No data available that match "poisons"

Calcium antagonists ameliorate ischemia-induced endothelial cell permeability by inhibiting protein kinase C. (1/123)

BACKGROUND: Dihydropyridines block calcium channels; however, they also influence endothelial cells, which do not express calcium channels. We tested the hypothesis that nifedipine can prevent ischemia-induced endothelial permeability increases by inhibiting protein kinase C (PKC) in cultured porcine endothelial cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ischemia was induced by potassium cyanide/deoxyglucose, and permeability was measured by albumin flux. Ion channels were characterized by patch clamp. [Ca2+]i was measured by fura 2. PKC activity was measured by substrate phosphorylation after cell fractionation. PKC isoforms were assessed by Western blot and confocal microscopy. Nifedipine prevented the ischemia-induced increase in permeability in a dose-dependent manner. Ischemia increased [Ca2+]i, which was not affected by nifedipine. Instead, ischemia-induced PKC translocation was prevented by nifedipine. Phorbol ester also increased endothelial cell permeability, which was dose dependently inhibited by nifedipine. The effects of non-calcium-channel-binding dihydropyridine derivatives were similar. Analysis of the PKC isoforms showed that nifedipine prevented ischemia-induced translocation of PKC-alpha and PKC-zeta. Specific inhibition of PKC isoforms with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides demonstrated a major role for PKC-alpha. CONCLUSIONS: Nifedipine exerts a direct effect on endothelial cell permeability that is independent of calcium channels. The inhibition of ischemia-induced permeability by nifedipine seems to be mediated primarily by PKC-alpha inhibition. Anti-ischemic effects of dihydropyridine calcium antagonists could be due in part to their effects on endothelial cell permeability.  (+info)

The role of oxidative DNA damage in human arsenic carcinogenesis: detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in arsenic-related Bowen's disease. (2/123)

Arsenic is widely distributed in nature in the form of either metalloids or chemical compounds, which cause a variety of pathologic conditions including cutaneous and visceral malignancies. Recently, reactive oxygen species have been hypothesized to be one of the causes of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine is one of the major reactive oxygen species-induced DNA base-modified products that is widely accepted as a sensitive marker of oxidative DNA damage. We studied the presence of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine by immunohistochemistry using N45.1 monoclonal antibody in 28 cases of arsenic-related skin neoplasms and arsenic keratosis as well as in 11 cases of arsenic-unrelated Bowen's diseases. The frequency of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine positive cases was significantly higher in arsenic-related skin neoplasms (22 of 28; 78%) than in arsenic-unrelated Bowen's disease (one of 11; 9%) (p < 0.001 by chi2 test). 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine was also detected in normal tissue adjacent to the arsenic-related Bowen's disease lesions. Furthermore, arsenic was detected by neutron activation analysis in the deparaffined skin tumor samples of arsenic-related disease (four of five; 80%), whereas arsenic was not detected in control samples. Our results strongly suggest the involvement of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced human skin cancer. Key word: neutron activation analysis.  (+info)

Efficient cleavage of conjugates of drugs or poisons by immobilized beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase in columns. (3/123)

BACKGROUND: Cleavage of conjugates is an important step in toxicological analysis, especially of urine samples. The aim of this study was to combine the advantages and to reduce the disadvantages of acid hydrolysis and conventional enzymatic hydrolysis procedures. METHODS: beta-Glucuronidase (GRD; EC and arylsulfatase (ARS; EC were purified and coimmobilized on an agarose gel matrix and packed into columns. RESULTS: In columns packed with GRD and ARS, the test conjugates 4-nitrophenyl glucuronide and 4-nitrophenyl sulfate added into urine could be completely cleaved within 25 min. Even the relatively stable morphine conjugates could be completely hydrolyzed within 60 min in authentic urine samples. Therefore, an incubation time of 1 h is recommended. Enzyme inhibition by matrix or by rather high concentrations of acetaminophen conjugates was tested and found to be up to 50%. However, a large excess of GRD and ARS was used. The immobilizate columns could be reused for at least 70 incubations and had a storage stability of at least 12 weeks. Carryover of analytes in reused columns could be avoided by rinsing with 200 mL/L methanol in acetate buffer. Thus, five drugs known to be contaminants added in very high concentrations into urine could be completely removed from the columns. A study on the applicability in systematic toxicological analysis showed that 120 different drugs and/or their metabolites could be detected in 35 different authentic urine samples. CONCLUSIONS: Use of immobilized and column-packed GRD and ARS is an efficient alternative for the cleavage of urinary conjugates in clinical toxicology.  (+info)

(+)-[3H]isradipine and [3H]glyburide bindings to heart and lung membranes from rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. (4/123)

We examined the binding of a 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channel ligand, (+)-[3H]isradipine (PN200-110), and that of an ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel ligand, [3H]glyburide, to heart, lung and brain membranes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats made pulmonary hypertensive by monocrotaline, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid. A single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline increased right ventricular systolic pressure, a measure of pulmonary arterial pressure, and the thickness of the right ventricular free wall in 3 to 4 weeks. The (+)-[3H]PN200-110 and [3H]glyburide binding site densities (Bmax) were reduced in hypertrophied right ventricles when normalized per unit protein in comparison with those of age-matched control (sham) rats, whereas the values of the dissociation constant (Kd) of both ligands bound to the hypertrophied right ventricle were not significantly changed. The [3H]PN200-110 binding to the lung membranes of the monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats was increased. The results indicate that the change in the binding of 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+ and K(ATP) channel ligands to heart membranes may contribute to the pathological alteration of cardiopulmonary structure and functions in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline.  (+info)

Cardiac endothelin and big endothelin in right-heart hypertrophy due to monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rat. (5/123)

OBJECTIVE: Recent observations suggest the existence of a myocardial endothelin (ET) system and its possible involvement in left-ventricular myocardial hypertrophy and failure. However, nothing is known about the role of myocardial ET in right-ventricular hypertrophy. METHODS: Rats (80-100 g) were given an intraperitoneal injection of saline (controls) or monocrotaline (50 mg/kg) resulting in pulmonary hypertension-induced myocardial hypertrophy (n = 11 in both groups). After 10 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and hearts perfused in vitro to determine levels of big ET-1 and ET-1 in coronary effluent, interstitial fluid and ventricular tissue homogenates; plasma levels were also determined. RESULTS: In monocrotaline-treated animals, weights of right ventricles were 1.5 and of right atria 1.8-fold higher than in controls (p < 0.05), indicating substantial right-ventricular hypertrophy as also evident from greatly increased myocardial production of atrial natriuretic peptide. Left-ventricular weights were not different. Release of big ET-1 in coronary effluent, and of ET-1 in coronary effluent and interstitial transudate were similar in control and hypertrophic hearts (p > 0.05). Disruption of endothelium with collagenase reduced release of both peptides close to zero, indicating endothelial (not myocardial) origin of the peptides. Levels of big ET-1 and ET-1 were similar in left ventricles of both experimental groups, but lower in right ventricles of hypertrophic than control hearts (p < 0.05), reflecting increased tissue mass rather than reduced peptide production. On the other hand, plasma levels of both peptides and of ANP were twofold and levels of angiotensin II 1.3-fold higher in rats with right-heart hypertrophy than in controls (p < 0.05 in each case). CONCLUSION: These data do not support a role for local cardiac ET-1 and/or big ET-1 in right-ventricular hypertrophy, but point to blood-borne endothelins as possible mediators.  (+info)

Identification of the general unknown. Application of mass selective detectors in forensic toxicology. (6/123)

One of the basic aims of forensic toxicology is the identification of previously unknown drugs and poisons. This is frequently achieved using the combination of gas chromatography and benchtop quadrupole or ion trap mass spectrometers. The influence of matrix loading on the mass spectral quality was tested, and it was found that a realistic amount of matrix changed the pattern of the spectra obtained by the ion trap mass spectrometer. Disturbed mass spectra led to unsuitable suggestions from the library search and thus rendered the identification of the "general unknown" more difficult. On the other hand, higher selectivity and lower detection limits favored the ion trap technology for target analysis because of the capability of MS-MS.  (+info)

Toward antibody-catalyzed hydrolysis of organophosphorus poisons. (7/123)

We report here our preliminary results on the use of catalytic antibodies as an approach to neutralizing organophosphorus chemical weapons. A first-generation hapten, methyl-alpha-hydroxyphosphinate Ha, was designed to mimic the approach of an incoming water molecule for the hydrolysis of exceedingly toxic methylphosphonothioate VX (1a). A moderate protective activity was first observed on polyclonal antibodies raised against Ha. The results were further confirmed by using a mAb PAR 15 raised against phenyl-alpha-hydroxyphosphinate Hb, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of PhX (1b), a less toxic phenylphosphonothioate analog of VX with a rate constant of 0.36 M(-1) x min(-1) at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C, which corresponds to a catalytic proficiency of 14,400 M(-1) toward the rate constant for the uncatalyzed hydrolysis of 1b. This is a demonstration on the organophosphorus poisons themselves that mAbs can catalytically hydrolyze nerve agents, and a significant step toward the production of therapeutically active abzymes to treat poisoning by warfare agents.  (+info)

Fatal strychnine poisoning: application of gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. (8/123)

The history and toxicological findings in a case of suicidal fatal strychnine poisoning are presented along with a description of the analytical methods. Detection and quantitation of strychnine in body fluids and tissues was performed by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection, using organic extraction and calibration by a standard addition method. Strychnine concentrations in subclavian blood (1.82 mg/mL), inferior vena cava blood (3.32 mg/mL), urine (3.35 mg/mL), bile (11.4 mg/mL), liver (98.6 mg/kg), lung (12.3 mg/kg), spleen (11.8 mg/kg), brain (2.42 mg/kg), and skeletal muscle (2.32 mg/kg) were determined. Confirmation of strychnine in blood and tissue was performed by GC with detection by tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry (MS). GC-MS-MS analysis, employing electron ionization followed by unit mass resolution and collision-induced dissociation of strychnine, resulted in confirmatory ions with mass-to-charge ratios of 334 (parent ion), 319, 306, 277, 261, 246, 233, and 220. Additional confirmation was provided by GC-MS-MS-MS analysis of each confirmatory ion, revealing an ion fragmentation pathway consistent with the molecular structure of strychnine. The case demonstrates body tissue and fluid distribution of strychnine in a fatal poisoning and the application of tandem MS in medical examiner casework.  (+info)

  • A poison is any substance that produces injury to the body by chemical means. (
  • Wolverine's (Marvel Comics) Healing Factor protects him from poison, including the metallic poisoning from the Adamantium that is stored in his body. (
  • However, some members of the special forensic committee formed for the case aren't too happy about the police not following their instructions for the exhumation of Rehab's body along with that of Rameez, as it would have helped them ascertain the exact level of poisoning. (
  • Sōsuke Aizen's (Bleach) tremendous regeneration powers gained from the Hogyoku allowed him to survive the deadly poison of the Kamishinino Yari. (
  • For a level 49 ability, I would have thought it would have kept the point total of regular Poison. (
  • This makes a perfect counter-ability to those with Poison Manipulation and Poison Generation . (
  • the fast poison at the expense of some points kills them off faster so you can get to your next target. (
  • Fast poison is better for Wanted if you are going after a target that has multiple pursuers. (
  • Slow is better for games like Alliance and Manhunt where you shouldn't have to worry about someone killing your poisoned target. (
  • I found it a little silly that Fast Poison (Level 49) is worse than the regular Poison (Level 29) even though there's 20 levels between the two. (
  • Some poison bottles were shaped like coffins, and a scarce few clay bottles have been found shaped like a human bone. (
  • Urushiol oil is the same oil found in poison ivy and poison oak. (
  • And about Rehab, the scientists explained that since traces of aluminium were found in the stomach wash, it is conclusive that she too had consumed the poison and not inhaled it. (
  • A committee expert, who wished not to be identified, said, "Knowledge of the level of poisoning in both the bodies would have helped us reach conclusions about the circumstances that would have led to the incident. (
  • The power to be immune to all forms of poisons . (
  • Sub-power of Contaminant Immunity and Poison Manipulation . (
  • With the power of the Doku Doku no Mi , Magellan (One Piece) is immune to all poisons, including his own. (
  • If no poisons existed natural selection could explain this situation by explaining that poisons 'selected' to extinction those animals that had less defence against them. (