Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Noscapine: A naturally occurring opium alkaloid that is a centrally acting antitussive agent.Tyrosine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to tyramine and carbon dioxide. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.1.1.25.Thebaine: A drug that is derived from opium, which contains from 0.3-1.5% thebaine depending on its origin. It produces strychnine-like convulsions rather than narcosis. It may be habit-forming and is a controlled substance (opiate) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.12 (1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Peronospora: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae. Most species are obligatory parasites and many are plant pathogens.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Papaver: A genus of Eurasian herbaceous plants, the poppies (family PAPAVERACEAE of the dicotyledon class Magnoliopsida), that yield OPIUM from the latex of the unripe seed pods.Benzylisoquinolines: ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Euphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Inert Gas Narcosis: Progressive mental disturbances and unconsciousness due to breathing mixtures of oxygen and inert gases (argon, helium, xenon, krypton, and atmospheric nitrogen) at high pressure.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Stupor: A state of reduced sensibility and response to stimuli which is distinguished from COMA in that the person can be aroused by vigorous and repeated stimulation. The person is still conscious and can make voluntary movements. It can be induced by CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AGENTS. The word derives from Latin stupere and is related to stunned, stupid, dazed or LETHARGY.Perphenazine: An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.Morphine Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.Levallorphan: An opioid antagonist with properties similar to those of NALOXONE; in addition it also possesses some agonist properties. It should be used cautiously; levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory depression such as that induced by alcohol or other non-opioid central depressants. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p683)Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.BooksNewspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research for a national program in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases. It was established in 1948.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
  • The first recorded use of the poppy plant comes from Sumerians in lower Mesopotamia around the time of 3,400 B.C. In time, they passed knowledge of poppy crop cultivation on to Egyptians, where Opium trade thrived under Thutmose IV, Akhenaton, and King Tutankhamen. (opioidhelp.com)
  • In addition to becoming a substantially more addictive substance through scientific discovery, the Opium Wars erupted between China and England in the 1800's. (opioidhelp.com)
  • Opium resin has been used to make analgesics since ancient Sumerians in Mesopotamia referred to it as Hul Gil, or the "joy plant. (opioidhelp.com)
  • Yet, sentiment toward the plant eventually shifted again and, 300 years later, Elizabeth I directed merchants to bring back the finest Opium in India to England. (opioidhelp.com)
  • Opium smoking was often associated with immigrant Chinese communities around the world, with "opium dens" becoming notorious fixtures of many Chinatowns. (azarius.net)
  • His associate, Jack Black's , memoir You Can't Win , chronicles one man's experience both as an onlooker in the opium dens of San Francisco, and later as a "hop fiend" himself. (artandpopularculture.com)
  • They brought opium with them, and while we may have an image of the Wild West being full of gun toting cowboys and saloons we could also have an image of syringe carrying "junkies" in opium dens that where just as common. (stopaddiction.com)
  • the vast majority of the world's opium is currently produced in Afghanistan. (questia.com)
  • Multiple sources confirm that over 90 percent of the world's opium supply comes from Afghanistan. (pbcommercial.com)
  • Afghanistan - which produces 80 per cent of the world's opium - made around 4,800 tonnes of the drug last year, bringing in revenues of US$3 billion (Dh11bn), according to the United Nations. (thenational.ae)
  • Yet all the while opium was tightening its grip on him, and in 1813 he succumbed to an addiction that tormented him until his death in 1859, more than half a century after he had first tampered with the drug. (theconversation.com)
  • My understanding of his opium addiction has benefited greatly from my consultations with Prof. Mary Olmstead of the Centre for Neuroscience Studies at Queen's University. (theconversation.com)
  • Opium addicts in otherwise good physical and mental health whose drug needs are met are thought to experience no debilitating physiological effects from their addiction, although there is some evidence that immune function is compromised. (questia.com)
  • Morphine addiction soon became a much greater problem than opium ever was. (pbcommercial.com)
  • Morphine was first used medicinally as a painkiller and, erroneously, as a cure for opium addiction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The US conducted airstrikes targeting opium processing labs in Afghanistan Sunday, Pentagon spokesman Lt. Col. Michael Andrews tells CNN. (cnn.com)
  • Ever since the US invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, drug warriors have been constrained in their efforts to go after the Afghan opium crops because of fears it would drive poppy-dependent peasants into the hands of the Taliban. (stopthedrugwar.org)
  • KARIZ, Afghanistan - No one could be more delighted about the departure of the Taliban regime than the opium poppy growers here in eastern Afghanistan. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • According to a recent report by the U.N. Drug Control Program, the decree brought raw opium production in Afghanistan to a virtual halt, dropping from 3,276 tons to only 185 tons in just one year. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Until that time, licit opium production will be limited to only four provinces and strictly policed. (druglibrary.org)
  • In particular, Article 23 of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs requires opium-producing nations to designate a government agency to take physical possession of licit opium crops as soon as possible after harvest and conduct all wholesaling and exporting through that agency. (azarius.net)
  • Lori Edwards, Senior Chemist at the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, discusses the history of opium use in society and in Wisconsin. (wpt.org)
  • The history of opium goes as far back as 3400 B.C., when people first began using opium. (bestdrugrehabilitation.com)
  • higher than giganthemums by pod weight lower than nigrums, which, im told are potent. (shroomery.org)
  • and as was mentioned earlier in another thread, less potent than albums, which are grown for opium, wheras nigrums are grown for seed. (shroomery.org)
  • And the opium you get is about 50% more potent than what you get from the ordinary "slicing and collecting from pods" method. (shroomery.org)
  • 9. When all water is vaporized it should be a sticky matter left in the pot, this is the opium, and is about 50% more potent then when slicing, because you now have an extract. (shroomery.org)
  • In 1804, a 19-year-old Oxford University undergraduate named Thomas De Quincey swallowed a prescribed dose of opium to relieve excruciating rheumatic pain. (theconversation.com)
  • The beginning of widespread opium use in China is associated with the introduction of tobacco smoking in pipes by Dutch from Java in the 17th century. (erowid.org)
  • De Quincey consumed opium as "laudanum," which is prepared by dissolving opium in alcohol. (theconversation.com)
  • During the 1800s, laudanum (opium dissolved in alcohol) and other opium products were used in Great Britain and America to treat various ailments, from teething soreness in babies to fever and cough in children and adults. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Coleridge began using opium in 1791 after developing jaundice and rheumatic fever and became a full addict after a severe attack of the disease in 1801, requiring 80-100 drops of laudanum daily. (artandpopularculture.com)
  • Opium and its various constituents exert effects upon the body ranging from analgesia, or insensitivity to pain, to narcosis, or depressed physiological activity leading to stupor. (questia.com)
  • De Quincey's Confessions transformed perceptions of opium and mapped several crucial areas of drug experience that still provoke intense debate today. (theconversation.com)
  • Opium is probably the oldest drug known to humankind. (theconversation.com)
  • An age old drug, Opium has influenced the economy of nations, caused wars, inspired poets and brought the ruin of many. (listverse.com)
  • By the late eighteenth century opium was being heavily used in China as a recreational drug. (erowid.org)
  • Opium has been used for centuries as a recreational drug and in medicine as a sedative and anesthetic. (biztimes.com)
  • The plot revolves partly around the poppy flower and opium drug. (artandpopularculture.com)
  • Did the citizens of Sumer use opium or hashish to drug the courtiers buried alive with their king or queen, or was it merely wine? (drbongs.com)
  • It quickly replaced opium as a cure-all recommended by doctors and as a recreational drug and was readily available from drugstores or through the mail. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There have been numerous reports of men and women getting fired after a workplace drug test-or, in one 2010 case, having a newborn baby snatched from their arms at the hospital after testing positive for opium. (todayifoundout.com)
  • Samsul Haq, deputy director of the Nangarhar Drug Control and Coordination Office, estimates that before the Taliban edict, 85 percent of the Jalalabad agricultural economy was driven by opium production. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The numbers are stark: At the market's peak in 2017, the farmers were selling their opium resin for as much as $590 per pound. (mapinc.org)
  • Few residents even admit to knowing that the opium resin is converted into drugs for consumption in the United States. (mapinc.org)
  • Between June and July, the poppy blooms, and, 10 days later, when the blossoms lose their petals, the pods are ready for the opium resin to be extracted. (druglibrary.org)