The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.

Tobacco control advocates must demand high-quality media campaigns: the California experience. (1/1177)

OBJECTIVE: To document efforts on the part of public officials in California to soften the media campaign's attack on the tobacco industry and to analyse strategies to counter those efforts on the part of tobacco control advocates. METHODS: Data were gathered from interviews with programme participants, direct observation, written materials, and media stories. In addition, internal documents were released by the state's Department of Health Services in response to requests made under the California Public Records Act by Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights. Finally, a draft of the paper was circulated to 11 key players for their comments. RESULTS: In 1988 california voters enacted Proposition 99, an initiative that raised the tobacco tax by $0.25 and allocated 20% of the revenues to anti-tobacco education. A media campaign, which was part of the education programme, directly attacked the tobacco industry, exposing the media campaign to politically based efforts to shut it down or soften it. Through use of outsider strategies such as advertising, press conferences, and public meetings, programme advocates were able to counter the efforts to soften the campaign. CONCLUSION: Anti-tobacco media campaigns that expose industry manipulation are a key component of an effective tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of these campaigns, however, makes them a target for elimination by the tobacco industry. The experience from California demonstrates the need for continuing, aggressive intervention by nongovernmental organisations in order to maintain the quality of anti-tobacco media campaigns.  (+info)

Reforming the health sector in developing countries: the central role of policy analysis. (2/1177)

Policy analysis is an established discipline in the industrialized world, yet its application to developing countries has been limited. The health sector in particular appears to have been neglected. This is surprising because there is a well recognized crisis in health systems, and prescriptions abound of what health policy reforms countries should introduce. However, little attention has been paid to how countries should carry out reforms, much less who is likely to favour or resist such policies. This paper argues that much health policy wrongly focuses attention on the content of reform, and neglects the actors involved in policy reform (at the international, national sub-national levels), the processes contingent on developing and implementing change and the context within which policy is developed. Focus on policy content diverts attention from understanding the processes which explain why desired policy outcomes fail to emerge. The paper is organized in 4 sections. The first sets the scene, demonstrating how the shift from consensus to conflict in health policy established the need for a greater emphasis on policy analysis. The second section explores what is meant by policy analysis. The third investigates what other disciplines have written that help to develop a framework of analysis. And the final section suggests how policy analysis can be used not only to analyze the policy process, but also to plan.  (+info)

Whose policy is it anyway? International and national influences on health policy development in Uganda. (3/1177)

As national resources for health decline, so dependence on international resources to finance the capital and recurrent costs is increasing. This dependence, combined with an increasing emphasis on policy-based, as opposed to project-based, lending and grant-making has been accompanied by greater involvement of international actors in the formation of national health policy. This paper explores the process of health policy development in Uganda and examines how major donors are influencing and conflicting with national policy-making bodies. Focusing on two examples of user fees and drugs policies, it argues that while the content of international prescriptions to strengthen the health system may not be bad in itself, the process by which they are applied potentially threatens national sovereignty and weakens mechanisms for ensuring accountability. It concludes by proposing that in order to increase the sustainability of policy reforms, much greater emphasis should be placed on strengthening national capacity for policy analysis and research, building up policy networks and enhancing the quality of information available to the public concerning key policy changes.  (+info)

Overview: health financing reforms in Africa.(4/1177)

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The fall and rise of cost sharing in Kenya: the impact of phased implementation. (5/1177)

The combined effects of increasing demand for health services and declining real public resources have recently led many governments in the developing world to explore various health financing alternatives. Faced with a significant decline during the 1980s in its real per capita expenditures, the Kenya Ministry of Health (MOH) introduced a new cost sharing programme in December 1989. The programme was part of a comprehensive health financing strategy which also included social insurance, efficiency measures, and private sector development. Early implementation problems led to the suspension in September 1990 of the outpatient registration fee, the major revenue source at the time. In 1991, the Ministry initiated a programme of management improvement and gradual re-introduction of an outpatient fee, but this time as a treatment fee. The new programme was carried out in phases, beginning at the national and provincial levels and proceeding to the local level. The impact of these changes was assessed with national revenue collection reports, quality of care surveys in 6 purposively selected indicator districts, and time series analysis of monthly utilization in these same districts. In contrast to the significant fall in revenue experienced over the period of the initial programme, the later management improvements and fee adjustments resulted in steady increases in revenue. As a percentage of total non-staff expenditures, fiscal year 1993-1994 revenue is estimated to have been 37% at provincial general hospitals, 20% at smaller hospitals, and 21% at health centres. Roughly one third of total revenue is derived from national insurance claims. Quality of care measures, though in some respects improved with cost sharing, were in general somewhat mixed and inconsistent. The 1989 outpatient registration fee led to an average reduction in utilization of 27% at provincial hospitals, 45% at district hospitals, and 33% at health centres. In contrast, phased introduction of the outpatient treatment fee beginning in 1992, combined with somewhat broader exemptions, was associated with much smaller decreases in outpatient utilization. It is suggested that implementing user fees in phases by level of health facility is important to gain patient acceptance, to develop the requisite management systems, and to orient ministry staff to the new systems.  (+info)

Organisation of asthma care: what difference does it make? A systematic review of the literature. (6/1177)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of different forms of organisation (delivery) of asthma care. METHODS: A systematic review of the published evidence of effectiveness organisational methods of asthma management. Searches on computerised databases including Medline, CINAHL, and HELMIS, and relevant citations and letters to experts were used to identify relevant studies. RESULTS: 27 studies were identified that evaluated different organisational methods of delivery across both primary and secondary sectors, such as shared care, general practice asthma clinics, outpatient programmes, inpatient admissions policies, and the use of specialists. Only one third of the studies used a randomised controlled trial and many had small sample sizes. No conclusive evidence was found to favour any particular organisational form, although limited evidence would suggest that specialist care is better than general care and that shared care can be as effective as hospital led care. CONCLUSIONS: There is little good published research evaluating different ways of organising the delivery of asthma care. There is need for quality research on organisational methods of delivery of asthma care that could be used to inform policy makers, in particular examining whether patients treated by healthcare professional with expertise and interest in asthma will experience better outcomes.  (+info)

HMOs and the efficiency of healthcare delivery. (7/1177)

HMOs and other forms of managed care continue to grow rapidly and remain the centerpiece of this nation's policies for health system reform. Despite a growing public and legislative backlash at managed care, there is no comprehensive theory of HMOs to guide policymakers and analysts. It is not yet clear whether managed care improves society's allocation of resources to and within the health sector. After examining HMOs within the context of Coase's theory of the firm, I argue that HMOs share characteristics with collective goods. This framework, and the expanded agency role of physicians under managed care, is used to evaluate the equity and efficiency characteristics of a system of competing HMOs. Other concerns that are increasingly associated with managed care also are addressed.  (+info)

Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade. (8/1177)

At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "policy making" is not a medical term per se. It refers to the process of formulating or establishing official guidelines or rules, such as public policies or organizational policies, that govern decisions and actions. In the context of healthcare, policy making can refer to the development of guidelines, laws, regulations, and procedures that govern the delivery, financing, and accessibility of medical care and health promotion activities.

Examples of policy making in healthcare include:

* Developing clinical practice guidelines for the management of specific medical conditions
* Establishing reimbursement policies for medical procedures or treatments
* Implementing regulations to ensure patient safety and quality of care
* Creating public health policies to address population health issues, such as tobacco control or obesity prevention.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

I must clarify that I'm a helpful assistant and not a doctor, but I can tell you that 'politics' is not a term used in medicine. Politics refers to the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or groups having or hoping to achieve power. If you have any medical questions, feel free to ask!

The European Union (EU) is not a medical term or organization, but rather a political and economic union of 27 European countries. It is primarily involved in matters related to policy, law, and trade, and does not have a direct role in the provision or regulation of healthcare services, except in certain specific areas such as pharmaceutical regulations and cross-border healthcare directives.

Therefore, there is no medical definition for "European Union."

Environmental health is a branch of public health that focuses on the study of how environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological factors, impact human health and disease. It involves the assessment, control, and prevention of environmental hazards in order to protect and promote human health and well-being.

Environmental health encompasses a wide range of issues, such as air and water quality, food safety, waste management, housing conditions, occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and climate change. It also involves the promotion of healthy behaviors and the development of policies and regulations to protect public health from environmental hazards.

The goal of environmental health is to create safe and healthy environments that support human health and well-being, prevent disease and injury, and promote sustainable communities. This requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including policymakers, researchers, healthcare providers, community organizations, and the public.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that combines the best available scientific evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It emphasizes the use of systematic research, including randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, to guide clinical decision making. EBM aims to provide the most effective and efficient care while minimizing variations in practice, reducing errors, and improving patient outcomes.

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizational policy" is not a medical term. It falls under the broader category of management or administrative terminology.

An organizational policy generally refers to a formal statement or set of guidelines that outline an organization's approved course of action or conduct regarding various matters. These policies guide decision-making and help ensure consistent action across the organization. They can cover a wide range of topics, including (but not limited to) employee behavior, data security, patient care standards, and operational procedures.

In a healthcare setting, organizational policies play a crucial role in maintaining quality of care, ensuring patient safety, and complying with relevant laws and regulations.

In the context of healthcare, "policy" refers to a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by an organization or government to guide and determine its decisions, actions, and responses to issues related to the provision, financing, and regulation of health and healthcare services. Health policies are formulated to address various aspects such as access to care, quality of care, cost containment, medical research, public health, and patient safety. They can be established through legislation, regulations, guidelines, protocols, or organizational rules and may be aimed at various stakeholders, including healthcare providers, payers, patients, and the general public.

Decision-making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. In a medical context, decision-making refers to the process by which healthcare professionals and patients make choices about medical tests, treatments, or management options based on a thorough evaluation of available information, including the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances.

The decision-making process in medicine typically involves several steps:

1. Identifying the problem or issue that requires a decision.
2. Gathering relevant information about the patient's medical history, current condition, diagnostic test results, treatment options, and potential outcomes.
3. Considering the benefits, risks, and uncertainties associated with each option.
4. Evaluating the patient's preferences, values, and goals.
5. Selecting the most appropriate course of action based on a careful weighing of the available evidence and the patient's individual needs and circumstances.
6. Communicating the decision to the patient and ensuring that they understand the rationale behind it, as well as any potential risks or benefits.
7. Monitoring the outcomes of the decision and adjusting the course of action as needed based on ongoing evaluation and feedback.

Effective decision-making in medicine requires a thorough understanding of medical evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences. It also involves careful consideration of ethical principles, such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Ultimately, the goal of decision-making in healthcare is to promote the best possible outcomes for patients while minimizing harm and respecting their individual needs and values.

Environmental policy refers to the regulations, guidelines, and practices established by federal, state, or local governments to protect natural resources, human health, and the environment from potential harm caused by human activities. These policies aim to balance economic development with environmental sustainability through various measures such as:

1. Setting standards for air and water quality, waste management, and hazardous substance handling.
2. Encouraging sustainable practices in industries, agriculture, transportation, and energy production.
3. Promoting conservation efforts, habitat restoration, and biodiversity preservation.
4. Implementing monitoring programs to assess environmental impacts and enforce regulations.
5. Providing education and awareness campaigns to engage the public in environmentally responsible behaviors.

Environmental policies can be mandatory or voluntary and may involve various stakeholders, including government agencies, businesses, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and communities. The primary goal of environmental policy is to minimize negative human impacts on ecosystems while promoting a healthy and sustainable environment for present and future generations.

It is the converse of evidence-based policy making. As the name suggests, policy-based evidence making means working back from ... "Policy-based evidence making" is a pejorative term which refers to the commissioning of research in order to support a policy ... "policy-based evidence". The term "policy-based evidence making" was later referred to in a report of the United Kingdom House ... "evidence-based policy"-making have been hardwired into the business of Government. Intuitively, basing policies that affect ...
"Partners in Policy Making: Virginia board for People with Disabilities". Virginia.gov. 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-09. "Idaho ... "Welcome to Partners in Policymaking: Online Courses". Retrieved 2008-09-09. "Welcome to Partners in Policymaking: Classroom ... communication and team-building; using assistive technology; independent living; creating inclusive communities; and employment ... Partners in Policymaking is a free program designed to teach people with disabilities and family members the power of advocacy ...
The pattern-making policy of the Islamic Republic is an idea derived from the Iranian Revolution and the Government of the ... Accordingly, the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic finds a demanding nature that makes the issuance of the revolution ... Islamic Republic of Iran' s Foreign Policy: Identity promotion Designing Cultural Policy Implementation Model for Islamic ... This policy is in fact one of the ways to export the revolution and develops the theory of Umm al-Qura. The executive tools of ...
July 2004 2004 Scientist Statement on Restoring Scientific Integrity to Federal Policy Making "Scientific Integrity in Policy ... What's at stake Restoring scientific integrity to federal policy making Appendices EPA memo on climate section of the Report on ... February 2004 Scientific Integrity in Policy Making: Further Investigation of the Bush Administration's Misuse of Science, ... "Scientific Integrity in Policymaking: An Investigation into the Bush Administration's Misuse of Science" is the title of a ...
... evidence-building functions, and statistical efficiency to inform policy decisions. The Evidence Act contains four parts (" ... March 2016 The OPEN Government Data Act is Title II of the Foundations for Evidence-Based Policymaking Act H.R.4174 - ... The Foundations for Evidence-Based Policymaking Act (Evidence Act) is a United States law that establishes processes for the ... M-19-23, Phase 1 Implementation of the Foundations for Evidence-Based Policymaking Act of 2018: Learning Agendas, Personnel, ...
The Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy (OTMP) was an office established within the White House Office by US President ... "Office of Trade & Manufacturing Policy Report: "How China's Economic Aggression Threatens the Technologies and Intellectual ... "Donald J. Trump the Buy American, Hire American President" (PDF). White House Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy. October ... "President Trump's Jobs Plan for North Carolina" (PDF). White House Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy. October 27, 2020. ...
The Commission was created in March 2016 by the Evidence-Based Policymaking Commission Act (P.L. 114-140), legislation jointly ... Senior Policy and Research Analyst Anne Fletcher, Senior Policy and Research Analyst Nick Hart, Policy and Research Director ... "Let's Use Government Data to Make Better Policy". Scientific American Blog Network. Retrieved 2018-12-03. Lester, Patrick (2017 ... "Early Progress on Fulfilling the "Promise of Evidence-Based Policymaking"". Bipartisan Policy Center. 2017-11-01. Retrieved ...
Three themes determine content and concept of all Europaeum activities: European History & Civilisation; European Policy-Making ... The first two awards were made in 2004 and the scheme ended in 2017 due to lack of further funds. A new Board of Trustees was ... In particular he created and launched a new Europaeum Scholarship Programme and, as a result, the full university membership ... Fresh cohorts of talented young people, committed to making a difference for the better, are essential to shaping the future of ...
In 2011 the David Suzuki Foundation created a short movie as part of their "Make Policy Live" mini series. In the short film, ... "Making Policy Live , Wildlife & habitat , Issues , David Suzuki Foundation". Archived from the original on 2015-02-06. ...
... making the educational policy; adopting curriculum; evaluating the educational program; establishing the regulations for ...
Prokhovnik, Raia (2012), "Talking about policy", in Prokhovnik, Raia (ed.), Making policy, shaping lives, Edinburgh: Edinburgh ... 2012). Making policy, shaping lives. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9781848734654. Prokhovnik, Raia (2004), " ... Prokhovnik, Raia (September 2009). "'Men are not born fit for citizenship, but must be made so': Spinoza and citizenship" (PDF ... Feminist political theory Sovereignty Political philosophy Baruch Spinoza Republicanism Regional power Public policy " ...
Volume 1: Policy Making. London: The Macmillan Press. ISBN 0-333-15781-8. Gowing, Margaret (1974). Independence and Deterrence ... Tanks were designed and built by private arms, engineering, and manufacturing companies, e.g. the Birmingham Railway Carriage ... and constructed guns and rifles. However, the Ministry of Works and/or private building contractors acted as agents during ... Following the Second World War, the postwar MoS was created on 1 April 1946 as a result of the amalgamation of the former ...
Federal Reserve policy-making; a study in Government economic policy formation, 1950 Economics; an introduction to analysis and ... 1966 Making monetary and fiscal policy, 1971 The new inflation: causes, effects, cures, 1972 George Leland Bach, Stanford ... He was the Frank E. Buck Professor of Economics and Public Policy at Stanford University. ... policy, 1954 (with Keith G Lumsden and Richard Attiyeh) Microeconomics; a programmed book, ...
... policy agenda building, 2) media agenda-building, 3) public agenda building, and 4) intermedia agenda building. In all types, ... Policy agenda building (group -> media -> policy). Direct lobbying of policymakers certainly occurs, however, groups often ... Media agenda building (constraints -> media-> policy) Many forces shape the media agenda; for example, journalistic routines (e ... Elder, Charles D.; Cobb, Roger W. (1984-09-01). "Agenda-Building and the Politics of Aging". Policy Studies Journal. 13 (1): ...
Ray Wyatt (12 August 2005). Computer Aided Policy Making. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-92030-2. Jim Highsmith (10 July 2009). ... Dashboards, first made popular by the idea of the balanced scorecard are common means of reporting on multiple dimensions of ... In this approach the vision was to create a computer application that aids in a strategic planning process. The user was to be ... Cascading of action plans makes intuitive sense but is frequently done in such a way as to demotivate employees. Because of the ...
Volume 1: Policy Making. London: The Macmillan Press. ISBN 0-333-15781-8. Gowing, Margaret and Arnold, Lorna (1974). ... The airfield was constructed in World War II and had been used by the Royal Air Force and the United States Army's Eighth and ... Volume 2: Policy Execution. London: The Macmillan Press. ISBN 0-333-16695-7. Official website History of AWE (Webarchive ... In 2011 a project named MENSA to construct a new warhead assembly and disassembly facility at Burghfield had been approved, to ...
Stein is a specialist in Middle East area studies; negotiation theory; foreign policy decision-making; and international ... Stein is a specialist in Middle East area studies; negotiation theory; foreign policy decision-making; and international ... peace-making and public policy. Networks of Knowledge Stein, Janice Gross (2002). The Cult of Efficiency. Toronto, ON: House of ... In 2006, she was made a Member of the Order of Canada. In 2007, she was awarded the Order of Ontario. Stein was a long-time ...
This represented the "rejection of federal control over tax policy-making".: 2 In the 2010s, the Alberta Chamber of Commerce " ... Huggett, Donald R. (June 1980). "Alberta tax policy-making". Canadian Tax News. 8 (1). Chan, Michelle; Taylor, Charles (2009). ... making them immune to Alberta taxes". In 2020, when Alberta made a deep and rapid corporate tax rate cut, from 12%, which is ... The 2009 Québec Finance paper referred to the 1996 Québec Shuffle-that made it possible for corporations to avoid paying any ...
Making Climate Policy Work, Polity Press, 2020. Coauthored with Danny Cullenward. Global Warming Gridlock: Creating More ... Making Climate Policy Work. ISBN 9781509541799. Victor, David G. (2011-03-10). Global Warming Gridlock: Creating More Effective ... David G. Victor is a professor of innovation and public policy at the School of Global Policy and Strategy at UC San Diego, ... Climate Change: Debating America's Policy Options, Council on Foreign Relations Press, 2004 "CGT". cgt.ucsd.edu. Retrieved 2021 ...
Policy implementation is coordinated through LSGs across principal decision-making bodies, including the Politburo - to which ... LSGs bring together leading party, government and military officials to discuss issues, exchange ideas and make policy ... Lieberthal, K.; Oksenberg, M. (2020). Policy Making in China. Princeton University Press. pp. 26-27. ISBN 978-0-691-22172-4. ... Party LSGs manage policy for the Politburo and Secretariat, and State Council LSGs coordinate policy implementation for the ...
Renner, Tobias; Meijerink, Sander; van der Zaag, Pieter (3 October 2018). "Progress beyond policy making? Assessing the ... "Policy entrepreneurs in international river basins-getting climate adaptation on the cross-border water policy agenda". ...
1, Policy Making. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-15781-8. OCLC 611555258. Gowing, Margaret; Arnold, Lorna (1974b). Independence ... On 28 February, a year after being made an acting major-general, Morgan's rank of major-general was made temporary. He was not ... Who was I to criticise them, hero as I was of a hundred "Chinagraph wars" of make-believe? Frederick Morgan On 8 August 1939, ... The plan set forth in detail the conditions under which the assault could be made, the area where a landing would be feasible, ...
Gyngell, Allan; Wesley, Michael (2007). Making Australian Foreign Policy. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. ... is the peak decision-making body for national security and major foreign policy matters in the Australian Government. It is a ... As the peak decision-making body on national security, the NSC is also attended and advised by the Secretaries for each ... The current format of the National Security Committee was created by Prime Minister John Howard in 1996 with a broad national ...
By comparing the potential impacts of different policy options, cost-benefit analysis aids in making policy decisions that are ... Evidence-based policy is a concept in public policy that advocates for policy decisions to be grounded on, or influenced by, ... of the approach often underestimate the complexity of policy-making and misconstrue how policy decisions are typically made. ... This shift in policy formulation led to an upswing in research and activism advocating for more evidence-based policy-making. ...
"Wine-Making in Bethlehem". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 8 October 2021. Sudilovsky, Judith (2015-01-28). "Palestine's first winery ... A second winery was built in 1890 and export of wine to Germany began. In 1898 a new larger winery was built by the Deutsche ... The vineyard was founded and is owned by the Salesians who founded it to create local jobs and fund assistance to the needy. ... Large stocks of unsold wine was being used to make jam and concentrated grape juice for the European markets. In December 1926 ...
Decision-making is an important political process which influences the course of a country's policy. Group decision-making is ... Hermann and Preston (1994) suggested 5 distinct variables of leadership style; their involvement in policy making, their ... The implementation of successful decision-making is often enhanced by group decision-making (Hill, 1982) especially if the ... domestic and foreign policy making; behavior in ethnic violence, war and genocide; group dynamics and conflict; racist behavior ...
Miller, Karen Johnston; McTavish, Duncan (October 2013). "9: Public policy and accountability". Making and Managing Public ... "The policy challenge". Strengthening the Connections between Leadership and Learning: Challenges to Policy, School and ... Some have accepted the flaws in the theory, building upon it and putting it forth as a valid theory of the State. Others have ... Put simply, the managerial standard is to receive goals from above and to create new goals for those below. There is a belief ...
Keating, building on policies he had introduced while federal treasurer, implemented a compulsory superannuation guarantee ... This was efficacious terror, an essential building block of the neoliberal policies that the West would attempt to impose on ... West, Darrell M. (1987). Congress and Economic Policy Making. University of Pittsburgh Pre. p. 71. ISBN 978-0822974352 - via ... These policies were aimed at stabilizing Mexico's economy in the short run. Later, Mexico tried to expand these policies to ...
... created its policy-making body; and completed its by-laws by January 31, 1985. On March 19, 1985, Fr. Augurio l. Juta died, and ... A new 5-storey building is being constructed for the Senior High School department and a new home for the Clinic, Guidance ... This year also commenced the creation of the new building adjacent to the St. Anne building, and the realization of the ... Another improvement is the newly constructed High School Computer Laboratory, made possible through the support of the parents ...
... analysis of environmental policy-making; and environmental political thought. The journal publishes articles on politics at all ... Environmental Abstracts Political Science Abstracts Social Planning/Policy Social Science Abstracts Social SciSearch Social ...
It is the converse of evidence-based policy making. As the name suggests, policy-based evidence making means working back from ... "Policy-based evidence making" is a pejorative term which refers to the commissioning of research in order to support a policy ... "policy-based evidence". The term "policy-based evidence making" was later referred to in a report of the United Kingdom House ... "evidence-based policy"-making have been hardwired into the business of Government. Intuitively, basing policies that affect ...
Use advanced session-level policy scripts to validate incoming packets and define actions based on the result. The action can ... icon to create a new policy.. *From the Create New Policy window, set the Type to Advanced session level policy and enter a ... Creating advanced session-level policies. Use advanced session-level policy scripts to validate incoming packets and define ... It assumes that you are familiar with creating advanced session-level policies using the SR language or have completed SR ...
These steps would help illuminate an aspect of making economic policy that is often like trying to find the light switch in a ... making it difficult for policymakers to adjust for this uncertainty when policies are set. ... Looking forward, policy should not be so quick to attribute all movements in economic activity to short-term fluctuations; ... In a recent study, we look at the implications for setting monetary policy in real time for a large set of countries, including ...
... and special effort should be made to avoid actions that impose costs on future generations. -- Posterity brings great ... "Policymaking for posterity," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 115-140, December. citation courtesy ... Policies for posterity should anticipate effects on: alternative investments, both public and private; the actions of other ... 2023, 15th Annual Feldstein Lecture, Mario Draghi, The Next Flight of the Bumblebee: The Path to Common Fiscal Policy in the ...
And a look ahead to the international conference on Policy Making 2.0 in Dublin just ahead of the European Commissions ... social media and more is affecting the way governments make decisions. ... Open data for evidence based policy making. Part of Events. Author(s) and publish date. Published: 17 April 2013 Skip to 1 ... But data is increasingly used for evidence-based policy making.. This is one of the fields explored in the Crossover Project ...
So the indirect jobs created by manufacturing are numerous and important. On top of that manufacturing pays for about two ... its a mistake to romanticize manufacturing. He went on to make the point that hopes for a manufacturing renaissance that will ... 1 of manufacturing activity creates $1.48 of additional activity in the economy. This is more than for a $1 spent in any other ... More from Foreign Policy. A photo illustration shows Chinese President Xi Jinping and U.S. President Joe Biden posing on ...
CREATE POLICY. CREATE POLICY - define a new row level security policy for a table ... policy exists and more specific policies exist, then both the ALL. policy and the more specific policy (or policies) will be ... Policies are permissive by default.. RESTRICTIVE. Specify that the policy is to be created as a restrictive policy. All ... Specify that the policy is to be created as a permissive policy. All permissive policies which are applicable to a given query ...
Trumps China Policy: a Trade War in the Making. John Weeks On 12/29/16 at 12:38 PM EST ... Cookie Policy. Copyright. Privacy Policy. Terms & Conditions. Terms of Sale. GDPR Privacy Settings Do Not Sell My Personal ... This argument has long been made. British politician Norman Angell made the same case that trade among countries fosters peace ... Policies and Standards. Mission Statement. Leadership. Newsletters. Press Center. Editions:. U.S. Edition. 日本. Polska. România ...
Types Of Security Policies. After a risk assessment, companies can begin creating cybersecurity policies. Businesses must ... In order to prevent these disruptions, companies need to create strong cybersecurity policies. To do so, they must have strong ... Once companies have a strong understanding of these concepts, the next step for creating security policies is to assess the ... Password Policy. A password policy is a set of rules that employees must follow to protect the company from data breaches. It ...
policy policy advocacy Policy alignment policy assessment matrix policy recommendations policy tool Pollution Positive Energy ... Building Efficiency building electrification building energy demand business and finance models business model Business Models ... citizen science evidence-based policy making citizen-participation city-makers City-Region city-service CITYFOOD civil ... better energy-relevant decisions and policy-making Biodiversity Biodiversity and ecosystems biowaste circularity Bloomberg ...
Select the application for which you want to create a policy.. *Click Next.. The new policy settings window opens with the ... You can create policies; you can also modify and delete existing policies. ... The application settings depend on the application for which you create a policy. For details, refer to the following:. * ... Creating application category with content added manually Creating application category that includes executable files from ...
"Food deserts"-evidence and assumption in health policy making BMJ 2002; 325 :436 doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7361.436 ... The overinterpretation of a few small scale studies undertaken up to 10 years ago could end up being used to make policy ... One of the main messages of the evidence based movement needs to be emphasised: when making any health policy (or other) ... Policy strategies to combat the existence of food deserts exemplify how factoids can influence health and social policy ...
... and Charles Lindblom on policymaking in general. These three independent lin... ... The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities ... Economic development, research and development, policy making: some converging views, RAND Corporation, P-1982, 1960. As of ... Economic development, research and development, policy making: some converging views. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1960 ...
Buy Making Health Policy by Kent Buse, Nicholas Mays from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or ... Globalization and policy process. • Policy research and evaluation. • Doing policy analysis. Making Health Policy 2nd edition ... Health policy analysis. • Power and policy making. • Public and private sector. • Agenda setting. • Government roles in policy ... Jeremy Shiffman, Associate Professor of Public Administration and Policy, American University, USA.. "Making Health Policy is a ...
State Building Code (Illinois) - policy from the IEA Policies Database. ... Create an account. Create a free IEA account to download our reports or subcribe to a paid service. ... A problem with this policy?. Tell us and we will take a look. ... Policies IECC 2015 - State Building Code (Illinois). Last ... Want to know more about this policy ? Learn more. ... Requirements are relative to equipment size and building type. ...
Policy Agenda. Policy choices have tilted the playing field toward the rich and corporations. Heres how to tilt it back. ... Instead of ill-advised policies that will erode retirement income security, policy makers should consider a number of steps ... Retirement made riskier. House pension bill, Treasury proposal ignore the real problems. by Sarah Harding and Christian Weller ... Retirement made riskier Report • By Christian E. Weller and Sarah Harding • April 17, 2003 ...
... and yet few people really know what and who makes it work. ... The policy-making process is not by any means kept secret from ... Odds are, if you ask the average Albertan how policy is made, they wont be able to tell you much about it. The policy-making ... Canada to be confused about the policy-making process. Oftentimes policy doesnt receive much media attention. Policy that may ... Committee which directs the item to one of the six Standing Policy Committees. The Standing Policy Committee studies the policy ...
Power and policy-making 4th edition offers a compr ... The EU as a policy-making state: a policy system like any other ... Power and policy-making 4th edition offers a comprehensive and accessible analysis of the European Union policy process. ... negotiation and coalition building, the interplay of judicial and legislative policy-making, power distribution, agency ... Privacy Policy Opens in new tab or window SOCIAL NETWORKS Facebook - Opens in new tab or window LinkedIn - Opens in new tab or ...
Another Nasty Tory Policy in the Making?. A Tory MP has floated the idea of only paying child benefit for the first two ... About UsContact UsWork For UsAdvertise With UsStandards And CorrectionsRSSUser AgreementComment PolicyPrivacy PolicyConsent ... Of course this policy would appeal to many Tory voters - though not all. The Government may be leaking money everywhere but the ... It is a nasty policy and can only appeal to people fed on a diet of hatred for poorer people - fed on stories of the tiny ...
Learn about the impact and effectiveness of different strategies used to improve state and local policies to prevent teen ... efforts to improve policy through adoption of new policy, adaptation of existing policy, and implementation of existing policy ... The 11 Start Strong sites made substantial policy impacts within the context of their TDV prevention efforts. Start Strong ... Creating a Window for Teen Dating Violence Prevention Policies Within the Start Strong Initiative ...
This program is based on the belief that the most effective and enduring public policy decisions are made by the people who ... Partners in Policymaking is about systems change - creating, working toward and achieving a vision of shared values about ... school personnel and other individuals who make policy decisions about services and supports that are offered by state and ... school personnel and other individuals who make policy decisions about services that you and/or your family use. ...
Open up the black box of government to see where policies are made. This introductory text takes you beyond theory and into the ... messy world of policymaking, offering a toolkit for making better policy. Drawing from insights earned through years of ... The Politics of Policymaking teaches you the connections between policies, their effects, and the society they impact. It ... The text explains how policymaking works: from the emergence of policy ideas to deciding between cutting-edge solutions, from ...
Policy Agenda. Policy choices have tilted the playing field toward the rich and corporations. Heres how to tilt it back. ... Fixing schools, creating jobs Were doing a snap quiz today. Question: How can we improve education and the safety of students ... making electrical repairs and upgrades, replacing roofs and windows, and making security improvements. ... Sign up for EPIs newsletter so you never miss our research and insights on ways to make the economy work better for everyone. ...
Our content policies help ensure a positive experience for everyone using Google products. To help curb abuse so that we can ... Website program policies. Content policies. All content on websites made via your Business Profile on Google should abide by ... These policies apply to content shared on the website originally made via your Business Profile on Google. We may make ... Policies for websites made via Business Profile. Our content policies help ensure a positive experience for everyone using ...
... his immigration and trade policies come to mind. His tax reform ideas are... ... But we tried a similar policy in the Bush (43) Administration and it had no effect on jobs or investments. Nor should it be ... The plan aims to encourage firms to create new jobs in the United States by offering a 10 percent tax rate on the repatriation ... Listen to the stories about having to cut education and other spending and raise regressive taxes to make up for the absence of ...
F&M senior David Yang has spent much of the past year developing a new approach to policy making called dynamic ... the study of their adherence to policy is even more so. Franklin & Marshall senior David Yang has spent much of the past year ... Thats what makes the institutionalism dynamic.". In sociological terms, decoupling is the separation of formal policies and ... Franklin & Marshall senior David Yang has spent much of the past year developing a new perspective on policy making. His ...
... - Chapter 5: Food and nutrition. ... Policy makers can use these data to examine how these costs vary with economic development and structural factors including ... five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries. ...
What happens when a government begins a major foreign policy commitment and then later receives new information that it is ... "An impressive set of scholars considers a question fundamental to foreign policy making: when and how do policy makers ... Privacy Policy Opens in new tab or window SOCIAL NETWORKS Facebook - Opens in new tab or window LinkedIn - Opens in new tab or ... When Things Go Wrong Foreign Policy Decision Making under Adverse Feedback Edited By Charles F. Hermann Copyright 2012 ...
Then theres the whole idea of an industrial policy that favors manufacturing in the first place. Do we really want one? A ... Obviously you can make a case that this was a worthwhile tradeoff. But make no mistake: its a tradeoff that hurt working-class ... This is why the United States gave up on manufacturing long ago:. China may have taken manufacturing jobs from us after they ... if we want an industrial policy at all-a dubious proposition-we really dont want an industrial policy focused on manufactured ...
Foreign Policy Magazine Follow FP on X Follow FP on LinkedIn Follow FP on Instagram Follow FP on Facebook ... Read More On China , East Asia , Globalization , Trade Policy & Agreements. Sign up for Editors Picks. A curated selection of ... More from Foreign Policy. Children are hooked up to IV drips on the stairs at a childrens hospital in Beijing.. Chinese ... By submitting your email, you agree to the Privacy Policy and Terms of Use and to receive email correspondence from us. You may ...
  • As a result, Make UK cut its manufacturing growth forecast for 2023 with output set to fall this year, while the forecast for next year is within the margins of no growth at all. (yahoo.com)
  • Prevention practice was hampered by low levels of policy implementation, as well as limited knowledge and understanding of policies by staff tasked with implementing and enforcing the policies. (rwjf.org)
  • Start Strong grantees received guidance on strategies and a model policy that included sample language and implementation tools. (rwjf.org)
  • The policy evaluation focused on grantees' efforts to improve policy through adoption of new policy, adaptation of existing policy, and implementation of existing policy, as well as interim and short-term outcomes. (rwjf.org)
  • Policy design and policy implementation require different skill sets (as does political mobilization ). (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • That is, even in this relatively faithful, high-quality implementation of the two-way dual language model, there are considerable areas for improvement (For instance, the authors suggested that teachers consider restructuring the day to make it more likely that native English speakers practice their Spanish). (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • In 2014, the Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative identified five key components of evidence-based policymaking: program assessment, budget development, implementation oversight, outcome monitoring, and targeted evaluation. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Developed by Nick Mabey and Anita Neville, this model visualises policymaking as starting with an idea that has a broad engagement base which then funnels to a narrow conclusion through the stages of public opinion, public debate, policy process, final decision, implementation and then monitoring and evaluation. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • 4 The term has been used increasingly by academics, policy makers, and community groups to describe populated urban areas where residents do not have access to an affordable and healthy diet. (bmj.com)
  • Making Health Policy 2nd edition is an ideal resource for students of public health and health policy, public health practitioners and policy makers. (waterstones.com)
  • An impressive set of scholars considers a question fundamental to foreign policy making: when and how do policy makers reconsider their choices when policies fail? (routledge.com)
  • Policy makers are faced with a vast and varied array of choices about how to move their countries to a low-carbon industrial and manufacturing system. (deloitte.com)
  • Over the past several years, state leaders have enacted numerous legislative or executive actions to advance evidence-based policymaking. (ncsl.org)
  • Sara Dube, director of the Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative, assures us that all 50 states have made at least some effort to gather solid, data-based information that can help executive and legislative leaders make good decisions. (governing.com)
  • These landmark policy and legislative acts occurred in response to economic and political inequities ̶ not unlike those experienced by many Americans today. (cdc.gov)
  • Policy-based evidence making" is a pejorative term which refers to the commissioning of research in order to support a policy which has already been decided upon. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it should be distinguished from research into the effects of a policy where such research may provide either supporting or opposing evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intuitively, basing policies that affect people's lives and the economy on rigorous academic research sounds rational and desirable. (wikipedia.org)
  • The committee stated: [Ministers] should certainly not seek selectively to pick pieces of evidence which support an already agreed policy, or even commission research in order to produce a justification for policy: so-called "policy-based evidence making" (see paragraphs 95-6). (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among these steps, some have established a centralized and nonpartisan staff or government unit with knowledge about research methods and evidence-based budgeting, while others have created and funded positions, such as chief data officers. (ncsl.org)
  • programs offered at an independent public policy research organization-the RAND Corporation. (rand.org)
  • An examination of the convergence between the views of Albert Hirschman on economic development, Burton Klein and William Meckling on technological research and development, and Charles Lindblom on policymaking in general. (rand.org)
  • The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. (rand.org)
  • The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. (rand.org)
  • This edition is fully updated to reflect new research and ways of thinking about the health policy process. (waterstones.com)
  • Receive monthly updates on RWJF-sponsored research that informs many robust health policy debates on Capitol Hill, covering topics like health equity, improving access to quality healthcare, equitable housing, and more. (rwjf.org)
  • Sign up for EPI's newsletter so you never miss our research and insights on ways to make the economy work better for everyone. (epi.org)
  • I've been conducting research in New York City, but I encouraged David to do interviews in his home country of China to learn more about aging policy there," DiCiccio-Bloom said. (fandm.edu)
  • It is the nation's only think tank devoted exclusively to research and policy analysis of the economic, social, demographic, fiscal, and other impacts of immigration on the United States. (cis.org)
  • This research shows a practical approach toward operating an effective IT governance policy framework. (gartner.com)
  • This research is seeking to understand how these firms develop, how they benefit the wider UK economy through their supply chains, and how policy can support more firms to attain superstar status. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Exclusive state-policy research, infographics, and stats every two weeks. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Brookings is a private, non-profit research organization specializing in public policy studies. (planetizen.com)
  • Home / Research and expertise / Public Policy / How is policy made? (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Charles Edquist points out that innovations are created in innovation systems and the view that innovation arises through new research is therefore outdated. (lu.se)
  • The article proposes to separate innovation from research policy to be able to formulate a forward-looking innovation policy. (lu.se)
  • To create a robust SLT control regime in India by undertaking research, cessation, capacity building, policy action that is based on scientific evidence. (who.int)
  • Besides moving the field forward and translating findings to promote societal health , we must also look to advocacy and health policy research in these extraordinary times. (cdc.gov)
  • This is an excellent and accessible introduction to the politics of health policy-making by three of the world's leading scholars on the subject. (waterstones.com)
  • Scholars have devoted much attention to the study of how various institutions in cabinet and parliament help coalition parties with conflicting policy preferences to be efficient in the policy-making process. (lu.se)
  • In recent weeks there have been several articles debunking the early signs of a new trend toward the return of manufacturing to America as labor costs rise in China and U.S. energy costs fall as the result of development of shale gas and oil. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • It's easy to see that this is not a recipe for making America a winner. (taxpolicycenter.org)
  • No - America chose to pursue a trade policy that prioritized the interests of capital over the interests of American workers. (motherjones.com)
  • Conversely, more restrictive policies would be in order if actual activity is above potential output, to reduce overheating risks that could lead to a sudden, sharp downturn. (imf.org)
  • All restrictive policies which are applicable to a given query will be combined together using the Boolean " AND " operator. (postgresql.org)
  • By creating restrictive policies, administrators can reduce the set of records which can be accessed as all restrictive policies must be passed for each record. (postgresql.org)
  • Note that there needs to be at least one permissive policy to grant access to records before restrictive policies can be usefully used to reduce that access. (postgresql.org)
  • If only restrictive policies exist, then no records will be accessible. (postgresql.org)
  • When a mix of permissive and restrictive policies are present, a record is only accessible if at least one of the permissive policies passes, in addition to all the restrictive policies. (postgresql.org)
  • Subscribe to the Policy Currents newsletter for RAND insights on the issues that matter most. (rand.org)
  • Drawing from insights earned through years of interactions with policymakers and extensive teaching experience, Boin and Lodge offer a comprehensive introduction to the inner workings of government and how to produce policies that address societal problems of today and tomorrow. (sagepub.com)
  • In a recent study , we look at the implications for setting monetary policy in real time for a large set of countries, including five Latin American economies (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru). (imf.org)
  • Most central banks set monetary policy according to the information they have in that moment regarding the position of the economy with respect to potential output, and the outlook for inflation. (imf.org)
  • Therefore, when formulating monetary policy, it is crucial for central banks to know where economic activity is relative to its potential, especially when operating with a target for inflation. (imf.org)
  • While monetary policy should normally not be employed to smoothen the credit cycle, under the principle of "one objective, one tool", the macro-prudential policy function should be the responsibility of central banks, given the interactions between the two policy functions. (europa.eu)
  • Having clear definitions for evidence-based policymaking terms provides a framework for making budget decisions based on program effectiveness. (ncsl.org)
  • CIOs should implement a risk-adjusted IT governance policy framework to achieve business outcomes, while protecting the enterprise's license to operate by meeting compliance. (gartner.com)
  • Taking into consideration and implementing one or more of these components can help states and counties use the Results First evidence-based policymaking framework in ways that yield meaningful changes for their communities. (pewtrusts.org)
  • In 2014, the Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative developed a framework for state and county leaders interested in evidence-based policymaking. (pewtrusts.org)
  • This framework consists of five key components to help governments use rigorous evidence and data to guide policy and funding decisions. (pewtrusts.org)
  • A program assessment, the first component of the larger evidence-based policymaking framework developed by the Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative, is a three-step process to help policymakers address key questions about their programs. (pewtrusts.org)
  • This reflects the macro-prudential policy framework adopted for the European Central Bank (ECB)/Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM). (europa.eu)
  • In July 2006, Rebecca Boden and Debbie Epstein published a paper in which they wrote: This need [for evidence] has been reified in the UK and elsewhere, as routines of "evidence-based policy"-making have been hardwired into the business of Government. (wikipedia.org)
  • On top of that manufacturing pays for about two thirds of all non-government R&D and its unique economies of scale contribute disproportionately to increases in overall economic productivity and to disinflation. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Evidence can help officials from all branches of government strategically target resources to programs and policies that are effective, promote innovation, improve transparency in budgeting and build and sustain a culture of continuous learning and improvement. (ncsl.org)
  • Build Consensus Across Branches of Government. (ncsl.org)
  • Comprised of government employees, legislators and outside experts, the committee is tasked with advising the governor on new performance management initiatives and legislation, and strategies for increasing evidence-based policy efforts. (ncsl.org)
  • Others speculated that it signaled a radical shift in U.S. government policy in Asia as a whole. (newsweek.com)
  • It first appeared in a government publication in a 1995 document from a policy working group of the Low Income Project Team of the then Conservative government's Nutrition Task Force. (bmj.com)
  • New government policy can be initiated from many sources (the general public, interest groups, industry, etc.) and it must be approved and sponsored by a Minister and researched by his/her department. (archive-it.org)
  • They give back by advocating as volunteers and paid staff for organizations and agencies across the state, by serving on state and local boards and committees, being appointed to Mayor's and Governor's Commissions, leading advocacy groups, working for Independent Living Centers, founding local and statewide organizations, promoting better school and government policies and much more. (in.gov)
  • Open up the black box of government to see where policies are made. (sagepub.com)
  • What happens when a government begins a major foreign policy commitment and then later receives new information that it is failing? (routledge.com)
  • The final phase of this project takes an in-depth approach to the barriers to export growth perceived by UK business, the way in which firms currently use government and other export support services, and how policy can assist firms in improving export performance. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • The bicameral UK parliament (the House of Commons and the House of Lords) scrutinises the government, initiates and debates new, or changes to, legislation and turns ideas into policies. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Although the government and parliament ultimately are responsible for agreeing the final version of a policy or piece of legislation, MPs, Ministers and Lords are only some of the actors involved in policymaking, with a wide range of stakeholders providing input, views and evidence within the policymaking process. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • MPs can propose new legislation, debate proposed legislation, and scrutinise government policies and actions. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Consequently, we make an attempt to advance this literature through the construction of a "statistical capacity building index," and then test its explanatory power on the cyclicality of government spending. (imf.org)
  • We engaged in a participatory modeling approach with health sector stakeholders in Jordan to support government decision-making regarding implementing public health measures to mitigate COVID-19 disease burden. (cdc.gov)
  • Scenario-based model influenced policy-making and the evolution of the pandemic in Jordan confirmed the forecasting provided by the modeling exercise and helped confirm the effectiveness of the policy adopted by the government of Jordan. (cdc.gov)
  • So that commissioner will come in on Monday morning and say to his or her Director General, "Find me the evidence that demonstrates that this is the case" Similar reasoning has been advanced in respect of public policy on alcohol and narcotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • It provides a unique introduction to core concepts in global health policy and brings politics to the core of public health. (waterstones.com)
  • This book is an excellent teaching tool on policy making in the field of public health. (waterstones.com)
  • The policy-making process is not by any means kept secret from the public, and yet few people really know what and who makes it work. (archive-it.org)
  • This program is based on the belief that the most effective and enduring public policy decisions are made by the people who need and use services in partnership with policymakers. (in.gov)
  • This text is an essential companion for any undergraduate or postgraduate student of Politics, International Relations, and Public Administration and for anyone aspiring to work in public policy. (sagepub.com)
  • Martin Lodge is Professor of Political Science and Public Policy at London school of Economics and Political Science. (sagepub.com)
  • We may make exceptions if we determine that a page contains information in the public interest. (google.com)
  • This book presents an enlightening and systematic investigation of one of the big questions in public policy. (routledge.com)
  • Two-way language programs are sometimes an easier sell with the public because they purport to make bilingualism accessible to all students-not just DLLs. (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • For example, many individuals, with diverse backgrounds, interests, and expertise, can be involved in a public debate about policy, but few can be involved in implementing it. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • You can't swing a cat in public administration circles these days without hitting some mention of "evidence-based policymaking. (governing.com)
  • The tobacco industry has built and strengthened networks of third party allies, including the Tobacco Wholesalers Association, North Dakota Grocers Association, ND Petroleum Marketers Association, North Dakota Retail Association, and the Greater North Dakota Association to fight the public battles against tobacco control policy allowing the tobacco industry to remain behind the scenes. (who.int)
  • Throughout that and subsequent phases of the pandemic, public health policies focused on reducing COVID-19 transmission and mortality in Jordan were supported by a participatory, epidemiologic scenario-based modeling approach. (cdc.gov)
  • In light of socio-historical psychology and its interfaces with anthropology, history, and public health, we seek to revalue the experiences of indigenous women in the city of Manaus, highlighting their contributions to differentiated health in SUS articulated with other affirmative policies achieved as the right to the city, to work, the right to culture and the right to education. (bvsalud.org)
  • A dozen state action steps, highlighted in text boxes, continue to build upon a foundation of core principles articulated in NCSL's 2020 publication, The ABC's of Evidence-Informed Policymaking . (ncsl.org)
  • A low share of the variation in output gap revisions can be predicted ahead of time, making it difficult for policymakers to adjust for this uncertainty when policies are set. (imf.org)
  • Instead, grantees enhanced policy by raising awareness of TDV among policymakers, broadening the base of support for policy change, and acting as expert resources within the policy development process. (rwjf.org)
  • It explores the interplay between citizens, policymakers and politicians, and the intricate web of policy decisions. (sagepub.com)
  • Policymakers should include investments and plans that provide reskilling and job matching programs so that vulnerable workforces can make quick and efficient career transitions into the low-carbon economy. (deloitte.com)
  • Our content policies help ensure a positive experience for everyone using Google products. (google.com)
  • These policies apply to content shared on the website originally made via your Business Profile on Google. (google.com)
  • All content on websites made via your Business Profile on Google should abide by our prohibited a nd restricted content policies . (google.com)
  • Make sure that your website content complies with local laws in your country/region. (google.com)
  • We conducted a content analysis of 176 policies spanning seven years to identify the relationship between technology and AFEs, and the characteristics of policy development. (lu.se)
  • The text explains how policymaking works: from the emergence of policy ideas to deciding between cutting-edge solutions, from evaluating policies to improving policymaking practices, using examples from around the world. (sagepub.com)
  • In sociological terms, decoupling is the separation of formal policies and actual individual and organizational practices. (fandm.edu)
  • Governments need to implement policies that promote and accelerate the transition to a low-carbon industrial and manufacturing system. (deloitte.com)
  • One of the biggest challenges parties in multiparty governments face is making policies together and overcoming the risk of a policy stalemate. (lu.se)
  • Do coalition agreements make a difference in the policy-making productivity of multiparty governments? (lu.se)
  • To address this question, this article focuses on governments' policy output and investigates whether coalition agreements increase the policy-making productivity of multiparty cabinets. (lu.se)
  • Its central argument is that written agreements between coalition partners strengthen the capacity of coalition governments to make policy reforms, even when there is a high degree of ideological conflict among partners. (lu.se)
  • The results show that while coalition agreements foster policy productivity in minimal winning cabinets, they play a weaker role in minority and surplus governments. (lu.se)
  • Use the Roles button to assign roles to the policy. (ibm.com)
  • Policies can be applied for specific commands or for specific roles. (postgresql.org)
  • The default for newly created policies is that they apply for all commands and roles, unless otherwise specified. (postgresql.org)
  • which will apply the policy to all roles. (postgresql.org)
  • Alabama lawmakers passed legislation in 2019 to create a Commission on the Evaluation of Services . (ncsl.org)
  • In 2019, Arkansas lawmakers created the Data-Sharing and Data-Driven Decision-Making Task Force, comprised of legislator members, and created a chief data officer position. (ncsl.org)
  • It's not uncommon for people across Canada to be confused about the policy-making process. (archive-it.org)
  • A key textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate students of contemporary European politics, European Union: Power and policy-making 4th edition offers a comprehensive and accessible analysis of the European Union policy process. (routledge.com)
  • The shadow of case law: the Court of Justice of the European union and the policy process Susanne Schmidt 8. (routledge.com)
  • Regions and the EU policy process Michael Keating, Liesbet Hooghe, and Michaël Tatham 20. (routledge.com)
  • Policy is made in a series of stages but it is not a linear process. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • In the early 1990's tobacco control advocates recognized the stall in state level tobacco control policy due to the infiltration of the political process by the tobacco industry. (who.int)
  • For physicians, we created a single sign-on process so they could use their own login to enter the system from any facility. (cdc.gov)
  • Unpacking the modeling process for energy policy making. (bvsalud.org)
  • Determine a process for joint decision-making. (cdc.gov)
  • How Can Businesses Make Sure That Their Cybersecurity Operations Are Robust? (forbes.com)
  • In 2018, North Carolina Governor Roy Cooper created the Advisory Committee on Performance Management. (ncsl.org)
  • Connecticut lawmakers in 2018 created the Data Analysis Technology Advisory Board and established the position of Chief Data office within the Office of Policy and Management. (ncsl.org)
  • Strach, P. (2018) When Bad Policy Makes Good Politics. (degruyter.com)
  • They may sometimes even be used to determine health policy when empirical information is lacking. (bmj.com)
  • 2 This paper illustrates how, if the social climate is right, facts about the social world can be assumed and hence used as the basis for health policy in the absence of much empirical information. (bmj.com)
  • It focuses on how health policy is made nationally and globally, clearly explaining the key concepts from political science with a wide array of engaging examples. (waterstones.com)
  • Written by leading experts, this clear and accessible book addresses the "how" of health policy making in a range of international settings. (waterstones.com)
  • Making Health Policy is a must-read for those studying and working in global health. (waterstones.com)
  • This book unravels the complex world of health politics and decision-making, making it comprehensible for many who have difficulty understanding the system they work in, or aspire to enter the world of health policy to make a difference. (waterstones.com)
  • This prompted civil society groups to establish platforms to discuss health policy change in South Africa . (bvsalud.org)
  • Overview: Linear panel event studies are increasingly used to estimate and plot causal effects of changes in policies. (nber.org)
  • The long-term decline in the UK's share of global exports and the decision to leave the European Union, which was the destination for almost half of UK goods exports and over a third of UK services exports in 2016, means this is an increasingly important policy question. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • They offer alternative theoretical frameworks for determining if and when policy will change in response to evidence of failing efforts. (routledge.com)
  • IT governance policy frameworks lack risk-adjusted differentiation in policy instruments, such as principles, procedures, standards and guidelines. (gartner.com)
  • If actual economic activity is below what the economy can produce at its capacity, stimulative policies (such as lowering interest rates) would normally be put in place to return the economy to potential. (imf.org)
  • triggers are fired, and before any actual data modifications are made. (postgresql.org)
  • trigger may modify the data to be inserted, affecting the result of the security policy check. (postgresql.org)
  • Businesses must establish many different policies, and each plays an important role in protecting companies from hackers and other types of data breaches. (forbes.com)
  • A password policy is a set of rules that employees must follow to protect the company from data breaches. (forbes.com)
  • If you're making projections based off of these data, your projections might not be accurate," he said. (fandm.edu)
  • Sharing charts, maps, and more to show who Americans are, how policy affects the everyday, and how we can use data to make a difference. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The fresh data also showed that 74% said a lack of policy consistency in the UK is damaging efforts to build a consistent business environment. (yahoo.com)
  • Beyond making our death certificate registration faster, working electronically is also allowing us to improve the quality of the data. (cdc.gov)
  • A hundred years ago, trade policy designed to focus less on exports of raw materials and focus more on exports of manufactured goods was the way to go from being a poor country to a rich country. (motherjones.com)
  • A 'policy lab' bringing together experts on exporting from the worlds of academia, policy, business and the civil service to discuss whether and how the UK can devise a strategy to significantly and sustainably boost exports. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • While manufacturing as a percent of GDP tends to fall in all countries as their economies mature, it has fallen much more precipitately in the United States over the past thirty years ( 23 percent-9 percent) than in Japan (28 percent- 22 percent) or Germany (27 percent-22 percent). (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Timely and cutting-edge , this book tackles contemporary policy issues-platform economies, climate change, and more - while delving into crucial theoretical tools like political legitimacy and reform. (sagepub.com)
  • The majority of Britain's manufacturers think policy incentives in other major economies are making UK investments harder to justify, according to a new survey by industry body Make UK. (yahoo.com)
  • Listening to people's concerns led us to modify the system to make it easier for them to use. (cdc.gov)
  • The result will be acute housing shortages that create the nation's largest slums in California. (planetizen.com)
  • What they do not realize is that these policies will inexorably create the nation's largest slums in California. (planetizen.com)
  • The politics of evidence : from evidence-based policy to the good governance of evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • CIOs are challenged in determining how many IT governance policies are needed. (gartner.com)
  • Often, too many IT governance policies stifle the enterprise in its ability to pivot and respond, and not enough policies potentially expose the enterprise to risk. (gartner.com)
  • The IT governance policy on policies is often overlooked, underestimated or undervalued by CIOs. (gartner.com)
  • This suggests that output gap revisions bring to light new information that is not accounted for in policy decisions. (imf.org)
  • Policymaking for posterity involves current decisions with distant consequences. (nber.org)
  • Assessing these factors requires management to make informed decisions about the ways they can mitigate those risks. (forbes.com)
  • Of course these poorer people could make sensible and rational decisions about only having more children when they have the income to support another child. (huffingtonpost.co.uk)
  • But I suspect that people - rich and poor - make such decisions for many reasons - not always based on their incomes. (huffingtonpost.co.uk)
  • The program teaches leadership skills and techniques to develop positive partnerships with elected officials, school personnel and other individuals who make policy decisions about services and supports that are offered by state and local agencies and schools. (in.gov)
  • The program teaches leadership skills and techniques to develop positive partnerships with elected officials, school personnel and other individuals who make policy decisions about services that you and/or your family use. (in.gov)
  • So there's a dilemma even with the gold standard for finding evidence upon which to base policy decisions. (governing.com)
  • But they all matter, and the education policy community needs to think much harder about what its proposals will look like in the classroom. (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • The pandemic bike boom is petering out, but more Americans are biking than ever before, signaling a need for cities to keep improving bike infrastructure and make roads safer for cyclists. (planetizen.com)
  • Controlling the COVID-19 pandemic surely requires both policy-level intervention and individual behavior change alike. (cdc.gov)
  • Use advanced session-level policy scripts to validate incoming packets and define actions based on the result. (ibm.com)
  • They can successfully guide the council while continuing to build on the state's great agricultural diversity and reputation for quality and safety, which enhances our economic growth. (michigan.gov)
  • Tobacco Free North Dakota successfully brought together the State Health Department, voluntary health agencies, and other health organizations to work for tobacco control policy in the state. (who.int)
  • The tobacco industry successfully halted the passage of tobacco control policy at the state level. (who.int)
  • In response to requests for a one-stop compilation of state policies, the Governing for Results Network partners from CSG, NCSL and The Policy Lab at Brown University have compiled an evidence-based policymaking (EBP) scan across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (ncsl.org)
  • To catalog state evidence policies, such as evidence guidelines for agencies, evidence-based budgeting and definitions of key evidence terms through legislation, executive order or other policy document. (ncsl.org)
  • Start Strong grantees implement a multicomponent approach to improve state and local policies for the prevention of teen dating violence and related behaviors. (rwjf.org)
  • For example, the Swedish company Hybrit, which is partly owned by the state-owned utility Vattenfall, is developing steel that is made without the use of coal. (deloitte.com)
  • There is no law that says a business must provide vacation time, paid or unpaid, but once a policy is established a business should make sure they are following any state or federal labor laws in how they handle vacation pay. (bellaonline.com)
  • But there are few easy wins with health care, poverty, education and so on," says Gary VanLandingham, a professor at Florida State University and a national expert on evidence-based policymaking. (governing.com)
  • The mobilization of health advocates for tobacco control policy did not begin until the late 1980's when Dr. Stephen McDonough joined the State Health Department as the Head of the Preventive Health Section and Director of Maternal and Child Health. (who.int)
  • Tobacco Free North Dakota was in existence throughout the 1990's but became progressively less effective in promoting state level tobacco control policy due to increased tobacco industry involvement in state level politics. (who.int)
  • The mobilization of health advocates for tobacco control led to an increase in tobacco industry involvement in state politics and subsequent decrease in state level tobacco control policy. (who.int)
  • Inside our state, connecting with the people who use the technology every day will remain the key to making this next phase of change a reality. (cdc.gov)
  • In the wake of the global financial crisis, monetary and fiscal policies were used aggressively to counteract the effects of the crisis on economic activity. (imf.org)
  • The efforts succeeded in shaping the current HIV / AIDS policy through various initiatives such as the use of constitutional law in legal action against profiteering drug companies. (bvsalud.org)
  • There are examples of community interventions and policy initiatives that have contributed to better health outcomes in these communities. (cdc.gov)
  • If they really expect this policy to work - that it actually stops poorer people having more children then the Tories leave themselves open to being accused of trying to control the number of poor people who might not vote for them or to controlling their numbers because they simply don't like them. (huffingtonpost.co.uk)
  • These repairs are just the kind of work unemployed construction workers have the skills and experience to do - replacing boilers or faulty air conditioning systems, repairing broken tiles, removing or encasing asbestos, making electrical repairs and upgrades, replacing roofs and windows, and making security improvements. (epi.org)
  • You could, for instance, take from this insight the lesson that our immigration policy needs to be more like that of the Persian Gulf states, where large numbers of foreigners come and go to work but aren't incorporated into our society (I've argued against that view here and elsewhere). (cis.org)
  • The analogy does not really work because financial instability is something man-made, and not an unassailable fact of nature. (europa.eu)
  • If you want change to be meaningful and lasting, you also have to give people on the ground what they need to make it work. (cdc.gov)
  • As Joel Popkin has demonstrated in numerous studies, manufacturing 'is the seedbed of innovation', and innovation is, of course, what we are counting on to keep the U.S. economy competitive. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • In "Dagens Arena": Make innovation into a separate policy area! (lu.se)
  • The critics say the widely held impression of decline in American manufacturing is false because output has continued to climb, and because U.S. manufacturing production, while a bit less than China's is two thirds higher than Japan's and triple Germany's. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • After conducting dozens of interviews, DiCiccio-Bloom and Yang decided to focus the paper they are writing on older workers and retirees as they navigate China's mandatory retirement age policy. (fandm.edu)
  • Regardless of how many people are employed directly in manufacturing, it is indisputable as several major studies have shown that $1 of manufacturing activity creates $1.48 of additional activity in the economy. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • It is a nasty policy and can only appeal to people fed on a diet of hatred for poorer people - fed on stories of the tiny minority who do abuse the benefits system. (huffingtonpost.co.uk)
  • In monthly sessions, you will have the opportunity to practice new skills in a comfortable and safe environment, build a network of people from diverse cultural backgrounds and life experiences, and learn from national experts .Partners in Policymaking is about systems change - creating, working toward and achieving a vision of shared values about people with disabilities. (in.gov)
  • When you have people who continue working after retirement, there are tremendous policy implications to the country and how we should make- or how we shouldn't be making- assumptions about what the reality is," Yang said. (fandm.edu)
  • Behind the 'iron cage' of bureaucracy are not only much more diverse responses to the policy in place, but also real people with thoughts and passions," Yang said. (fandm.edu)
  • MRLs estimate how much of a certain kind of exposure (contact) to a hazardous substance will likely not make people sick (like by breathing toxic fumes or drinking contaminated water). (cdc.gov)
  • Building strong partnerships before an emergency helps reach more people with consistent messaging through different channels. (cdc.gov)
  • Important advances have been made to protect people from known environmental risks, by setting norms and guidelines, implementing solutions and monitoring efforts. (who.int)
  • We've rewritten our policies and regulations. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the 1970s, we have identified in the Brazilian Amazon, a region of fertile ethnic plurality, a network of gender relations being woven within the broader indigenous movement, creating an organizational balance of social participation in community actions that culminated in the struggles and achievements for consolidation of indigenous health in the SUS. (bvsalud.org)
  • She correctly notes that flat wages didn't "just happen"-they're the result of deliberate policies that favored capital-but doesn't take the next step and explain that the destruction of unions was one of those very deliberate policies. (motherjones.com)
  • We're looking toward standards like HL7's Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) to make that happen. (cdc.gov)
  • webpage defines evidence and qualifying evaluations, and links to the department's evaluation policy. (ncsl.org)
  • Start Strong's independent evaluation included a multimethod evaluation of the initiative's policy component. (rwjf.org)
  • Listen to the stories about having to cut education and other spending and raise regressive taxes to make up for the absence of the promised growth miracle. (taxpolicycenter.org)
  • Conceived by Paul Cairney, the policy cycle traces the stages that an idea travels through to become policy or legislation. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Getting Hammered' podcast host Mary Katherine Ham and District Media Group President Beverly Hallberg react to climate proposals on 'Making Money. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Yang's interviews showed that individuals and organizations often find ways around the policy, with both men and women working past the age they are supposed to leave the workforce. (fandm.edu)
  • The existence of policy did not necessarily ensure desired practice. (rwjf.org)
  • Indeed, how to handle signs that major prior commitments are not working as intended is common to every aspect of human existence-from the owner of an old car who has to decide whether to make additional repairs after a critical breakdown, to management deciding what course to follow when a new investment fails. (routledge.com)
  • Coalition agreements are one of many instruments coalition partners can use to facilitate policy making. (lu.se)
  • Foreign Policy Magazine is a division of Graham Holdings Company. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • The question of how to deal with adverse feedback to high-stakes foreign policy speaks to a number of important, current scenarios in international relations. (routledge.com)
  • Competing theories from several of disciplines-primarily psychology, political science and management-offer insight into a subject that has been rarely studied in foreign policy, yet is as current as today's headlines. (routledge.com)
  • Responding to Adverse Feedback: Group Decision-Making In Protracted Foreign Policy Problems Charles F. Hermann and Robert S. Billings 3. (routledge.com)
  • Applying Control Theory to Sequential Foreign Policy Decision-Making Jeffrey B. Vancouver 8. (routledge.com)
  • When Things Go Wrong is a tour de force in the field of foreign policy analysis. (routledge.com)
  • Hermann has assembled an all-star team to study the subject of changing course in foreign policy, with emphasis on the crucial but neglected aspect of responding to signs of failure. (routledge.com)
  • Theorizing in this volume draws on political psychology, cybernetics and elsewhere to establish the basic difficulty of effecting change in the face of foreign policy setbacks. (routledge.com)
  • This study is essential reading for specialists in foreign policy and decision-making in particular, along with the fields of international relations, political science and psychology in general. (routledge.com)
  • In this intriguing edited volume, the only one of its kind, some of the brightest names in Foreign Policy Analysis examine under what conditions states do-or do not-learn from their policy failures. (routledge.com)
  • Along with appropriate consideration of a variety of approaches and perspectives, this text will give students deep substantive knowledge of decision making during key moments in the history of foreign policy. (routledge.com)
  • Some issues remain the preserve of Westminster, such as foreign policy. (plymouth.ac.uk)