Sequence Analysis, DNA
Molecular Sequence Data
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
A taxonomic study of bacteria isolated from grasses: a proposed new species Pseudomonas graminis sp. nov. (1/2130)The taxonomic position of a yellow-pigmented group of bacteria, isolated from the phyllosphere of grasses was investigated. Results obtained from restriction analysis of amplified 16S rDNA with seven endonucleases (CfoI, HaeIII, AluI, HinfI, MspI, Sau3A and ScrFI) showed identical restriction patterns for each enzyme of all isolates studied, which suggests that all strains belong to the same species. The grass isolates displayed the characteristics of the genus Pseudomonas. They were Gram-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped with polar flagella. Isolates were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, and unable to oxidize or ferment glucose with the production of acid. The isolates did not reduce nitrate to nitrite but were able to utilize a wide range of compounds individually as a sole carbon source, with preference being given to the utilization of monosaccharides. The disaccharides tested were not utilized as substrates. The DNA base compositions of the tested strains ranged from 60 to 61 mol% G+C. The major isoprenoid quinone of each was ubiquinone Q-9 and hydroxy fatty acids were represented by 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid. Comparison of 16S rDNA sequences showed that the bacteria were members of the genus Pseudomonas, with similarity values between 91.5 and 97.7%. DNA-DNA hybridization studies with closely related neighbours revealed a low level of homology (< 27%), indicating that the isolates represent an individual species. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses a new species, Pseudomonas graminis sp. nov. (type strain DSM 11363T), is proposed. (+info)
Evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass shown by reverse transcriptase domain analysis. (2/2130)The evolutionary dynamics of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in grass were examined by reverse transcriptase (RT) domain analysis. Twenty-three rice RT sequences were newly determined for this report. Phylogenetic analysis of 177 RT sequences, mostly derived from wheat, rice, and, maize, showed four distinct families, which were designated G1, G2, G3, and G4. Three of these families have elements obtained from distantly related species, indicative of origins prior to the radiation of grass species. Results of Southern hybridization and detailed comparisons between the wheat and rice sequences indicated that each of the families had undergone a distinct pattern of evolution. Multiple families appear to have evolved in parallel in a host species. Analyses of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions suggested that there is a low percentage of elements carrying functional RT domains in the G4 family, indicating that the production of new G4 elements has been controlled by a small number of elements carrying functional RT domains. (+info)
Identification of Epichloe endophytes in planta by a microsatellite-based PCR fingerprinting assay with automated analysis. (3/2130)Epichloe endophytes are a group of filamentous fungi that include both sexual (Epichloe) and asexual (Neotyphodium) species. As a group they are genetically diverse and form both antagonistic and mutualistic associations with temperate grasses. We report here on the development of a microsatellite-based PCR system for fingerprinting this group of fungi with template isolated from either culture or infected plant material. M13mp19 partial genomic libraries were constructed for size-fractionated genomic DNA from two endophyte strains. These libraries were screened with a mixture of DIG-labeled dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeat probes. Positive clones were sequenced, and nine unique microsatellite loci were identified. An additional microsatellite was serendipitously identified in the 3' untranscribed region of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase gene from N. lolii Lp19. Primers were designed for each locus and a panel of endophytes, from different taxonomic groupings, was screened to determine the degree of polymorphism. On the basis of these results a multiplex assay was developed for strain identification with fluorescently labeled primers for five of these loci. Using this system the size of the products amplified can be precisely determined by automated analysis, and an allele profile for each strain can be readily generated. The assay was shown to resolve endophyte groupings to the level of known isozyme phenotype groupings. In a blind test the assay was used successfully to identify a set of endophytes in planta. A reference database of allele sizes has been established for the panel of endophytes examined, and this will be expanded as new strains are analyzed. (+info)
Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass. (4/2130)Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (P<.10), had lighter starting and finished weights on feed (P< .01), lighter carcass weights (P<.01), and smaller longissimus muscle areas (P<.05) than calves from BG. Calves from E+ were similar to calves from BG in feedlot ADG, percentage kidney, heart, and pelvic fat, fat thickness over 12th rib, yield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows. (+info)
The mechanism of rhythmic ethylene production in sorghum. The role of phytochrome B and simulated shading. (5/2130)Mutant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) deficient in functional phytochrome B exhibits reduced photoperiodic sensitivity and constitutively expresses a shade-avoidance phenotype. Under relatively bright, high red:far-red light, ethylene production by seedlings of wild-type and phytochrome B-mutant cultivars progresses through cycles in a circadian rhythm; however, the phytochrome B mutant produces ethylene peaks with approximately 10 times the amplitude of the wild type. Time-course northern blots show that the mutant's abundance of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase mRNA SbACO2 is cyclic and is commensurate with ethylene production, and that ACC oxidase activity follows the same pattern. Both SbACO2 abundance and ACC oxidase activity in the wild-type plant are very low under this regimen. ACC levels in the two cultivars did not demonstrate fluctuations coincident with the ethylene produced. Simulated shading caused the wild-type plant to mimic the phenotype of the mutant and to produce high amplitude rhythms of ethylene evolution. The circadian feature of the ethylene cycle is conditionally present in the mutant and absent in the wild-type plant under simulated shading. SbACO2 abundance in both cultivars demonstrates a high-amplitude diurnal cycle under these conditions; however, ACC oxidase activity, although elevated, does not exhibit a clear rhythm correlated with ethylene production. ACC levels in both cultivars show fluctuations corresponding to the ethylene rhythm previously observed. It appears that at least two separate mechanisms may be involved in generating high-amplitude ethylene rhythms in sorghum, one in response to the loss of phytochrome B function and another in response to shading. (+info)
Quantifying the risks of TB infection to cattle posed by badger excreta. (6/2130)Despite strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that the main route of TB transmission from badgers to cattle is via contaminated badger excreta, it is unclear whether the associated risks are high enough to account for the prevalence of the disease in south-west England. To decide whether this was a viable route of transmission, cattle contact with badger excreta was investigated using a deterministic approach to quantify the risks to cattle posed by badger excreta. Levels of investigative and grazing contacts between cattle and badger urine and faeces could each account for the disease prevalence in south-west England. An infection probability of 3.7 x 10(-4) per bite from pasture contaminated with badger urine infected with Mycobacterium bovis could account for the prevalence of TB in cattle in south-west England. Infection probabilities of 6.9 x 10(-7) per investigation and 1.1 x 10(-7) per bite from badger latrines could each account for the prevalence of TB in cattle in the south-west. When considering only the high risk areas of south-west England these bounds fell by a factor of eight. However, badger excreta may still constitute a high level of risk to cattle. The levels of cattle contact with badger excreta are far higher than previously thought, suggesting that it is the probability of infection per given contact with infected badger excreta which has the greater influence on the probability of transmission and not the level of contact. The infection probability per cattle contact with infected badger excreta is in all likelihood extremely low. (+info)
Fractionation of fiber and crude protein in fresh forages during the spring growth. (7/2130)The composition of the fiber and CP of alfalfa, bromegrass, and endophyte-free and -infected tall fescue forages was compared during the spring growth from vegetative to reproductive stages. Forages were sampled from April 27 to June 6 in 1994, and from April 27 to June 11 in 1995, with 11 and 12 harvest dates, respectively. Total dietary fiber (TDF) was fractionated into insoluble and soluble fiber (SF). The CP of the forages was fractionated into nonprotein N (A), soluble CP (B1), insoluble CP that was soluble in neutral detergent (B2), CP insoluble in neutral detergent but soluble in acid detergent (B3), and CP insoluble in acid detergent (C). Effects of year, forage species, and harvest dates (day as a covariable) were included in the model. Across harvest dates, alfalfa (A) had lower (P < .01) TDF and higher (P < .01) SF concentrations than grasses (GR) (A: 49.9 and 14.4% and GR: 60.4 and 4.5% [OM basis] for TDF and SF, respectively). Alfalfa had higher (P < .01) CP (20.6% DM) than GR (15.3%). The rate of decrease in CP (% DM) across days was higher (P < .01) for bromegrass (-.4%/d) than for the other forages (-.29%/d). Fraction A (% of CP) was not different (P = .24) among forages (22.5%), but B1 was higher (P < .01) in A (17.1%) than in GR (13.2%). The B2 fraction (% of CP) was higher (P < .01) in A compared with GR (51.6 vs 45.9%, respectively). Alfalfa had lower (P < .01) B3 (3.0% of CP) than bromegrass (18.6%) and tall fescue (13.2%). Fraction C was not different (P = .23) among forages (3.8%). Fractions A, B1, and C (% of CP) did not change (P > .05) across days for all forages. Fraction B2 (% of CP) decreased across days in A (-.21%/d) but was not affected in GR. Fraction B3 (% of CP) increased (P < .05) in A (.1%/d), decreased in endophyte-infected tall fescue (-.20%/d), and did not change (P > .05) in the other forages. Crude protein and fiber composition were affected more by forage species than by maturity. The CP and NDF concentrations were more affected by maturity. Insoluble fractions but not soluble fractions of CP were affected by maturity. (+info)
Molecular analysis of bacterial community structure and diversity in unimproved and improved upland grass pastures. (8/2130)Bacterial community structure and diversity in rhizospheres in two types of grassland, distinguished by both plant species and fertilization regimen, were assessed by performing a 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis of DNAs extracted from triplicate soil plots. PCR products were cloned, and 45 to 48 clones from each of the six libraries were partially sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the resultant 275 clone sequences indicated that there was considerable variation in abundance in replicate unfertilized, unimproved soil samples and fertilized, improved soil samples but that there were no significant differences in the abundance of any phylogenetic group. Several clone sequences were identical in the 16S rDNA region analyzed, and the clones comprised eight pairs of duplicate clones and two sets of triplicate clones. Many clones were found to be most closely related to environmental clones obtained in other studies, although three clones were found to be identical to culturable species in databases. The clones were clustered into operational taxonomic units at a level of sequence similarity of >97% in order to quantify diversity. In all, 34 clusters containing two or more sequences were identified, and the largest group contained nine clones. A number of diversity, dominance, and evenness indices were calculated, and they all indicated that diversity was high, reflecting the low coverage of rDNA libraries achieved. Differences in diversity between sample types were not observed. Collector's curves, however, indicated that there were differences in the underlying community structures; in particular, there was reduced diversity of organisms of the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria (alpha-proteobacteria) in improved soils. (+info)
Brachiaria is a genus of grasses that are commonly used as forage for livestock. They are known for their high nutritional value and ability to grow in a wide range of conditions. In the medical field, Brachiaria is not typically used for treatment of any specific condition. However, some species of Brachiaria have been found to have potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects.
I'm sorry, but "Bambusa" is not a term commonly used in the medical field. It is actually a genus of bamboo plants, which are commonly used for a variety of purposes such as construction, paper production, and as ornamental plants. If you have any other medical-related questions, I would be happy to try and help you.
DNA, chloroplast refers to the genetic material found within the chloroplasts of plant cells. Chloroplasts are organelles responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy. The DNA within chloroplasts is circular and contains genes that are involved in the production of proteins necessary for photosynthesis. Chloroplast DNA is inherited maternally, meaning that it is passed down from the mother to the offspring. Mutations in chloroplast DNA can affect the ability of plants to carry out photosynthesis and can lead to various genetic disorders.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that contains the genetic information of living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is found in the nucleus of cells and in organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA is composed of four types of nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). These bases pair up in a specific way to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with adenine always pairing with thymine and cytosine always pairing with guanine. The sequence of these bases in DNA determines the genetic information that is passed down from parent plants to offspring. This information includes traits such as plant height, leaf shape, flower color, and resistance to diseases and pests. In the medical field, plant DNA is often studied for its potential to be used in biotechnology applications such as crop improvement, biofuels production, and the development of new medicines. For example, scientists may use genetic engineering techniques to modify the DNA of plants to make them more resistant to pests or to produce higher yields.
Polyploidy refers to a condition in which an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes in its cells. This can occur naturally or as a result of genetic mutations. In the medical field, polyploidy is often associated with certain types of cancer, particularly those that are aggressive and difficult to treat. For example, some forms of breast, ovarian, and colon cancer are known to be associated with polyploidy. In these cases, the extra copies of chromosomes can contribute to the growth and spread of the cancer cells. Polyploidy can also be a feature of some genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, in which individuals have an extra copy of chromosome 21.
In the medical field, chromosomes are structures found in the nucleus of cells that contain genetic information in the form of DNA. In plants, chromosomes are typically larger and more complex than those found in animals, and they play a critical role in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant chromosomes are composed of DNA, proteins, and other molecules, and they are organized into distinct regions called arms and centromeres. The number of chromosomes in a plant cell can vary depending on the species, with some plants having as few as two chromosomes and others having hundreds. In plant breeding and genetics, the study of plant chromosomes is important for understanding how traits are inherited and how to manipulate plant genetics to create new varieties with desirable characteristics. Techniques such as chromosome mapping and genetic engineering are used to study and manipulate plant chromosomes in order to improve crop yields, resistance to pests and diseases, and other important traits.
Brachypodium is a genus of grasses that belongs to the family Poaceae. In the medical field, Brachypodium is not commonly used as a medical term. However, some species of Brachypodium are used in research as model organisms to study plant biology, genetics, and evolution. For example, Brachypodium distachyon is a widely used model plant for studying plant development, cell biology, and genetics. It has a small genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal model organism for genetic and genomic research.
In the medical field, angiosperms are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary, which develops into a fruit after fertilization. Angiosperms are also known as flowering plants or dicots, and they are the most diverse group of plants on Earth, with over 300,000 species. Angiosperms are important in medicine because many of them produce useful compounds, such as medicinal plants, that have been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. For example, aspirin is derived from the bark of the willow tree, which is an angiosperm, and digitalis, a heart medication, is derived from the foxglove plant, another angiosperm. In addition to their medicinal uses, angiosperms are also important in agriculture, as they provide food, fiber, and other resources for humans and animals. Many crops, such as wheat, rice, and corn, are angiosperms, and they are also used to produce biofuels and other industrial products. Overall, angiosperms play a crucial role in the functioning of ecosystems and have significant economic and medicinal value.
Apomixis is a type of reproduction that occurs in plants, where offspring are produced without the involvement of gametes (sperm and egg cells). Instead, the offspring are produced through the division of somatic cells, which are non-reproductive cells in the plant's body. In apomixis, the embryo is produced through a process called apomeiosis, which is a form of mitosis that results in the production of genetically identical offspring. The offspring produced through apomixis are genetically identical to the parent plant, and they do not undergo meiosis, which is the process of genetic recombination that occurs during sexual reproduction. Apomixis is an important mechanism for the propagation of certain plant species, particularly those that are difficult to propagate through sexual reproduction. It is also used in agriculture to produce genetically identical plants, which can be useful for crop breeding and the production of genetically modified organisms.
In the medical field, "Bromus" refers to a genus of grasses that includes many species commonly known as brome grasses. These grasses are known for their ability to grow in a variety of environments, including disturbed areas, and are often considered weeds. Some species of Bromus are used in horticulture as ornamental plants, while others are used for forage or as a cover crop. In some cases, exposure to Bromus grasses may cause allergic reactions in some individuals.
Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
I'm sorry, but "Agropyron" is not typically used in the medical field. It is actually a genus of grasses in the family Poaceae, commonly known as wheatgrasses. These grasses are often used for forage or as ornamental plants. If you have any other questions or if there is something else I can help you with, please let me know.
Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells that are responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorbs light energy, and use this energy to power the chemical reactions of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are also responsible for producing oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis. In the medical field, chloroplasts are not typically studied or treated directly, but understanding the process of photosynthesis and the role of chloroplasts in this process is important for understanding plant biology and the role of plants in the environment.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
In the medical field, an allergen is a substance that triggers an allergic reaction in a person. When a person with an allergy comes into contact with an allergen, their immune system reacts by producing antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE). These antibodies bind to cells in the body, causing them to release chemicals such as histamine, which can cause symptoms such as itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Allergens can be found in a wide range of substances, including foods, pollen, dust mites, pet dander, insect stings, and medications. Some common allergens include peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, milk, eggs, wheat, soy, fish, and sesame seeds. Allergens can be inhaled, ingested, injected, or touched, and the severity of an allergic reaction can vary widely depending on the individual and the allergen. In severe cases, an allergic reaction can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention.
List of Poaceae genera
List of Poaceae of South Africa
Elizabeth Anne Kellogg
Poaceae in Flora of Missouri @ efloras.org
Phylogenetic analysis of Leymus (Poaceae: Triticeae) based on random amplified polymorphic DNA
Digitaria longiflora in Gramineae (Poaceae) in Flora of Taiwan @ efloras.org
The Mediterranean: the cradle of Anthoxanthum (Poaceae) diploid diversity | Masarykova univerzita
Lepturus repens POACEAE
User:Tintazul/Plantae - Wikimedia Commons
Poaceae | Native Plants Journal
NEON Biorepository Data Portal - Poaceae
FNA: Tragus berteronianus vs. Poaceae
Chusquea subtesselata (Poaceae) image 37792 at
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - The University of Texas at Austin
Poaceae - Page 2 of 3 - Xera Plants
Sejarah Poaceae: Stepping into Prairie Grasses: An Introduction & Primer
Effects of a nonnative species of Poaceae on aquatic macrophyte community composition: A comparison with a native species
Ark of Taste Collection - Tagged 'Family Corn (Poaceae)' - Truelove Seeds
A new rhizomatous Oryza species (Poaceae) from Sri Lanka | GrassWorld
A New Combination in Steirachne Ekman (Poaceae: Eragrostidineae) - NSP Journals
Bipolaris sorokiniana of barley: infection behaviour in different members of Poaceae
Festuca dertosensis (Poaceae), an overlooked fescue from the NE Iberian Peninsula
Biljne droge iz porodice trava (Poaceae) | Repository of the Faculty of Science
Diversification of the P genome among Agropyron Gaertn. (Poaceae) species detected by FISH
Shining Star Variegated Little Bluestem Grass - Songbird Plants - Almost Eden
Population structure and distribution of a new population of the endagered Aristida portoricensis (Poaceae) in Mayagüez, Puerto...
Genotype- and Cell-Specific Dynamics of Tandem Repeat Patterns in Aegilops speltoides Tausch (Poaceae, Triticeae)<...
PDF) The composition of ruffed lemur (Varecia spp.) diets in six UK zoological collections, with reference to the problems of...
- Genomicand genetic relationships among species of Leymus (Poaceae: Triticeae) inferred from 18S-26S ribosomal genes. (degruyter.com)
- A new species of Festuca L. ( Poaceae ) is described from the southern mountains of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). (bioone.org)
- Grass family (Poaceae), one of the largest plant families with almost 12.000 species, is the most important plant family in economical view. (unizg.hr)
- The genus Anthoxanthum (vernal grasses, Poaceae) represents a taxonomically intricate polyploid complex with large phenotypic variation and poorly resolved evolutionary relationships. (muni.cz)
- The genus Festuca L. ( Poaceae , Loliinae ) is one of the most critical groups of the European flora. (bioone.org)
- The front yard corn hills are in their second year of production this season, bearing corn/maize ( Zea mays of the family Poaceae), squash (Cucurbitaceae), and beans (Fabaceae or Leguminosae), a trio known as the three sisters . (brainripples.com)
- Phylogenetic analysis of Leymus (Poaceae: Triticeae) inferred from nuclear rDNA ITS sequences. (degruyter.com)
- Phylogenetic relationships in Leymus (Poaceae: Triticeae) revealed by nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast trnL-F sequences. (degruyter.com)
- Phylogenetic relationships between Hystrix and its closely related genera (Poaceae: Triticeae) based on nuclear Acc1, DMC1 and chloroplast trnL-F sequences. (degruyter.com)