A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.
5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.

Low temperature and pressure stability of picornaviruses: implications for virus uncoating. (1/2233)

The family Picornaviridae includes several viruses of great economic and medical importance. Poliovirus replicates in the human digestive tract, causing disease that may range in severity from a mild infection to a fatal paralysis. The human rhinovirus is the most important etiologic agent of the common cold in adults and children. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. These viruses have in common a capsid structure composed of 60 copies of four different proteins, VP1 to VP4, and their 3D structures show similar general features. In this study we describe the differences in stability against high pressure and cold denaturation of these viruses. Both poliovirus and rhinovirus are stable to high pressure at room temperature, because pressures up to 2.4 kbar are not enough to promote viral disassembly and inactivation. Within the same pressure range, FMDV particles are dramatically affected by pressure, with a loss of infectivity of more than 4 log units observed. The dissociation of polio and rhino viruses can be observed only under pressure (2.4 kbar) at low temperatures in the presence of subdenaturing concentrations of urea (1-2 M). The pressure and low temperature data reveal clear differences in stability among the three picornaviruses, FMDV being the most sensitive, polio being the most resistant, and rhino having intermediate stability. Whereas rhino and poliovirus differ little in stability (less than 10 kcal/mol at 0 degrees C), the difference in free energy between these two viruses and FMDV was remarkable (more than 200 kcal/mol of particle). These differences are crucial to understanding the different factors that control the assembly and disassembly of the virus particles during their life cycle. The inactivation of these viruses by pressure (combined or not with low temperature) has potential as a method for producing vaccines.  (+info)

unr, a cellular cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein with five cold-shock domains, is required for internal initiation of translation of human rhinovirus RNA. (2/2233)

Initiation of translation of the animal picornavirus RNAs occurs via a mechanism of direct ribosome entry, which requires a segment of the 5' UTR of the RNA, known as the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In addition, translation of the enterovirus and rhinovirus (HRV) subgroups requires cellular trans-acting factors that are absent from, or limiting in rabbit reticulocytes, but are more abundant in HeLa cell extracts. It has been shown previously that HeLa cells contain two separable activities, each of which independently stimulates HRV IRES-dependent translation when used to supplement reticulocyte lysate; one of these activities was identified as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB). Here, the purification of the second activity is achieved by use of an RNA-affinity column based on the HRV 5' UTR. It comprises two components: a 38-kD protein (p38), which is a novel member of the GH-WD repeat protein family and has no intrinsic RNA-binding activity; and a 96- to 97-kD protein doublet, which was identified as unr, an RNA-binding protein with five cold-shock domains. Coimmunoprecipitation with antibodies against either protein shows that the two proteins interact with each other, and thus p38 is named unrip (unr-interacting protein). Recombinant unr acts synergistically with recombinant PTB to stimulate translation dependent on the rhinovirus IRES. In contrast, unr did not significantly augment the PTB-dependent stimulation of poliovirus IRES activity.  (+info)

Characterization of the nucleoside triphosphatase activity of poliovirus protein 2C reveals a mechanism by which guanidine inhibits poliovirus replication. (3/2233)

The highly conserved non-structural protein 2C of picornaviruses is involved in viral genome replication and encapsidation and in the rearrangement of intracellular structures. 2C binds RNA, has nucleoside triphosphatase activity, and shares three motifs with superfamily III helicases. Motifs "A" and "B" are involved in nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) binding and hydrolysis, whereas a function for motif "C" has not yet been demonstrated. Poliovirus RNA replication is inhibited by millimolar concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). Resistance and dependence to GdnHCl map to 2C. To characterize the nucleoside triphosphatase activity of 2C, we purified poliovirus recombinant 2C fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST-2C) from Escherichia coli. GST-2C hydrolyzed ATP with a Km of 0.7 mM. Other NTPs, including GTP, competed with ATP for binding to 2C but were poor substrates for hydrolysis. Mutation of conserved residues in motif A and B abolished ATPase activity, as did mutation of the conserved asparagine residue in motif C, an observation indicating the involvement of this motif in ATP hydrolysis. GdnHCl at millimolar concentrations inhibited ATP hydrolysis. Mutations in 2C that confer poliovirus resistant to or dependent on GdnHCl increased the tolerance to GdnHCl up to 100-fold.  (+info)

Poliomyelitis in intraspinally inoculated poliovirus receptor transgenic mice. (4/2233)

Mice transgenic with the human poliovirus receptor gene develop clinical signs and neuropathology similar to those of human poliomyelitis when neurovirulent polioviruses are inoculated into the central nervous system (CNS). Factors contributing to disease severity and the frequencies of paralysis and mortality include the poliovirus strain, dose, and gender of the mouse inoculated. The more neurovirulent the virus, as defined by monkey challenge results, the higher the rate of paralysis, mortality, and severity of disease. Also, the time to disease onset is shorter for more neurovirulent viruses. Male mice are more susceptible to polioviruses than females. TGM-PRG-3 mice have a 10-fold higher transgene copy number and produce 3-fold more receptor RNA and protein levels in the CNS than TGM-PRG-1 mice. CNS inoculations with type III polioviruses differing in relative neurovirulence show that these mouse lines are similar in disease frequency and severity, demonstrating that differences in receptor gene dosage and concomitant receptor abundance do not affect susceptibility to infection. However, there is a difference in the rate of accumulation of clinical signs. The time to onset of disease is shorter for TGM-PRG-3 than TGM-PRG-1 mice. Thus, receptor dosage affects the rate of appearance of poliomyelitis in these mice.  (+info)

Serum albumin inhibits echovirus 7 uncoating. (5/2233)

Echoviruses induce a wide spectrum of diseases in man, the most severe being meningitis. In neonates, however, a severe systemic infection can be observed, leading to death. Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma and most interstitial fluids, and its functions include osmoregulation and transport and delivery of hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids and steroids. The results of cold-synchronized one-step growth analysis of echovirus 7 infection and sucrose-gradient analysis of A-particles suggest that physiological concentrations of albumin block echovirus 7 infection by inhibiting uncoating. The blockage was reversible and was still effective when albumin was added 30 min after virus adsorption. Inhibition of uncoating was confirmed by using rhodanine, a known specific inhibitor of echovirus uncoating. After removal of the albumin blockage, addition of rhodanine perpetuated the inhibition. Serum and interstitial albumin concentrations may limit echovirus infection in vivo and thereby act as an extracellular determinant for echovirus tropism.  (+info)

Cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by exogenously added hybrid proteins containing poliovirus 2Apro in HeLa cells: effects on gene expression. (6/2233)

Efficient cleavage of both forms of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G-1 and eIF4G-2) has been achieved in HeLa cells by incubation with hybrid proteins containing poliovirus 2Apro. Entry of these proteins into cells is promoted by adenovirus particles. Substantial levels of ongoing translation on preexisting cellular mRNAs still continue for several hours after eIF4G degradation. Treatment of control HeLa cells with hypertonic medium causes an inhibition of translation that is reversed upon restoration of cells to normal medium. Protein synthesis is not restored in cells lacking intact eIF4G after hypertonic treatment. Notably, induction of synthesis of heat shock proteins still occurs in cells pretreated with poliovirus 2Apro, suggesting that transcription and translation of these mRNAs takes place even in the presence of cleaved eIF4G. Finally, the synthesis of luciferase was examined in a HeLa cell line bearing the luciferase gene under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter. Transcription of the luciferase gene and transport of the mRNA to the cytoplasm occurs at control levels in eIF4G-deficient cells. However, luciferase synthesis is strongly inhibited in these cells. These findings indicate that intact eIF4G is necessary for the translation of mRNAs not engaged in translation with the exception of heat shock mRNAs but is not necessary for the translation of mRNAs that are being translated.  (+info)

Polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTB) is necessary, but not sufficient, for efficient internal initiation of translation of human rhinovirus-2 RNA. (7/2233)

Initiation of translation of the animal picornavirus RNAs is via a mechanism of direct internal ribosome entry, which requires a substantial segment of the viral 5'-untranslated region, generally known as the IRES (for "internal ribosome entry site"). Because, however, translation of the RNAs of members of the enterovirus, and more especially, the rhinovirus subgroups of the Picornaviridae is restricted in the reticulocyte lysate system, but is greatly stimulated by the addition of HeLa cell extracts, the implication is that, in these cases, internal initiation also requires cellular trans-acting factors that are more abundant in HeLa cell extracts than in rabbit reticulocytes. This was used as the basis of a functional assay for the purification of the HeLa cell factors required for translation dependent on the human rhinovirus-2 (HRV) IRES. There are two such HeLa cell factors separable by ion-exchange chromatography, each of which is individually active in the assay, although their combined effect is synergistic. One of these activities is shown to be polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTB) on the grounds that (1) the activity copurifies to homogeneity with PTB and (2) recombinant PTB expressed in Escherichia coli stimulates HRV IRES-dependent translation with a specific activity similar to that of the purified HeLa cell factor. Furthermore, it is shown that recombinant PTB also stimulates the translation of RNAs bearing the poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney) IRES.  (+info)

A double-selective tissue culture system for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage applied in a long-term environmental surveillance. (8/2233)

We describe a simple, cost-efficient, double-selective method for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage samples containing vaccine polioviruses and other enteroviruses, with a detection limit of 18 to 50 PFU per 1 to 2 liters of sewage. By this method we were able to process 1,700 sewage samples collected between 1991 and 1996, from which 10,472 plaques were isolated, 41 of them being identified as wild-type polioviruses.  (+info)

The poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3Dpol) contains a region of homology centered around the amino acid motif YGDD (amino acids 326 to 329), which has been postulated to be involved in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Previous studies from this laboratory have used oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis to substitute the tyrosine amino acid at this motif with other amino acids (S. A. Jablonski and C. D. Morrow, J. Virol. 67:373-381, 1993). The viruses recovered with 3Dpol genes with a methionine mutation also contained a second mutation at amino acid 108 resulting in a glutamic acid-to-aspartic acid change (3D-E-108 to 3D-D-108) in the poliovirus RNA polymerase. On the basis of these results, we suggested that the amino acid at position 108 might interact with the YGDD region of the poliovirus polymerase. To further investigate this possibility, we have constructed a series of constructs in which the poliovirus RNA polymerases contained a mutation at amino acid 108 (3D-E-108 to ...
24 October 2019 - In an historic announcement on World Polio Day, an independent commission of experts concluded that wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) has been eradicated worldwide. Following the
Here we describe the generation of ribavirin-resistant poliovirus by serial passage in the presence of the drug. Interestingly, no drug-resistant virus was isolated from passages in 400 μM ribavirin. Instead, data in Fig. 1C suggest that passage of virus at a lower concentration of ribavirin was necessary to allow the accumulation of mutations before the stringent selection for resistant variants provided by passage in 400 μM ribavirin. In hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients treated with ribavirin, estimates of the drug concentrations in blood plasma range from 10 to 30 μM, though the concentration in hepatocytes may be higher (20, 21). Although it is uncertain whether the concentration of ribavirin required to inhibit poliovirus growth is similar to the concentration required to inhibit HCV growth, the results presented here suggest that treatment with low concentrations of the drug could facilitate later selection of resistant variants. In fact, clinical data from HCV patients have ...
BACKGROUND To understand immunological responses in chimpanzees vaccinated with live-attenuated vaccine (oral polio vaccine; OPV), serum neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were investigated over time. METHODS The neutralizing antibody titers against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were determined by microneutralization test using 100 ID(50) of poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 (Sabin strains). RESULTS Neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were detected in 85.7%, 71.4%, and 65% of the serum from 42 chimpanzees tested 9 years post-vaccination. The neutralizing antibody titers in chimpanzees were similar to the documented levels in human studies as an indicator of vaccine efficacy. CONCLUSIONS This study reveals persistence of neutralizing antibodies in chimpanzees for at least 9 years after vaccination with OPV. This first study in chimpanzees provides useful information for the evaluation of the success of vaccination with OPV in other captive apes.
BACKGROUND: The largest recorded outbreak of a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), detected in Nigeria, provides a unique opportunity to analyze the pathogenicity of the virus, the clinical severity of the disease, and the effectiveness of control measures for cVDPVs as compared with wild-type poliovirus (WPV). METHODS: We identified cases of acute flaccid paralysis associated with fecal excretion of type 2 cVDPV, type 1 WPV, or type 3 WPV reported in Nigeria through routine surveillance from January 1, 2005, through June 30, 2009. The clinical characteristics of these cases, the clinical attack rates for each virus, and the effectiveness of oral polio vaccines in preventing paralysis from each virus were compared. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the clinical severity of paralysis among the 278 cases of type 2 cVDPV, the 2323 cases of type 1 WPV, and the 1059 cases of type 3 WPV. The estimated average annual clinical attack rates of type 1 WPV, type 2 cVDPV, and type 3 WPV
Poliovirus 3A protein is known to have numerous functions in the viral replicative cycle, but the relationship between these functions is not known. Mutations in the 3A coding region, including the 3A-2 mutation at the restrictive growth temperature, are known to cause defects in viral RNA synthesis (3, 23). The larger polypeptide 3AB, which contains the 22-amino-acid protein primer for viral RNA synthesis fused to its carboxyl terminus, binds to 3D, the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (27, 66) and, when purified in the presence of detergent, stimulates polymerase activity (33, 45, 48, 51, 66). Recently, we have shown that viral proteins 2BC and 3A, expressed together, can mimic the ultrastructure and membrane rearrangements of poliovirus-infected cells (60), suggesting a role for 3A in vesicle formation during infection.. When expressed in isolation, viral 3A protein localizes to the ER, where it causes a three- to fivefold reduction in the rate of ER-to-Golgi traffic. In the presence ...
The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) has identified a vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in an unvaccinated, immunocompromised infant girl aged 7 months and in three siblings in a separate household. All four children live in an Amish community largely unvaccinated for polio. The infant girl has no paralysis, and the source of her infection is unknown. VDPVs are derived from the Sabin poliovirus strains in oral polio vaccine, which was discontinued in the United States in 2000 ...
A carboxy-terminal peptide of the poliovirus replicase protein (p63) was chemically synthesized, coupled to bovine serum albumin carrier, and injected into rabbits. The resulting antisera reacted with six virus-specific proteins from HeLa cells infected with poliovirus: NCVP 0b, NCVP 1b, NCVP 2, a protein of about 60,000 daltons, p63, and NCVP 6b. The identity of the 60,000-dalton protein is not known, but the other results were consistent with previous experimental approaches which demonstrated that p63 and the other four polypeptides have common coding sequences. An amino-terminal peptide of p63 failed to elicit an immune response in rabbits. Antibodies raised against the p63 carboxy-terminal peptide inhibited poliovirus replicase and polyuridylic acid polymerase activities in vitro, providing strong support for earlier suggestions that these activities are a property of a single virus-specific polypeptide. ...
Author Summary Viral recombination is critical to understanding the evolution of viral groups and impacts vaccine design, but is poorly understood. In the poliovirus vaccine, recombination is one potential mode of failure where vaccine strains recombine to produce a pathogenic product. We combine gene synthesis and deep sequencing to generate a high-resolution recombination map of poliovirus, both as a model RNA virus and a continuing threat that has yet to be eradicated. This map shows that recombination is concentrated into hotspots and suggests that predictable and alterable motifs in the RNA sequence are associated with recombination frequency. We demonstrate the utility of these observations by re-designing a poliovirus strain to recombine more frequently than normal, facilitating future studies on the role of viral recombination during infection. This result suggests that a large-scale redesign of the entire poliovirus genome to dampen recombination may be feasible, with implications for producing
Results: The study confirmed the presence of 22(18.3%) enteroviral isolates comprising 19(86.4%) polioviruses and 3(13.6%) non-polio enteroviruses. These 19 polioviruses include: Sabin-type poliovirus-1 (15.8%), poliovirus-2 (10.5%), poliovirus-3 (10.5%) and wild-type poliovirus-1 (63.2%) isolates. It showed that poliovirus infection was higher in children ages 6-11 months (18.9%), females (18.4%), northern states (91.0%) with no vaccination record (75.0%). Wild-type poliovirus-1 was isolated from the stool samples of 12(54.6%) children from northern states and in all age groups except 18-23 months. No significant differences (P ,0.05) between poliovirus infection and age (18.9% vs. 17.7%; 81.9% vs. 18.2%) and sex (18.3% vs. 18.4%). There was significant differences (P,0.05) between poliovirus infection and location (91.0% vs. 9.0%) and history of polio vaccination (75.0% vs. 0.0%). No wild-type poliovirus was found in those with complete vaccination ...
Vaccination has essentially eradicated poliovirus. Yet, its mutation rate is higher than that of viruses like HIV, for which no effective vaccine exists. To investigate this, we infer a fitness model for the poliovirus viral protein 1 (vp1), which successfully predicts in vitro fitness measurements. This is achieved by first developing a probabilistic model for the prevalence of vp1 sequences that enables us to isolate and remove data that are subject to strong vaccine-derived biases. The intrinsic fitness constraints derived for vp1, a capsid protein subject to antibody responses, are compared with those of analogous HIV proteins. We find that vp1 evolution is subject to tighter constraints, limiting its ability to evade vaccine-induced immune responses. Our analysis also indicates that circulating poliovirus strains in unimmunized populations serve as a reservoir that can seed outbreaks in spatio-temporally localized sub-optimally immunized populations. Poliovirus has a higher mutation rate than HIV,
Poliovirus RNA replicates in membrane-associated replication complexes in the cytoplasm of infected cells. By using a reversible inhibitor of poliovirus RNA replication, it is possible to synchronize viral RNA replication. The processing of the viral polyprotein results in the formation of the individual viral proteins along with stable intermediates in the processing pathway. To expand the utility of the in vitro complementation assay, experiments were designed to determine if all of the viral replication proteins could be provided in trans to support the replication of mutant RNA templates. The authors engineered two transcript RNAs (DJB2 and DJB15) that contained large out-of-frame deletions in the polyprotein coding sequence. The results to date using the in vitro complementation assay indicate that the 5 cloverleaf, the 3 nontranslated region (NTR), and the poly(A) tail are the minimum sequences required for negative-strand synthesis. Previous studies have shown that the 5 cloverleaf plays an
The National Research Council of the National Academies has recommended that at least one, preferably two, polio antiviral drugs be developed as a supplement to the tools currently available for control of polio outbreaks posteradication (4, 5). Pursuant to this recommendation, poliovirus-specific capsid inhibitor V-073 is being advanced clinically to assess the potential utility of poliovirus antiviral drugs in the treatment of chronic poliovirus infections and management of polio incidents. As with the application of any antiviral drug, the issue of treatment-emergent drug resistance presents a potential obstacle to implementation. It is important to understand the potential for and consequences of antiviral resistance.. We show here that poliovirus variants with reduced susceptibility to V-073 can be isolated in cell culture from otherwise drug-susceptible virus populations. The frequency of these variants in virus populations was estimated at 3.20 × 10−5 to 42.7 × 10−5 (geometric mean, ...
As this eMedTV article explains, vaccine-derived poliovirus (a rare strain of poliovirus that has been found in the live oral vaccine) can cause polio in unvaccinated people. This page offers a look at the occurrence and transmission of this virus.
In 2010, a large outbreak of poliomyelitis involving 445 laboratory-confirmed cases occurred in the Republic of Congo. The 47% case-fatality rate was unusually high. Outbreak severity was attributed to low immunization coverage but vaccine-mediated immunity against the outbreak virus was never investigated. We isolated the poliovirus type 1 responsible for the outbreak and located its evolutionary origins to Southeast Asia. Fatal cases showed evidence for previous vaccination against polioviruses and the outbreak virus was refractive against neutralization by monoclonal and vaccine-derived antibodies. This pointed to immune escape contributing to the severity of the outbreak. Sustained vaccination regimens in polio-free regions, together with clinical and environmental poliovirus surveillance will be necessary to combat antigenetically variant polioviruses in the poliomyelitis eradication endgame. ...
Peptides from different regions of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 were synthesized. Antibodies raised against these peptides in rabbits and rats recognized the cognate peptides and denatured VP1. Peptides from four regions of VP1 generated antisera with neutralizing titers specifically against poliovirus type 1. Antisera against all other regions of VP1 failed to neutralize virus infectivity, although some of the antisera clearly bound to native virions. Thus, the neutralizing determinants on VP1 reside in specific noncontiguous regions of the protein and can be defined by specific peptides from these regions. ...
The primary determinant of infection for any virus is its ability to enter a cell and produce additional infectious particles. The presence of CD155 is thought to define the animals and tissues that can be infected by poliovirus. CD155 is found (outside of laboratories) only on the cells of humans, higher primates, and Old World monkeys. Poliovirus is, however, strictly a human pathogen, and does not naturally infect any other species (although chimpanzees and Old World monkeys can be experimentally infected).[35] The CD155 gene appears to have been subject to positive selection.[36] The protein has several domains of which domain D1 contains the polio virus binding site. Within this domain, 37 amino acids are responsible for binding the virus. Poliovirus is an enterovirus. Infection occurs via the fecal-oral route, meaning that one ingests the virus and viral replication occurs in the alimentary tract.[37] Virus is shed in the feces of infected individuals. In 95% of cases only a primary, ...
two children polio-stricken children attending physical therapy circa 1963. Three classifications of Polio. Spinal Polio This is the classification when the poliovirus kills the motor neurons in the gray matter of the ventral horn of the spinal column. As the cells in the region are dying off the muscles of the limbs are not able to receive signals from the CNS so they begin to atrophy and become weak. In a few days, the patient will be fully paralyzed. This is the most common form of polio. Bulbar polio This form of polio is not as common as spinal polio. It is classified by this when the poliovirus infects and kills neurons in the bulbar region of the brain stem. This affects the muscles we use to speak, swallow, and breathe. Bulbospinal Polio. About 20 percent of people will get bulbospinal polio where they have both bulbar and spinal infection. In this situation poliovirus infects the upper part of the cervical spinal cord making the diaphragm paralyzed. Structure of Polio - An article by ...
All of the non-structural proteins of poliovirus, including their processing precursors, are involved in the replication of the viral RNA genome. These proteins assemble into a replication complex, which also contains the viral RNA and cellular factors. An understanding of how these viral proteins interact with each other would enhance our understanding of the molecular events occurring during poliovirus infection of the cell. Previously, we have employed the yeast two-hybrid system to construct two separate linkage maps for the polioviral P2 and P3 proteins, respectively. In the present study, we have searched for interacting pairs between the P2 and P3 proteins in a similar inducible yeast two-hybrid system. Although, the primary functions of the proteolytic products of the P2 and P3 domains of the polyprotein in the viral life cycle are different, we observed significant interactions between 2CATPase and 3AB; 2Apro and 3A, 3Cpro or 3Dpol; 2B and 3A or 3AB. All of the interactions were measured in the
Three suspected cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) from South Sudan are currently being investigated. All three patients are girls, two of whom are approximately two-years-old and one is eight-years-old. All had previously been immunized with oral polio vaccine (OPV).
Poliovirus: …viruses that cause polio (poliovirus) and other diseases. (Until this time, the poliovirus could be grown only in the brains of chimpanzees or the spinal cords of monkeys.) Culturing cells on glass surfaces opened the way for diseases caused by viruses to be identified by their effects on cells…
The team was jointly led by Dr. Matthias Gromeier, a professor in the Department of Neurosurgery, and Prof. Smita Nair, who is an immunologist in the Department of Surgery.. The new research - which is published in the journal Science Translational Medicine - shows how a modified poliovirus enables the body to use its own resources to fight off cancer. The modified virus bears the name of recombinant oncolytic poliovirus (PVS-RIPO).. PVS-RIPO has been in clinical trials since 2011 and preliminary results have offered hope to patients with one of the most aggressive forms of brain tumor: recurrent glioblastoma. So, the researchers set out to investigate more deeply how exactly PVS-RIPO works.. Explaining the rationale behind their research endeavor, Dr. Gromeier says, Knowing the steps that occur to generate an immune response will enable us to rationally decide whether and what other therapies make sense in combination with poliovirus to improve patient survival.. Also Read:- 11 WAYS THAT A ...
7. Butschek R, Wimmer C (1995): Fallbericht: Hüftluxation im Alter von 3 Monaten bei primär zentrierter, nur gering reifungsverzögerter Hüfte. Orthopädie Mitteilung 3: 58.. 8. Wimmer C, Gluch H, Krismer M (1995) Die Inzidenz von Pseudoarthrosen bei homologem und autologem Knochenspan ventraler, lumbaler Fusionen. Orthopädie Mitteilungen 3: 25.. 9. Wimmer C, Sterzinger W, Achammer T, Biedermann H (1996) Die lumbale Fusion eine interdisziplinäre Herausforderung. Abstract book. XVII International vascular workshop: 21.. 10. Said M, Flora G, Achammer T, Wimmer C (1996) Vaskuläre Komplikationen nach Hüftchirurgischen Eingriffen. Abstract book. XVII International vascular workshop: 25.. 11. Achammer T, Rachbauer F, Flora G, Wimmer C (1996) Orthopädische Behandlung von Knochen und Weichteiltumoren in Zusammenarbeit mit den Gefäßchirurgen. Abstract book. XVII International vascular workshop: 45.. 12. Gluch H, Schreiber U, Wimmer C (1996) Ergebnisse der operativen Behandlung der Deformitäten ...
After that I was very interested in viruses, and the concept of viruses, but I wanted to learn more about molecular virology. Jeff Almond offered me a Postdoc, and hed been decoding the basis of vaccine attenuation for the Sabin strains of poliovirus vaccine strain, Sabin strain, and that seemed the perfect opportunity to learn how to clone, how to manipulate viruses. I was just bowled over by the fact that you can make a virus de-novo, and I loved doing that - understanding the replication, the way that the cis-acting signals in the poliovirus genome controlled the packaging and the replication of the genome, the piece of RNA.. So I learnt how to do that with poliovirus, which people had been able to do for some years already, and then at a conference I met Peter Palese, and he had just discovered how to get that to work with negative-strand RNA viruses and flu, and he offered me a Postdoc. So I went off to New York and did that. It was funny because at that time I wasnt even thinking of flu ...
A new inactivated polio vaccine based on attenuated poliovirus strains was developed to transfer the technology to manufacturers in low- and middle-income countries. This vaccine was produced in different dosages and in different formulations. In healthy adults the safety of the highest dose was comparable to that of the existing inactivated polio vaccine. The purpose of this trial is to determine the safety of the different dosages and formulations of the vaccine in infants. The second goal of this study is to analyse the immune response after three doses in infants ...
I had this injection on the 3rd May which includes Diphtheria toxoid/Human poliovirus type 1 inactivated/Human poliovirus type 2 inactivated/Human poliovirus type 3 inactivated/Tetanus toxoid and since...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The effect of incubation at 37C on the neutralization test with various encephalitis viruses including Lansing strains of poliomyelitis virus. by Peter K. Olitsky et al.
JOHANNESBURG (AP) - Health authorities on Tuesday declared the African continent free of the wild poliovirus after decades of effort, though cases of vaccine-derived polio are still sparking outbreaks of the paralyzing disease in more than a dozen countries. The declaration leaves Pakistan and neighboring Afghanistan as the only countries thought to still have the […]
Disruption of the immunological masking of tumors and expansion of the antitumor immune repertoire are eminent objectives for cancer immunotherapy. The inspiration for using PVSRIPO to this end had its origin in specific cytopathogenicity for cells derived from virtually any solid cancer, due to widespread CD155 expression in solid malignancy (7). PVSRIPO was granted breakthrough therapy designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research in May 2016, due to promising early clinical results against glioblastoma. Here, we define PVSRIPOs immunotherapeutic potential, in terms of its ability to engage tumors immunologically and to induce tumor antigen-specific antitumor immunity. Our studies suggest that, in addition to lytic damage to malignant cells, this potential rests on noncytotoxic infection of APCs/DCs.. PVSRIPO infection of primary human DCs did not produce cytopathogenicity or cell killing but induced type I IFN responses that exceeded ...
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Six years ago, Eckard Wimmer, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology at Stony Brook University, and colleagues synthesized and generated poliovirus, the first artificial synthesis of any virus. Dr. Wimmer and other scientists within the Department built on that finding in their recent work. Synthesizing the wild-type poliovirus was an essential and important first step toward our current research, says Dr. Wimmer, noting that the new method involves impeding the synthesis of viral proteins, a new approach to developing attenuated vaccines. This type of vaccine is created by mutating the virus so it cannot cause disease. Generally, attenuated vaccines are easy to administer, inexpensive, and sometimes offer the best protection against disease. As all viruses depend on their hosts cellular machinery to produce their proteins, targeting the synthesis of viral proteins by the host may be universally applicable to creating weakened strains of other ...
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Antigenic variation is a hallmark of influenza virus that allows the virus to evade host defenses. Consequently influenza vaccines need to be reformulated frequently to keep up with changing viruses. In contrast, antigenic variation is not a hallmark of poliovirus - the same poliovirus vaccines have been used for nearly 60 years to control infections by this virus. An exception is a poliovirus type 1 that caused a 2010 outbreak in the Republic of Congo.. The 2010 outbreak (445 paralytic cases) was unusual because the case fatality ratio of 47% was higher than typically observed (usually less than 10% of patients with confirmed disease die). The first clue that something was different in this outbreak was the finding that sera from some of the fatal cases failed to effectively block (neutralize) infection of cells by the strain of poliovirus isolated during this outbreak (the strain is called PV-RC2010). The same sera effectively neutralized the three Sabin vaccine viruses as well as wild type 1 ...
Poliovirus seroprevalence did not differ by gender but was higher among those aged 6-11 years compared to those aged 12-19, 20-39 and 40-49 years (p , 0.001 for each comparison, Table 1, Fig.1). Those aged 12-19 and 40-49 years had a higher seroprevalence than those aged 20-39 years (p , 0.05 and p , 0.001, respectively). When stratified by gender, those aged 6-11 years had a higher seroprevalence than those aged 12-19, 20-39, and 40-49 for both males and females (p , 0.05, p , 0.001, and p , 0.001, respectively for males and p , 0.001, p , 0.001, and p , 0.05, respectively for females). Those aged 40-49 years had a higher seroprevalence than those aged 12-19 and 20-39 years for females (p , 0.05 and p , 0.001, respectively) and those aged 12-19 years had a higher seroprevelance than those aged 20-39 years for males (p , 0.05). Among those aged 40-49 years, males had a higher seroprevalence than females (p , 0.05). Within the other age groups, no differences by gender were observed. No ...
The homology models for d1, d2, and d3 were fitted into the reconstruction (Fig. 3b). Because the density map exhibits constrictions between the domains, determining the placement of the domains was mainly a matter of fixing their orientations about their long axes. The d1 model could be fitted into the density map in either of two orientations, 180o apart. One orientation was entirely consistent with mutational data implicating the C′C and DE loops of Pvr, and the EF (166-169) and GH (213-236) loops of VP1, the EF loop of VP2 (140-144), and the GH loop of VP3 (182-186) as important interaction sites; the other was inconsistent with these data. The orientations of d2 and d3 were unambiguous. β-Strand and loop assignments in the final model (Fig. 3b Inset) are given in Fig. 3c.. The d1 model (residues 29-142) fits the reconstructed density well and exhibits notable complementarity with the virus surface. Adaptation of the initial homology model to fit the density map required major changes in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigenic and immunogenic properties of recombinant hepatitis A virus 14S and 70S subviral particles. AU - Stapleton, Jack T.. AU - Raina, Vijay. AU - Winokur, Patricia L.. AU - Walters, Kathy. AU - Klinzman, Donna. AU - Rosen, Elliot. AU - McLinden, James H.. PY - 1993/2. Y1 - 1993/2. N2 - Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has an immunodominant neutralization antigenic site. By using a panel of monoclonal antibodies targeted against the HAV neutralization antigenic site, it was shown that three epitopes within this site are present on 14S subunits (pentamers of the structural unit). In contrast, two other epitopes within this site are formed upon assembly of 14S subunits into capsids. Thus, the epitopes recognized by these two monoclonal antibodies are formed either by a conformational change in the antigenic site or by the juxtaposition of epitope fragments present on different 14S subunits during assembly of 14S into 70S particles. Both 14S and 70S particles elicited HAV-neutralizing ...
Mutant polioviruses (PV) have been previously found to be capable of establishing persistent infections in HEp-2c cells. Together, two amino acid substitutions in the viral capsid of a type 3 poliovirus (PV-3), at positions VP213 and VP1290, are sufficient to confer the persistent phenotype to a normally lytic virus. When susceptible cells are infected, the double mutant T7L+2L 131N290 undergoes unique conformational changes in the capsid, modifying its sedimentation coefficient from 160S to 147S. In the present study, we have further investigated mutant PV decapsidation and, in particular, the effect of each determinant independently. Our results indicate that the novel 147S form was also generated by a mutant carrying only the determinant 1N290. This form was not produced as a result of inherent capsid instability and it was generated only upon specific PV-host cell interactions. The second viral determinant, 2L13, also modified receptor-induced conformational changes, although differently from 1N290.
Furthermore, human cells but not rodent cells are killed by poliovirus in vitro. Monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell and in human spinal cord poliovirus receptor site (PVR locus* 19q13.2-q13.3) the human receptor for polio virus CD155 additional refinments or modifinments are required to permit attachment of PVR and nectin that localize in the cell-matrix adhesions and binding of a soluble DNAM-1-Fc molecule [DNAX accessory molecule 1] was detected at the apical surface of the endothelium above the endothelial cell junctions, DANM cooperated with NKp30 in the NK-mediated nectin-1 Mabs killing of both immature and mature dendritic cells mediated by UL141 Merlin blocking surface expression of CD155 (natural cytotoxicity receptors) to lysis of NK-mediated killing in the degree of autolysis in the probabilities of the two lytic enzymes exotoxin and endotoxin nectins and not the lysogenic lifecycle before induction by the daughter cell considerations are at the cell junctions during ...
Poliovirus (PV) infects humans and is highly infectious. It belongs to the genus Enterovirus, under the family Picornaviridae. There are three serotypes; PV1, PV2, and PV3, but PV1 is the most common serotype. PV has a single stranded RNA genome, a capsid that encases it, but no envelope. Associated diseases: PV causes the disease Poliomyelitis (also known as polio). It is highly infectious, and in endemic areas polio varies widely in the symptoms it causes;
4K4W: Structures of coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and poliovirus polymerase elongation complexes solved by engineering RNA mediated crystal contacts.
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Poliovirus is a highly contagious virus that only affects humans; as this eMedTV article explains, it is also the cause of polio. This page describes the virus in detail, including information on its transmission, history, and possible eradication.
BioAssay record AID 775057 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against 20 PFU poliovirus infected in human RD cells assessed as plaque forming unit pretreated at 125 uM for 72 hrs followed by viral infection and compound treatment at 250 uM for 7 hrs by plaque assay (Rvb = 1.2 x 10-9 PFU/ml).
Use of Preservative Agents and Antibiotics for Increased Poliovirus Survival on Positively Charged Filters. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Contact: Sarah Avery Phone: 919-660-1306 Email: [email protected] https://www.dukehealth.org ASCO Abstract #2061 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE on Monday, June 6, 2016 DURHAM, N.C. - An early group of patients who received a modified form of the poliovirus to treat recurrent glioblastoma brain tumors showed survival improvement over historical controls, according to researchers at the Presto...
With mail-order DNA and more than 2 years of painstaking work, researchers for the first time have assembled a virus from its chemical code. The lab-built poliovirus, described online this week by Science, killed mice and was almost indistinguishable from the original. Biologists disagree on how difficult it would be to construct far bulkier viruses such as smallpox to create bioweapons. ...
Clone PV404.19 recognizes the human CD155 antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein also known as poliovirus receptor (PVR) or nectin-like protein 5 (NECL-5). CD155 is composed of two Ig-like C2-type domains and one Ig-like V-type domain that is necessary for poliovirus binding and uptake. Four different isotypes (α to δ) exist, originated from alternate splicing of the CD155 mRNA. CD155 is a broadly expressed receptor which is, e.g., found on monocytes, a T cell subset, and neurons of the central nervous system. CD155 is also expressed on some CD34+ progenitor cells, particulary on progenitors committed in myeloid differentiation. It can interact with several ligands, such as CD226, TIGIT, CD96, vitronectin, integrin αvβ3, and PDGFR. The functions of CD155 include roles in cell adhesion, neural differentiation, and NK cell effector functions. - Nederland
Poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 is used in the treatment of .get complete information about poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with poliomyelitis virus type 1 + poliomyelitis virus type 2 + poliomyelitis virus type 3 at 1mg.com
Poliovirus infections can be asymptomatic or cause severe paralysis. Why some individuals develop paralytic poliomyelitis is unknown, but a role for host genetic factors has been suggested. To investigate if a polymorphism, Ala67Thr, in the poliovirus receptor, which has been found to facilitate increased resistance against poliovirus-induced cell lysis and apoptosis, is associated with increased risk of paralytic poliomyelitis, poliovirus receptor genotyping was undertaken among Italian subjects with vaccine-associated (n = 9), or with wild-type paralytic poliomyelitis (n = 6), and control subjects (n = 71), using RFLP-PCR and pyrosequencing. Heterozygous poliovirus receptor Ala67Thr genotype was found in 13.3% of the patients with paresis and in 8.5% of the controls (Odds Ratio = 1.667). The frequency of Ala67Thr among the controls is in agreement with earlier published data. It is concluded that the Ala67Thr mutation in the poliovirus receptor is a possible risk factor for the development of ...
Earlier this week it was reported that Nigeria has interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus and is no longer a polio endemic country. Now, in some belated news from the polio eradication front, the Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCC) on Sep. 20 concluded that wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) has been eradicated worldwide. The last detected WPV2 dates to 1999, from Aligarh, northern India.. There are three wild poliovirus serotypes: WPV1, WPV2 and WPV3. WPV3 has not been detected globally since November 2012 (in Nigeria); the only remaining endemic WPV1 strains are now restricted to the two remaining endemic countries, Pakistan and Afghanistan.. This declaration will support the final decision on whether the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine will be made as scheduled in April 2016, which will be decided by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization next month.. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) says oral polio ...
Data & statistics on Number of children receiving oral poliovirus in the Congo: Number of children aged 0-59 months*, number receiving oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) during National Immunization Days † (NIDs), number of reported cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and nonpolio AFP rates, by province - Democratic Republic of Congo, 1999, Immune response of age group 1 to 12 months children against oral poliovirus vaccine., Mean changes before and after for all practices for immunizations in 2-year-olds, as measured by the percentage of children who were up to date for each of the immunizations and for the combination of all immunizations. DTP indicates diphtheriatetanus-pertussis; OPV, oral poliovirus; MMR, measles-mumpsrubella; Hib, Haemophilus influenza type b; HepB, hepatitis B; VZ, varicella zoster vaccine of disease; ......
Singapore participated in the WHO EPI protocol for rapid assessment of serological response to three doses of standard oral poliovirus vaccine. The 100% seropositive finding of thirty infants below one year old is no proof of seroconversion rate to the Trivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (TOPV) administered. Investigation of 100 cord blood samples showed that passively transferred maternal poliovirus neutralising antibody cannot be relied upon for protection of infants against poliomyelitis. This paper emphasises the importance of vaccine potency testing and serves as a timely reminder that although the last case of indigenous poliomyelitis was recorded in 1974, non Sabin-like (wild) polioviruses are being isolated from imported cases and foreigners hospitalised in Singapore, and unexpectedly, from the conjunctiva and pharynx of Singaporeans treated for conjunctivitis. It discusses the WHO (World Health Organization) Plan of Action for Eradication of Polio in the Western Pacific Region which ...
To compare the immunogenicity of routine versus mass campaign doses of oral poliovirus vaccine OPV, serum neutralizing antibodies were measured in 254 children before and after two mass vaccination campaigns in Jordan. Precampaign seroprevalences to poliovirus types 1,2, and 3 in children who had received three, four, or five routine doses of...
Looking for online definition of poliovirus in the Medical Dictionary? poliovirus explanation free. What is poliovirus? Meaning of poliovirus medical term. What does poliovirus mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative study of the formation of poliovirus antigens in infected HeLa cells2 2 Abbreviations employed. T2 - RNA = ribonucleic acid; PFU = plaque-forming unit; FPA =dl-p-fluorophenylalanine.. AU - Scharff, Matthew D.. AU - Levintow, Leon. PY - 1963/4. Y1 - 1963/4. N2 - Methods based on the specific interaction between isotopically labeled poliovirus antigens and their specific antisera have been used to study the course of antigen formation in infected HeLa cell cultures. No appreciable amounts of either D antigen or C antigen are formed prior to the onset of maturation. While D antigenicity is a property of structurally complete particles, C antigenicity is associated with particles which lack RNA. Both sorts of particles are primary products of the infectious process, being formed in roughly equal amounts along the course of maturation. Appreciable amounts of both antigens are formed in the presence of low concentrations of fluorophenylalanine (FPA) which inhibit ...
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative began in 1988; by 2006, indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) type 2 infection had been interrupted globally, and indigenous transmission of type 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) infection had been interrupted in all but four countries worldwide (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan) (1). Despite this success in controlling indigenous transmission, during 2002--2006, 20 previously polio-free countries* in Africa and Asia had importations of WPV1 originating from Nigeria (2--4), and three polio-free countries in Africa had WPV1 importations originating from India (1). By the end of 2007, control efforts in all countries except Angola, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Niger, and Sudan had stopped transmission of WPV1 caused by these importations. However, during 2008--2009, multiple importations of WPV from countries with ongoing transmission resumed in Africa. This report describes 32 WPV importations into 15 African countries, resulting ...
Joan L. Headley, Executive Director, PHI. In late 2013, Post-Polio Health International awarded $100,000 to the team of Antonio Toniolo, MD; Andreina Baj, MD; Martina Colombo, PhD - Laboratory of Medical Microbiology and Virology, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria Medical Center, Varese, Italy, to expand its search for poliovirus genome in various populations.. The teams work is enhanced by the expertise of Konstantin Chumakov, PhD, Associate Director for Research, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation Research, Silver Spring, Maryland.. The goals are: 1) to complete the systematic search of poliovirus genomes in the Italian cohort of post-polio syndrome cases, and 2) to verify if poliovirus genomes are also present in aging polio survivors with stable polio (those aged ,60 years that have not developed post- polio syndrome).. A Mid-Study Report was submitted to PHI and published in Post-Polio Health, Volume 31, Number ...
Epidemiological investigation and specimen collection. Teams of epidemiologists from districts and from the central level investigated each case of acute flaccid paralysis and reviewed clinical records. Vaccination records were reviewed for children who lived in the same household, immediate neighbours, and hospital contacts of cases; people in these groups were given oral poliovirus vaccine. Faecal specimens were collected from children exposed in the hospital to case- patients and from children who lived in the same households as these exposed children.. Serological surveys Between 19 April and 8 May 2001, we sampled 71 children aged 0 83 months who were from minority populations and were hospitalized in any of five district hospitals before the first mass vaccination campaign. We reviewed these childrens vaccination records and collected blood specimens. The Bulgaria National Enterovirus Laboratory measured antibody titres to types 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus in sera by using neutralization ...
Back to Available Models Polioviruses Transmission Model [1] Global efforts to eradicate wild polioviruses continue, with types 1 and 3 wild polioviruses remaining endemic in three countries (Nigeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan). Since 13 January 2011, India has had no case of wild poliovirus and has not detected the virus in sewage sampling. Even though India is thus considered to have interrupted transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus [2], there is a critical need to maintain immunity to poliovirus in India as well as other wild polio-free countries until global eradication is achieved. Wild polioviruses still cause fewer than 2000 global cases of paralytic polio annually [3]. While wild polioviruses circulate in these areas, the rest of the world must continue to keep polio vaccination levels very high [4], due to the risk of outbreaks in susceptible people in polio-free countries. In addition, post-eradication policy planning must anticipate that outbreaks (defined as one or more cases of ...
ICD-9 045.03 is acute paralytic poliomyelitis specified as bulbar, poliovirus type iii (04503). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for infectious and parasitic diseases.
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Background: Considering the current polio situation Pakistan needs vaccine combinations to reach maximum population level immunity. The trial assessed whether inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) can be used to rapidly boost immunity among children in Pakistan. Methods: A five-arm randomized clinical trial was conducted among children (6-24 months, 5-6 years and 10-11 years). Children were randomized in four intervention arms as per the vaccines they received (bOPV, IPV, bOPV + vitamin A, and bOPV + IPV) and a control arm which did not receive any vaccine. Baseline seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies and serological immune response 28 days after intervention were assessed.Results: The baseline seroprevalence was high for all serotypes and the three age groups [PV1: 97%, 100%, 96%, PV2: 86%, 100%, 99%, PV3: 83%, 95%, 87% for the three age groups respectively]. There was significantly higher rate of immune response observed in the study arms which included IPV (95-99%) compared with bOPV only arms (11
Originally trained as an organic chemist, Wimmer developed a deep understanding and fascination for viruses as replicating (living) biological entities as well as (non-living) aggregates of organic compounds, or, as chemicals with a life cycle.[2][3] After working on the structure of tRNAs and the structure of a plant RNA virus (satellite tobacco necrosis virus), Wimmer chose to study poliovirus in 1968. Poliovirus is the cause of the horrific disease poliomyelitis, which can cause irreversible flaccid paralysis and even death. Neither the molecular biology of poliovirus proliferation nor the mechanism of its pathogenesis was understood in the nineteen sixties. Wimmers major early accomplishment, spearheaded by Naomi Kitamura and other members of his laboratory, was the elucidation in 1981 of the structure and genetic organization of the poliovirus genome,[4] the first sequence of a eukaryotic RNA virus. The primary structure of the genome was unique at the time amongst RNA viruses as it was ...
Via WHOs Global Alert and Response page: Poliovirus detected from environmental samples in Egypt. Excerpt: In Egypt, wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was isolated from sewage samples collected on 2 and 6 December 2012 in two areas of greater Cairo....
For the final stages in the eradication of poliovirus type 1 (P1), the World Health Organization advocates the selective use of monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1). To compare the immunogenicity of mOPV1 with that of trivalent OPV (tOPV) in infants, a study was performed in Egypt in 2005. Newborns were vaccinated with mOPV1 or tOPV immediately after birth and were challenged with mOPV1 after 1 month. Vaccination with mOPV1 at birth resulted in significantly higher seroconversion against P1 viruses and lower excretion of P1 viruses than vaccination with tOPV. Intratypic differentiation of the viruses shed by the newborns revealed the presence of remarkably high numbers of antigenically divergent (AD) P1 isolates, especially in the mOPV1 study group. The majority of these AD P1 isolates (71%) were mOPV1 challenge derived and were shed by newborns who did not seroconvert to P1 after the birth dose. Genetic characterization of the viruses revealed that amino acid 60 of the VP3 region ...
DIPHTHERIA TOXOID, TETANUS TOXOID, ACELLULAR PERTUSSIS VACCINE, DTaP; HEPATITIS B VACCINE, RECOMBINANT; INACTIVATED POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, IPV (dif THEER ee uh TOK soid, TET n us TOK soid, ey SEL yuh ler per TUS iss VAK seen, DTaP; hep uh TAHY tis B VAK seen; in ak tuh vey ted poh lee oh vahy ruhs VAK seen, IPV ) is used to prevent infections of diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis B, and poliovirus.. ...
DIPHTHERIA TOXOID, TETANUS TOXOID, ACELLULAR PERTUSSIS VACCINE, DTaP; HEPATITIS B VACCINE, RECOMBINANT; INACTIVATED POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, IPV (dif THEER ee uh TOK soid, TET n us TOK soid, ey SEL yuh ler per TUS iss VAK seen, DTaP; hep uh TAHY tis B VAK seen; in ak tuh vey ted poh lee oh vahy ruhs VAK seen, IPV ) is used to prevent infections of diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), pertussis (whooping cough), hepatitis B, and poliovirus.. ...
IPV was the first vaccine used against poliomyelitis. It contains the three types of poliovirus inactivated by formaldehyde and is administered parenterally. The use of IPV in the late 1950s was followed by a 90% reduction of poliomyelitis cases when it was replaced in many countries by the more easily administered OPV around 1960. Newer IPVs have higher immunogenic potency which has led to a reintroduction of IPV in many developed and developing countries ...
The newer high potency monovalent oral type 1 poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1) is three times more effective than the conventional trivalent oral polio vaccine, according to a study done under field conditions in India. Poliomyelitis persists in some parts of the world including parts of India and eradicating the illness has proved challenging. Researchers tested the protective efficacy of mOPV1 and of the conventional vaccine in a case-control study involving over 2000 matched case-control pairs of confirmed cases of poliomyelitis caused by type 1 wild poliovirus and cases of non-polio acute flaccid paralysis in India. The authors say that achieving high coverage with this new vaccine in areas of persistent poliovirus transmission should substantially improve the probability of rapidly eliminating transmission of the disease.. ...
ICD-9 045.22 is acute nonparalytic poliomyelitis, poliovirus type ii (04522). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for infectious and parasitic diseases.
Second immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of nectin-3 (also known as poliovirus receptor related protein 3), nectin-4 (poliovirus receptor related protein 4) and similar proteins. Ig2_Nectin-3-4_like: domain similar to the second immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of nectin-3 (also known as poliovirus receptor related protein 3) and nectin-4 (poliovirus receptor related protein 4). Nectin-3 and nectin-4 belong to the nectin family comprised of four transmembrane glycoproteins (nectins-1 through 4). Nectins are synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) which facilitate adhesion and signaling at various intracellular junctions. Nectins form homophilic cis-dimers, followed by homophilic and heterophilic trans-dimers involved in cell-cell adhesion. Nectin-2 and nectin-3 localize at Sertoli-spermatid junctions where they form heterophilic trans-interactions between the cells that are essential for the formation and maintenance of the junctions and for spermatid development. Nectin-3 has also been shown to form a ...
The poliovirus-induced shut-off of cellular protein-synthesis persists in the presence of 3-methylquercetin, a flavonoid which blocks viral protein and RNA-synthesis ...
CDC experts think a second of the three forms of poliovirus has been eliminated after mass vaccination campaigns.. Wild poliovirus type 3 has not been detected for more than two years. Type 2 was eradicated in 1999.. Experts said the world was closer than ever to defeating polio but the situation in Pakistan was worrying.. Polio is highly infectious and causes paralysis in up to one in 200 people. Some children die when the muscles that help them breathe stop working.. However, there has been huge progress in eliminating the disease. Cases have fallen from 350,000 in 1988 to 416 in 2013.. According to the CDC report, the last case of type 3 poliovirus was detected in Pakistan in November 2012.. We may have eradicated a second of three; thats a major milestone, said Dr. Stephen Cochi, a senior adviser at the CDCs Centre for Global Health.. However, a formal process - involving the Polio Global Certification Commission - is required before type 3 can be officially declared eradicated. That ...
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 26, No 3, September 2002 describes poliovirus testing undertaken by the National Poliovirus Reference Laboratory at the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory during 2001.
Polio is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes paralysis, difficulty breathing and sometimes death.. The poliovirus resides only in humans and enters the environment in the feces of someone whos infected. Poliovirus spreads primarily through the fecal-oral route, especially in areas where sanitation is inadequate. Poliovirus can be transmitted through contaminated water and food or through direct contact with someone infected with the virus. Polio is so contagious that anyone living with a recently infected person is likely to become infected too. Although people carrying the poliovirus are most contagious seven to 10 days before and after signs and symptoms appear, they can spread the virus for weeks in their feces.. Youre at greatest risk of polio if you havent been immunized against the disease. In areas with poor sanitation and sporadic or nonexistent immunization programs, the most vulnerable members of the population - pregnant women, the very young and those ...
Poliomyelitis is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by three types of poliovirus. The poliovirus is a virus most recognized for its destruction to the nervous system, causing paralysis. According to the CDC, the majority of individuals who are infected with polio, have no symptoms and a few have mild symptoms. Of those persons who do acquire the infection, 1 percent or fewer may develop paralytic disease. Since the introduction of the polio vaccine in 1955, infections from the poliovirus have nearly been eradicated. In the U.S., there have been no known infectious or wild cases of polio since 1979.. In countries that are poor, underdeveloped and do not have access to the vaccine, polio is still a concern, especially for infants and children. The World Health Organization continues its efforts to eradicate the virus worldwide.. ...
The RNA genomes of neurovirulent and attenuated type 3 polioviruses have been cloned in E. cola using an efficient RNA.cDNA hybrid technique. The complete nucleotide sequence of the vaccine-associated neurovirulent revertant P3/119 and, in collaboration with others, the attenuated vaccine strain P3/Leon 12 a1b, have been determined. These have been compared with that of the neurovirulent parent strain P3/Leon/3 7. Ten nucleotide sequence differences were observed between the parent P3/Leon/37 and the vaccine P3/Leon 12 a1b, three of which resulted in amino acid substitutions. Between the vaccine and the revertant P3/119, seven nucleotide sequence differences were observed. Three of these resulted in amino acid substitutions. The possible significance of individual nucleotide sequence differences to the attenuation of and reversion to neurovirulence in poliovirus type 3 is discussed. The nucleotide sequence of P3/Leon 12 a1b was the first to be determined for a type 3 poliovirus. Comparison of ...
More than 80 percent of children need to be vaccinated to keep poliovirus from spreading in a community. The first vaccine-derived polio outbreak to be detected occurred in the Dominican Republic and Haiti two decades ago, in areas with low vaccination. That allowed altered vaccine virus, shed in the stool of the immunized, to spread largely unchecked and, over time, return to a form that causes paralysis (SN: 8/10/04). The full process of vaccine virus reverting to disease-causing virus is rare and takes many months of moving around a community.. Today, vaccine-derived outbreaks are primarily found in Afghanistan, Pakistan and countries in Africa. Most of these outbreaks - which have been responsible for more polio cases in the last few years than the remaining type of wild poliovirus - are linked to vaccine virus type 2. Vaccination campaigns, which had used an oral vaccine containing weakened versions of all three types of poliovirus, switched to using a formulation with just types 1 and 3 in ...
Articles found at HighWire Press® Stanford University. (*Asterisk denotes article is free of subscription fee.). Immune Responses In Human Volunteers Upon Oral Administration Of A Rodent-Adapted Strain Of Poliomyelitis Virus. Hilary Koprowski, Geobge A. Jervis, And Thomas W. Norton. Am. J. Epidemiol., Jan 1952; 55: 108 - 126.. Preparation Of Poliovirus Vaccines In A Human Fetal Diploid Cell Strain. Leonard Hayflick, Stanley A. Plotkin, Thomas W. Norton, And Hilary Koprowski. Am. J. Epidemiol., Mar 1962; 75: 240 - 258.. Strategies For The Development Of Vaccines Against Viruses In The Htlv Family: Unconventional Vaccines: Immunization with Anti-Idiotype Antibody against Viral Diseases.* H. Koprowski. Cancer Res., Sep 1985; 45: 4689s - 4690s.. Immunization of Humans with A Chick Embryo Adapted Strain of Mef1 Poliomyelitis Virus. M. Roca-Garcia, H. Koprowski, G. A. Jervis, T. W. Norton, T. L. Nelson, and H. R. Cox J. Immunol., Aug 1956; 77: 123 - 131.. Persistence Of Neutralizing Antibodies In ...
Europe has remained polio-free since 2002. The latest assessment by the European RCC of Poliomyelitis Eradication concludes that there was no wild poliovirus or vaccine-derived poliovirus transmission in the WHO European Region in 2014, but the risk of importation and subsequent transmission remains high in some countries. ...
1. By means of differential ultracentrifugation, a purified and concentrated macromolecular fraction has been regularly obtained from infected human, monkey, and chimpanzee stools. This fraction was isolated from sixteen stools in which virus was thought to be present, and inoculated intracerebrally into sixteen monkeys, of which fifteen developed poliomyelitis.. 2. Eleven stool specimens in which virus was suspected, when tested separately in eleven monkeys by the intra-abdominal-intranasal method, produced poliomyelitis in two of these animals. When the same specimens were tested separately by the ultracentrifugal-intracerebral method, poliomyelitis developed in ten monkeys out of eleven inoculated.. 3. With the intra-abdominal-intranasal method, it has been customary to inoculate the virus present in 1.6 gm. of stool. With the ultracentrifugal-intracerebral method, the virus present in as much as 30 gm. of stool has been inoculated.. 4. From one titration experiment it would appear that the ...
The Sabin Vaccine Institute is founded on the legacy and global vision of one of the pre-eminent scientific figures in the history of medicine, Dr. Albert B. Sabin. Best known as the developer of the oral live virus polio vaccine, Dr. Sabin not only dedicated his entire professional career to the elimination of human suffering though his groundbreaking medical advances, he also waged a tireless campaign against poverty and ignorance throughout his lifetime.. It was in this spirit of commitment and dedication that his longtime friends and colleagues, led by Heloisa Sabin, his widow, and Dr. H.R. Shepherd, the Founding Chairman, established the Sabin Vaccine Institute in 1993 at the time of Dr. Sabins death.. Dr. Sabin was born on August 26, 1906, in Bialystok, Poland. He emigrated to the United States with his parents in 1921 in order to avoid the persecutions directed against Jews prevalent during that era. He received his M.D. from New York University in 1931 and immediately began research on ...
This is in response to David Coates question about whether animal viruses can transcytose. There is a new model for how enteric viruses (Poliovirus and reovirus, so far) cross the gut barrier. A (relatively) newly identified cell type, called M cells may nonspecifically transcytose the contents of the gut lumen into the underlying lymph tissue. The evidence that this occurs in a natural infection is, so far, indirect. For technical reasons, it still is not known whether the poliovirus receptor is expressed at the lumenal face of the intestinal mucosa. The reovirus receptor has not been identified. The M cells (from biopsies) This is in response to David Coatesquestion about whether animalcan transcytose poliovirus in culture ...
In Pakistan, the primary problems reside in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), in particular North Waziristan. During the high season in the past four months, 52 cases of wild poliovirus have been reported from FATA, with evidence of widespread geographic transmission across the country. Areas within Pakistan are being re-infected, as is neighboring Afghanistan, and the outbreak in the Middle East originated in Pakistan. North Waziristan is the area with the largest number of children being paralyzed by poliovirus in Pakistan. Immunization activities have been suspended by local leaders since June 2012. It is critical that children in all areas are vaccinated and protected from poliovirus. Immunizations in neighboring high-risk areas are being intensified, to further boost population immunity levels in those areas and prevent further spread of this outbreak ...
Upon EV-A71 infection of a host cell, EV-A71 RNA is translated into a viral polyprotein. Although EV-A71 can use the cellular translation machinery to produce viral proteins, unlike cellular translation, which is cap-dependent, the viral RNA genome of EV-A71 does not contain a 5′ cap and the translation of EV-A71 protein is cap-independent, which is mediated by the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) located in the 5′ UTR of EV-A71 mRNA. Like many other eukaryotic viruses, EV-A71 manipulates the host cell translation devices, using an elegant RNA-centric strategy in infected cells. During viral translation, viral RNA plays an important role in controlling the stage of protein synthesis. In addition, due to the cellular defense mechanism, viral replication is limited by down-regulating translation. EV-A71 also utilizes protein factors in the host to overcome antiviral responses or even use them to promote viral translation rather than host cell translation. In this review, we provide an introduction
Today, the WHO European Region marks 10 years since it was certified free of poliomyelitis (polio). Stopping transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus in the 53 countries in the Region was a landmark in the effort to eradicate polio globally, and helped accelerate international momentum towards that goal.
The presence of neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus implies immunity. The serum neutralization test is serotype specific. Antibodies against one type does not indicate immunity against type three antibodies. Reference Interval applies to Poliovirus Types 1 and 3 ...
DESCRIPTION OF DUTIES. The incumbent will perform the following duties:- Develop laboratory-backed surveillance including Development of Laboratory work plans, Virus isolation and identification using recommended WHO guidelines and procedures, Tissue culture maintenance and propagation, Specimen processing and handling- Liaise with other partners in support of AFP laboratory-backed surveillance- Ensure WHO guidelines and standards operating procedures are strictly adhered to as recommended by WHO- Provide technical support to the other countries of the region in Polio eradication and other activities when need arise- Implementation of the Real Time PCR for Intratypic Differentiation (ITD) for polio molecular epidemiology.- improved quality assurance through accreditation & proficiency testing programmes implementation of validated, standard laboratory procedures- provision of training for laboratory personnel- linking of laboratory data and activities to surveillance for diseases of public ...
The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus-transmission in a timely manner. We evaluate the national EV laboratory surveillance, to generate recommendations for system strengthening. The system was analysed for completeness of viral typing analysis and clinical information and timeliness of specimen collection, laboratory results and reporting of clinical information. Of 23,720 specimens screened, 2,202 (9.3%) were EV-positive. Submission of cerebrospinal fluid and faecal specimens from primary diagnostic laboratories was 79.5% complete (845/1,063), and varied by laboratory and patient age. EV genotypes were determined in 68.5% (979/1,430) of laboratory-confirmed cases, clinical information was available for 63.1% (903/1,430). Primary diagnostic results were
Screening adolescents for Bariatric Surgery : When diet, exercise just arent enough Bats! 3 steps for rabies exposure prophylaxis Dermcase : Atrophic scars and poor wound healing in young boy Puzzler : Abrupt, intermittent pain and fever, but no apparent cause Updates : Infant formula, CDC on Flu vaccination, Medication poisoning, Antibiotics, AAP on Poliovirus, Varicella, Hepatitis A and Tdap
Hajime Mori of Kyoto Institute of Technology in Japan will develop protein chips that encapsulate poliovirus-like particles (PLP) for use as a safe and effective polio vaccine. When the PLP-protein chips are orally administered, they pass through the stomach without degradation and then are gradually released into the gut to induce a strong immunity against poliovirus infection.. ...
pō˝lēōmī˝əlī´tĭs [key], polio, or infantile paralysis, acute viral infection, mainly of children but also affecting older persons. There are three immunologic types of poliomyelitis virus exposure to one type produces immunity only to that
4K4X: Structures of coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and poliovirus polymerase elongation complexes solved by engineering RNA mediated crystal contacts.
The Virginia-Carolina Railroad (later owned by Norfolk & Western) was constructed through Ashe County in 1914 to 1916 and had a significant impact on the growth of Lansing. With the construction of the railroad, industries based on the export of the countys natural resources sprang up. Small-scale mining of iron ore was conducted in the Lansing area and the shipment of the ore from the Lansing Depot contributed to the towns early growth.. The timber industry was even more important to the economy of Lansing and the county in general. Lumber and pulpwood, and probably tan bark, were all shipped from Lansing to processing plants that were located across Southwest Virginia and beyond. These products were the primary impetus for the construction of the railroad into Ashe County and created an economic boom for much of the 1910s and 1920s culminating in the towns charter on May 26, 1928.. ...
Vidant Health - Poliomyelitis is a highly contagious disease that is caused by three types of poliovirus and is most recognized for causing paralysis.
"Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases". Global Polio Eradication Initiative. 23 December 2015 ... Three serotypes of poliovirus have been identified - poliovirus type 1 (PV1), type 2 (PV2), and type 3 (PV3) - each with a ... Infectious disease caused by poliovirus. "Poliomyelitis" redirects here. For the virus, see Poliovirus. For other uses, see ... Use of this inactivated poliovirus vaccine and subsequent widespread use of the oral poliovirus vaccine developed by Albert ...
"Licensure of a diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed and inactivated poliovirus vaccine and guidance ... "FDA licensure of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, hepatitis B (recombinant), and poliovirus ... "Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B (Recombinant), and Poliovirus (Inactivated) Vaccine". Drugs.com. ... and inactivated poliovirus vaccine or DTaP-IPV-Hep B.[1] It protects against the infectious diseases diphtheria, tetanus, ...
The plaque assay was developed using poliovirus; the discovery of viral replication in culture was also with poliovirus in 1949 ... and a poliovirus clone was the first infectious DNA clone made of an RNA virus in animals. Along with rhinovirus, poliovirus ... For this reason, poliovirus couldn't be made in many laboratories until transgenic mice having a CD155 receptor on their cell ... For example, poliovirus receptor is glycoprotein CD155 which is special receptor for human and some other primate species. ...
Newborn mice producing PVR were infected with wild-type poliovirus and a chimeric poliovirus in which this element was replaced ... Though not susceptible to poliovirus infection, murine cells do allow for efficient replication of poliovirus RNA introduced ... Even though global eradication of poliovirus was initiated in 1988, and poliovirus infection continues throughout the world ... However poliovirus is able to replicate when interferon is added to medium used to culture mammalian cells. Racaniello's ...
Infections by poliovirus most often cause the mildest of symptoms. This was not known until the virus was isolated in cultured ... Rosen FS (2004). "Isolation of poliovirus-John Enders and the Nobel Prize". New England Journal of Medicine. 351 (15): 1481-83 ... Skern T (September 2010). "100 years poliovirus: from discovery to eradication. A meeting report". Archives of Virology. 155 (9 ... In 1949, John F. Enders (1897-1985) Thomas Weller (1915-2008), and Frederick Robbins (1916-2003) grew polio virus for the first ...
... identification of the three types of polio virus; and the first "blue baby" operation, which was done by surgeon Alfred Blalock ...
Poliomyelitis prevention: recommendations for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live oral poliovirus vaccine. American ... Racaniello V. One hundred years of poliovirus pathogenesis. Virology. 2006, 344 (1): 9-16. PMID 16364730. doi:10.1016/j.virol. ... Live, orally given poliovirus vaccine. Effects of rapid mass immunization on population under conditions of massive enteric ... Kew O, Sutter R, de Gourville E, Dowdle W, Pallansch M. Vaccine-derived polioviruses and the endgame strategy for global polio ...
Isolation of poliovirus-John Enders and the Nobel Prize. New England Journal of Medicine. 2004;351(15):1481-83. doi:10.1056/ ... Their method was not widely adopted until the 1950s, when poliovirus was grown on a large scale for vaccine production.[29] ... Cello J, Paul AV, Wimmer E. Chemical synthesis of poliovirus cDNA: generation of infectious virus in the absence of natural ... and Frederick Robbins grew polio virus in cultured human embryo cells, the first virus to be grown without using solid animal ...
"Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases". Global Polio Eradication Initiative. 23 de decembro ... Identificáronse tres serotipos de poliovirus, poliovirus tipo 1 (PV1), tipo 2 (PV2) e tipo 3 (PV3), cada un deles cunha cápsida ... "Poliomyelitis prevention: recommendations for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live oral poliovirus vaccine. American ... O poliovirus adoita transmitirse de persoa a persoa por vía fecal-oral.[1] Pode espallarse tamén a través de comida ou auga que ...
Wild poliovirus type 2 was certified eradicated in 2015, the last case having been detected in 1999. Wild poliovirus type 3 has ... In October 1999, the last isolation of type 2 poliovirus occurred in India. This type of poliovirus was declared eradicated. ... In 2005 there were 1,979 cases of wild poliovirus (excludes vaccine-derived polio viruses). Most cases were located in two ... "Managing the risk of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus during the endgame: oral poliovirus vaccine needs". BMC Infectious ...
This is important because countries with high incidence of polio are now using live oral poliovirus vaccine. When polio is ... Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Cuba. N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 12;356(15):1536-44. Free ... poliovirus vaccine was effective in vaccinating children in tropical conditions. The Collaborative Group consisted of the Cuban ...
"Wild Poliovirus 2008 - 2013" (PDF). Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2013. ... There have been no cases caused by wild strains of poliovirus in Nigeria since August 2016, though cVDPV2 was detected in ... This leaves only wild poliovirus type 1 and circulating vaccine-derived polio circulating in a few isolated pockets, with all ... "Wild Poliovirus Weekly Update". Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Retrieved 17 March 2010. "WHO Vaccine Preventable Diseases ...
"Africa eradicates wild poliovirus". WHO. August 25, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2020. "Jeff Bezos Becomes The First Person Ever ...
Wimmer chose to study poliovirus in 1968. Poliovirus is the cause of the horrific disease poliomyelitis, which can cause ... Wimmer is co-discoverer of the poliovirus receptor CD155,[12] a cell-adhesion molecule[13] and tumor antigen, whose expression ... "SCIENTISTS CREATE A LIVE POLIO VIRUS". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 April 2013.. ... In 1968, during a five-months visit in David Baltimore's laboratory at MIT, Wimmer was introduced to poliovirus, the infectious ...
Nigeria had become a net exporter of the polio virus to its African neighbors. People in the northern states were also reported ... "Wild poliovirus 2000-2008" (PDF). Global Polio Eradication Initiative. February 5, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... poliovirus, smallpox, tetanus, diphtheria, typhoid, typhus, and yellow fever. However, the diseases mainly prevalent in Vietnam ... Cutter Laboratories produced 120,000 doses of the Salk polio vaccine that inadvertently contained some live polio virus along ...
Although poliovirus transmission has been interrupted in much of the world, transmission of wild poliovirus does continue and ... "Poliomyelitis prevention: recommendations for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live oral poliovirus vaccine. American ... type 2 poliovirus), and Saukett (type 3 poliovirus), grown in a type of monkey kidney tissue culture (Vero cell line), which ... since no long-term carrier state exists for poliovirus in individuals with normal immune function, polio viruses have no ...
List of disasters in New York City by death toll Melnick J (1 July 1996). "Current status of poliovirus infections". Clin ...
"Technology for cultivating polio virus". The Lasker Foundation. Retrieved 13 February 2021. "Enders, John F. (1897-1985) , ... Jonas Salk applied the Enders-Weller-Robbins technique to produce large quantities of poliovirus, and then developed a polio ... and Frederick Chapman Robbins reported successful in vitro culture of an animal virus-poliovirus. The three received the 1954 ...
"Wild poliovirus 2000-2008" (PDF). Global Polio Eradication Initiative. 2008-02-05. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09- ...
Melnick, Joseph L. (July 1, 1996). "Current status of poliovirus infections". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 9 (3): 293-300. ...
Active poliovirus baked from scratch". Science. 297 (5579): 174-5. doi:10.1126/science.297.5579.174b. PMID 12114601. S2CID ... In 2002 researchers at Stony Brook University succeeded in synthesizing the 7741 bp poliovirus genome from its published ...
The Salk vaccine, or inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), consists of an injected dose of killed poliovirus. In 1954, the ... Exposure to poliovirus was therefore delayed until late childhood or adult life, when it was more likely to take the paralytic ... The last cases of paralytic poliomyelitis caused by endemic transmission of poliovirus in the United States were in 1979, when ... CBC Digital Archives - Polio: Combating the Crippler-Video and radio reports related to polio Poliovirus in New Zealand 1915- ...
Lundquist, RE; Sullivan, M; Maizel JV, Jr (November 1979). "Characterization of a new isolate of poliovirus defective ... "Nonreplicative RNA recombination in poliovirus". Journal of Virology. 73 (11): 8958-65. PMC 112927. PMID 10516001. Pathak KB, ... can occur within nearly every class of both DNA and RNA viruses both in clinical and laboratory settings including poliovirus, ...
The live polio virus was then shipped to the United States to be killed for use in Jonas Salk's field trials, as the Toronto ... "Biochemist rocked poliovirus into vaccine". The Kingston Whig-Standard, July 16, 2020 Daly, Rita (December 4, 2005). "To ' ...
Virus otroške ohromelosti ali poliovirus, povzročitelj otroške bolezni, imenovane otroška ohromelost, je humani enterovirus, ... 1981). "Primary structure, gene organization and polypeptide expression of poliovirus RNA". Nature 291 (5816): 547-53. PMID ... Racaniello; Baltimore (1981). "Molecular cloning of poliovirus cDNA and determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of ... "Poliovirus cell entry: common structural themes in viral cell entry pathways". Annu Rev Microbiol 56: 677-702. PMC 1500891 ...
Poliovirus and Rhinovirus. Molecule of the Month *^ The DNA Element Controlling Expression of the Varicella-Zoster Virus Open ... billederne af Tobaksmosaikvirus, Poliovirus og Zikavirus. Andre virus som f.eks. nogle bakteriofager er opbygget i en mere ... Polio eller poliomyelitis forårsages af poliovirus, en lille Enterovirus C med en proteinkappe og et genom af +ssRNA på 7.500 ...
Poliovirus (PV1, PV2, PV3). *Coxsackie A virus (CAV); also causes Hand foot and mouth disease ...
Melnick, Joseph L. (1996-07-01). "Current Status of Poliovirus Infections" (PDF). Clinical Microbiology Reviews. American ...
"Poliovirus transcytosis through M-like cells". Journal of General Virology. 83 (9): 2177-2182. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-83-9-2177 ...
Yogo, Y; Wimmer, Eckard (1972). "Sequence studies of Poliovirus RNA II Polyadenylic Acis at 3'-Terminus of Poliovirus RNA". ... Wimmer chose to study poliovirus in 1968. Poliovirus is the cause of the horrific disease poliomyelitis, which can cause ... He is best known for his seminal work on the molecular biology of poliovirus and the first chemical synthesis of a viral genome ... The poliovirus synthesis caught global attention, high praise, ridicule and fierce condemnation. Several years later, Wimmer ...
... poliovirus. DNA encoding the RNA genome of poliovirus was introduced into cultured mammalian cells and infectious poliovirus ... "Poliovirus and Rhinovirus". August 2001 Molecule of the Month.. *3D macromolecular structures of the Poliovirus archived in the ... Poliovirus was first isolated in 1909 by Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper.[4] In 1981, the poliovirus genome was published by ... Poliovirus infects human cells by binding to an immunoglobulin-like receptor, CD155 (also known as the poliovirus receptor or ...
See if your institution should take the National Inventory for Poliovirus Containment (NIPC). ... You may have poliovirus potentially infectious materials and not know it. ...
CDC laboratories conduct testing for poliovirus, including: culture, intratypic differentiation, genome sequencing, and ... Virus isolation in culture is the most sensitive method to diagnose poliovirus infection. Poliovirus is most likely to be ... Detection of poliovirus in CSF is uncommon. CSF usually contains an increased number of leukocytes [from 10 to 200 cells/mm3 ( ... Poliovirus can be detected in specimens from the throat, feces (stool), and occasionally cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by isolating ...
... poliovirus) and other diseases. (Until this time, the poliovirus could be grown only in the brains of chimpanzees or the spinal ... viruses that cause polio (poliovirus) and other diseases. (Until this time, the poliovirus could be grown only in the brains of ... to the propensity of the poliovirus to attack certain cells in the spinal cord and brainstem. The poliovirus is a picornavirus ... poliovirus given to prevent polio, an infectious disease of the nervous system. The first polio vaccine, known as inactivated ...
Polio is caused by the poliovirus, a member of the picornavirus family which infects the neuromuscular system and causes a ... Poliovirus cell entry: common structural themes in viral cell entry pathways. *Early events in poliovirus infection: virus- ... Assembled polioviruses are released from the host cell through lysis of the cell, about 4 to 6 hours after infection. Each cell ... Poliovirus infection begins with the virus binds to the receptor CD155 on the host cell surface. CD155 is an immunoglobulin- ...
Poliovirus belongs to the family of picornaviruses. It is a small virus comprised of an icosahedral protein coat and a single- ... Poliovirus infection occurs by the fecal-oral route. The host ingests the virus, which replicates in the alimentary tract. The ... Poliovirus infection begins with the virus binds to the receptor CD155 on the host cell surface. CD155 is an immunoglobulin- ... The poliovirus capsid contains 60 copies each of the four viral polypeptides VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4. The arrangement of ...
Poliovirus Infection, Nonparalytic , 2010 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/poliovirus-infection- ... Poliovirus Infection, Nonparalytic , 2007 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/poliovirus-infection- ...
Poliovirus infections occasionally cause aseptic meningitis and one out of 200 infections from poliovirus type 1 results in ... Although oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is still widely used in most countries, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) replaced ... the Minnesota poliovirus infections were the result of importation of a vaccine-derived poliovirus into the United States and ... Poliovirus is spread through fecal material, oral secretions, some aerosols and fomites.. Note that this case definition ...
The feat proves that even if all the polio virus in the world were destroyed, it would be easily possible to resurrect the ... They then used a commercially available enzyme to convert the DNA into RNA - the genetic form of the polio virus. ... Paul and her colleagues used chemical techniques to produce large segments of DNA corresponding to portions of the polio virus ... However, infectious disease specialists emphasise that these other viruses are far more complex than poliovirus and, for the ...
Polio Virus Created in Test Tube. Science: Its the first time a functional virus has been made from scratch. Critics call the ... "The polio virus is a pretty small genome," Zilinskas said. "To get a larger virus, you would have to do everything correctly in ... Using a genetic recipe from the Internet and mail-order DNA, scientists in New York have built an infectious polio virus from ... The creation of the man-made polio virus came just a month after the World Health Organization had declared polio eradicated ...
To explore poliovirus, I opened Molecule World** and downloaded structure 1XYR (Bubeck, et. al) from the Molecular Modeling ... In the first image, each protein in the poliovirus capsid is shown in a different color. The resolution isnt great, because ... Be sure to check out Jason Beaubiens article and the amazing graphics showing poliovirus cases dropping across the world. ... Since we have the luxury of distance, vaccines, and molecular modeling apps, we can explore the scary poliovirus from the ...
2 more cases of polio virus surface in Bannu, North Waziristan Official holds parents responsible for the development. ... QUETTA: Without the support of print and electronic media the battle against polio virus cannot be won. Medias... ... Commissioner Usman Ali Khan says that through collective efforts poliovirus could be eradicated from the country. ... Pakistan is one of the last two countries, alongside Afghanistan, where poliovirus cases are being reported. ...
Three suspected cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) from South Sudan are currently being investigated. All three patients ... Because of the routes of poliovirus spread in previous Horn of Africa outbreaks, South Sudan had been considered at high risk ... 1 October 2013 - Three suspected cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) from South Sudan are currently being investigated. All ... It is important that all countries, in particular those with frequent travel and contacts with poliovirus-affected countries ...
P-1 Type Polio Virus on Its Way Out in Bihar. Bihar is close to winning its unrelenting battle against the P-1 type polio virus ... Potential infectious polio virus shipment destined for a South African research centre is missing after the vehicle carrying it ... Polio is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. It results in paralysis and generally affects people of all age groups ...
Human poliovirus 1 Mahoney. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: 3C. EC: 3.4.22.28 (PDB Primary Data), 3.4.22.29 (UniProt), 3.6.1.15 ( ... Refined X-ray crystallographic structure of the poliovirus 3C gene product.. Mosimann, S.C., Cherney, M.M., Sia, S., Plotch, S. ... Poliovirus 3C is comprised of two six-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel domains and is structurally similar to the chymotrypsin ... Poliovirus 3C is comprised of two six-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel domains and is structurally similar to the chymotrypsin ...
The wild polio virus was discovered on January 19 in the Greater Cairo area, Bari said, adding that the government dispatched ...
With the Gates matching gift, this $3 donation will protect a child for life against the poliovirus.,/b, ... With the Gates matching gift, this $3 donation will protect a child for life against the poliovirus. ... All about Polio (Poliovirus). FACTS: Although paralytic diseases have existed for ages, polio was the scourge of the early part ... Though most of the world is polio-free (with only a handful of cases recorded annually), wild poliovirus is still being ...
All about Polio (Poliovirus). FACTS: Although paralytic diseases have existed for ages, polio was the scourge of the early part ...
But because poliovirus can cause disease in humans, the team first modified it by inserting a piece of rhinovirus DNA into the ... a poliovirus carrying a piece of the virus that causes the common cold eliminated tumors in the brains of mice. Matthias ... poliovirus. "The mixed polio/rhinovirus construct had very surprising properties," Gromeier reports. "It had lost its ability ... of Duke University and his colleagues began looking into this new therapy when they discovered that the molecule poliovirus ...
Their genetically-engineered polio virus is also able to target, infect, and kill cells, especially those in brain tumors. ... According to Newsmax, the results on primates and human patients has seen the polio virus target and kill the cancer cells, all ... According to Duke, since 2012, around five patients have been treated with the poliovirus remedy. One of these died just six ... Scientists over at Duke University have begun a surprising new treatment for brain cancer, which sees the polio virus used to ...
Includes Poliovirus Vaccine Live Oral side effects, interactions and indications. ... Poliovirus Vaccine Live Oral Drug Information from Drugs.com. ... POLIOVIRUS VACCINE LIVE ORAL (ORAL SOLUTION) USP. Usual adult ... Poliovirus vaccine live oral (OPV) contains the live, attenuated polioviruses {01} {23} {24}.. Mechanism of action/Effect:. OPV ... The goal of poliovirus eradication initiative (PEI) is to eliminate the circulation of wild-type poliovirus {11}. PEI has ...
Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus receptor bound to poliovirus. David M. Belnap, Brian M. McDermott, David J. Filman, ... Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus receptor bound to poliovirus. David M. Belnap, Brian M. McDermott, David J. Filman, ... Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus receptor bound to poliovirus. David M. Belnap, Brian M. McDermott Jr., David J. ... Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus receptor bound to poliovirus Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
The polio virus therapy was designated a "breakthrough therapy" by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2016. ... Survival rates at two years were 21 percent in the polio virus group and 14 percent in the group that didnt get the therapy, ... home/cancer center/ cancer a-z list/ brain tumor patient have unlikely ally polio virus article ... "With the survival rates in this early phase of the polio virus therapy, we are encouraged and eager to continue with the ...
Imaging poliovirus entry in live cells.. Brandenburg B1, Lee LY, Lakadamyali M, Rust MJ, Zhuang X, Hogle JM. ... and genome in live cells with an infectivity-based assay for RNA release to characterize the early events in the poliovirus (PV ...
We want to curb the wild polio virus in the West African region by the end of June 2010, says Dr Bokar Toure, coordinator of ... The World Health Organisation (WHO) and its partners hope to eliminate the circulation of the polio virus in West Africa as ... WEST AFRICA: Stopping the Polio Virus, Inter Press Service. , Thursday, March 18, 2010 (posted by Global Issues) ... p,,a href="http://www.globalissues.org/news/2010/03/18/4899",WEST AFRICA: Stopping the Polio Virus,/a,, ,cite,Inter Press ...
Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System ... Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated. Class: Vaccines. ATC Class: J07BF03. VA Class: IM100. Brands: IPOL. Poliovirus Vaccine ... and Poliovirus Type 1 40 DU, Poliovirus Type 2 8 DU, and Poliovirus Type 3 32 DU per 0.5 mL ... and Poliovirus Type 1 40 DU, Poliovirus Type 2 8 DU, and Poliovirus Type 3 32 DU per 0.5 mL ...
Rare polio virus spreads to Israels north. Rare polio virus spreads to Israels north. Source : ...
SCHIZOPHRENIA AND DIET:POLIOVIRUS IN POOLS. What Doctors Dont Tell You2 min read ... "Polio virus is mainly transmitted through fecal matter, not through urine. Although many babies urinate in pools, few defecate ... "However, should any of the polio virus become circulated and somehow make its way into the pool, the level of chlorine in most ... A:This widely circulated myth is usually used as rationale for having babies vaccinated with the live polio virus (so that they ...
Human poliovirus 1. Mutation(s): 0 EC: 3.4.22.29 (UniProt), 3.6.1.15 (UniProt), 3.4.22.28 (UniProt), 2.7.7.48 (UniProt). ... Human poliovirus 1. Mutation(s): 0 EC: 3.4.22.29 (UniProt), 3.6.1.15 (UniProt), 3.4.22.28 (UniProt), 2.7.7.48 (UniProt). ... Human poliovirus 1. Mutation(s): 0 EC: 3.4.22.29 (UniProt), 3.6.1.15 (UniProt), 3.4.22.28 (UniProt), 2.7.7.48 (UniProt). ... Human poliovirus 1. Mutation(s): 0 EC: 3.4.22.29 (UniProt), 3.6.1.15 (UniProt), 3.4.22.28 (UniProt), 2.7.7.48 (UniProt). ...
  • Virus isolation in culture is the most sensitive method to diagnose poliovirus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Poliovirus infection occurs by the fecal-oral route, when the host ingests the virus, which replicates in the alimentary tract. (news-medical.net)
  • Poliovirus infection begins with the virus binds to the receptor CD155 on the host cell surface. (news-medical.net)
  • Assembled polioviruses are released from the host cell through lysis of the cell, about 4 to 6 hours after infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Poliovirus infection occurs by the fecal-oral route. (news-medical.net)
  • Because of the routes of poliovirus spread in previous Horn of Africa outbreaks, South Sudan had been considered at high risk of re-infection. (who.int)
  • Poliovirus initiates infection by binding to its cellular receptor (Pvr). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we combine an imaging assay that simultaneously tracks the viral capsid and genome in live cells with an infectivity-based assay for RNA release to characterize the early events in the poliovirus (PV) infection. (nih.gov)
  • 9 93 95 129 Wild-type poliovirus infection has been eliminated in the US. (drugs.com)
  • Immunocompromised individuals, including those with HIV infection, may be vaccinated against poliovirus using IPV. (drugs.com)
  • The conclusion from this incident is that the declaration that poliovirus is no longer present in any region is only as good as the surveillance for the virus, which can never be perfect as all sources of infection cannot be covered. (virology.ws)
  • We have previously shown that poliovirus (PV) infection induces stress granule (SG) formation early in infection and then inhibits the formation of SG and disperses processing bodies (PBs) by the mid-phase of infection. (mdpi.com)
  • As a consequence, the incidence fl uctuated (106-109 copies/mL in the greater genetic diversity), the patient of vaccine-like poliovirus detection in paralysis-affected person), decreasing had a more active infection (that re- recently vaccinated children, which after each immunoglobulin therapy sponded to the therapy) than did the was relatively common up to that time dose (Figure 1 in online Technical Ap- contacts. (cdc.gov)
  • The CDC identified 19 individuals in the Dominican Republic who developed acute flaccid paralysis (AFP, the hallmark symptom of poliovirus infection as well as a syndrome unto itself) between July 12 and November 18, 2000. (whale.to)
  • The mystery deepens when we examine World Health Organization (WHO) statistics on AFP and poliovirus infection in the Dominican Republic for the last several years. (whale.to)
  • This fact raises new, disturbing questions, including whether there ever was an epidemic of poliovirus infection in the United States and Canada. (whale.to)
  • Since many of those cases showed all the hallmarks of a typical poliovirus infection fever, stiff neck and back, severe headache, muscle pain, sore throat and, in severe cases, paralysis and occurred in clusters, they were assumed to be caused by the easily-transmitted poliovirus. (whale.to)
  • The Australian National Poliovirus Reference Laboratory (NPRL) is accredited by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the testing of stool specimens from cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), a major clinical presentation of poliovirus infection. (health.gov.au)
  • Poliovirus infection is confirmed by virus culture of stool specimens from AFP cases as other conditions that present with acute paralysis can mimic polio. (health.gov.au)
  • With 4 countries remaining endemic for poliomyelitis-Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan-and more than 1,600 confirmed cases of wild poliovirus infection in 18 countries in 2008, Australia continues to be at risk of further importation events. (health.gov.au)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) polio eradication program is based on maintaining high levels of polio vaccine coverage, clinical surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years of age and laboratory confirmation of poliovirus infection by testing stool specimens from AFP cases at a laboratory accredited by the WHO for the purpose. (health.gov.au)
  • The Polio Expert Committee (PEC) reviews the clinical and laboratory data from AFP cases in children less than 15 years of age, and suspected polio in persons of any age, to determine if the case is compatible with poliovirus infection. (health.gov.au)
  • Countries no longer endemic for polio, such as Australia, will continue to report cases of AFP as other clinical conditions mimic poliovirus infection. (health.gov.au)
  • Poliovirus infection is asymptomatic or mild in about 95% of infected individuals, and approximately 0.5% of those may present paralytic disease. (asm.org)
  • However, due to its highly contagious nature, poliovirus infection can affect large populations. (asm.org)
  • Since 1997, when the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) initially recommended expanded use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) for routine childhood immunization against poliovirus infection, the occurrence of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) has decreased in the United States. (aappublications.org)
  • In late 1998 and 1999, 2 further changes in the recommendations for immunization against poliovirus infection occurred. (aappublications.org)
  • What is a poliovirus infection? (ada.com)
  • Poliovirus infection is a infectious condition caused by the poliovirus. (ada.com)
  • People who are not immunized against polio and who travel to areas where the poliovirus is still active have a risk of getting a polio infection. (ada.com)
  • Poliovirus infection cannot be cured and the treatment usually only controls the symptoms. (ada.com)
  • The outlook after a poliovirus infection depends on the severity of the symptoms, but it can cause permanent disability and death. (ada.com)
  • Early symptoms of a poliovirus infection resemble the flu and include fever, headache, vomiting, feeling ill and sore throat. (ada.com)
  • There is no specific cure for poliovirus infection. (ada.com)
  • Poliovirus infection can be prevented through vaccination. (ada.com)
  • 3 Contacts between persons in communities with low polio vaccination coverage pose the potential for transmission of polioviruses and outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis. (cdc.gov)
  • repeat doses are unnecessary in those with protective titers against all 3 poliovirus types, but complete the age-appropriate IPV vaccination schedule. (drugs.com)
  • Vaccination has essentially eradicated poliovirus. (nature.com)
  • Due to threats from militant extremists, it has not been possible for vaccination teams to properly cover this area, and surveillance for polioviruses has also been inefficient. (virology.ws)
  • According to the researchers, any viral particles that make it to the bloodstream would be destroyed by antibodies created through poliovirus vaccination. (emaxhealth.com)
  • To date the vaccination has been considered a highly effective weapon for containing the polioviruses that cause the disease. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Continuing to endorse the approach of the GPEI to regard Pakistan and Afghanistan as one epidemiological block with poliovirus corridors that span the two countries, the IMB emphasized on continuing action by the governments of the two countries to work cooperatively to secure strong cross-border arrangements for polio vaccination. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vaccination histories (based on immunization cards and parental recall) among children aged 6-23 months with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) whose stool specimens tested negative for poliovirus (nonpolio AFP cases), are also used to estimate OPV coverage in target populations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, we must stay vigilant and keep up vaccination rates to avert a resurgence of the wild poliovirus and address the continued threat of the vaccine-derived polio," said Dr Moeti. (who.int)
  • If supplies are not available locally, poliovirus vaccination of persons for whom OPV is contraindicated should be delayed until IPV becomes available. (cdc.gov)
  • Because no case of polio resulting from indigenously transmitted wild poliovirus has been reported in the United States since 1979, postponing vaccination for these persons until IPV is available is not likely to pose a risk to those persons. (cdc.gov)
  • Unvaccinated adults who may be exposed to wild poliovirus during travel to polio-endemic areas and cannot obtain IPV should consider vaccination with OPV but should be informed that the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic polio is slightly higher in adults than in children (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • People travelling to polio endemic countries and countries with recent wild poliovirus importations should receive a booster polio vaccine prior to departure, or a full course of vaccination if they are unsure of their vaccination history. (health.gov.au)
  • Whether or not this goal can be achieved is not known - the areas with low population immunity against poliovirus are typically those with social conditions that prevent adequate vaccination. (virology.ws)
  • As of this moment, Brazil is not raising the alarm about the detected poliovirus strain at the international airport, but visitors and locals are advised to be extra aware of personal hygiene and vaccination advisories during time of high international travel to the country. (laopinion.com)
  • It's important to understand how we can phase out the live-virus vaccine, so that we can use the killed vaccine in the best way possible," Maldonado said, referring to a vaccination method that uses an injection of dead poliovirus. (stanford.edu)
  • Vaccination with another live virus should be delayed until 30 days after receiving the oral poliovirus vaccination. (sharecare.com)
  • Egypt's Ministry of Health and Population is rolling out a new poliovirus vaccination campaign after the virus was discovered in Cairo's sewers in late December 2012. (natureasia.com)
  • We have launched awareness and mandatory vaccination campaigns in the neighbourhoods where the polioviruses were found. (natureasia.com)
  • The declaration leaves Pakistan and neighboring Afghanistan as the only countries thought to still have the wild poliovirus, with vaccination efforts against the highly infectious, water-borne disease complicated by insecurity and attacks on health workers. (cbs42.com)
  • His vaccination history included three doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine administered during 1964-1965 and four doses of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) administered during 1967-1974. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, vaccine-related poliovirus has been recovered from cerebrospinal fluid of a patient 1 year after vaccination and continually from stools of two patients for durations of 21 months and 31 months, respectively, after vaccination (3). (cdc.gov)
  • Regulations adopted in 1961 required new batches of poliovirus vaccines prepared in the United States to be free of SV40 and it has been assumed that they were based on quality-control testing done during vaccine manufacture (documents concerning the contamination of polio vaccines with SV40 and the history of polio vaccination can be found in the text and appendices to ref. 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Contact: Sarah Avery Phone: 919-660-1306 Email: [email protected] https://www.dukehealth.org ASCO Abstract #2061 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE on Monday, June 6, 2016 DURHAM, N.C. - An early group of patients who received a modified form of the poliovirus to treat recurrent glioblastoma brain tumors showed survival improvement over historical controls, according to researchers at the Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke Health. (medworm.com)
  • At the first five dose levels used in the study, infusion of the modified poliovirus therapy appears to have had about a two-month survival advantage when compared to similar, non-study patients treated at our clinic," said Annick Desjardins, M.D., associate professor of neurology at Duke and the lead author on the abstract. (medworm.com)
  • Since we have the luxury of distance, vaccines, and molecular modeling apps, we can explore the scary poliovirus from the safety of a phone or iPad. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Since the introduction of poliovirus vaccines, poliomyelitis control has been achieved in the Americas {01} {02} {04} . (drugs.com)
  • 1 9 16 105 There were approximately 600,000 cases of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide and ≥10,000-20,000 cases in the US each year before poliovirus vaccines became available. (drugs.com)
  • Two vaccines are currently available in the United States for the prevention of poliomyelitis: inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and OPV. (aafp.org)
  • however, poliovirus vaccines have yet to capture a stable, safe formula for lyophilization. (asm.org)
  • A newly recognized form of poliovirus has emerged from one of the vaccines being used to eradicate the paralyzing illness. (stanford.edu)
  • But beyond the geopolitical hurdles, polio fighters also face an unprecedented scientific challenge: the danger of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, which originate from one of the two vaccines used against the illness. (stanford.edu)
  • Vaccinations that are safe to administer at the same time as the oral poliovirus vaccine include: hepatitis B vaccine, influenza vaccine, immune globulin vaccine, polysaccharide (meningococcal, pneumococcal, and Haemophilus b) vaccine, and other inactivated vaccines. (sharecare.com)
  • Inactivated polio vaccines, which have been used in many countries for more than 50 years, are produced by treating live poliovirus (PV) with formaldehyde. (asm.org)
  • The incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis in the last 30 years has been significantly reduced by the use of oral live-attenuated (OPV) and inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPVs) ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Our findings underscore the potential risks of using primary monkey cells for preparing poliovirus vaccines, because of the possible contamination with SV40 or other monkey viruses, and emphasize the importance of using well-characterized cell substrates that are free from adventitious agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and live oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) were prepared in primary cell cultures derived from rhesus monkey kidneys. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For this reason, the rhesus kidney cell cultures used to manufacture poliovirus vaccines as well as some seed stocks of poliovirus contained infectious SV40 ( 2 - 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to the United States, other countries followed the WHO recommendations issued in November 1960 and attempted to produce poliovirus vaccines free of SV40 ( 3 - 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Patients were classified as fully immunized at 8 months old if they had received 3 diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, 2 Haemophilus influenzae type b, 2 hepatitis B, and 2 poliovirus vaccines. (aappublications.org)
  • To assess the effect of type of poliovirus vaccines on these outcomes, study patients were classified as being in an IPV or OPV group based on the initial type of vaccine received. (aappublications.org)
  • Imported wild-type polioviruses have been associated with outbreaks in Gambia, Oman, Malaysia, Namibia, the Netherlands, Jordan, and Taiwan {04} {06} . (drugs.com)
  • Our analysis also indicates that circulating poliovirus strains in unimmunized populations serve as a reservoir that can seed outbreaks in spatio-temporally localized sub-optimally immunized populations. (nature.com)
  • Following successful eradication of wild polioviruses and planned globally-coordinated cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), national and global health leaders may need to respond to outbreaks from reint. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With So Little Poliovirus Detected Around the World, What Is Causing Today's Outbreaks of Acute Flaccid Paralysis? (whale.to)
  • While the eradication of wild poliovirus from the WHO African Region is a major achievement, 16 countries in the region are currently experiencing cVDPV2 outbreaks, which can occur in under-immunized communities. (who.int)
  • Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is recommending inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) use as one of the potential strategies to respond to outbreaks of type 2 wild type and/or circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These vaccine-derived polioviruses can circulate in the population and cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis. (virology.ws)
  • However, type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) continued to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis. (virology.ws)
  • These outbreaks occurred in countries with low rates of immunization and consequently low population immunity against poliovirus. (virology.ws)
  • Health authorities on Tuesday, Aug. 25, 2020 are expected to declare the African continent free of the wild poliovirus after decades of effort, though cases of vaccine-derived polio are still sparking outbreaks of the paralyzing disease in more than a dozen countries. (cbs42.com)
  • JOHANNESBURG (AP) - Health authorities on Tuesday declared the African continent free of the wild poliovirus after decades of effort, though cases of vaccine-derived polio are still sparking outbreaks of the paralyzing disease in more than a dozen countries. (cbs42.com)
  • [10] Interaction of poliovirus and CD155 facilitates an irreversible conformational change of the viral particle necessary for viral entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The poliovirus capsid contains 60 copies each of the four viral polypeptides VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4. (news-medical.net)
  • Poliovirus 3C also participates in the formation of the viral replicative initiation complex where it specifically recognizes and binds the RNA stem-loop structure in the 5' non-translated region of its own genome. (rcsb.org)
  • Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the viral capsid ( 6 , 7 ) and the availability of cloned DNA encoding Pvr ( 2 ) make poliovirus a particularly attractive system for studying the mechanism of cell entry. (pnas.org)
  • The poliovirus capsid is composed of 60 copies of 4 viral proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4), arranged with icosahedral symmetry ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • To investigate this, we infer a fitness model for the poliovirus viral protein 1 (vp1), which successfully predicts in vitro fitness measurements. (nature.com)
  • Poliovirus RNA microinjected into Xenopus oocyte initiates a complete cycle of viral replication, yielding a high level of infectious viruses. (nih.gov)
  • These findings indicate that the ability of the Lansing strain of poliovirus to infect mice is likely due to recognition by the viral capsid of a receptor in the mouse central nervous system. (virology.ws)
  • The Stony Brook researchers took advantage of this viral property by injecting a stable, attenuated strain of poliovirus directly into neuroblastoma tumors transplanted into 12 mice engineered to contract polio. (emaxhealth.com)
  • A tamed poliovirus represents a significant step in finding viral treatments that can kill tumors without harming patients," said Hidemi Toyoda, M.D., Ph.D., a pediatrician and postdoctoral research fellow in Stony Brook's Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Based on the properties of the synthetic poliovirus, Wimmer created the highly attenuated virus used in this study by substituting a single nucleotide, located in a functionally important portion of the viral RNA genome called a "spacer region", with an essential regulatory gene removed from elsewhere in the viral genome. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Based on the properties of the synthetic poliovirus, Wimmer created the highly attenuated virus used in this study by substituting a single nucleotide, located in a functionally important portion of the viral RNA genome called a â spacer regionâ , with an essential regulatory gene removed from elsewhere in the viral genome. (rxpgnews.com)
  • A C-to-U mutation at base 472 in the IRES of the Sabin type 3 poliovirus vaccine strain, known to attenuate neurovirulence, may further restrict tropism by eliminating viral replication in the CNS. (jci.org)
  • The IRESs of poliovirus, the cardiotropic coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and the hepatotropic hepatitis C virus (HCV) mediate translation in many organs, including those that do not support viral replication. (jci.org)
  • The ability of poliovirus to replicate in different organs may be determined at a postentry step such as translation of the viral RNA. (jci.org)
  • Poliovirus viral load lioviruses (as well as the potential for 2004. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we study the model picornavirus, poliovirus, and show that some, but not all, components of the cellular machinery required for retrograde traffic from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum are transiently present at the sites of viral RNA replication. (asm.org)
  • Recently completed molecular studies of poliovirus isolates suggest that viral replication of vaccine-related polioviruses may have persisted for as long as 7 years in a patient with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in whom common variable immunodeficiency syndrome (CVID) previously had been diagnosed. (cdc.gov)
  • The synthetic poliovirus cDNA was transcribed by RNA polymerase into viral RNA, which translated and replicated in a cell-free extract, resulting in the de novo synthesis of infectious poliovirus. (sciencemag.org)
  • The replication cycle of poliovirus is initiated (1) by binding to the cell surface receptor CD155. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication of poliovirus in Xenopus oocytes requires two human factors. (nih.gov)
  • We described a novel system to study poliovirus replication in Xenopus oocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Poliovirus replication is limited to a few organs, including the brain and spinal cord. (jci.org)
  • A novel and stable attenuated poliovirus, which replicates in neuroblastoma cells, is produced by engineering an indigenous replication element (cre), into the 5′ non-translated genomic region and inactivating the native cre element located in the coding region of 2C (mono-crePV). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Deletion of the first 10 amino acids or insertion of a single amino acid between amino acids 15 and 16, a mutation that causes a cold-sensitive defect in poliovirus RNA replication, abrogates the inhibition of protein secretion although wild-type amounts of the mutant proteins are expressed. (psu.edu)
  • This study helps to reconcile multiple hypotheses about the origin of poliovirus replication membranes and points to known host cell protein complexes that would make likely drug targets to inhibit picornavirus infections. (asm.org)
  • Editorial Note: Although the replication of poliovirus in immunocompetent persons is of limited duration (ranging from several days to 3 months) (1), poliovirus may replicate in immunodeficient persons for considerably longer periods (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Until global eradication is achieved, polio-free countries must maintain high levels of immunization coverage to protect themselves against importation of wild-type poliovirus {09} . (drugs.com)
  • However, routine immunization alone is unlikely to be sufficient to interrupt wild-type poliovirus transmission in most tropical and subtropical regions {17} . (drugs.com)
  • Therefore, mass immunization campaigns called NIDs are necessary to stop wild-type poliovirus transmission in these regions {09} {17} . (drugs.com)
  • In the face of considerable security challenges, Iraq has introduced the inactivated poliovirus vaccine into its routine immunization system. (polioeradication.org)
  • Iraq has become the 156th country to introduce the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization schedule, a laudable achievement given the country's current situation. (polioeradication.org)
  • However, in communities with low immunization rates, as the virus is spread from one unvaccinated child to another over a long period of time (often over the course of about 12-18 months), it can mutate and take on a form that can cause paralysis just like the wild poliovirus. (polioeradication.org)
  • Since most humans are immunized against poliovirus, Toyoda and his colleagues needed to know whether such immunization would interfere with the use of the virus in tumor therapy. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This event was a test for the eventual cessation of immunization with all serotypes of poliovirus vaccine. (virology.ws)
  • This system will be essential for monitoring the presence of type 2 polioviruses to determine when they are no longer present and all type 2 immunization can be stopped. (virology.ws)
  • To eliminate VAPP in the context of decreasing risk of wild-type poliovirus importation, the AAP recommends an all-IPV schedule for routine childhood immunization beginning in early 2000. (aappublications.org)
  • 2 These changes in immunization policy resulted from the occurrence of 8 to 9 cases yearly of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis (VAPP), no reported indigenously acquired cases of poliomyelitis caused by wild-type poliovirus in the United States since 1979, and the continuing progress of the global eradication program sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO), targeted for completion by the end of 2000. (aappublications.org)
  • 4 Both of these changes in policy were based on the continuing, albeit rare, occurrence of VAPP, the similar immunogenicity of IPV to that of OPV for primary immunization, the continued progress in global eradication of wild-type poliovirus, and the acceptance of IPV for primary immunization by health care professionals and parents. (aappublications.org)
  • To determine whether the change from an all oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) schedule to an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)-containing schedule has adversely affected the immunization status of young children in the United States. (aappublications.org)
  • The results of this national study indicate that the implementation of an IPV-containing poliovirus vaccine schedule has not had an adverse effect on the immunization status of young children who were vaccinated in the offices of practicing pediatricians. (aappublications.org)
  • 4 , ,5 Thus, in 1997 the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended that poliovirus vaccine in the United States be delivered via a sequential IPV/OPV schedule, a change from the all-OPV schedule previously endorsed. (aappublications.org)
  • 4 Thus, the risk for exposure to wild poliovirus in the United States is now minimal. (aafp.org)
  • Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and a protein capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its short genome and its simple composition-only RNA and a nonenveloped icosahedral protein coat that encapsulates it, poliovirus is widely regarded as the simplest significant virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] In 1981, the poliovirus genome was published by two different teams of researchers: by Vincent Racaniello and David Baltimore at MIT [5] and by Naomi Kitamura and Eckard Wimmer at Stony Brook University . (wikipedia.org)
  • Partial genome sequencing is used to confirm the poliovirus genotype and determine its likely geographic origin. (cdc.gov)
  • 5. The recombinant poliovirus of any one of claims 1 to 4, which comprises an inactivated native cre element in the 2C coding region of the poliovirus genome. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Poliovirus, an enterovirus of the Picornaviridae , is a small, nonenveloped, icosahedral virus consisting of five different macromolecules: 60 copies each of capsid polypeptides VP1, -2, -3, and -4 and one copy of the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome (∼7.5 kilobases in length) ( Fig. 1 A) ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Poliovirus , the causative agent of polio (also known as poliomyelitis), is a member virus of Enterovirus C , in the family of Picornaviridae . (wikipedia.org)
  • recognized genera are Enterovirus ( poliovirus es), Cardiovirus , Rhinovirus (common cold viruses), and Aphthovirus (foot-and-mouth disease virus). (britannica.com)
  • Poliovirus, an enterovirus, occurs in three serotypes. (aafp.org)
  • The virus, called enterovirus 71, is closely related to poliovirus, and was first detected in California in the 1960s. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the first image, each protein in the poliovirus capsid is shown in a different color. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The three serotypes of poliovirus, PV1, PV2, and PV3, have slightly different capsid proteins that define cellular receptor specificity and virus antigenicity. (asm.org)
  • Dr. Matthias Gromeier holds samples of the modified poliovirus he developed to attack glioblastoma brain tumor cells at Duke in Durham, N.C. One of the world's most dreaded viruses has been turned into an immune system therapy to fight deadly brain tumors. (chicagotribune.com)
  • In a new report published in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, scientists led by a team at Duke University report they may have trained another virus to target cancer, by using poliovirus to target brain tumors. (medworm.com)
  • By injecting the virus directly into the mouse tumors, the researchers demonstrated that it was possible to reach their target and still avoid interacting with the anti-poliovirus antibodies generated by the vaccine. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Furthermore, the lyophilized sIPV remained stable after 4 weeks of incubation at ambient temperature and induced strong neutralizing antibodies and full protection of poliovirus receptor transgenic mice against the in vivo challenge of wild-type poliovirus. (asm.org)
  • Pires de Miranda Marta , Carmo Gomes M , Rebelo de Andrade H . Seroprevalence of antibodies to poliovirus in individuals living in Portugal, 2002. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. offers a broad range of Poliovirus Type 2 antibodies. (scbt.com)
  • Select Poliovirus Type 2 antibodies from monoclonal antibodies listed below. (scbt.com)
  • Select appropriate Poliovirus Type 2 antibodies for your research by isotype, epitope, applications and species reactivity. (scbt.com)
  • Blood tests for immune proteins which fight the poliovirus (antibodies) and a lumbar puncture (taking a sample of fluid from around the spinal cord) are often done to confirm the diagnosis and to investigate for the virus in the nervous system. (ada.com)
  • Experiments in tissue culture using neutralizing antibodies and CD155 receptor-specific antibodies and neurovirulence tests in CD155 transgenic mice confirmed that the synthetic virus had biochemical and pathogenic characteristics of poliovirus. (sciencemag.org)
  • Poliovirus infects human cells by binding to an immunoglobulin -like receptor, CD155 (also known as the poliovirus receptor or PVR) [8] [9] on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • By its nature, poliovirus destroys the cells it infects in an attempt to replicate copies of itself. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The treatment, developed at Duke and tested in an ongoing phase 1 study, capitalizes on the discovery that cancer cells have an abundance of receptors that work like magnets drawing the poliovirus, which then infects and kills the cells. (medindia.net)
  • wherein the recombinant poliovirus infects and lyses tumor cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • By July of 2016 all remaining stocks of the Sabin type 2 poliovirus strains, which are used to produce OPV, will also be destroyed. (virology.ws)
  • Although the type 3 Sabin strain is an effective vaccine, polioviruses with a U at base 472 of the IRES cause paralysis in newborn mice. (jci.org)
  • Organ-specific IRES-mediated translation has also been hypothesized to account for the reduced neurovirulence of the Sabin live attenuated poliovirus vaccine strains. (jci.org)
  • nation fragments Sabin 2/Sabin 1 in polioviruses (VDPVs) ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The global withdrawal of the Sabin type 2 poliovirus vaccine is a test of the feasibility of the plan, declared by the World Health Assembly in 1988, to eradicate all polioviruses. (virology.ws)
  • The main vaccine used for the poliovirus eradication effort is an infectious, attenuated preparation called oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), developed by Albert Sabin. (virology.ws)
  • Here, we report size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) as a reliable means to identify the leading lyophilized formulation to generate thermostable Sabin inactivated poliovirus vaccine (sIPV). (asm.org)
  • It's been 3 years since Somalia saw its last case of wild poliovirus. (polioeradication.org)
  • The last case of wild poliovirus in the region was detected in 2016 in Nigeria. (who.int)
  • [13] Recent experimental evidence supports the latter hypothesis and suggests that poliovirus binds to CD155 and is taken up by endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD155 is an immunoglobulin-like receptor also known as poliovirus receptor. (news-medical.net)
  • CD155 is an immunoglobulin-like receptor also known as poliovirus receptor (PVR). (news-medical.net)
  • Matthias Gromeier of Duke University and his colleagues began looking into this new therapy when they discovered that the molecule poliovirus binds to, CD155, is expressed in malignant gliomas, the most common type of brain tumor. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To test the virus' ability to destroy neuroblastoma the researchers constructed a transgenic mouse model that allows growth of neuroblastoma cells and carries the human gene for CD155, which codes for the receptor that allows poliovirus to enter cells. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The stably attenuated poliovirus replicates in a neuroblastoma model (Neuro-2a CD155 tumors) expressing CD155, the poliovirus receptor, and is effective for oncolytic treatment and cure of solid tumors, such as neuroblastoma. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The ability to make infectious poliovirus RNA efficiently from cloned DNA makes it possible to apply techniques of in vitro mutagenesis to the analysis of poliovirus functions and the construction of novel and perhaps useful derivatives of poliovirus. (pnas.org)
  • Formation of infectious poliovirus is highly temperature dependent. (nih.gov)
  • The X-ray crystallographic structure of the recombinant poliovirus 3C gene product (Mahoney strain) has been determined by single isomorphous replacement and non-crystallographic symmetry averaging and refined at 2.1 A resolution. (rcsb.org)
  • To determine the relationship between IRES-mediated translation and poliovirus tropism, recombinant human adenoviruses were used to express bicistronic mRNAs in murine organs. (jci.org)
  • Poliovirus type 1 and recombinant polioviruses dependent on the IRES of CVB3 or HCV replicate in the CNS of mice and cause paralysis. (jci.org)
  • 1. A recombinant poliovirus containing a single active cre regulatory element, said cre element located in the spacer region of the 5′-NTR between the cloverleaf and internal ribosome entry site (IRES), and an A 133 G mutation in domain II of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The recombinant poliovirus of claim 1, which comprises SEQ ID NO:1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. A recombinant poliovirus containing a single active cre element inserted at nucleotide 102/103. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The recombinant poliovirus of claim 3, wherein the cre element is positioned as in SEQ ID NO:1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The recombinant poliovirus of any one of claims 1 to 4, which elicits an antitumor immune response. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. A composition comprising a recombinant poliovirus according to any one of any one of claims 1 to 4, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 13. The method of claim 12, wherein the native cre element in the 2C coding region of the recombinant poliovirus is inactivated by a mutation which does not change the encoded amino acid sequence. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 14. The method of claim 12, wherein the recombinant poliovirus comprises an A 133 G mutation in domain II of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 15. The method of claim 12, wherein the recombinant poliovirus comprises SEQ ID NO:1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 17. The method of any one of claims 12, wherein the recombinant poliovirus is administered by intratumoral injection. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 18. The method of any one of claims 12, wherein the subject is first immunized with a poliovirus corresponding in serotype to the recombinant poliovirus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Upon binding its receptor, poliovirus undergoes an irreversible conformational change to the 135S cell entry intermediate. (rcsb.org)
  • High levels of immunity must be maintained to prevent the importation of wild poliovirus. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The eradication of wild type 3 poliovirus is imminent - no case has been detected since 2012. (virology.ws)
  • Infants should receive poliovirus vaccine live oral (OPV) at birth and at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age for a total of four doses {09} {10} . (drugs.com)
  • The type of vaccine that is given by mouth is called poliovirus vaccine live oral (OPV). (mayoclinic.org)
  • The translation factor is a large cytoplasmic protein or complex, which is specifically used for initiation of poliovirus translation. (nih.gov)
  • We report that protein 2C, the putative nucleoside triphosphatase/helicase protein of poliovirus, is required for the initiation of negative-strand RNA synthesis. (psu.edu)
  • Poliovirus protein 3A, only 87 amino acids in length, is a potent inhibitor of protein secretion in mammalian cells, blocking anterograde protein traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. (psu.edu)
  • For synthesis of each negative-strand and positive-strand RNAs, VPg protein in the poliovirus works as a primer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poliovirus receptor-related 1 (PVRL1), also known as nectin-1 and CD111 (formerly herpesvirus entry mediator C, HVEC) is a human protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), also considered a member of the nectins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endgame for polio eradication involves coordinated global cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) with cessation of serotype 2 OPV (OPV2 cessation) implemented in late April and early May 2016 and cessa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Around eight poliovirus cases were reported in 2017 as compared to 20 cases in 2016 and 306 in 2014. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Africa's last reported case of the wild poliovirus was in Nigeria in 2016. (cbs42.com)
  • Most poliovirus infections are asymptomatic or cause mild febrile disease. (cdc.gov)
  • ENDORSES the orientations contained in the information document AFR/RC54/INF/DOC.5 addressing the resurgence of wild poliovirus transmission in the African Region. (who.int)
  • Only wild type 1 poliovirus remains - in 2017 there were 22 cases of poliomyelitis caused by type 1 poliovirus (in Afghanistan and Pakistan), and 96 cases caused by type 2 cVDPV. (virology.ws)
  • The series includes papers that explore the risks of a non-synchronous switch from oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 (trivalent OPV or tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) containing serotypes 1 and 3, and the consequences of inadvertent use of tOPV after the global switch from tOPV-bOPV . (biomedcentral.com)
  • It should be noted that the withdrawal of type 2 OPV was accompanied by the recommendation that a dose of trivalent inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a.k.a. (virology.ws)
  • Iraq reported its last case of indigenous wild poliovirus in 2000, but suffered an outbreak in 2014, related to a strain isolated in Syria. (polioeradication.org)
  • Plasmids containing the entire cDNA sequence of poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney strain) under control of a promoter for T7 RNA polymerase have been constructed. (pnas.org)
  • Before we produced transgenic mice susceptible to poliovirus , we had studied the Lansing strain of type 2 poliovirus because it had the unusual ability to infect wild type mice (polioviruses normally only infect certain primates). (virology.ws)
  • A vaccine strain of poliovirus was taken as a model and used to seed the flow to the chlorination basin. (asce.org)
  • In fact, Brazil's authorities say the strain of poliovirus found matches one currently circulating in Equatorial Guinea. (laopinion.com)
  • Poliovirus infections occasionally cause aseptic meningitis and one out of 200 infections from poliovirus type 1 results in paralytic poliomyelitis, characterized by acute onset of flaccid paralysis that is typically asymmetric and associated with a prodromal fever. (cdc.gov)
  • It is important that all countries, in particular those with frequent travel and contacts with poliovirus-affected countries and areas, strengthen surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in order to rapidly detect any new virus importations and to facilitate a rapid response. (who.int)
  • Polioviruses are highly contagious and although most infections are subclinical, paralysis can occur. (aafp.org)
  • Will The Poliovirus Eradication Program Rid the World of Childhood Paralysis? (whale.to)
  • When the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) examined these cases, another mystery was revealed: Only about one-third of the paralysis cases were associated with poliovirus. (whale.to)
  • Most acute flaccid paralysis diagnosed around the world today is NOT associated with poliovirus. (whale.to)
  • Is it correct to assume that poliovirus causes most cases of paralysis? (whale.to)
  • While rare, vaccine-derived polioviruses cases can occur when the weakened live virus in the oral polio vaccine passes among under-immunized populations and, over time, changes to a form that can cause paralysis. (who.int)
  • The last case of paralysis caused by wild (e.g. non-vaccine) poliovirus type 2 occurred in 1999 in India. (virology.ws)
  • From January 2013 through July 2018, stool samples from 495,035 children with acute flaccid paralysis in 118 countries, and 8528 sewage samples from four countries at high risk for poliovirus transmission were examined for the presence of type 2 OPV or type 2 cVDPV. (virology.ws)
  • The Global Polio Eradication Initiative plans for coordinated cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) use, beginning with serotype 2-containing OPV (i.e. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prominent examples of viruses with high mutation rates include poliovirus (PV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), measles virus (MeV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). (nature.com)
  • In the March 15 issue of Cancer Research, researchers from Stony Brook University report that an attenuated -- or non-virulent -- form of poliovirus is effective in obliterating neuroblastoma tumors in mice, even when the mice had been previously vaccinated against the virus. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Tropism of wild-type and vaccine strains of poliovirus is therefore determined after internal ribosome entry. (jci.org)
  • The oral vaccine uses live, but attenuated, strains of poliovirus, meaning the pathogen has been altered to be harmless - or at least much less virulent. (stanford.edu)
  • 1 9 105 135 166 Poliovirus vaccine inactivated (IPV) contains 3 strains of inactivated poliovirus (types 1, 2, and 3) and is used to stimulate active immunity to poliovirus. (drugs.com)
  • The fact that such viruses are present in sewage means that there are still individuals without intestinal immunity to poliovirus in these regions. (virology.ws)
  • This model, together with the known crystal structure of poliovirus ( 6 ), was used to identify specific interactions between the virus and receptor. (pnas.org)
  • Recently 5 of 27 sewage samples taken from different parts of the province of Balochistan in Pakistan have tested positive for poliovirus. (virology.ws)
  • Serves as a receptor for poliovirus attachment to target cells. (abcam.com)
  • In this study, a possible function of mPRR2 (MPH), which is not a functional receptor for poliovirus, was investigated. (nih.gov)
  • Full-scale field tests on the chlorination of poliovirus in sewage were conducted using the effluent at a small trickling filter plant. (asce.org)
  • Poliovirus discovered in Brazilian sewage. (laopinion.com)
  • Poliovirus found in sewage samples in polio free Egypt has officials worried. (natureasia.com)
  • Poliovirus can be detected in specimens from the throat, feces (stool), and occasionally cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by isolating the virus in cell culture or by detecting the virus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (cdc.gov)
  • Poliovirus is most likely to be isolated from stool specimens. (cdc.gov)
  • To increase the probability of isolating poliovirus, collect at least two stool specimens 24 hours apart from patients with suspected poliomyelitis. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 9 105 115 166 This includes all travelers to areas where poliomyelitis is endemic or epidemic (including countries with recent proven wild poliovirus circulation and neighboring countries), health-care personnel in close contact with patients who may be excreting wild-type polioviruses, and laboratory personnel handling specimens that may contain polioviruses. (drugs.com)
  • While no poliovirus was reported in Australia from any source in 2008, the non-polio enteroviruses echovirus 25, coxsackievirus B2 and echovirus 11 were isolated from stool specimens of AFP cases. (health.gov.au)
  • Polioviruses isolated from specimens obtained after day 11 were derived from only one subpopulation. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2005, a vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) type 1 was identified in a stool specimen obtained from an immunodeficient Amish infant and, subsequently, from 4 other children in 2 other families in the infant's central Minnesota community. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 October 2013 - Three suspected cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) from South Sudan are currently being investigated. (who.int)
  • In countries where poliovirus is still endemic, paralytic disease is most often caused by poliovirus type 1, less frequently by poliovirus type 3, and least frequently by poliovirus type 2 {01} {03} . (drugs.com)
  • These and other findings from national surveillance in countries of the Americas led to the 1994 certification by an international commission that the wild-type poliovirus transmission has been interrupted in the Americas, thus achieving a public health goal established by the Pan American Health Organization in 1985 {02} {05} . (drugs.com)
  • To prevent recurrent importation, the best long-term solution is to eradicate wild-type poliovirus reservoirs in polio-endemic countries that are major exporters of wild-type polioviruses {06} . (drugs.com)
  • The goal of poliovirus eradication initiative (PEI) is to eliminate the circulation of wild-type poliovirus {11} . (drugs.com)
  • To complement these genetic analyses, we have analyzed the complex of poliovirus type 1 bound to sPvr by cryoelectron microscopy. (pnas.org)
  • Polio eradication efforts have led to the eradication of wild poliovirus type 2, enabling this removal, the first step in the phased removal of all oral polio vaccine. (polioeradication.org)
  • Pakistan began using inactivated poliovirus vaccine alongside oral vaccine in mass campaigns to accelerate eradication of This research was supported by the Research Program on wild-type poliovirus in 2014. (cdc.gov)
  • Agency for Medical Research and Development (JP17fk0108304) found that these campaigns reduced wild-type poliovirus de- and Keio Gijuku Academic Development Funds. (cdc.gov)
  • It was on the verge of being polio-free for one year - the last case of type 1 poliovirus in Nigeria had been recorded in July of 2014. (virology.ws)
  • In 2015 there were 70 reported cases of poliomyelitis caused by wild type 1 poliovirus, and 26 cases of poliomyelitis caused by circulating vaccine derived polioviruses (cVDPV) types 1 and 2. (virology.ws)
  • The last case of type 2 poliovirus occurred in India in 1999, and the virus was declared eradicated in 2015. (virology.ws)
  • Consequently the World Health Organization has decided that all remaining stocks of wild type 2 poliovirus should be destroyed by the end of 2015. (virology.ws)
  • My laboratory has worked extensively with type 2 polioviruses. (virology.ws)
  • Based on the findings of the type 2 study described here, the withdrawal of both type 1 and type 3 OPV in the future can proceed, but only if high population immunity and careful poliovirus surveillance are maintained. (virology.ws)
  • The National Museum of American History indicates, "There are three types of poliovirus and many strains of each type. (laopinion.com)
  • The present study aimed at evaluating the activity of sulfated polysaccharide from the Adenanthera pavonina (SPLS Ap ) seeds against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in HEp-2 cell cultures. (hindawi.com)
  • For poliovirus type 3, antibody prevalence was below 80% in teenagers and young adults. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • For poliovirus type 3, the suboptimal antibody levels observed in teenagers and young adults suggest the need for a booster dose to minimise the risk of wild poliovirus importation. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Rotating animation of a molecular surface model of poliovirus type 1, one of three serotypes of polioviruses responsible for poliomyelitis (also called polio). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Poliovirus type 1 was isolated from each specimen. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, each subpopulation differed from wild type 1 poliovirus isolates by 19%-24% of VP1 nucleotides. (cdc.gov)
  • View detailed Poliovirus Type 2 antibody specifications by linking to the specific product blocks. (scbt.com)
  • In addition, 1328 children (9.8%) were documented as having received poliovirus vaccine, but the particular type could not be determined. (aappublications.org)
  • When compared with OPV recipients, adjusted ORs for children in the undetermined poliovirus vaccine type group being fully immunized at 8 and 12 months of age were 0.84 (95% CI: 0.68,1.04) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.67,1.07), respectively. (aappublications.org)
  • Reflecting the global concern for poliovirus importations into previously polio-free countries, the World Health Assembly (WHO) has added circulating poliovirus to the notifiable events in the International Health Regulations (IHR). (cdc.gov)
  • 4 Widespread circulation of indigenous wild polioviruses has not occurred in the United States since the 1960s. (aafp.org)
  • The last case of poliomyelitis in Portugal caused by indigenous wild poliovirus occurred in 1986 and the country was declared polio-free in 2002. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • In the U.S., the last reported case of indigenously acquired poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus was in 1979 {02} . (drugs.com)
  • Poliovirus is spread through fecal material, oral secretions, some aerosols and fomites. (cdc.gov)
  • Although oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is still widely used in most countries, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) replaced OPV in the United States in 2000. (cdc.gov)
  • 9 105 Polioviruses generally are transmitted by the fecal-oral and respiratory routes. (drugs.com)
  • The risk of VAPP is one case per 750,000 doses distributed for the first dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and one case per 2.4 million doses of OPV distributed overall. (aafp.org)
  • Two cases were classified as indeterminant in origin, and the remaining 134 cases were classified as vaccine-associated, either through administration of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) or through contact with a person who had received this form of vaccine. (aafp.org)
  • The oral polio vaccine (OPV) that has brought the wild poliovirus to the brink of eradication has many benefits: the live attenuated (weakened) vaccine virus provides better immunity in the gut, which is where polio replicates. (polioeradication.org)
  • The Global Polio Eradication Initiative plans for coordinated cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) after interrupting all wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, but many questions remain related to long-ter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) causes vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, the polio endgame strategy introduced by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative calls for a phased withdrawal of OPV and an introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). (asm.org)
  • How does the oral poliovirus vaccine interact other medications? (sharecare.com)
  • The oral poliovirus vaccine should not be combined with immunosuppressive medications, such as alkylating agents, corticosteroids, radiation therapy, or antimetabolites. (sharecare.com)
  • The oral poliovirus vaccine may interact adversely with a cholera vaccine, typhoid vaccine, or plague vaccine. (sharecare.com)
  • Taking the oral poliovirus vaccine in conjunction with certain medications, such as abatacept or leflunomide, may increase the side effects of the vaccine. (sharecare.com)
  • However, VAPP will not be eliminated until oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) no longer is given. (aappublications.org)
  • Since 1996, recommendations for routine immunizations of infants and children in the United States against poliomyelitis have evolved from use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) exclusively to increasing use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). (aappublications.org)
  • We determined that the procedure used by this manufacturer to inactivate SV40 in oral poliovirus vaccine seed stocks based on heat inactivation in the presence of MgCl 2 did not completely inactivate SV40. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2 This remarkable decline in the incidence of poliomyelitis is directly attributable to the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in 1955 and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in 1963. (aappublications.org)
  • A small number of individuals with B-cell-related primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) may exhibit long-term (prolonged or chronic) excretion of immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The poliovirus is a picornavirus (family Picornaviridae), a member of a group known as enteroviruses that inhabits the human digestive tract. (britannica.com)
  • Poliovirus (PV) is a member of the Picornaviridae family in the order of Picornavirales and a causative agent of poliomyelitis. (asm.org)
  • First recognized in 2000, the viruses are garnering increased attention from researchers as they threaten to overtake wild poliovirus as the most prominent source of the paralytic disease. (stanford.edu)