revisit the probability of undetected poliovirus circulation using a more comprehensive model that reflects the conditions in a number of places with different characteristics related to WPV transmission, and we model the actual environmental WPV detection that occurred in Israel in 2013. (biomedcentral.com)
- With poliovirus eradication nearing, few pockets of active wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission remain in the world. (bvsalud.org)
- These exceptions include travel to a country with active polio transmission, laboratory work with poliovirus, or providing health care to polio patients and their close contacts. (fourhiddenkeys.com)
- This document provides a systematic, worldwide plan of action to prevent transmission of wild poliovirus from the laboratory into the community. (bvsalud.org)
- IPV (inactivated poliovirus vaccine) cannot prevent transmission of poliovirus (see appendix for the scientific study, Item #1). (wordpress.com)
- Endemic transmission of wild poliovirus is continuing to cause cases in Nigeria. (aho.org)
- The National Poliovirus Reference Laboratory (NPRL), based within the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL), is accredited by WHO as the national laboratory for the isolation and characterisation of poliovirus from clinical specimens within Australia, the Pacific Islands, Papua New Guinea and Brunei Darussalam. (health.gov.au)
- Intratypic differentiation (ITD) plays a crucial part in laboratory surveillance as the molecular detection method that can identify and distinguish wild and vaccine -like polioviruses isolated from acute flaccid paralysis cases or environmental sources. (bvsalud.org)
- About 90 per cent of polio outbreaks are a result of this vaccine-induced poliovirus. (straitstimes.com)
- Since the 2016 removal of type 2 strains from the OPV, vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreaks have occurred in communities that are immunologically naive to poliovirus type 2 and in areas with recent use of monovalent OPV. (who.int)
- Poliovirus neutralizing antibody levels among preschool children. (cdc.gov)
- A polio titer measures the poliovirus antibody blood levels. (accesalabs.com)
- Some people are surprised to hear that a poliovirus antibody titer test actually exists. (accesalabs.com)
- This polio lab test reports quantitative polio IgG antibody results for poliovirus types 1 and 3. (accesalabs.com)
- Some polio blood tests used to check for poliovirus type 2 (PV2) but it has been declared eradicated in the wild after being last seen in India in 1999. (accesalabs.com)
- Wild poliovirus type 2 was officially declared gone in 1999 and no cases of wild poliovirus type 3 have been reported since November 2012 from Nigeria. (laurietobyedison.com)
- Nigeria, long considered the global epicentre of poliovirus, reports its last wild poliovirus, paving the way for certifying the African Region free of such strains. (who.int)
- The last case of wild poliovirus in the region was detected in 2016 in Nigeria. (commonwealthbc.com)
- While weaker than wild poliovirus, this variant can cause serious illness and paralysis in people not vaccinated against the disease. (trtworld.com)
- In the first image, each protein in the poliovirus capsid is shown in a different color. (scienceblogs.com)
- Poliovirus, which causes polio, is an infectious RNA enterovirus that can take over a cell's genetic material and use it to start replicating. (accesalabs.com)
- Poliovirus viral load lioviruses (as well as the potential for 2004. (cdc.gov)
- Sequences within the poliovirus internal ribosome entry segment control viral RNA synthesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- November 29, 2021 -- It's been a busy year for Istari Oncology, which is developing its PVSRIPO viral immunotherapy based on the poliovirus vaccine. (scienceboard.net)
- In addition, as demonstrated by our proof-of-principle work on poliovirus where we have made enhanced vaccine cell lines, these studies will increase our understanding of the biology of virus replication as well as innate host defense mechanisms, host pathogen interactions and viral pathogenesis thereby further facilitating drug and vaccine discovery and development," noted Tripp. (globalbiodefense.com)
- After use of the monovalent vaccine, the emergence of vaccine-derived poliovirus unrelated to the outbreak virus was detected in healthy children and environmental samples. (who.int)
- This report describes the detection of this poliovirus in the Philippines after use of the monovalent type 2 OPV for outbreak response. (who.int)
- Previous simple models based on hypothetical populations assumed perfect detection of symptomatic cases and suggested the need to observe no paralytic cases from wild polioviruses (WPVs) for approximately 3-4 years to achieve 95% confidence about eradication, but the complexities in real populations and the imperfect nature of surveillance require consideration. (biomedcentral.com)
- Before proceeding to the next step in the global poliovirus eradication program, we needed to gain a better understanding of the performance of the ITD 5.0 suite of molecular assays and their limits of detection and specificities. (bvsalud.org)
- The causative agent, a virus called poliovirus, enters the body orally, infecting the intestinal wall. (loinc.org)