Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
An interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, occurring between 21-80 years of age. It is characterized by a dramatic onset of a "pneumonia-like" illness with cough, fever, malaise, fatigue, and weight loss. Pathological features include prominent interstitial inflammation without collagen fibrosis, diffuse fibroblastic foci, and no microscopic honeycomb change. There is excessive proliferation of granulation tissue within small airways and alveolar ducts.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).
A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
Pneumonia due to aspiration or inhalation of various oily or fatty substances.
A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A group of interstitial lung diseases with no known etiology. There are several entities with varying patterns of inflammation and fibrosis. They are classified by their distinct clinical-radiological-pathological features and prognosis. They include IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS; CRYPTOGENIC ORGANIZING PNEUMONIA; and others.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A species of the genus PNEUMOVIRUS causing pneumonia in mice.
A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.
A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.
An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A chronic, clinically mild, infectious pneumonia of PIGS caused by MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE. Ninety percent of swine herds worldwide are infected with this economically costly disease that primarily affects animals aged two to six months old. The disease can be associated with porcine respiratory disease complex. PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA is often found as a secondary infection.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.
Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Child hospitalized for short term care.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
Pneumonia caused by infections with the genus CHLAMYDIA; and CHLAMYDOPHILA, usually with CHLAMYDOPHILA PNEUMONIAE.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Infections with viruses of the genus PNEUMOVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTIONS, an important cause of respiratory disease in humans.
Infections with species in the genus PNEUMOCYSTIS, a fungus causing interstitial plasma cell pneumonia (PNEUMONIA, PNEUMOCYSTIS) and other infections in humans and other MAMMALS. Immunocompromised patients, especially those with AIDS, are particularly susceptible to these infections. Extrapulmonary sites are rare but seen occasionally.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Pneumonia caused by infection with bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE.
A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
A renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
A cattle disease of uncertain cause, probably an allergic reaction.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Tracheitis is an inflammation of the trachea, often caused by viral or bacterial infections, characterized by symptoms such as cough, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Postmortem examination of the body.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Asia, known as Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku in Japanese, and is renowned for its unique culture, advanced technology, and rich history. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Inhaling liquid or solids, such as stomach contents, into the RESPIRATORY TRACT. When this causes severe lung damage, it is called ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA OF SWINE. The organism damages the CILIA in the airways of the pig, and thus compromises one of the most effective mechanical barriers against invading pathogens. The resulting weakening of the IMMUNE SYSTEM can encourage secondary infections, leading to porcine respiratory disease complex.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Chronic endemic respiratory disease of dairy calves and an important component of bovine respiratory disease complex. It primarily affects calves up to six months of age and the etiology is multifactorial. Stress plus a primary viral infection is followed by a secondary bacterial infection. The latter is most commonly associated with PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA producing a purulent BRONCHOPNEUMONIA. Sometimes present are MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA; HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS and mycoplasma species.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
A species of sheep, Ovis canadensis, characterized by massive brown horns. There are at least four subspecies and they are all endangered or threatened.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.
Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Act of listening for sounds within the body.

Route and type of nutrition influence mucosal immunity to bacterial pneumonia. (1/1885)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a model of established respiratory immunity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and to investigate the effects of route and type of nutrition on this immunity. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Diet influences the ability of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) to maintain mucosal immunity. Complex enteral diets and chow maintain normal GALT populations against established IgA-mediated antiviral respiratory immunity. Both intravenous and intragastric total parenteral nutrition (TPN) produce GALT atrophy, but only intragastric TPN preserves established antiviral immunity. The authors hypothesized that both GALT-depleting diets (intragastric and intravenous TPN) would impair immunity against bacterial pneumonia. METHODS: P. aeruginosa was administered intratracheally to determine the mortality rate at increasing doses, and liposomes containing P. aeruginosa antigens were used to generate effective respiratory immunization. In the final experiment, mice received liposomes containing P. aeruginosa antigens to establish immunity and then were randomized to chow, complex enteral diets, intragastric TPN, or intravenous TPN. After 5 days of diet, mice received live intratracheal P. aeruginosa, and the death rate was recorded at 24 and 48 hours. RESULTS: The LD50 and LD100 were 9 x 10(7) and 12 x 10(7), respectively. Immunization reduced the mortality rate from 66% to 12%. This immunization was maintained in mice fed chow or a complex enteral diet and was lost in animals receiving intravenous TPN. Intragastric TPN partially preserved this respiratory immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Protection against bacterial pneumonia can be induced by prior antigenic immunization. This protection is lost with intravenous TPN, partially preserved with a chemically defined enteral diet, and completely preserved with chow or complex enteral diets. Both route and type of nutrition influence antibacterial respiratory tract immunity.  (+info)

Optimizing aminoglycoside therapy for nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. (2/1885)

Nosocomial pneumonia is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to increases in lengths of hospital stays and institutional expenditures. Aminoglycosides are used to treat patients with these infections, but few data on the doses and schedules required to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes exist. We analyzed aminoglycoside treatment data for 78 patients with nosocomial pneumonia to determine if optimization of aminoglycoside pharmacodynamic parameters results in a more rapid therapeutic response (defined by outcome and days to leukocyte count resolution and temperature resolution). Cox proportional hazards, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. By all analyses, the first measured maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC predicted days to temperature resolution and the second measured Cmax/MIC predicted days to leukocyte count resolution. For days to temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution, CART analyses produced breakpoints, with an 89% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.7 and an 86% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.5, respectively. Logistic regression analyses predicted a 90% probability of temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution by day 7 if a Cmax/MIC of > or = 10 is achieved within the first 48 h of aminoglycoside therapy. Aggressive aminoglycoside dosing immediately followed by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring would ensure that Cmax/MIC targets are achieved early in therapy. This would increase the probability of a rapid therapeutic response for pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria and potentially decreasing durations of parenteral antibiotic therapy, lengths of hospitalization, and institutional expenditures, a situation in which both the patient and the institution benefit.  (+info)

Ketolide treatment of Haemophilus influenzae experimental pneumonia. (3/1885)

The MICs of HMR 3004 and HMR 3647 at which 90% of beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae isolates were inhibited were 4 and 2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Both HMR 3004 and HMR 3647 were active against beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae in a murine model of experimental pneumonia. As assessed by pulmonary clearance of H. influenzae, HMR 3004 was more effective (P < 0.05) than was azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, pristinamycin, or HMR 3647 in this model.  (+info)

Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a population-based case-control study. (4/1885)

Although community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of hospitalization and death, few studies on risk factors have been performed. A population-based case-control study of risk factors for CAP was carried out in a mixed residential-industrial urban area of 74,610 adult inhabitants in the Maresme (Barcelona, Spain) between 1993 and 1995. All patients living in the area and clinically suspected of having CAP at primary care facilities and hospitals were registered. In total, 205 patients with symptoms, signs and radiographic infiltrate compatible with acute CAP participated in the study. They were matched by municipality, sex and age with 475 controls randomly selected from the municipal census. Risk factors relating the subject's characteristics and habits, housing conditions, medical history and treatments were investigated by means of a questionnaire. In the univariate analysis, an increased risk of CAP was associated with low body mass index, smoking, respiratory infection, previous pneumonia, chronic lung disease, lung tuberculosis, asthma, treated diabetes, chronic liver disease, and treatments with aminophiline, aerosols and plastic pear-spacers. In multivariate models, the only statistically significant risk factors were current smoking of >20 cigarettes x day(-1) (odds ratio (OR)=2.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-6.70 compared with never-smokers), previous respiratory infection (OR=2.73; 95% CI 1.75-4.26), and chronic bronchitis (OR=2.22; 95% CI 1.13-4.37). Benzodiazepines were found to be protective in univariate and multivariate analysis (OR=0.46; 95% CI 0.23-0.94). This population-based study provides new and better established evidence on the factors associated with the occurrence of pneumonia in the adult community.  (+info)

Bacterial pneumonia as a suprainfection in young adults with measles. (5/1885)

The aim of this study was to report the clinical and laboratory characteristics of bacterial pneumonia related to measles infection, and also to assess any correlation between severity and time of onset. Four hundred and twenty-four previously healthy young males (age 22+/-2.1 yrs) were hospitalized with typical symptoms and signs of measles. One hundred and twelve (26%) developed bacterial pneumonia on admission (n=41), during their hospital stay (n=20) or days after their discharge (n=51): groups A, B and C, respectively. Single lobar consolidation was the most common finding, accounting for 89% of cases. Pleural effusion was uncommon and associated in half of the cases with empyema. A microbiological diagnosis was made in 81 cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae (65 cases) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9 cases) were the most commonly identified organisms. Patients from group C had significantly higher values of white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and lower values of arterial oxygen tension (14+/-0.8 x 10(9) x L(-1), 88+/-4 mm and 6.3+/-0.4 kPa (47+/-3 mmHg), respectively) than the other two groups. There were no deaths during the hospitalization period. The mean duration of hospital stay was 13+/-2.4 days and was longer in the presence of K. pneumoniae infection (19+/-1.6 days). Six patients from group C were admitted to the intensive care unit. In conclusion, these data suggest that bacterial pneumonia associated with measles is not unusual in hospitalized adults, and it seems to be more severe when it occurs days after the onset of rash.  (+info)

Cytokines and inflammatory mediators do not indicate acute infection in cystic fibrosis. (6/1885)

Various treatment regimens and difficulties with research design are encountered with cystic fibrosis (CF) because no standard diagnostic criteria exist for defining acute respiratory exacerbations. This study evaluated the role of serial monitoring of concentrations of selected cytokines and inflammatory mediators in serum and sputum as predictors of respiratory exacerbation, as useful outcome measures for CF, and to guide therapy. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), neutrophil elastase-alpha-1-protease inhibitor complex (NE complex), protein, and alpha-1-protease inhibitor (alpha-1-PI) were measured in serum and sputum collected from CF patients during respiratory exacerbations and periods of well-being. Levels of NE complex, protein, and alpha-1-PI in sputum rose during respiratory exacerbations and fell after institution of antibiotic therapy (P = 0.078, 0.001, and 0.002, respectively). Mean (+/- standard error of the mean) levels of IL-8 and TNF-alpha were extremely high in sputum (13,780 +/- 916 and 249.4 +/- 23.5 ng/liter, respectively) but did not change significantly with clinical deterioration of the patient (P > 0.23). IL-8 and TNF-alpha were generally undetectable in serum, and therefore these measures were unhelpful. Drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was the only clinical or laboratory parameter that was close to being a determinant of respiratory exacerbation (P = 0.055). This study provides evidence of intense immunological activity occurring continually within the lungs of adult CF patients. Measurement of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in CF sputum is not helpful for identifying acute respiratory exacerbations.  (+info)

Differential sensitivity of distinct Chlamydia trachomatis isolates to IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition. (7/1885)

Resistance to the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis has been mapped to MHC class II-restricted, IL-12-dependent CD4+ T cells that secrete a type 1 profile of proinflammatory cytokines, which includes IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. The relative contribution of IFN-gamma is controversial, however, due to variation in results presented by different laboratories. To determine whether C. trachomatis strain differences contributed to this apparent conflict, the relative resistance of IFN-gamma-deficient mice to murine and human strains of C. trachomatis was compared. All human serovars were much more sensitive to the direct inhibitory actions of IFN-gamma than the MoPn strain. Furthermore, genital clearance of human serovar D in the C57BL/6 mouse was mediated by class II-independent mechanisms that probably involved local production of IFN-gamma by cells of the innate immune system. TNF-alpha also contributed indirectly to host resistance against all strains tested. The differential susceptibility of distinct C. trachomatis strains to effector cytokines such as IFN-gamma could not have been predicted by interstrain biologic variation or by the profile of cytokines stimulated during infection. These findings indicate that strain variation should be considered in situations where related isolates of a given parasite produce conflicting data in models of infection and immunity. They also suggest that stimulation of mucosal IFN-gamma activity is a relevant goal for a human chlamydial vaccine.  (+info)

Cross-colonisation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa of patients in an intensive care unit. (8/1885)

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is usually preceded by colonisation of the respiratory tract. During outbreaks, colonisation with P aeruginosa is mainly derived from exogenous sources. The relative importance of different pathways of colonisation of P aeruginosa has rarely been determined in non-epidemic settings. METHODS: In order to determine the importance of exogenous colonisation, all isolates of P aeruginosa obtained by surveillance and clinical cultures from two identical intensive care units (ICUs) were genotyped with pulsed field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were studied, 44 in ICU 1 and 56 in ICU 2. Twenty three patients were colonised with P aeruginosa, seven at the start of the study or on admission and 16 of the remaining 93 patients became colonised during the study. Eight patients developed VAP due to P aeruginosa. The incidence of respiratory tract colonisation and VAP with P aeruginosa in our ICU was similar to that before and after the study period, and therefore represents an endemic situation. Genotyping of 118 isolates yielded 11 strain types: eight in one patient each, two in three patients each, and one type in eight patients. Based on chronological evaluation and genotypical identity of isolates, eight cases of cross-colonisation were identified. Eight (50%) of 16 episodes of acquired colonisation and two (25%) of eight cases of VAP due to P aeruginosa seemed to be the result of cross-colonisation. CONCLUSIONS: Even in non-epidemic settings cross-colonisation seems to play an important part in the epidemiology of colonisation and infection with P aeruginosa.  (+info)

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

Bacterial pneumonia is a type of lung infection that's caused by bacteria. It can affect people of any age, but it's more common in older adults, young children, and people with certain health conditions or weakened immune systems. The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can vary, but they often include cough, chest pain, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.

The most common type of bacteria that causes pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Other types of bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Bacterial pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill bacteria. The specific type of antibiotic used will depend on the type of bacteria causing the infection. It's important to take all of the prescribed medication as directed, even if you start feeling better, to ensure that the infection is completely cleared and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

In severe cases of bacterial pneumonia, hospitalization may be necessary for close monitoring and treatment with intravenous antibiotics and other supportive care.

Viral pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by viral infection. It primarily affects the upper and lower respiratory tract, leading to inflammation of the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs. This results in symptoms such as cough, difficulty breathing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Common viruses that can cause pneumonia include influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus. Viral pneumonia is often milder than bacterial pneumonia but can still be serious, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and fever reduction, while the body fights off the virus. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Pneumonia, pneumococcal is a type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (also known as pneumococcus). This bacteria can colonize the upper respiratory tract and occasionally invade the lower respiratory tract, causing infection.

Pneumococcal pneumonia can affect people of any age but is most common in young children, older adults, and those with weakened immune systems. The symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia include fever, chills, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and rapid breathing. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as bacteremia (bacterial infection in the blood), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), and respiratory failure.

Pneumococcal pneumonia can be prevented through vaccination with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) or the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV). These vaccines protect against the most common strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae that cause invasive disease. It is also important to practice good hygiene, such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and washing hands frequently, to prevent the spread of pneumococcal bacteria.

Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is a type of lung disorder that is characterized by the presence of inflammation and scarring in the lungs. The term "cryptogenic" means that the cause of the condition is unknown or unclear.

Organizing pneumonia is a specific pattern of injury to the lungs that can be caused by various factors, including infections, medications, and autoimmune disorders. However, in cases of COP, there is no clear underlying cause that can be identified.

The main symptoms of COP include cough, shortness of breath, fever, and fatigue. The condition can also cause crackles or wheezing sounds when listening to the lungs with a stethoscope. Diagnosis of COP typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and lung biopsy.

Treatment for COP usually involves the use of corticosteroids, which can help to reduce inflammation and improve symptoms. In some cases, other medications may also be used to manage the condition. The prognosis for people with COP is generally good, with most individuals responding well to treatment and experiencing improvement in their symptoms over time. However, recurrence of the condition is possible, and long-term monitoring may be necessary.

"Pneumonia, Pneumocystis" is more commonly referred to as "Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)." It is a type of pneumonia caused by the microorganism Pneumocystis jirovecii. This organism was previously classified as a protozoan but is now considered a fungus.

PCP is an opportunistic infection, which means that it mainly affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, transplant recipients, or people taking immunosuppressive medications. The symptoms of PCP can include cough, shortness of breath, fever, and difficulty exercising. It is a serious infection that requires prompt medical treatment, typically with antibiotics.

It's important to note that PCP is not the same as pneumococcal pneumonia, which is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. While both conditions are types of pneumonia, they are caused by different organisms and require different treatments.

Staphylococcal pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. This bacteria can colonize the upper respiratory tract and sometimes invade the lower respiratory tract, causing pneumonia.

The symptoms of staphylococcal pneumonia are often severe and may include fever, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and production of purulent sputum. The disease can progress rapidly, leading to complications such as pleural effusion (accumulation of fluid in the space surrounding the lungs), empyema (pus in the pleural space), and bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream).

Staphylococcal pneumonia can occur in otherwise healthy individuals, but it is more common in people with underlying medical conditions such as chronic lung disease, diabetes, or a weakened immune system. It can also occur in healthcare settings, where S. aureus may be transmitted from person to person or through contaminated equipment.

Treatment of staphylococcal pneumonia typically involves the use of antibiotics that are active against S. aureus, such as nafcillin or vancomycin. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to drain fluid from the pleural space.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a specific type of pneumonia that develops in patients who have been mechanically ventilated through an endotracheal tube for at least 48 hours. It is defined as a nosocomial pneumonia (healthcare-associated infection occurring >48 hours after admission) that occurs in this setting. VAP is typically caused by aspiration of pathogenic microorganisms from the oropharynx or stomach into the lower respiratory tract, and it can lead to significant morbidity and mortality.

The diagnosis of VAP is often challenging due to the overlap of symptoms with other respiratory conditions and the potential for contamination of lower respiratory samples by upper airway flora. Clinical criteria, radiographic findings, and laboratory tests, such as quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or protected specimen brush, are often used in combination to make a definitive diagnosis.

Preventing VAP is crucial in critically ill patients and involves several evidence-based strategies, including elevating the head of the bed, oral care with chlorhexidine, and careful sedation management to allow for spontaneous breathing trials and early extubation when appropriate.

Aspiration pneumonia is a type of pneumonia that occurs when foreign materials such as food, liquid, or vomit enter the lungs, resulting in inflammation or infection. It typically happens when a person inhales these materials involuntarily due to impaired swallowing mechanisms, which can be caused by various conditions such as stroke, dementia, Parkinson's disease, or general anesthesia. The inhalation of foreign materials can cause bacterial growth in the lungs, leading to symptoms like cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. Aspiration pneumonia can be a serious medical condition, particularly in older adults or individuals with weakened immune systems, and may require hospitalization and antibiotic treatment.

Community-acquired infections are those that are acquired outside of a healthcare setting, such as in one's own home or community. These infections are typically contracted through close contact with an infected person, contaminated food or water, or animals. Examples of community-acquired infections include the common cold, flu, strep throat, and many types of viral and bacterial gastrointestinal infections.

These infections are different from healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), which are infections that patients acquire while they are receiving treatment for another condition in a healthcare setting, such as a hospital or long-term care facility. HAIs can be caused by a variety of factors, including contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment, invasive medical procedures, and the use of certain medications.

It is important to note that community-acquired infections can also occur in healthcare settings if proper infection control measures are not in place. Healthcare providers must take steps to prevent the spread of these infections, such as washing their hands regularly, using personal protective equipment (PPE), and implementing isolation precautions for patients with known or suspected infectious diseases.

Mycoplasma pneumonia is a type of atypical pneumonia, which is caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae. This organism is not a true bacterium, but rather the smallest free-living organisms known. They lack a cell wall and have a unique mode of reproduction.

Mycoplasma pneumonia infection typically occurs in small outbreaks or sporadically, often in crowded settings such as schools, colleges, and military barracks. It can also be acquired in the community. The illness is often mild and self-limiting, but it can also cause severe pneumonia and extra-pulmonary manifestations.

The symptoms of Mycoplasma pneumonia are typically less severe than those caused by typical bacterial pneumonia and may include a persistent cough that may be dry or produce small amounts of mucus, fatigue, fever, headache, sore throat, and chest pain. The infection can also cause extrapulmonary manifestations such as skin rashes, joint pain, and neurological symptoms.

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumonia is often challenging because the organism is difficult to culture, and serological tests may take several weeks to become positive. PCR-based tests are now available and can provide a rapid diagnosis.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics such as macrolides (e.g., azithromycin), tetracyclines (e.g., doxycycline), or fluoroquinolones (e.g., levofloxacin). However, because Mycoplasma pneumonia is often self-limiting, antibiotic treatment may not shorten the duration of illness but can help prevent complications and reduce transmission.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lipid Pneumonia" is not a type of pneumonia that is defined by the presence of lipids in the lungs. Instead, it refers to a condition where an abnormal amount of lipids or fatty substances accumulate in the lung tissue, which can lead to inflammation and infection, resulting in pneumonia.

Lipid pneumonia can occur due to various reasons, such as aspiration of lipid-containing materials (like oil-based nasal drops, mineral oil, or contaminated food), impaired lipid metabolism, or lung damage from certain medical conditions or treatments. The accumulation of these fatty substances in the lungs can cause an inflammatory response, leading to symptoms similar to those seen in other types of pneumonia, such as cough, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.

Therefore, lipid pneumonia is not a medical definition per se but rather a term used to describe a condition where lipids accumulate in the lungs and cause inflammation and infection.

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a group of disorders characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) in the interstitium, the tissue and space around the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. The interstitium is where the blood vessels that deliver oxygen to the lungs are located. ILDs can be caused by a variety of factors, including environmental exposures, medications, connective tissue diseases, and autoimmune disorders.

The scarring and inflammation in ILDs can make it difficult for the lungs to expand and contract normally, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and fatigue. The scarring can also make it harder for oxygen to move from the air sacs into the bloodstream.

There are many different types of ILDs, including:

* Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): a type of ILD that is caused by unknown factors and tends to progress rapidly
* Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: an ILD that is caused by an allergic reaction to inhaled substances, such as mold or bird droppings
* Connective tissue diseases: ILDs can be a complication of conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma
* Sarcoidosis: an inflammatory disorder that can affect multiple organs, including the lungs
* Asbestosis: an ILD caused by exposure to asbestos fibers

Treatment for ILDs depends on the specific type of disease and its underlying cause. Some treatments may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and oxygen therapy. In some cases, a lung transplant may be necessary.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are a group of rare lung diseases with no known cause, characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) of the lung tissue. The term "idiopathic" means that the cause is unknown, and "interstitial" refers to the spaces between the air sacs in the lungs where the inflammation and scarring occur.

IIPs are classified into several subtypes based on their clinical, radiological, and pathological features. These include:

1. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF): This is the most common and aggressive form of IIP, characterized by progressive scarring of the lung tissue, which leads to difficulty breathing and decreased lung function over time.
2. Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP): This subtype is characterized by varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis in the lung tissue. NSIP can be idiopathic or associated with connective tissue diseases.
3. Respiratory Bronchiolitis-Interstitial Lung Disease (RB-ILD): This subtype primarily affects smokers and is characterized by inflammation of the small airways and surrounding lung tissue.
4. Desquamative Interstitial Pneumonia (DIP): This subtype is also more common in smokers and is characterized by accumulation of pigmented macrophages in the lung tissue.
5. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia (COP): This subtype is characterized by the formation of fibrous masses in the small airways and alveoli, leading to cough and shortness of breath.
6. Acute Interstitial Pneumonia (AIP)/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): This subtype is a severe form of IIP that can rapidly progress to respiratory failure and requires immediate medical attention.

The diagnosis of IIPs typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and lung biopsy. Treatment options may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and oxygen therapy, depending on the severity and subtype of the disease.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus, is a gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic bacterium frequently found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals. It is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and can also cause other infectious diseases such as otitis media (ear infection), sinusitis, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection). The bacteria are encapsulated, and there are over 90 serotypes based on variations in the capsular polysaccharide. Some serotypes are more virulent or invasive than others, and the polysaccharide composition is crucial for vaccine development. S. pneumoniae infection can be treated with antibiotics, but the emergence of drug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Murine pneumonia virus (MPV) is not a widely recognized or officially established medical term. However, it may refer to the Pneumonia Virus of Mice (PVM), which is a pathogen that affects mice and can cause interstitial pneumonia.

PVM is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae and the genus Pneumovirus. It primarily infects laboratory mice but has also been found in wild mouse populations. The virus replicates in the respiratory epithelium, leading to interstitial pneumonia and inflammation of the airways.

It is essential to note that Murine Pneumonia Virus should not be confused with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), which is also known as "mouse-related pulmonary syndrome." HPS is a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in humans caused by exposure to hantaviruses, which are found in rodents.

"Pneumocystis jirovecii" is a species of fungus that commonly infects the lungs of humans, leading to a serious respiratory infection known as Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). This fungal infection primarily affects individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. The organism was previously classified as a protozoan but has since been reclassified as a fungus based on genetic analysis. It is typically acquired through inhalation of airborne spores and can cause severe illness if left untreated.

"Pneumocystis" is a genus of fungi that are commonly found in the lungs of many mammals, including humans. The most well-known and studied species within this genus is "Pneumocystis jirovecii," which was previously known as "Pneumocystis carinii." This organism can cause a serious lung infection known as Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who are undergoing immunosuppressive therapy.

It's worth noting that while "Pneumocystis" was once classified as a protozoan, it is now considered to be a fungus based on its genetic and biochemical characteristics.

Legionnaires' disease is a severe and often lethal form of pneumonia, a lung infection, caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. It's typically contracted by inhaling microscopic water droplets containing the bacteria, which can be found in various environmental sources like cooling towers, hot tubs, whirlpools, decorative fountains, and large plumbing systems. The disease is not transmitted through person-to-person contact. Symptoms usually appear within 2-10 days after exposure and may include cough, fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, and shortness of breath. Some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems, elderly people, and smokers, are at higher risk for developing Legionnaires' disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment can improve the chances of recovery. Preventive measures include regular testing and maintenance of potential sources of Legionella bacteria in buildings and other facilities.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a type of clinical specimen obtained through a procedure called bronchoalveolar lavage. This procedure involves inserting a bronchoscope into the lungs and instilling a small amount of saline solution into a specific area of the lung, then gently aspirating the fluid back out. The fluid that is recovered is called bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

BAL fluid contains cells and other substances that are present in the lower respiratory tract, including the alveoli (the tiny air sacs where gas exchange occurs). By analyzing BAL fluid, doctors can diagnose various lung conditions, such as pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and lung cancer. They can also monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions by comparing the composition of BAL fluid before and after treatment.

BAL fluid is typically analyzed for its cellular content, including the number and type of white blood cells present, as well as for the presence of bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms. The fluid may also be tested for various proteins, enzymes, and other biomarkers that can provide additional information about lung health and disease.

Thoracic radiography is a type of diagnostic imaging that involves using X-rays to produce images of the chest, including the lungs, heart, bronchi, great vessels, and the bones of the spine and chest wall. It is a commonly used tool in the diagnosis and management of various respiratory, cardiovascular, and thoracic disorders such as pneumonia, lung cancer, heart failure, and rib fractures.

During the procedure, the patient is positioned between an X-ray machine and a cassette containing a film or digital detector. The X-ray beam is directed at the chest, and the resulting image is captured on the film or detector. The images produced can help identify any abnormalities in the structure or function of the organs within the chest.

Thoracic radiography may be performed as a routine screening test for certain conditions, such as lung cancer, or it may be ordered when a patient presents with symptoms suggestive of a respiratory or cardiovascular disorder. It is a safe and non-invasive procedure that can provide valuable information to help guide clinical decision making and improve patient outcomes.

"Mycoplasma pneumoniae" is a type of bacteria that lacks a cell wall and can cause respiratory infections, particularly bronchitis and atypical pneumonia. It is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia. Infection with "M. pneumoniae" typically results in mild symptoms, such as cough, fever, and fatigue, although more severe complications can occur in some cases. The bacteria can also cause various extrapulmonary manifestations, including skin rashes, joint pain, and neurological symptoms. Diagnosis of "M. pneumoniae" infection is typically made through serological tests or PCR assays. Treatment usually involves antibiotics such as macrolides or tetracyclines.

Cross infection, also known as cross-contamination, is the transmission of infectious agents or diseases between patients in a healthcare setting. This can occur through various means such as contaminated equipment, surfaces, hands of healthcare workers, or the air. It is an important concern in medical settings and measures are taken to prevent its occurrence, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Pulmonary eosinophilia is a condition characterized by an increased number of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the lungs or pulmonary tissues. Eosinophils play a role in the body's immune response to parasites and allergens, but an overabundance can contribute to inflammation and damage in the lungs.

The condition may be associated with various underlying causes, such as:

1. Asthma or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)
2. Eosinophilic lung diseases, like eosinophilic pneumonia or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome
3. Parasitic infections, such as ascariasis or strongyloidiasis
4. Drug reactions, including certain antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs
5. Connective tissue disorders, like rheumatoid arthritis or Churg-Strauss syndrome
6. Malignancies, such as lymphoma or leukemia
7. Other less common conditions, like tropical pulmonary eosinophilia or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

Symptoms of pulmonary eosinophilia can vary but often include cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, such as complete blood count (CBC) with differential, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), or lung biopsy. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include corticosteroids, antibiotics, or antiparasitic medications.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination is an antibiotic medication used to treat various bacterial infections. It contains two active ingredients: trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, which work together to inhibit the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, a vital component for their survival.

Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic agent that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme needed for bacterial growth, while sulfamethoxazole is a bacteriostatic sulfonamide that inhibits the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate by blocking the action of the enzyme bacterial dihydropteroate synthase. The combination of these two agents produces a synergistic effect, increasing the overall antibacterial activity of the medication.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, and pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a severe lung infection that can occur in people with weakened immune systems. It is also used as a prophylactic treatment to prevent PCP in individuals with HIV/AIDS or other conditions that compromise the immune system.

As with any medication, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination can have side effects and potential risks, including allergic reactions, skin rashes, gastrointestinal symptoms, and blood disorders. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Bronchopneumonia is a type of pneumonia that involves inflammation and infection of the bronchioles (small airways in the lungs) and alveoli (tiny air sacs in the lungs). It can be caused by various bacteria, viruses, or fungi and often occurs as a complication of a respiratory tract infection.

The symptoms of bronchopneumonia may include cough, chest pain, fever, chills, shortness of breath, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as respiratory failure or sepsis. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections, antiviral medications for viral infections, and supportive care such as oxygen therapy and hydration.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

Progressive interstitial pneumonia of sheep, also known as ovine progressive pneumonic dyspnea (OPPD), is a contagious and fatal disease that affects the respiratory system of sheep. It is caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

The disease is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the interstitial tissue of the lungs, which leads to progressive difficulty in breathing, coughing, and weight loss. The infection can also spread to the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs, causing pus-filled lesions and further compromising lung function.

OPPD is a chronic disease that can take several months to progress from initial infection to death. It is highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated equipment. The disease is most commonly seen in sheep that are under stress, such as those that have been transported or housed in close quarters.

Prevention and control measures for OPPD include good biosecurity practices, such as quarantine and testing of new animals before introducing them to a flock, as well as vaccination of susceptible animals. Treatment is generally not effective once clinical signs appear, and affected animals usually need to be euthanized to prevent further spread of the disease.

Mechanical Ventilators are medical devices that assist with breathing by providing mechanical ventilation to patients who are unable to breathe sufficiently on their own. These machines deliver breaths to the patient through an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy tube, which is placed in the windpipe (trachea). Mechanical Ventilators can be set to deliver breaths at specific rates and volumes, and they can also be adjusted to provide varying levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to help keep the alveoli open and improve oxygenation.

Mechanical ventilation is typically used in critical care settings such as intensive care units (ICUs), and it may be employed for a variety of reasons, including respiratory failure, sedation, neuromuscular disorders, or surgery. Prolonged use of mechanical ventilation can lead to complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, muscle weakness, and decreased cardiac function, so the goal is usually to wean patients off the ventilator as soon as possible.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a medical procedure in which a small amount of fluid is introduced into a segment of the lung and then gently suctioned back out. The fluid contains cells and other materials that can be analyzed to help diagnose various lung conditions, such as inflammation, infection, or cancer.

The procedure is typically performed during bronchoscopy, which involves inserting a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera on the end through the nose or mouth and into the lungs. Once the bronchoscope is in place, a small catheter is passed through the bronchoscope and into the desired lung segment. The fluid is then introduced and suctioned back out, and the sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis.

BAL can be helpful in diagnosing various conditions such as pneumonia, interstitial lung diseases, alveolar proteinosis, and some types of cancer. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for certain lung conditions. However, like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and respiratory distress. Therefore, it is important that the procedure is performed by a qualified healthcare professional in a controlled setting.

Artificial respiration is an emergency procedure that can be used to provide oxygen to a person who is not breathing or is breathing inadequately. It involves manually forcing air into the lungs, either by compressing the chest or using a device to deliver breaths. The goal of artificial respiration is to maintain adequate oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs until the person can breathe on their own or until advanced medical care arrives. Artificial respiration may be used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in cases of cardiac arrest.

An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a specialized hospital department that provides continuous monitoring and advanced life support for critically ill patients. The ICU is equipped with sophisticated technology and staffed by highly trained healthcare professionals, including intensivists, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other specialists.

Patients in the ICU may require mechanical ventilation, invasive monitoring, vasoactive medications, and other advanced interventions due to conditions such as severe infections, trauma, cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, or post-surgical complications. The goal of the ICU is to stabilize patients' condition, prevent further complications, and support organ function while the underlying illness is treated.

ICUs may be organized into different units based on the type of care provided, such as medical, surgical, cardiac, neurological, or pediatric ICUs. The length of stay in the ICU can vary widely depending on the patient's condition and response to treatment.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Medical Definition:

Mycoplasmal Pneumonia of Swine, also known as Enzootic Pneumonia, is a respiratory disease in pigs caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. It primarily affects the lungs and is characterized by coughing, difficulty breathing, and reduced growth rates in affected animals. The disease is called "enzootic" because it is widespread among swine populations in many parts of the world.

The bacteria responsible for this condition are highly contagious and can spread rapidly among pigs through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated surfaces. Infection can also occur through aerosolized droplets expelled by coughing pigs. The disease is often associated with other respiratory pathogens, such as Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis, which can exacerbate the severity of the symptoms.

Mycoplasmal Pneumonia of Swine is a significant economic concern for the swine industry due to its impact on growth rates, feed conversion efficiency, and increased mortality. Control measures typically involve a combination of management practices, vaccination, and biosecurity protocols to minimize the spread of the disease within herds.

Pseudomonas infections are infections caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa or other species of the Pseudomonas genus. These bacteria are gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens that can cause various types of infections, including respiratory, urinary tract, gastrointestinal, dermatological, and bloodstream infections.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized for extended periods. The bacteria can also infect wounds, burns, and medical devices such as catheters and ventilators.

Pseudomonas infections can be difficult to treat due to the bacteria's resistance to many antibiotics. Treatment typically involves the use of multiple antibiotics that are effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In severe cases, intravenous antibiotics or even hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, contact precautions for patients with known Pseudomonas infections, and proper cleaning and maintenance of medical equipment.

Pneumococcal vaccines are immunizing agents that protect against infections caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. These vaccines help to prevent several types of diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection).

There are two main types of pneumococcal vaccines available:

1. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV): This vaccine is recommended for children under 2 years old, adults aged 65 and older, and people with certain medical conditions that increase their risk of pneumococcal infections. PCV protects against 13 or 20 serotypes (strains) of Streptococcus pneumoniae, depending on the formulation (PCV13 or PCV20).
2. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine is recommended for adults aged 65 and older, children and adults with specific medical conditions, and smokers. PPSV protects against 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that recognize and fight off the bacteria if an individual comes into contact with it in the future. Both types of pneumococcal vaccines have been proven to be safe and effective in preventing severe pneumococcal diseases.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

"Pneumocystis carinii" is an outdated term. The organism it refers to is now known as "Pneumocystis jirovecii" and it's a type of fungus that can cause a serious lung infection called pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). This infection mainly affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or who have had organ transplants. It's important to note that "Pneumocystis jirovecii" is not the same as the bacterium "Legionella pneumophila" which causes Legionnaires' disease.

Empyema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of pus in a body cavity, most commonly in the pleural space surrounding the lungs. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that spreads from the lung tissue to the pleural space. The buildup of pus can cause chest pain, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. Empyema can be a complication of pneumonia or other respiratory infections, and it may require treatment with antibiotics, drainage of the pus, and sometimes surgery.

"Legionella pneumophila" is a species of Gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in freshwater environments such as lakes and streams. It can also be found in man-made water systems like hot tubs, cooling towers, and decorative fountains. This bacterium is the primary cause of Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a milder illness resembling the flu. Infection typically occurs when people inhale tiny droplets of water containing the bacteria. It is not transmitted from person to person.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Influenza, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection that attacks the respiratory system of humans. It is caused by influenza viruses A, B, or C and is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, cough, runny nose, and fatigue. Influenza can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections, and can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can also survive on surfaces for a period of time. Influenza viruses are constantly changing, which makes it necessary to get vaccinated annually to protect against the most recent and prevalent strains.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Legionella is the genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that can cause serious lung infections known as legionellosis. The most common species causing disease in humans is Legionella pneumophila. These bacteria are widely found in natural freshwater environments such as lakes and streams. However, they can also be found in man-made water systems like cooling towers, hot tubs, decorative fountains, and plumbing systems. When people breathe in small droplets of water containing the bacteria, especially in the form of aerosols or mist, they may develop Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia, or Pontiac fever, a milder flu-like illness. The risk of infection increases in individuals with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, older age, and smokers. Appropriate disinfection methods and regular maintenance of water systems can help prevent the growth and spread of Legionella bacteria.

Pneumococcal infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. This bacterium can infect different parts of the body, including the lungs (pneumonia), blood (bacteremia or sepsis), and the covering of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). Pneumococcal infections can also cause ear infections and sinus infections. The bacteria spread through close contact with an infected person, who may spread the bacteria by coughing or sneezing. People with weakened immune systems, children under 2 years of age, adults over 65, and those with certain medical conditions are at increased risk for developing pneumococcal infections.

A "hospitalized child" refers to a minor (an individual who has not yet reached the age of majority, which varies by country but is typically 18 in the US) who has been admitted to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment and care. This term can encompass children of all ages, from infants to teenagers, and may include those who are suffering from a wide range of medical conditions or injuries, requiring various levels of care and intervention.

Hospitalization can be necessary for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to:

1. Acute illnesses that require close monitoring, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis.
2. Chronic medical conditions that need ongoing management, like cystic fibrosis, cancer, or congenital heart defects.
3. Severe injuries resulting from accidents, such as fractures, burns, or traumatic brain injuries.
4. Elective procedures, such as surgeries for orthopedic issues or to correct congenital abnormalities.
5. Mental health disorders that necessitate inpatient care and treatment.

Regardless of the reason for hospitalization, healthcare professionals strive to provide comprehensive, family-centered care to ensure the best possible outcomes for their young patients. This may involve working closely with families to address their concerns, providing education about the child's condition and treatment plan, and coordinating care across various disciplines and specialties.

An immunocompromised host refers to an individual who has a weakened or impaired immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and decreased ability to fight off pathogens. This condition can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developed during one's lifetime).

Acquired immunocompromised states may result from various factors such as medical treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive drugs), infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS), chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, malnutrition, liver disease), or aging.

Immunocompromised hosts are at a higher risk for developing severe and life-threatening infections due to their reduced immune response. Therefore, they require special consideration when it comes to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

Pentamidine is an antimicrobial drug that is primarily used to treat and prevent certain types of pneumonia caused by the parasitic organisms Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as P. carinii) and Leishmania donovani. It can also be used for the treatment of some fungal infections caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans.

Pentamidine works by interfering with the DNA replication and protein synthesis of these microorganisms, which ultimately leads to their death. It is available as an injection or inhaled powder for medical use. Common side effects of pentamidine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and changes in blood sugar levels. More serious side effects can include kidney damage, hearing loss, and heart rhythm disturbances.

It is important to note that the use of pentamidine should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential for serious side effects and drug interactions.

Chlamydial pneumonia is a type of lung infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydophila pneumoniae (previously known as Chlamydia pneumoniae). It is often a mild to moderate respiratory infection, but in some cases, it can be more severe and require hospitalization.

The symptoms of chlamydial pneumonia may include cough, chest pain, fever, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. The infection is usually spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth or nose.

Chlamydial pneumonia is often treated with antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more severe infections, especially in people with weakened immune systems or other underlying health conditions.

It's worth noting that chlamydial pneumonia is different from chlamydia trachomatis, which is a sexually transmitted infection caused by a different species of Chlamydia.

Bronchoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the inside of the airways and lungs with a flexible or rigid tube called a bronchoscope. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to directly visualize the airways, take tissue samples for biopsy, and remove foreign objects or secretions. Bronchoscopy can be used to diagnose and manage various respiratory conditions such as lung infections, inflammation, cancer, and bleeding. It is usually performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and risks associated with the procedure.

Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is a medical condition that occurs when bacteria from another source, such as an infection in another part of the body, enter the bloodstream. Bacteremia can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and rapid heart rate, and it can lead to serious complications such as sepsis if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

Bacteremia is often a result of an infection elsewhere in the body that allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can happen through various routes, such as during medical procedures, intravenous (IV) drug use, or from infected wounds or devices that come into contact with the bloodstream. In some cases, bacteremia may also occur without any obvious source of infection.

It is important to note that not all bacteria in the bloodstream cause harm, and some people may have bacteria in their blood without showing any symptoms. However, if bacteria in the bloodstream multiply and cause an immune response, it can lead to bacteremia and potentially serious complications.

AIDS-related opportunistic infections (AROIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with advanced HIV infection or AIDS. These infections take advantage of a weakened immune system and can affect various organs and systems in the body.

Common examples of AROIs include:

1. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii
2. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, caused by a type of bacteria called mycobacteria
3. Candidiasis, a fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, esophagus, and genitals
4. Toxoplasmosis, caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii
5. Cryptococcosis, a fungal infection that affects the lungs and central nervous system
6. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, caused by a type of herpes virus
7. Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
8. Cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic infection that affects the intestines
9. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a viral infection that affects the brain

Preventing and treating AROIs is an important part of managing HIV/AIDS, as they can cause significant illness and even death in people with weakened immune systems. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used to treat HIV infection and prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS, which can help reduce the risk of opportunistic infections. In addition, medications to prevent specific opportunistic infections may be prescribed for people with advanced HIV or AIDS.

Pasteurellosis, pneumonic is a specific form of pasteurellosis that is caused by the bacterium *Pasteurella multocida* and primarily affects the respiratory system. It is characterized by inflammation and infection of the lungs (pneumonia) and can result in symptoms such as cough, difficulty breathing, chest pain, fever, and decreased appetite.

This condition often occurs as a secondary infection in animals with underlying respiratory diseases, and it can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected animals, such as through bites, scratches, or inhalation of respiratory secretions. Pneumonic pasteurellosis is more likely to occur in people who have weakened immune systems due to other health conditions.

Prompt medical treatment with antibiotics is necessary to prevent complications and improve outcomes. The prognosis for pneumonic pasteurellosis depends on the severity of the infection, the patient's overall health, and how quickly they receive appropriate medical care.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

Pulmonary fibrosis is a specific type of lung disease that results from the thickening and scarring of the lung tissues, particularly those in the alveoli (air sacs) and interstitium (the space around the air sacs). This scarring makes it harder for the lungs to properly expand and transfer oxygen into the bloodstream, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and eventually respiratory failure. The exact cause of pulmonary fibrosis can vary, with some cases being idiopathic (without a known cause) or related to environmental factors, medications, medical conditions, or genetic predisposition.

Sputum is defined as a mixture of saliva and phlegm that is expelled from the respiratory tract during coughing, sneezing or deep breathing. It can be clear, mucoid, or purulent (containing pus) depending on the underlying cause of the respiratory issue. Examination of sputum can help diagnose various respiratory conditions such as infections, inflammation, or other lung diseases.

Klebsiella infections are caused by bacteria called Klebsiella spp., with the most common species being Klebsiella pneumoniae. These gram-negative, encapsulated bacilli are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract but can cause various types of infections when they spread to other body sites.

Commonly, Klebsiella infections include:

1. Pneumonia: This is a lung infection that can lead to symptoms like cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fever. It often affects people with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized.

2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Klebsiella can cause UTIs, particularly in individuals with compromised urinary tracts, such as catheterized patients or those with structural abnormalities. Symptoms may include pain, burning during urination, frequent urges to urinate, and lower abdominal or back pain.

3. Bloodstream infections (bacteremia/septicemia): When Klebsiella enters the bloodstream, it can cause bacteremia or septicemia, which can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition characterized by an overwhelming immune response to infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and rapid breathing.

4. Wound infections: Klebsiella can infect wounds, particularly in patients with open surgical wounds or traumatic injuries. Infected wounds may display redness, swelling, pain, pus discharge, and warmth.

5. Soft tissue infections: These include infections of the skin and underlying soft tissues, such as cellulitis and abscesses. Symptoms can range from localized redness, swelling, and pain to systemic symptoms like fever and malaise.

Klebsiella infections are increasingly becoming difficult to treat due to their resistance to multiple antibiotics, including carbapenems, which has led to the term "carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae" (CRE) or "carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae" (CRKP). These infections often require the use of last-resort antibiotics like colistin and tigecycline. Infection prevention measures, such as contact precautions, hand hygiene, and environmental cleaning, are crucial to controlling the spread of Klebsiella in healthcare settings.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is a medical term that refers to a type of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It's a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. It's a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections.

The bacterium is known for its ability to produce a polysaccharide capsule that makes it resistant to phagocytosis by white blood cells, allowing it to evade the host's immune system. Additionally, "Klebsiella pneumoniae" has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat and a growing public health concern.

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely found in the environment, such as in soil, water, and on plants. It's an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it usually doesn't cause infection in healthy individuals but can cause severe and sometimes life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems, burns, or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants due to its intrinsic resistance mechanisms and the acquisition of additional resistance determinants. It can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, dermatitis, and severe bloodstream infections known as sepsis.

The bacterium produces a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, proteases, and pigments like pyocyanin and pyoverdine, which aid in iron acquisition and help the organism evade host immune responses. Effective infection control measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, and close monitoring of high-risk patients are crucial for managing P. aeruginosa infections.

Haemophilus infections are caused by bacteria named Haemophilus influenzae. Despite its name, this bacterium does not cause the flu, which is caused by a virus. There are several different strains of Haemophilus influenzae, and some are more likely to cause severe illness than others.

Haemophilus infections can affect people of any age, but they are most common in children under 5 years old. The bacteria can cause a range of infections, from mild ear infections to serious conditions such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and pneumonia (infection of the lungs).

The bacterium is spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices such as handwashing, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Vaccination is also available to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections, which are the most severe and common form of Haemophilus infection.

Opportunistic infections (OIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in individuals with weakened immune systems, often due to a underlying condition such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation. These infections are caused by microorganisms that do not normally cause disease in people with healthy immune function, but can take advantage of an opportunity to infect and cause damage when the body's defense mechanisms are compromised. Examples of opportunistic infections include Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, candidiasis (thrush), and cytomegalovirus infection. Preventive measures, such as antimicrobial medications and vaccinations, play a crucial role in reducing the risk of opportunistic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

Pneumovirus infections refer to respiratory illnesses caused by viruses belonging to the Pneumoviridae family, specifically human respirovirus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). These viruses primarily infect the respiratory tract and can cause a wide range of symptoms, from mild upper respiratory tract infections to severe lower respiratory tract illnesses such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia.

Human respirovirus (hRSV) is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and young children, while human metapneumovirus (hMPV) tends to infect older children and adults, causing similar respiratory symptoms. Both viruses can also cause more severe disease in immunocompromised individuals, the elderly, and those with underlying medical conditions.

Transmission of these viruses typically occurs through close contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces, and they are highly contagious. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. Currently, there are no vaccines available to prevent pneumovirus infections, but antiviral treatments and supportive care can help manage the symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.

"Pneumocystis infection" is most commonly caused by the microorganism Pneumocystis jirovecii, which can lead to a serious lung infection known as pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). This infection primarily affects individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients.

The microorganism that causes Pneumocystis infections was previously classified as a protozoan but is now considered a fungus. It exists in the environment and can be found in the lungs of healthy individuals without causing illness. However, in people with compromised immune systems, it can replicate and cause pneumonia, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

Symptoms of PCP include cough, shortness of breath, fever, and difficulty breathing. Diagnosis typically involves microscopic examination of respiratory samples, such as sputum or lung fluid, to detect the presence of the organism. Treatment usually consists of antimicrobial medications, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), pentamidine, or atovaquone. Preventive measures, such as prophylaxis with TMP-SMX or other medications, may be recommended for individuals at high risk of developing PCP.

A lung abscess is a localized collection of pus in the lung parenchyma caused by an infectious process, often due to bacterial infection. It's characterized by necrosis and liquefaction of pulmonary tissue, resulting in a cavity filled with purulent material. The condition can develop as a complication of community-acquired or nosocomial pneumonia, aspiration of oral secretions containing anaerobic bacteria, septic embolism, or contiguous spread from a nearby infected site.

Symptoms may include cough with foul-smelling sputum, chest pain, fever, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques such as chest X-ray or CT scan, along with microbiological examination of the sputum to identify the causative organism(s). Treatment often includes antibiotic therapy tailored to the identified pathogen(s), as well as supportive care such as bronchoscopy, drainage, or surgery in severe cases.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Pasteurella infections are diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Pasteurella, with P. multocida being the most common species responsible for infections in humans. These bacteria are commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tracts of animals, particularly domestic pets such as cats and dogs.

Humans can acquire Pasteurella infections through animal bites, scratches, or contact with contaminated animal secretions like saliva. The infection can manifest in various forms, including:

1. Skin and soft tissue infections: These are the most common types of Pasteurella infections, often presenting as cellulitis, abscesses, or wound infections after an animal bite or scratch.
2. Respiratory tract infections: Pasteurella bacteria can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory tract infections, especially in individuals with underlying lung diseases or weakened immune systems.
3. Ocular infections: Pasteurella bacteria can infect the eye, causing conditions like conjunctivitis, keratitis, or endophthalmitis, particularly after an animal scratch to the eye or face.
4. Septicemia: In rare cases, Pasteurella bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause septicemia, a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.
5. Other infections: Pasteurella bacteria have also been known to cause joint infections (septic arthritis), bone infections (osteomyelitis), and central nervous system infections (meningitis or brain abscesses) in some cases.

Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for managing Pasteurella infections, as they can progress rapidly and lead to severe complications, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. It is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (systemic inflammation) that can lead to blood clotting issues, tissue damage, and multiple organ failure.

Sepsis happens when an infection you already have triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lungs, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract.

Sepsis is a medical emergency. If you suspect sepsis, seek immediate medical attention. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are crucial to improve outcomes. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and may require oxygen, medication to raise blood pressure, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be required to clear the infection.

Respiratory insufficiency is a condition characterized by the inability of the respiratory system to maintain adequate gas exchange, resulting in an inadequate supply of oxygen and/or removal of carbon dioxide from the body. This can occur due to various causes, such as lung diseases (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia), neuromuscular disorders (e.g., muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury), or other medical conditions that affect breathing mechanics and/or gas exchange.

Respiratory insufficiency can manifest as hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood) and/or hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels in the blood). Symptoms of respiratory insufficiency may include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, fatigue, confusion, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition and may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, medications, and/or other supportive measures.

'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' is a type of bacteria that can cause respiratory infections in humans. It is the causative agent of a form of pneumonia known as "atypical pneumonia," which is characterized by milder symptoms and a slower onset than other types of pneumonia.

The bacteria are transmitted through respiratory droplets, such as those produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' infections can occur throughout the year, but they are more common in the fall and winter months.

Symptoms of a 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' infection may include cough, chest pain, fever, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. The infection can also cause other respiratory symptoms, such as sore throat, headache, and muscle aches. In some cases, the infection may spread to other parts of the body, causing complications such as ear infections or inflammation of the heart or brain.

Diagnosis of 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' infection typically involves testing a sample of respiratory secretions, such as sputum or nasal swabs, for the presence of the bacteria. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline, which are effective against 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae'.

It's important to note that while 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' infections can cause serious respiratory illness, they are generally not as severe as other types of bacterial pneumonia. However, if left untreated, the infection can lead to complications and worsening symptoms.

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a specific type of chronic, progressive, and irreversible fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause, characterized by scarring (fibrosis) in the lungs that thickens and stiffens the lining of the air sacs (alveoli). This makes it increasingly difficult for the lungs to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream, leading to shortness of breath, cough, decreased exercise tolerance, and, eventually, respiratory failure.

The term "idiopathic" means that the cause of the disease is unknown. The diagnosis of IPF requires a combination of clinical, radiological, and pathological findings, excluding other known causes of pulmonary fibrosis. It primarily affects middle-aged to older adults, with a higher prevalence in men than women.

The progression of IPF varies from person to person, but the prognosis is generally poor, with a median survival time of 3-5 years after diagnosis. Currently, there are two FDA-approved medications for the treatment of IPF (nintedanib and pirfenidone), which can help slow down disease progression but do not cure the condition. Lung transplantation remains an option for select patients with advanced IPF.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Rickettsial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by certain species of Rickettsia bacteria, which are intracellular pathogens that infect endothelial cells. The infection leads to inflammation and damage to the lungs, resulting in symptoms such as cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.

Rickettsial pneumonia is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected arthropod vector, such as a tick or flea. It can also be acquired through inhalation of contaminated aerosols or exposure to infected body fluids.

The two main types of Rickettsial pneumonia are:

1. Scrub typhus (Tsutsugamushi disease): Caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted through the bite of an infected chigger mite.
2. Q fever (Coxiella burnetii infection): Caused by Coxiella burnetii and transmitted through inhalation of contaminated aerosols, usually from infected animals or their excreta.

Treatment for Rickettsial pneumonia typically involves antibiotics such as doxycycline or chloramphenicol. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent severe complications and improve outcomes.

Confusion is a state of bewilderment or disorientation in which a person has difficulty processing information, understanding their surroundings, and making clear decisions. It can be caused by various medical conditions such as infections, brain injury, stroke, dementia, alcohol or drug intoxication or withdrawal, and certain medications. Confusion can also occur in older adults due to age-related changes in the brain.

In medical terms, confusion is often referred to as "acute confusional state" or "delirium." It is characterized by symptoms such as difficulty paying attention, memory loss, disorientation, hallucinations, and delusions. Confusion can be a serious medical condition that requires immediate evaluation and treatment by a healthcare professional.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

The nasopharynx is the uppermost part of the pharynx (throat), which is located behind the nose. It is a muscular cavity that serves as a passageway for air and food. The nasopharynx extends from the base of the skull to the lower border of the soft palate, where it continues as the oropharynx. Its primary function is to allow air to flow into the respiratory system through the nostrils while also facilitating the drainage of mucus from the nose into the throat. The nasopharynx contains several important structures, including the adenoids and the opening of the Eustachian tubes, which connect the middle ear to the back of the nasopharynx.

Pulmonary alveoli, also known as air sacs, are tiny clusters of air-filled pouches located at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. They play a crucial role in the process of gas exchange during respiration. The thin walls of the alveoli, called alveolar membranes, allow oxygen from inhaled air to pass into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to pass into the alveoli to be exhaled out of the body. This vital function enables the lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body and remove waste products like carbon dioxide.

Pleural effusion is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which is the thin, fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall. This space typically contains a small amount of fluid to allow for smooth movement of the lungs during breathing. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates, it can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.

Pleural effusions can be caused by various underlying medical conditions, including pneumonia, heart failure, cancer, pulmonary embolism, and autoimmune disorders. The fluid that accumulates in the pleural space can be transudative or exudative, depending on the cause of the effusion. Transudative effusions are caused by increased pressure in the blood vessels or decreased protein levels in the blood, while exudative effusions are caused by inflammation, infection, or cancer.

Diagnosis of pleural effusion typically involves a physical examination, chest X-ray, and analysis of the fluid in the pleural space. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the effusion and may include medications, drainage of the fluid, or surgery.

Mycoplasma infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Mycoplasma. These are among the smallest free-living organisms, lacking a cell wall and possessing a unique molecular structure. They can cause various respiratory tract infections (like pneumonia, bronchitis), urogenital infections, and other systemic diseases in humans, animals, and birds.

The most common Mycoplasma species that infect humans include M. pneumoniae, M. genitalium, M. hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Transmission usually occurs through respiratory droplets or sexual contact. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the site of infection but may include cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, fatigue, joint pain, rash, and genital discharge or pelvic pain in women. Diagnosis often requires specific laboratory tests due to their unique growth requirements and resistance to many common antibiotics. Treatment typically involves macrolide or fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

Medical Definition of Mineral Oil:

Mineral oil is a commonly used laxative, which is a substance that promotes bowel movements. It is a non-digestible, odorless, and tasteless oil that is derived from petroleum. When taken orally, mineral oil passes through the digestive system without being absorbed, helping to soften stools and relieve constipation by increasing the weight and size of the stool, stimulating the reflexes in the intestines that trigger bowel movements.

Mineral oil is also used topically as a moisturizer and emollient for dry skin conditions such as eczema and dermatitis. It forms a barrier on the skin, preventing moisture loss and protecting the skin from irritants. However, mineral oil should not be used on broken or inflamed skin, as it can trap bacteria and delay healing.

It is important to note that long-term use of mineral oil laxatives can lead to dependence and may interfere with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and K. Therefore, it should be used only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Alveolar macrophages are a type of macrophage (a large phagocytic cell) that are found in the alveoli of the lungs. They play a crucial role in the immune defense system of the lungs by engulfing and destroying any foreign particles, such as dust, microorganisms, and pathogens, that enter the lungs through the process of inhalation. Alveolar macrophages also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response. They are important for maintaining the health and function of the lungs by removing debris and preventing infection.

'Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype' is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes flu in humans and animals. It contains certain proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) on its surface, with this subtype specifically having H1 and N1 antigens. The H1N1 strain is well-known for causing the 2009 swine flu pandemic, which was a global outbreak of flu that resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. This subtype can also cause seasonal flu, although the severity and symptoms may vary. It is important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and new strains or subtypes can emerge over time, requiring regular updates to vaccines to protect against them.

Hospital mortality is a term used to describe the number or rate of deaths that occur in a hospital setting during a specific period. It is often used as a measure of the quality of healthcare provided by a hospital, as a higher hospital mortality rate may indicate poorer care or more complex cases being treated. However, it's important to note that hospital mortality rates can be influenced by many factors, including the severity of illness of the patients being treated, patient demographics, and the availability of resources and specialized care. Therefore, hospital mortality rates should be interpreted with caution and in the context of other quality metrics.

Fungal lung diseases, also known as fungal pneumonia or mycoses, refer to a group of respiratory disorders caused by the infection of fungi in the lungs. These fungi are commonly found in the environment, such as soil, decaying organic matter, and contaminated materials. People can develop lung diseases from fungi after inhaling spores or particles that contain fungi.

There are several types of fungal lung diseases, including:

1. Aspergillosis: This is caused by the Aspergillus fungus and can affect people with weakened immune systems. It can cause allergic reactions, lung infections, or invasive aspergillosis, which can spread to other organs.
2. Cryptococcosis: This is caused by the Cryptococcus fungus and is usually found in soil contaminated with bird droppings. It can cause pneumonia, meningitis, or skin lesions.
3. Histoplasmosis: This is caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus and is commonly found in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated histoplasmosis, which can spread to other organs.
4. Blastomycosis: This is caused by the Blastomyces dermatitidis fungus and is commonly found in the southeastern and south-central United States. It can cause pneumonia, skin lesions, or disseminated blastomycosis, which can spread to other organs.
5. Coccidioidomycosis: This is caused by the Coccidioides immitis fungus and is commonly found in the southwestern United States. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated coccidioidomycosis, which can spread to other organs.

Fungal lung diseases can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of fungus and the person's immune system. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery, or supportive care. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to contaminated soil or dust, wearing protective masks in high-risk areas, and promptly seeking medical attention if symptoms develop.

Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Ceftriaxone has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Ceftriaxone is available in injectable form and is commonly used to treat serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. It is also used to prevent infections after surgery or trauma. The drug is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and rash. In rare cases, it may cause serious side effects such as anaphylaxis, kidney damage, and seizures.

It's important to note that Ceftriaxone should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and that it is not recommended for use in individuals with a history of allergic reactions to cephalosporins or penicillins. Additionally, as with all antibiotics, it should be taken as directed and for the full duration of the prescribed course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the treatment is finished.

Intubation, intratracheal is a medical procedure in which a flexible plastic or rubber tube called an endotracheal tube (ETT) is inserted through the mouth or nose, passing through the vocal cords and into the trachea (windpipe). This procedure is performed to establish and maintain a patent airway, allowing for the delivery of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide during mechanical ventilation in various clinical scenarios, such as:

1. Respiratory failure or arrest
2. Procedural sedation
3. Surgery under general anesthesia
4. Neuromuscular disorders
5. Ingestion of toxic substances
6. Head and neck trauma
7. Critical illness or injury affecting the airway

The process of intubation is typically performed by trained medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, emergency medicine physicians, or critical care specialists, using direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy to visualize the vocal cords and guide the ETT into the correct position. Once placed, the ETT is secured to prevent dislodgement, and the patient's respiratory status is continuously monitored to ensure proper ventilation and oxygenation.

Intensive care is a specialized level of medical care that is provided to critically ill patients. It's usually given in a dedicated unit of a hospital called the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Critical Care Unit (CCU). The goal of intensive care is to closely monitor and manage life-threatening conditions, stabilize vital functions, and support organs until they recover or the patient can be moved to a less acute level of care.

Intensive care involves advanced medical equipment and technologies, such as ventilators to assist with breathing, dialysis machines for kidney support, intravenous lines for medication administration, and continuous monitoring devices for heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and other vital signs.

The ICU team typically includes intensive care specialists (intensivists), critical care nurses, respiratory therapists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive, round-the-clock care for critically ill patients.

Macrolides are a class of antibiotics derived from natural products obtained from various species of Streptomyces bacteria. They have a large ring structure consisting of 12, 14, or 15 atoms, to which one or more sugar molecules are attached. Macrolides inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit, thereby preventing peptide bond formation. Common examples of macrolides include erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. They are primarily used to treat respiratory, skin, and soft tissue infections caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Deglutition disorders, also known as swallowing disorders, are conditions that affect the ability to move food or liquids from the mouth to the stomach safely and efficiently. These disorders can occur at any stage of the swallowing process, which includes oral preparation (chewing and manipulating food in the mouth), pharyngeal phase (activating muscles and structures in the throat to move food toward the esophagus), and esophageal phase (relaxing and contracting the esophagus to propel food into the stomach).

Symptoms of deglutition disorders may include coughing or choking during or after eating, difficulty initiating a swallow, food sticking in the throat or chest, regurgitation, unexplained weight loss, and aspiration (inhaling food or liquids into the lungs), which can lead to pneumonia.

Deglutition disorders can be caused by various factors, such as neurological conditions (e.g., stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), structural abnormalities (e.g., narrowing or blockage of the esophagus), muscle weakness or dysfunction, and cognitive or behavioral issues. Treatment for deglutition disorders may involve dietary modifications, swallowing exercises, medications, or surgical interventions, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

Cilastatin is a medication that is primarily used as a stabilizer and renal protective agent for the antibiotic imipenem. Cilastatin works by inhibiting the deactivation of imipenem by renal dehydropeptidase-I, which helps maintain its therapeutic effectiveness in the body.

Imipenem/cilastatin is a combination medication used to treat various bacterial infections, including pneumonia, sepsis, and skin and urinary tract infections. Cilastatin does not have any antibacterial activity on its own.

It's important to note that the use of cilastatin should be under medical supervision, as with any medication. Always consult a healthcare professional for accurate information regarding medications and their uses.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia of Cattle, also known as "enzootic pneumonia" or "shipping fever," is a respiratory disease in cattle caused by a variety of bacterial and viral pathogens. The term "atypical" refers to the fact that this form of pneumonia does not present with typical symptoms such as consolidation and purulent exudate, but rather with interstitial inflammation and diffuse alveolar damage.

The disease is often associated with stressors such as transportation, commingling, or weather changes, which can lead to a suppressed immune response in the animal and make it more susceptible to infection. Common bacterial pathogens involved include Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni, while viral pathogens such as bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and parainfluenza type 3 (PI-3) can also contribute to the disease.

Clinical signs of atypical interstitial pneumonia in cattle may include depression, decreased appetite, increased respiratory rate and effort, coughing, nasal discharge, and fever. Diagnosis is typically made based on clinical signs, history, and laboratory testing such as serology, PCR, or culture. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics to target bacterial pathogens, as well as supportive care such as anti-inflammatory drugs and fluid therapy. Prevention strategies include vaccination, good biosecurity practices, and reducing stressors that can predispose animals to infection.

Calcitonin is a hormone that is produced and released by the parafollicular cells (also known as C cells) of the thyroid gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating calcium homeostasis in the body. Specifically, it helps to lower elevated levels of calcium in the blood by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, which are bone cells that break down bone tissue and release calcium into the bloodstream. Calcitonin also promotes the uptake of calcium in the bones and increases the excretion of calcium in the urine.

Calcitonin is typically released in response to high levels of calcium in the blood, and its effects help to bring calcium levels back into balance. In addition to its role in calcium regulation, calcitonin may also have other functions in the body, such as modulating immune function and reducing inflammation.

Clinically, synthetic forms of calcitonin are sometimes used as a medication to treat conditions related to abnormal calcium levels, such as hypercalcemia (high blood calcium) or osteoporosis. Calcitonin can be administered as an injection, nasal spray, or oral tablet, depending on the specific formulation and intended use.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Paramyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes several important pathogens causing respiratory infections in humans and animals. According to the medical perspective, Paramyxoviridae infections refer to the diseases caused by these viruses.

Some notable human paramyxovirus infections include:

1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection: RSV is a common cause of respiratory tract infections, particularly in young children and older adults. It can lead to bronchiolitis and pneumonia, especially in infants and patients with compromised immune systems.
2. Measles (Rubeola): Measles is a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, cough, coryza (runny nose), conjunctivitis, and a maculopapular rash. It can lead to severe complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and even death, particularly in malnourished children and individuals with weakened immune systems.
3. Parainfluenza Virus Infection: Parainfluenza viruses are responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infections, including croup, bronchitis, and pneumonia. They mainly affect young children but can also infect adults, causing mild to severe illnesses.
4. Mumps: Mumps is a contagious viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands, causing painful swelling. It can lead to complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, deafness, and orchitis (inflammation of the testicles) in rare cases.
5. Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) Infection: HMPV is a respiratory virus that can cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections, similar to RSV and parainfluenza viruses. It mainly affects young children and older adults, leading to bronchitis, pneumonia, and exacerbations of chronic lung diseases.

Prevention strategies for Paramyxoviridae infections include vaccination programs, practicing good personal hygiene, and implementing infection control measures in healthcare settings.

"Mannheimia haemolytica" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found as part of the normal flora in the upper respiratory tract of cattle and other ruminants. However, under certain conditions such as stress, viral infection, or sudden changes in temperature or humidity, the bacteria can multiply rapidly and cause a severe respiratory disease known as shipping fever or pneumonic pasteurellosis.

The bacterium is named "haemolytica" because it produces a toxin that causes hemolysis, or the breakdown of red blood cells, resulting in the characteristic clear zones around colonies grown on blood agar plates. The bacteria can also cause other symptoms such as fever, coughing, difficulty breathing, and depression.

"Mannheimia haemolytica" is a significant pathogen in the cattle industry, causing substantial economic losses due to mortality, reduced growth rates, and decreased milk production. Prevention and control measures include good management practices, vaccination, and prompt treatment of infected animals with antibiotics.

Bronchiolitis is a common respiratory infection in infants and young children, typically caused by a viral infection. It is characterized by inflammation and congestion of the bronchioles (the smallest airways in the lungs), which can lead to difficulty breathing and wheezing.

The most common virus that causes bronchiolitis is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but other viruses such as rhinovirus, influenza, and parainfluenza can also cause the condition. Symptoms of bronchiolitis may include cough, wheezing, rapid breathing, difficulty feeding, and fatigue.

In severe cases, bronchiolitis can lead to respiratory distress and require hospitalization. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as providing fluids and oxygen therapy, and in some cases, medications to help open the airways may be used. Prevention measures include good hand hygiene and avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick.

Streptolysins are exotoxins produced by certain strains of Streptococcus bacteria, primarily Group A Streptococcus (GAS). These toxins are classified into two types: streptolysin O (SLO) and streptolysin S (SLS).

1. Streptolysin O (SLO): It is a protein exotoxin that exhibits oxygen-labile hemolytic activity, meaning it can lyse or destroy red blood cells in the presence of oxygen. SLO is capable of entering host cells and causing various cellular damages, including inhibition of phagocytosis, modulation of immune responses, and induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death).

2. Streptolysin S (SLS): It is a non-protein, oxygen-stable hemolysin that can also lyse red blood cells but does so independently of oxygen presence. SLS is more heat-resistant than SLO and has a stronger ability to penetrate host cell membranes.

Both streptolysins contribute to the virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes, which can cause various clinical infections such as pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, scarlet fever, and invasive diseases like necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome.

The detection of streptolysin O antibodies (ASO titer) is often used as a diagnostic marker for past or recent GAS infections, particularly in cases of rheumatic fever, where elevated ASO titers indicate ongoing or previous streptococcal infection.

Dapsone is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called sulfones. It is primarily used to treat bacterial skin infections such as leprosy and dermatitis herpetiformis (a skin condition associated with coeliac disease). Dapsone works by killing the bacteria responsible for these infections.

In addition, dapsone has anti-inflammatory properties and is sometimes used off-label to manage inflammatory conditions such as vasculitis, bullous pemphigoid, and chronic urticaria. It is available in oral tablet form and topical cream or gel form.

Like all medications, dapsone can cause side effects, which may include nausea, loss of appetite, and headache. More serious side effects, such as methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder that affects the body's ability to transport oxygen), peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage that causes pain, numbness, or weakness in the hands and feet), and liver damage, can occur but are less common.

It is important for patients taking dapsone to be monitored by a healthcare provider to ensure safe and effective use of the medication.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

"Mycoplasma bovis" is a species of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are characterized by their small size. They can cause various diseases in cattle, including pneumonia, mastitis (inflammation of the mammary gland), arthritis, and otitis (inflammation of the ear). The bacteria can be transmitted through direct contact between animals, contaminated milk, and aerosols. Infection with Mycoplasma bovis can result in decreased productivity and increased mortality in affected herds, making it a significant concern for the cattle industry. Diagnosis is often made through culture or PCR-based tests, and treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, although resistance to certain antibiotics has been reported. Prevention strategies include biosecurity measures such as testing and culling infected animals, as well as good hygiene practices to limit the spread of the bacteria.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Actinomycetales are a group of gram-positive bacteria that can cause various types of infections in humans. The term "Actinomycetales infections" is used to describe a range of diseases caused by these organisms, which are characterized by the formation of characteristic granules or "actinomycetes" composed of bacterial cells and inflammatory tissue.

Some common examples of Actinomycetales infections include:

1. Actinomycosis: A chronic infection that typically affects the face, neck, and mouth, but can also occur in other parts of the body such as the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by various species of Actinomyces, which are normal inhabitants of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract.
2. Nocardiosis: A rare but serious infection that can affect the lungs, brain, or skin. It is caused by the bacterium Nocardia, which is found in soil and water.
3. Mycetoma: A chronic infection that affects the skin and underlying tissues, causing the formation of nodules and sinuses that discharge pus containing grains composed of fungal or bacterial elements. It is caused by various species of Actinomyces, Nocardia, and other related bacteria.
4. Streptomyces infections: While Streptomyces species are best known for their role in producing antibiotics, they can also cause infections in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. These infections can affect various organs, including the lungs, skin, and soft tissues.

Treatment of Actinomycetales infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, often for prolonged periods of time. The specific antibiotic regimen will depend on the type of infection and the susceptibility of the causative organism to various antimicrobial agents. Surgical intervention may also be necessary in some cases to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

Tracheitis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe. It can cause symptoms such as cough, sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and fever. Tracheitis can be caused by viral or bacterial infections, and it may also occur as a complication of other respiratory conditions. In some cases, tracheitis may require medical treatment, including antibiotics for bacterial infections or corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of tracheitis, especially if they are severe or persistent.

Staphylococcus aureus is a type of gram-positive, round (coccal) bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals and humans. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Staphylococcus aureus is known to cause a wide range of infections, from mild skin infections such as pimples, impetigo, and furuncles (boils) to more severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis. It can also cause food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome.

The bacterium is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, including methicillin, which has led to the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains that are difficult to treat. Proper hand hygiene and infection control practices are critical in preventing the spread of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

Adenoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by members of the Adenoviridae family of viruses, which are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. These viruses can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. In humans, adenovirus infections can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific type of virus and the age and immune status of the infected individual.

Common manifestations of adenovirus infections in humans include:

1. Respiratory illness: Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye) and pharyngoconjunctival fever.
2. Gastrointestinal illness: Some types of adenoviruses can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, particularly in children and immunocompromised individuals.
3. Genitourinary illness: Adenoviruses have been associated with urinary tract infections, hemorrhagic cystitis, and nephritis.
4. Eye infections: Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is a severe form of conjunctivitis caused by certain adenovirus types.
5. Central nervous system infections: Adenoviruses have been linked to meningitis, encephalitis, and other neurological disorders, although these are rare.

Transmission of adenoviruses typically occurs through respiratory droplets, contaminated surfaces, or contaminated water. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, but supportive care can help alleviate symptoms. In severe cases or in immunocompromised patients, antiviral therapy may be considered.

A hospital is a healthcare facility where patients receive medical treatment, diagnosis, and care for various health conditions, injuries, or diseases. It is typically staffed with medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers who provide round-the-clock medical services. Hospitals may offer inpatient (overnight) stays or outpatient (same-day) services, depending on the nature of the treatment required. They are equipped with various medical facilities like operating rooms, diagnostic equipment, intensive care units (ICUs), and emergency departments to handle a wide range of medical situations. Hospitals may specialize in specific areas of medicine, such as pediatrics, geriatrics, oncology, or trauma care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Acinetobacter infections are caused by bacteria that can be found in various environments, such as soil, water, and healthcare facilities. These bacteria can cause a range of illnesses, from mild skin infections to serious respiratory and bloodstream infections. They are often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making them difficult to treat.

Acinetobacter baumannii is the species most commonly associated with human infection. It is known for its ability to survive on dry surfaces for extended periods of time, which can contribute to its spread in healthcare settings. Infections caused by Acinetobacter are a particular concern in critically ill patients, such as those in intensive care units, and in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Symptoms of an Acinetobacter infection depend on the site of infection but may include fever, cough, shortness of breath, wound drainage, or skin redness or swelling. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are still effective against the bacteria, which can be determined through laboratory testing. In some cases, infection control measures, such as contact precautions and environmental cleaning, may also be necessary to prevent the spread of Acinetobacter in healthcare settings.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics, including methicillin and other related antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin, and amoxicillin. This bacterium can cause a range of infections, from skin infections to more severe and potentially life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and surgical site infections.

MRSA is often associated with healthcare settings, where it can spread through contaminated surfaces, equipment, and direct contact with an infected person or carrier. However, community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has also emerged as a significant public health concern, causing infections outside of healthcare facilities, such as in schools, gyms, and other community settings.

It's important to note that while MRSA is resistant to certain antibiotics, there are still some treatment options available for MRSA infections, including vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, and others. However, the emergence of MRSA strains with reduced susceptibility to these antibiotics has become a growing concern, highlighting the importance of infection control measures and the development of new antimicrobial agents.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Parasitic lung diseases refer to conditions caused by infection of the lungs by parasites. These are small organisms that live on or in a host organism and derive their sustenance at the expense of the host. Parasitic lung diseases can be caused by various types of parasites, including helminths (worms) and protozoa.

Examples of parasitic lung diseases include:

1. Pulmonary echinococcosis (hydatid disease): This is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The larvae form cysts in various organs, including the lungs.
2. Paragonimiasis: This is a food-borne lung fluke infection caused by Paragonimus westermani and other species. Humans become infected by eating raw or undercooked crustaceans (such as crabs or crayfish) that contain the larval stage of the parasite.
3. Toxocariasis: This is a soil-transmitted helminth infection caused by the roundworm Toxocara canis or T. cati, which are found in the intestines of dogs and cats. Humans become infected through accidental ingestion of contaminated soil, undercooked meat, or through contact with an infected animal's feces. Although the primary site of infection is the small intestine, larval migration can lead to lung involvement in some cases.
4. Amebic lung disease: This is a rare complication of amebiasis, which is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. The parasite usually infects the large intestine, but it can spread to other organs, including the lungs, through the bloodstream.
5. Cryptosporidiosis: This is a waterborne protozoan infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis. Although the primary site of infection is the small intestine, immunocompromised individuals can develop disseminated disease, including pulmonary involvement.

Symptoms of parasitic lung diseases vary depending on the specific organism and the severity of infection but may include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fever, and sputum production. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, such as stool or blood examinations for parasites or their antigens. Treatment depends on the specific organism but may include antiparasitic medications, supportive care, and management of complications.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes influenza A, B, and C viruses, which can cause respiratory infections in humans. Orthomyxoviridae infections are typically characterized by symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headaches, and fatigue.

Influenza A and B viruses can cause seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that occur mainly during the winter months in temperate climates. Influenza A viruses can also cause pandemics, which are global outbreaks of disease that occur when a new strain of the virus emerges to which there is little or no immunity in the human population.

Influenza C viruses are less common and typically cause milder illness than influenza A and B viruses. They do not cause epidemics and are not usually included in seasonal flu vaccines.

Orthomyxoviridae infections can be prevented through vaccination, good respiratory hygiene (such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing), hand washing, and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. Antiviral medications may be prescribed to treat influenza A and B infections, particularly for people at high risk of complications, such as older adults, young children, pregnant women, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

Bronchitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead to the lungs. This inflammation can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Bronchitis can be either acute or chronic.

Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu, and typically lasts for a few days to a week. Symptoms may include a productive cough (coughing up mucus or phlegm), chest discomfort, and fatigue. Acute bronchitis often resolves on its own without specific medical treatment, although rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications to manage symptoms may be helpful.

Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is characterized by a persistent cough with mucus production that lasts for at least three months out of the year for two consecutive years. Chronic bronchitis is typically caused by exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. It is often associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Treatment for chronic bronchitis may include medications to help open the airways, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, as well as lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and avoiding irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.

An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination or obduction, is a medical procedure in which a qualified professional (usually a pathologist) examines a deceased person's body to determine the cause and manner of death. This process may involve various investigative techniques, such as incisions to study internal organs, tissue sampling, microscopic examination, toxicology testing, and other laboratory analyses. The primary purpose of an autopsy is to gather objective evidence about the medical conditions and factors contributing to the individual's demise, which can be essential for legal, insurance, or public health purposes. Additionally, autopsies can provide valuable insights into disease processes and aid in advancing medical knowledge.

Penicillins are a group of antibiotics derived from the Penicillium fungus. They are widely used to treat various bacterial infections due to their bactericidal activity, which means they kill bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of their cell walls. The first penicillin, benzylpenicillin (also known as penicillin G), was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming. Since then, numerous semi-synthetic penicillins have been developed to expand the spectrum of activity and stability against bacterial enzymes that can inactivate these drugs.

Penicillins are classified into several groups based on their chemical structure and spectrum of activity:

1. Natural Penicillins (e.g., benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin): These have a narrow spectrum of activity, mainly targeting Gram-positive bacteria such as streptococci and staphylococci. However, they are susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamase enzymes produced by some bacteria.
2. Penicillinase-resistant Penicillins (e.g., methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin): These penicillins resist degradation by certain bacterial beta-lactamases and are primarily used to treat infections caused by staphylococci, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).
3. Aminopenicillins (e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin): These penicillins have an extended spectrum of activity compared to natural penicillins, including some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. However, they are still susceptible to degradation by many beta-lactamases.
4. Antipseudomonal Penicillins (e.g., carbenicillin, ticarcillin): These penicillins have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative bacteria with increased resistance to other antibiotics. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanate or tazobactam to protect them from degradation.
5. Extended-spectrum Penicillins (e.g., piperacillin): These penicillins have a broad spectrum of activity, including many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors to protect them from degradation.

Penicillins are generally well-tolerated antibiotics; however, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, ranging from mild skin rashes to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Cross-reactivity between different penicillin classes and other beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., cephalosporins) is possible but varies depending on the specific drugs involved.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive, aerobic, facultatively intracellular bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and dust contaminated with animal feces. It is a significant pathogen in horses, causing pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections, especially in foals. However, it can also cause various infectious diseases in other animals, including humans, particularly in individuals who are immunocompromised or have underlying lung disease.

In humans, R. equi infection often manifests as pulmonary disease, characterized by cough, fever, and chest pain, although disseminated disease can occur in immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of R. equi infection typically involves the isolation and identification of the organism from clinical specimens such as sputum or tissue samples, followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing to guide therapy. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics, including macrolides, rifamycins, and aminoglycosides, for an extended period.

Levofloxacin is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the fluoroquinolone class. It works by interfering with the bacterial DNA replication, transcription, and repair processes, leading to bacterial cell death. Levofloxacin is used to treat a variety of infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including respiratory, skin, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal infections. It is available in various forms, such as tablets, oral solution, and injection, for different routes of administration.

The medical definition of Levofloxacin can be stated as:

Levofloxacin is a synthetic antibacterial drug with the chemical name (-)-(S)-9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methoxy-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-9-oxoanthracene-1-carboxylic acid l-alanyl-l-proline methylester monohydrate. It is the levo isomer of ofloxacin and is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase, thereby preventing DNA replication and transcription. Levofloxacin is available as tablets, oral solution, and injection for oral and parenteral administration.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

"APACHE" stands for "Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation." It is a system used to assess the severity of illness in critically ill patients and predict their risk of mortality. The APACHE score is calculated based on various physiological parameters, such as heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate, and laboratory values, as well as age and chronic health conditions.

There are different versions of the APACHE system, including APACHE II, III, and IV, each with its own set of variables and scoring system. The most commonly used version is APACHE II, which includes 12 physiological variables measured during the first 24 hours of ICU admission, as well as age and chronic health points.

The APACHE score is widely used in research and clinical settings to compare the severity of illness and outcomes between different patient populations, evaluate the effectiveness of treatments and interventions, and make informed decisions about resource allocation and triage.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Ofloxacin is an antibacterial drug, specifically a fluoroquinolone. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is essential for the bacteria to replicate. This results in the death of the bacteria and helps to stop the infection. Ofloxacin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. It is available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, and eye drops. As with any medication, it should be used only under the direction of a healthcare professional, and its use may be associated with certain risks and side effects.

Haemophilus influenzae is a gram-negative, coccobacillary bacterium that can cause a variety of infectious diseases in humans. It is part of the normal respiratory flora but can become pathogenic under certain circumstances. The bacteria are named after their initial discovery in 1892 by Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic, although they are not the causative agent of influenza.

There are six main serotypes (a-f) based on the polysaccharide capsule surrounding the bacterium, with type b (Hib) being the most virulent and invasive. Hib can cause severe invasive diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis, and sepsis, particularly in children under 5 years of age. The introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine has significantly reduced the incidence of these invasive diseases.

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strains lack a capsule and are responsible for non-invasive respiratory tract infections, such as otitis media, sinusitis, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). NTHi can also cause invasive diseases but at lower frequency compared to Hib.

Proper diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility testing are crucial for effective treatment, as Haemophilus influenzae strains may display resistance to certain antibiotics.

Colistin is an antibiotic that belongs to a class of drugs called polymyxins. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. Colistin works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane and causing the bacterium to lose essential components, leading to its death.

Colistin can be administered intravenously or inhaled, depending on the type of infection being treated. It is important to note that colistin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that there is a small difference between the effective dose and the toxic dose. Therefore, it must be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Common side effects of colistin include kidney damage, nerve damage, and muscle weakness. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people. Colistin should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding unless the benefits outweigh the risks.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

"Near drowning" is not a formal medical diagnosis, but it is a term used to describe a situation where a person has nearly died from suffocation or cardiac arrest due to submersion in water, followed by survival for at least 24 hours after the incident. It can result in various short-term and long-term health consequences, such as respiratory complications, neurological damage, and even death.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines near drowning as "the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid." The term "drowning" is used when the process results in death, while "near drowning" refers to survival after the incident. However, it's important to note that even if a person survives a near-drowning incident, they may still experience significant health issues and long-term disabilities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term. Japan is the name of a country, officially known as Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku in Japanese, and is located in East Asia. It is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with a population of about 126 million people.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

'Acinetobacter baumannii' is a gram-negative, aerobic, coccobacillus-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and healthcare settings. It is known to cause various types of infections in humans, particularly in hospitalized patients or those with weakened immune systems.

This bacterium can cause a range of infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and wound infections. 'Acinetobacter baumannii' is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making it difficult to treat the resulting infections. This has led to its classification as a "superbug" or a multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO).

The medical community continues to research and develop new strategies to prevent and treat infections caused by 'Acinetobacter baumannii' and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream where they circulate and are able to move quickly to sites of infection or inflammation in the body. Neutrophils are capable of engulfing and destroying bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances through a process called phagocytosis. They are also involved in the release of inflammatory mediators, which can contribute to tissue damage in some cases. Neutrophils are characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, which contain enzymes and other proteins that help them carry out their immune functions.

Amoxicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which is necessary for their growth and survival. By disrupting this process, amoxicillin can kill bacteria and help to clear up infections.

Amoxicillin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available as a tablet, capsule, chewable tablet, or liquid suspension, and is typically taken two to three times a day.

Like all antibiotics, amoxicillin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections more difficult to treat in the future.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult (RDSa or ARDS), also known as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, is a severe form of acute lung injury characterized by rapid onset of widespread inflammation in the lungs. This results in increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane, pulmonary edema, and hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood). The inflammation can be triggered by various direct or indirect insults to the lung, such as sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, or aspiration.

The hallmark of ARDS is the development of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray, which can resemble pulmonary edema, but without evidence of increased left atrial pressure. The condition can progress rapidly and may require mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to maintain adequate oxygenation and prevent further lung injury.

The management of ARDS is primarily supportive, focusing on protecting the lungs from further injury, optimizing oxygenation, and providing adequate nutrition and treatment for any underlying conditions. The use of low tidal volumes and limiting plateau pressures during mechanical ventilation have been shown to improve outcomes in patients with ARDS.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infections refer to the clinical illnesses caused by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus. RSV is a highly contagious virus that spreads through respiratory droplets, contact with infected surfaces, or direct contact with infected people. It primarily infects the respiratory tract, causing inflammation and damage to the cells lining the airways.

RSV infections can lead to a range of respiratory illnesses, from mild, cold-like symptoms to more severe conditions such as bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lungs) and pneumonia (infection of the lung tissue). The severity of the infection tends to depend on factors like age, overall health status, and presence of underlying medical conditions.

In infants and young children, RSV is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia, often resulting in hospitalization. In older adults, people with weakened immune systems, and those with chronic heart or lung conditions, RSV infections can also be severe and potentially life-threatening.

Symptoms of RSV infection may include runny nose, cough, sneezing, fever, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and providing supportive care, although hospitalization and more aggressive interventions may be necessary in severe cases or for high-risk individuals. Preventive measures such as hand hygiene, wearing masks, and avoiding close contact with infected individuals can help reduce the spread of RSV.

Critical care, also known as intensive care, is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that require close monitoring and organ support. Critical care medicine is practiced in critical care units (ICUs) or intensive care units of hospitals. The goal of critical care is to prevent further deterioration of the patient's condition, to support failing organs, and to treat any underlying conditions that may have caused the patient to become critically ill.

Critical care involves a multidisciplinary team approach, including intensivists (specialist doctors trained in critical care), nurses, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals. The care provided in the ICU is highly specialized and often involves advanced medical technology such as mechanical ventilation, dialysis, and continuous renal replacement therapy.

Patients who require critical care may have a wide range of conditions, including severe infections, respiratory failure, cardiovascular instability, neurological emergencies, and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Critical care is an essential component of modern healthcare and has significantly improved the outcomes of critically ill patients.

Bacterial load refers to the total number or concentration of bacteria present in a given sample, tissue, or body fluid. It is a measure used to quantify the amount of bacterial infection or colonization in a particular area. The bacterial load can be expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter (ml), gram (g), or other units of measurement depending on the sample type. High bacterial loads are often associated with more severe infections and increased inflammation.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

A pandemic is a global outbreak of a disease that spreads easily from person to person across a large region, such as multiple continents or worldwide. It is declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) when the spread of a disease poses a significant threat to the global population due to its severity and transmissibility.

Pandemics typically occur when a new strain of virus emerges that has not been previously seen in humans, for which there is little or no pre-existing immunity. This makes it difficult to control the spread of the disease, as people do not have natural protection against it. Examples of pandemics include the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic and the more recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

During a pandemic, healthcare systems can become overwhelmed, and there may be significant social and economic disruption as governments take measures to slow the spread of the disease, such as travel restrictions, quarantines, and lockdowns. Effective vaccines and treatments are critical in controlling the spread of pandemics and reducing their impact on public health.

A cough is a reflex action that helps to clear the airways of irritants, foreign particles, or excess mucus or phlegm. It is characterized by a sudden, forceful expulsion of air from the lungs through the mouth and nose. A cough can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term), and it can be accompanied by other symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fever. Coughing can be caused by various factors, including respiratory infections, allergies, asthma, environmental pollutants, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchitis. In some cases, a cough may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as heart failure or lung cancer.

Respiratory aspiration is defined as the entry of foreign materials (such as food, liquids, or vomit) into the lower respiratory tract during swallowing, which includes the trachea and lungs. This can lead to respiratory complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, or lung abscesses. Aspiration can occur in individuals with impaired swallowing function due to various conditions like neurological disorders, stroke, or anesthesia.

Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibiotics that are widely used to treat various types of bacterial infections. They work by interfering with the bacteria's ability to replicate its DNA, which ultimately leads to the death of the bacterial cells. Fluoroquinolones are known for their broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Some common fluoroquinolones include ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and ofloxacin. These antibiotics are often used to treat respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and gastrointestinal infections, among others.

While fluoroquinolones are generally well-tolerated, they can cause serious side effects in some people, including tendonitis, nerve damage, and changes in mood or behavior. As with all antibiotics, it's important to use fluoroquinolones only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

"Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae" is a type of bacteria that primarily affects the respiratory system of pigs, causing a disease known as Enzootic Pneumonia. It is one of the most common causes of pneumonia in pigs and can lead to reduced growth rates, decreased feed conversion efficiency, and increased mortality in infected herds.

The bacteria lack a cell wall, which makes them resistant to many antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. They are also highly infectious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or contaminated fomites such as feed, water, and equipment. Infection with "Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae" can lead to the development of lesions in the lungs, which can make the animal more susceptible to secondary bacterial and viral infections.

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection typically involves a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests such as serology, PCR, or culture, and sometimes histopathological examination of lung tissue. Control measures may include antibiotic treatment, vaccination, biosecurity measures, and herd management practices aimed at reducing the spread of the bacteria within and between pig populations.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.

Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Imipenem is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of carbapenems. It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, sepsis, and skin infections. Imipenem works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial death.

Imipenem is often combined with another medication called cilastatin, which helps to prevent the breakdown of imipenem in the body and increase its effectiveness. The combination of imipenem and cilastatin is available under the brand name Primaxin.

Like other antibiotics, imipenem should be used with caution and only when necessary, as overuse can lead to antibiotic resistance. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.

Enzootic pneumonia of calves, also known as shipping fever or calf pneumonia, is a respiratory disease caused by a complex of viral and bacterial pathogens. It primarily affects young calves that are under stress, such as those that have been recently weaned, transported, or mixed with other groups of calves. The primary viral pathogens involved in enzootic pneumonia include bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenza virus 3 (PI-3), and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1). These viruses damage the lining of the respiratory tract, making it more susceptible to bacterial infections.

The most common bacterial pathogens involved in enzootic pneumonia are Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Other bacteria such as Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis can also contribute to the disease. These bacteria colonize the damaged respiratory tract and cause a severe, often fatal, bronchopneumonia.

Clinical signs of enzootic pneumonia include coughing, nasal discharge, fever, difficulty breathing, and decreased appetite. In severe cases, it can lead to death. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics to control bacterial infections, as well as supportive care such as fluid therapy and anti-inflammatory drugs. Prevention measures include good nutrition, reducing stress, vaccination against viral pathogens, and management practices that reduce the spread of disease.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Immunocompetence is the condition of having a properly functioning immune system that can effectively respond to the presence of foreign substances, such as pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, and parasites) and other potentially harmful agents. It involves the ability of the immune system to recognize, attack, and eliminate these foreign substances while also maintaining tolerance to self-tissues and promoting tissue repair.

Immunocompetence is essential for overall health and wellbeing, as it helps protect the body from infections and diseases. Factors that can affect immunocompetence include age, genetics, stress, nutrition, sleep, and certain medical conditions or treatments (like chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs) that can weaken the immune system.

Visna-maedi virus (VMV) is an retrovirus that belongs to the genus Lentivirus, which is part of the family Retroviridae. This virus is the causative agent of a slowly progressive, fatal disease in sheep known as maedi-visna. The term "visna" refers to a inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and "maedi" refers to a progressive interstitial pneumonia.

The Visna-Maedi virus is closely related to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, as well as to other lentiviruses that affect animals such as caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV).

Visna-maedi virus primarily targets the immune system cells, specifically monocytes/macrophages, leading to a weakened immune response in infected animals. This makes them more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus is transmitted through the respiratory route and infection can occur through inhalation of infectious aerosols or by ingestion of contaminated milk or colostrum from infected ewes.

There is no effective treatment or vaccine available for Visna-maedi virus infection, and control measures are focused on identifying and isolating infected animals to prevent the spread of the disease within sheep flocks.

Leukocidins are a type of protein toxin produced by some strains of bacteria. They are capable of lysing or destroying white blood cells (leukocytes), hence the name "leukocidins." These toxins contribute to the virulence of the bacteria, helping them evade the immune system and cause infection. A well-known example is Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), which is produced by some strains of Staphylococcus aureus and has been associated with severe, invasive infections such as necrotizing pneumonia and skin abscesses.

Respiratory rate is the number of breaths a person takes per minute. It is typically measured by counting the number of times the chest rises and falls in one minute. Normal respiratory rate at rest for an adult ranges from 12 to 20 breaths per minute. An increased respiratory rate (tachypnea) or decreased respiratory rate (bradypnea) can be a sign of various medical conditions, such as lung disease, heart failure, or neurological disorders. It is an important vital sign that should be regularly monitored in clinical settings.

Mycoplasma: A type of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are among the smallest organisms capable of self-replication. They can cause various infections in humans, animals, and plants. In humans, they are associated with respiratory tract infections (such as pneumonia), urogenital infections (like pelvic inflammatory disease), and some sexually transmitted diseases. Mycoplasma species are also known to contaminate cell cultures and can interfere with research experiments. Due to their small size and lack of a cell wall, they are resistant to many common antibiotics, making them difficult to treat.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

A "Bighorn Sheep" is not a medical term. It is a type of wild sheep found in North America, recognized by its large, curved horns. The scientific name for this animal is *Ovis canadensis*. However, if you are referring to a condition or injury related to sheep, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Sulfamethoxazole is a type of antibiotic known as a sulfonamide. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to produce folic acid, which is necessary for their growth and survival. Sulfamethoxazole is often combined with trimethoprim (another antibiotic) in a single medication called co-trimoxazole, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections.

The medical definition of Sulfamethoxazole can be found in various pharmaceutical and medical resources, here are some examples:

* According to the Merck Manual, Sulfamethoxazole is a "synthetic antibacterial drug that inhibits bacterial synthesis of folic acid by competing with para-aminobenzoic acid for the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase."
* According to the British National Formulary (BNF), Sulfamethoxazole is a "sulfonamide antibacterial agent, active against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is often combined with trimethoprim in a 5:1 ratio as co-trimoxazole."
* According to the National Library of Medicine (NLM), Sulfamethoxazole is a "synthetic antibacterial agent that is used in combination with trimethoprim for the treatment of various bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial synthesis of folic acid."

It's important to note that, as any other medication, Sulfamethoxazole should be taken under medical supervision and following the instructions of a healthcare professional, as it can cause side effects and interact with other medications.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

A critical illness is a serious condition that has the potential to cause long-term or permanent disability, or even death. It often requires intensive care and life support from medical professionals. Critical illnesses can include conditions such as:

1. Heart attack
2. Stroke
3. Organ failure (such as kidney, liver, or lung)
4. Severe infections (such as sepsis)
5. Coma or brain injury
6. Major trauma
7. Cancer that has spread to other parts of the body

These conditions can cause significant physical and emotional stress on patients and their families, and often require extensive medical treatment, rehabilitation, and long-term care. Critical illness insurance is a type of insurance policy that provides financial benefits to help cover the costs associated with treating these serious medical conditions.

Exotoxins are a type of toxin that are produced and released by certain bacteria into their external environment, including the surrounding tissues or host's bloodstream. These toxins can cause damage to cells and tissues, and contribute to the symptoms and complications associated with bacterial infections.

Exotoxins are typically proteins, and they can have a variety of effects on host cells, depending on their specific structure and function. Some exotoxins act by disrupting the cell membrane, leading to cell lysis or death. Others interfere with intracellular signaling pathways, alter gene expression, or modify host immune responses.

Examples of bacterial infections that are associated with the production of exotoxins include:

* Botulism, caused by Clostridium botulinum
* Diphtheria, caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae
* Tetanus, caused by Clostridium tetani
* Pertussis (whooping cough), caused by Bordetella pertussis
* Food poisoning, caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus

Exotoxins can be highly potent and dangerous, and some have been developed as biological weapons. However, many exotoxins are also used in medicine for therapeutic purposes, such as botulinum toxin (Botox) for the treatment of wrinkles or dystonia.

Psittacosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci, which is typically found in birds. It can be transmitted to humans through inhalation of dried secretions or feces from infected birds, and less commonly, through direct contact with infected birds or their environments. The disease is characterized by symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, cough, and pneumonia. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, heart inflammation, and even death if left untreated. It's important to note that psittacosis is treatable with antibiotics, and early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

Empyema is a collection of pus in a body cavity. Pleural empyema refers to the presence of pus in the pleural space, which is the thin fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. This condition usually develops as a complication of pneumonia or lung infection, and it can cause symptoms such as chest pain, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as drainage of the pus from the pleural space through procedures such as thoracentesis or chest tube placement. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the infected pleura and prevent recurrence.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

"Pasteurella" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacilli that are part of the family Pasteurellaceae. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tracts of animals, including cats, dogs, and livestock. They can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as wound infections, pneumonia, and septicemia, often following animal bites or scratches. Two notable species are Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella canis. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are essential for appropriate treatment.

Patient admission in a medical context refers to the process by which a patient is formally accepted and registered into a hospital or healthcare facility for treatment or further medical care. This procedure typically includes the following steps:

1. Patient registration: The patient's personal information, such as name, address, contact details, and insurance coverage, are recorded in the hospital's system.
2. Clinical assessment: A healthcare professional evaluates the patient's medical condition to determine the appropriate level of care required and develop a plan for treatment. This may involve consulting with other healthcare providers, reviewing medical records, and performing necessary tests or examinations.
3. Bed assignment: Based on the clinical assessment, the hospital staff assigns an appropriate bed in a suitable unit (e.g., intensive care unit, step-down unit, general ward) for the patient's care.
4. Informed consent: The healthcare team explains the proposed treatment plan and associated risks to the patient or their legal representative, obtaining informed consent before proceeding with any invasive procedures or significant interventions.
5. Admission orders: The attending physician documents the admission orders in the medical chart, specifying the diagnostic tests, medications, treatments, and care plans for the patient during their hospital stay.
6. Notification of family members or caregivers: Hospital staff informs the patient's emergency contact or next of kin about their admission and provides relevant information regarding their condition, treatment plan, and any necessary follow-up instructions.
7. Patient education: The healthcare team educates the patient on what to expect during their hospital stay, including potential side effects, self-care strategies, and discharge planning.

The goal of patient admission is to ensure a smooth transition into the healthcare facility, providing timely and appropriate care while maintaining open communication with patients, families, and caregivers throughout the process.

Respiratory Syncytial Viruses (RSV) are a common type of virus that cause respiratory infections, particularly in young children and older adults. They are responsible for inflammation and narrowing of the small airways in the lungs, leading to breathing difficulties and other symptoms associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia.

The term "syncytial" refers to the ability of these viruses to cause infected cells to merge and form large multinucleated cells called syncytia, which is a characteristic feature of RSV infections. The virus spreads through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and it can also survive on surfaces for several hours, making transmission easy.

RSV infections are most common during the winter months and can cause mild to severe symptoms depending on factors such as age, overall health, and underlying medical conditions. While RSV is typically associated with respiratory illnesses in children, it can also cause significant disease in older adults and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there is no vaccine available for RSV, but antiviral medications and supportive care are used to manage severe infections.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

Child mortality refers to the death of children under a specific age, typically under 5 years old. It is usually expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births in a given population during a specified period. High child mortality rates are often indicative of underlying issues related to health care access, nutrition, sanitation, and socioeconomic factors. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals set a target to reduce under-five child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, and this goal has been continued in the Sustainable Development Goals with a new target of ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age by 2030.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Spain" is not a medical term. It is a country located in southwestern Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a group of disorders that involve the abnormal production and accumulation of abnormal connective tissues in various parts of the body. Connective tissues are the structural materials that support and bind other tissues and organs together. They include tendons, ligaments, cartilage, fat, and the material that fills the spaces between cells, called the extracellular matrix.

Connective tissue diseases can affect many different systems in the body, including the skin, joints, muscles, lungs, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and blood vessels. Some CTDs are autoimmune disorders, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy connective tissues. Others may be caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.

Some examples of connective tissue diseases include:

* Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
* Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
* Scleroderma
* Dermatomyositis/Polymyositis
* Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD)
* Sjogren's syndrome
* Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
* Marfan syndrome
* Osteogenesis imperfecta

The specific symptoms and treatment of connective tissue diseases vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Treatment may include medications to reduce inflammation, suppress the immune system, or manage pain. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged tissues or organs.

Thienamycins are a group of antibiotics that are characterized by their beta-lactam structure. They belong to the class of carbapenems and are known for their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many that are resistant to other antibiotics. Thienamycins inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which leads to bacterial cell death.

Thienamycin itself is not used clinically due to its instability, but several semi-synthetic derivatives of thienamycin have been developed and are used in the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Examples of thienamycin derivatives include imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. These antibiotics are often reserved for the treatment of severe infections that are unresponsive to other antibiotics due to their potential to select for resistant bacteria and their high cost.

The oropharynx is the part of the throat (pharynx) that is located immediately behind the mouth and includes the back one-third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils. It serves as a passageway for both food and air, and is also an important area for the immune system due to the presence of tonsils.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Staphylococcal infections are a type of infection caused by Staphylococcus bacteria, which are commonly found on the skin and nose of healthy people. However, if they enter the body through a cut, scratch, or other wound, they can cause an infection.

There are several types of Staphylococcus bacteria, but the most common one that causes infections is Staphylococcus aureus. These infections can range from minor skin infections such as pimples, boils, and impetigo to serious conditions such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and toxic shock syndrome.

Symptoms of staphylococcal infections depend on the type and severity of the infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, either topical or oral, depending on the severity and location of the infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more severe infections. It is important to note that some strains of Staphylococcus aureus have developed resistance to certain antibiotics, making them more difficult to treat.

Auscultation is a medical procedure in which a healthcare professional uses a stethoscope to listen to the internal sounds of the body, such as heart, lung, or abdominal sounds. These sounds can provide important clues about a person's health and help diagnose various medical conditions, such as heart valve problems, lung infections, or digestive issues.

During auscultation, the healthcare professional places the stethoscope on different parts of the body and listens for any abnormal sounds, such as murmurs, rubs, or wheezes. They may also ask the person to perform certain movements, such as breathing deeply or coughing, to help identify any changes in the sounds.

Auscultation is a simple, non-invasive procedure that can provide valuable information about a person's health. It is an essential part of a physical examination and is routinely performed by healthcare professionals during regular checkups and hospital visits.

Chlamydophila infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Chlamydophila, which includes several species that can infect humans and animals. The two most common species that cause infections in humans are Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydophila trachomatis.

Chlamydophila pneumoniae is responsible for respiratory infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusitis. It is usually spread through respiratory droplets and can cause both mild and severe illnesses.

Chlamydophila trachomatis causes a wide range of infections, depending on the serovar (strain) involved. The most common types of Chlamydia trachomatis infections include:

1. Nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis: These are sexually transmitted infections that can cause inflammation of the urethra and cervix, respectively. Symptoms may include discharge, pain during urination, and painful intercourse.
2. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV): This is a sexually transmitted infection that primarily affects the lymphatic system. It can cause symptoms such as genital ulcers, swollen lymph nodes, and rectal pain and discharge.
3. Trachoma: This is an eye infection caused by a specific serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis. It is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide and primarily affects populations in developing countries with poor sanitation.
4. Inclusion conjunctivitis: This is an eye infection that mainly affects newborns, causing inflammation of the conjunctiva (the membrane lining the eyelids). It can be transmitted from mother to child during childbirth and may lead to vision problems if left untreated.

Diagnosis of Chlamydophila infections typically involves laboratory tests such as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or culture methods. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline, and may involve additional measures depending on the site and severity of infection. Prevention strategies include practicing safe sex, maintaining good hygiene, and receiving appropriate vaccinations for at-risk populations.

Legionella longbeachae is a species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that can cause respiratory infections in humans. It is one of the several species within the genus Legionella, which includes the more well-known Legionella pneumophila, the primary cause of Legionnaires' disease.

Legionella longbeachae is commonly found in soil and compost, particularly in moist or wet environments. It can be transmitted to humans through inhalation of aerosolized water droplets or soil particles contaminated with the bacteria. This can occur during activities such as gardening, landscaping, or handling contaminated potting mixes or composts.

The infection caused by Legionella longbeachae is known as Pontiac fever or legionellosis, which typically presents as a milder respiratory illness compared to Legionnaires' disease. Symptoms may include fever, cough, headache, muscle aches, and shortness of breath. In some cases, particularly among individuals with weakened immune systems, the infection can progress to pneumonia, leading to severe illness or even death.

Preventive measures for Legionella longbeachae infections involve using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling contaminated soil or compost and ensuring adequate ventilation during such activities. Additionally, wet or moist environments where the bacteria may thrive should be properly maintained to minimize the risk of infection.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of hormones that naturally occur in the body and are produced by the adrenal gland. It is often used to treat various medical conditions such as inflammation, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. Methylprednisolone works by reducing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce symptoms such as swelling, pain, and redness.

Methylprednisolone is available in several forms, including tablets, oral suspension, and injectable solutions. It may be used for short-term or long-term treatment, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite, weight gain, insomnia, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of methylprednisolone can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, cataracts, and adrenal suppression.

It is important to note that methylprednisolone should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can cause serious side effects if not used properly. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on various factors such as the patient's age, weight, medical history, and the condition being treated.

Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the use of antibiotics to prevent infection from occurring in the first place, rather than treating an existing infection. This practice is commonly used before certain medical procedures or surgeries that have a high risk of infection, such as joint replacements, heart valve surgery, or organ transplants. The goal of antibiotic prophylaxis is to reduce the risk of infection by introducing antibiotics into the body before bacteria have a chance to multiply and cause an infection.

The choice of antibiotic for prophylaxis depends on several factors, including the type of procedure being performed, the patient's medical history and allergies, and the most common types of bacteria that can cause infection in that particular situation. The antibiotic is typically given within one hour before the start of the procedure, and may be continued for up to 24 hours afterward, depending on the specific guidelines for that procedure.

It's important to note that antibiotic prophylaxis should only be used when it is truly necessary, as overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the decision to use antibiotic prophylaxis should be made carefully and in consultation with a healthcare provider.

Pulmonary aspergillosis is a respiratory infection caused by the fungus Aspergillus. It mainly affects the lungs, but it can also spread to other parts of the body. There are several forms of pulmonary aspergillosis, including:

1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA): This form occurs in people with asthma or cystic fibrosis. The immune system overreacts to the presence of Aspergillus, causing inflammation and damage to the airways.
2. Aspergilloma: Also known as a fungus ball, this is a growth of Aspergillus that develops in a preexisting lung cavity, usually caused by old tuberculosis or scarring from previous lung infections.
3. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA): This is the most severe form and occurs when the fungus invades the lung tissue, blood vessels, and other organs. It primarily affects people with weakened immune systems due to conditions like cancer, HIV/AIDS, organ transplants, or long-term use of corticosteroids.

Symptoms of pulmonary aspergillosis can vary depending on the form and severity of the infection. They may include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and bloody sputum. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests like chest X-rays or CT scans, along with laboratory tests to detect Aspergillus antigens or DNA in blood or respiratory samples. Treatment options include antifungal medications, surgery to remove fungal growths, and management of underlying conditions that weaken the immune system.

... is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae (J13) is the most common ... Pneumonia Fever Rigors Cough Runny nose (either direct bacterial pneumonia or accompanied by primary viral pneumonia) Dyspnea ... "bacterial pneumonia" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary "Plague". WHO. 2017-03-19. Archived from the original on 2017-03-19. ... "Bacterial Pneumonia". Lung Disease & Respiratory Health Center. WebMD. p. 2. Corey, Ralph (1990). "Ch. 39: Hemoptysis". In ...
Bacterial pneumonia. Fungal pneumonia Viral pneumonia from vape sharing. SARS-CoV-2: Shared vaping devices are linked to COVID- ... and beta-nornicotyrine are believed to be the result of bacterial action or oxidation during the extracting of nicotine from ...
Sethi Sanjeev (2002). "Bacterial Pneumonia. Managing a Deadly Complication of Influenza in Older Adults with Comorbid Disease ... Among those who survived the first several days, however, many died of secondary bacterial pneumonia. It has been argued that ... Morens D.; Taubenberger J.; Fauci A. (2008). "Predominant role of bacterial pneumonia as a cause of death in pandemic influenza ... Lethal synergism between influenza virus and pneumococcus, causes excess mortality from secondary bacterial pneumonia during ...
Viral pneumonia presents more commonly with wheezing than bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonia was historically divided into "typical ... Pneumonia seen by ultrasound Pneumonia seen by ultrasound Pneumonia seen by ultrasound Right middle lobe pneumonia in a child ... lobular pneumonia, and interstitial pneumonia. Bacterial, community-acquired pneumonia classically show lung consolidation of ... Viruses also make the body more susceptible to bacterial infections; in this way, bacterial pneumonia can occur at the same ...
Anevlavis S, Bouros D (February 2010). "Community acquired bacterial pneumonia". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 11 (3): 361 ... Community acquired pneumonia is the source of most pneumonia cases and is categorized as cases of pneumonia developed outside ... A sub-type of hospital-acquired pneumonia, known as ventilator-associated pneumonia, is described as pneumonia acquired more ... Pneumonia can be acquired from different sources such as in hospitals, the community, or through use of ventilators. Pneumonia ...
Bacterial pneumonia is primarily caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and ... Bacterial plant pathogens cause leaf spots, blight, and rot in many plant species. The most common bacterial pathogens for ... Pahal, Parul; Rajasurya, Venkat; Sharma, Sandeep (2022). Typical Bacterial Pneumonia. Treasure Island, Florida: StatPearls ... Vaccines against bacterial pathogens include the anthrax vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine. Many other bacterial pathogens lack ...
Pneumonia, Atypical Bacterial at eMedicine Pneumonia, Typical Bacterial at eMedicine Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases, ... Hence "atypical pneumonia" was also called "non-bacterial". In literature the term atypical pneumonia is current, sometimes ... Atypical pneumonia, also known as walking pneumonia, is any type of pneumonia not caused by one of the pathogens most commonly ... This is occult pneumonia. In general, occult pneumonia is rather often present in patients with pneumonia and can also be ...
World Pneumonia Day (Bacterial toxins). ... "The role of pneumolysin in pneumococcal pneumonia and ... December 2006). "Pneumolysin polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia and empyema in children". ... A rapid antigen detection method to diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia in children". Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 20 (4 ...
This condition is called bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonia is the most common of the S. pneumoniae diseases which include symptoms ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... In 1881, the organism, known later in 1886 as the pneumococcus for its role as a cause of pneumonia, was first isolated ... As a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century ...
Dynabac (Dirithromycin), for acute bacterial exacerbations. Ketek (Telithromycin), for community acquired pneumonia. Priftin ( ... Bacterial diseases: ActHIB (Hib vaccine) Adacel (DPT vaccine) Daptacel (DPT vaccine) Dengvaxia (Dengue vaccine) Menactra ( ...
Bacterial pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia may result. If a tracheal tube used for intubation is inserted too far, it will ... Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viral or bacterial infections. Many sufferers of chronic bronchitis also suffer from ...
Pneumonia may develop with secondary bacterial infections. In addition to stomatitis, some cats may develop a polyarthritis, ... Antibiotics are used for secondary bacterial infections, and immune modulators, such as lymphocyte T-cell immune modulator, ...
Secondary bacterial pneumonia occurs in many cases. Chronic respiratory disease, such as nasal discharge, is common in ...
and Ostertagia sp.) or bacterial infections (12 cases, mostly pneumonia). Elk hoof disease was first noticed in the state of ... The Gram-negative bacterial disease brucellosis occasionally affects elk in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the only place ...
... bacterial pneumonia often complicates viral pneumonia. The best prevention against viral pneumonia is vaccination against ... Viral pneumonia is a pneumonia caused by a virus. Pneumonia is an infection that causes inflammation in one or both of the ... Pneumonia can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children, ... There are roughly 450 million cases of pneumonia every year. Of those case, viral pneumonia counts for about 200 million cases ...
Pneumonia is most often caused by a bacterial infection. The bacterial infection occurs mainly after a viral infection. Some ... The pneumonia caused by Tuberculous appears more often in dogs. Gastric acid can also trigger pneumonia when a pet is throwing ... "Pneumonia". Metropolitan Veterinary Associates. Retrieved 2021-12-18. "Pneumonia in Small Animals - Respiratory System". MSD ... parainfluenza virus and feline calicivirus benefit a bacterial infection which ends in pneumonia. Parasites, for example lung ...
Craig, A.; Mai, J.; Cai, S.; Jeyaseelan, S. (2009). "Neutrophil recruitment to the lungs during bacterial pneumonia". Infection ... It has been employed to investigate the innate response to bacterial wall components like LPS and to conduct complex mixed ... bacterial challenges. This system has shed light on which cells become infected within the intact lung, offering insights ... infection studies involving multiple viruses or viral and bacterial co-infections. This approach enables precise analysis of ...
Presumed bacterial pneumonia is typically treated with antibiotics. Al-Tubaikh, JA (2010). "Chapter 3.2 Alveolar lung diseases ... Causes of acute alveolar lung disease include pulmonary edema (cardiogenic or neurogenic), pneumonia (bacterial or viral), ... obstructive pneumonia, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism with infarction, or tuberculosis. The two focuses of management for ... Some more commonly seen instances of alveolar lung disease include pulmonary edema and pneumonia. For pulmonary edema, medical ...
... may be followed by bacterial pneumonia. Community-acquired aspiration pneumonia is usually caused by ... However, this does not necessarily translate into reduced risk of pneumonia in real life eating and drinking. Also, pharyngeal ... Comparison of 2 interventions for fluid aspiration on pneumonia incidence: a randomised trial. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:509-18 ... Pulmonary aspiration resulting in pneumonia, in some patients, particularly those with physical limitations, can be fatal. ...
One major cause of bacterial pneumonia is tuberculosis. Chronic infections often occur in those with immunodeficiency and can ... The tissue of the lungs can be affected by a number of respiratory diseases, including pneumonia and lung cancer. Chronic ... Inflammatory conditions of the lung tissue are pneumonia, of the respiratory tract are bronchitis and bronchiolitis, and of the ... as in pneumonia. In embryonic development, the lungs begin to develop as an outpouching of the foregut, a tube which goes on to ...
ISBN 0-7503-0670-X. Brundage, John F.; Shanks, G. Dennis (August 2008). "Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918-19 ...
... s are used to treat community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Other respiratory tract infections were removed as ... due to their ability to bind at two sites at the bacterial ribosome as well as having a structural modification that makes them ...
The majority of deaths were from bacterial pneumonia, a common secondary infection associated with influenza. This pneumonia ... "Bacterial Pneumonia Caused Most Deaths in 1918 Influenza Pandemic". National Institutes of Health. 23 September 2015. Archived ... Morens DM, Taubenberger JK, Fauci AS (October 2008). "Predominant role of bacterial pneumonia as a cause of death in pandemic ... However, during the second wave, the disease was much more serious, often complicated by bacterial pneumonia, which was often ...
She died on May 28, 2020, from bacterial pneumonia. Tugna married Eleanor Joni J. Villanueva on May 11, 2002. The couple is ...
In November 1987, Moore was struck down with bacterial pneumonia. He initially tried to ignore the illness and attended a ... He died from pneumonia on 20 May 2019, aged 81. "Death of a Member: Lord Moore of Lower Marsh". House of Lords Hansard. LVS : ...
The disease is commonly misdiagnosed as bacterial community-acquired pneumonia. The fungal infection can be demonstrated by ... Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the endemic areas of the United States. Infections ... Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the endemic areas of the United States. Infections ... Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the endemic areas of the United States. Infections ...
The cause of death was reported to be bacterial pneumonia. York was buried at Sunset Memory Gardens in Cartersville. In 1972, ...
It is a human pathogen that causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia, a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia related to cold ... Mycoplasma Mollicutes Bacterial pneumonia Hayflick L, Chanock RM (June 1965). "Mycoplasma species of man". Bacteriological ... and manifestation of pneumonia can be confused with a number of other bacterial pathogens and conditions that cause pneumonia. ... Rarely, M. pneumoniae pneumonia results in death due to lesions and ulceration of the epithelial lining, pulmonary edema, and ...
It is usually caused by a bacterial infection, rather than a virus. Hospital acquired pneumonia is the second most common ... Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at ... Healthcare-associated pneumonia can be defined as pneumonia in a patient with at least one of the following risk factors: ... Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a sub-type of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) which occurs in people who are ...
Bacterial pneumonia Viral pneumonia Fungal pneumonia Parasitic pneumonia "Pneumonia Causes - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. ... including bacterial pneumonia. Although most cases of bacterial pneumonia are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, infections by ... A common cause of sepsis is bacterial pneumonia, frequently the result of infection with streptococcus pneumoniae. Patients ... Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person outside of the ...
Pneumonia can be generally defined as an infection of the lung parenchyma, in which consolidation of the affected part and a ... Antibiotic treatment is the mainstay of drug therapy for bacterial pneumonia.. Bacterial pneumonia. Radiographic images in a ... Management of bacterial pneumonia. The mainstay of drug therapy for bacterial pneumonia is antibiotic treatment. First-line ... encoded search term (Bacterial Pneumonia) and Bacterial Pneumonia What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Bacterial Pneumonia and Pandemic Influenza Planning On This Page Bacterial Pneumonia and Pandemic Influenza Discussion Cite ... involve bacterial-viral co-infection (6-8). S. pneumonia is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and bacterial ... Bacterial pneumonia vaccines and childhood pneumonia: are we winning, refining, or redefining?Lancet Infect Dis. 2006;6:150-61 ... Bacterial Pneumonia and Seasonal Influenza. Pandemics are relatively rare; therefore, more data are available about bacterial ...
Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae (J13) is the most common ... Pneumonia Fever Rigors Cough Runny nose (either direct bacterial pneumonia or accompanied by primary viral pneumonia) Dyspnea ... "bacterial pneumonia" at Dorlands Medical Dictionary "Plague". WHO. 2017-03-19. Archived from the original on 2017-03-19. ... "Bacterial Pneumonia". Lung Disease & Respiratory Health Center. WebMD. p. 2. Corey, Ralph (1990). "Ch. 39: Hemoptysis". In ...
Xenleta (lefamulin) and Ceftin, Omnicef (cefuroxime) are used to treat bacterial pneumonia. ... acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by susceptible microorganisms. ...
Copyright © 2023 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Thoracic Society. All rights reserved.. ...
Smiley believes these Th1-17 cells may be important in fighting other kinds of pneumonia: "Bacterial pneumonia is one of the ... New discovery could lead to vaccines for plague and bacterial pneumonias. January 25, 2011. ScienceBlog.com ... most common causes of death in hospitals and, like plague, many of these pneumonias are caused by bacteria that grow both ...
Any type of pneumonia is a frightening illness. It is either caused by viral agents or bacterial gents. Covid pneumonia is ... Bacterial pneumonia is caused by Streptococcus (pneumococcus). However, other bacteria can cause it too. ... Difference Between Covid Pneumonia and Bacterial Pneumonia What is covid pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia? Pneumonia is an ... Difference Between Covid Pneumonia and Bacterial Pneumonia. What is covid pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia?. Pneumonia is an ...
... to treat adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. ... of patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, a ... FDA Approves New Antibiotic to Treat Community-acquired Bacterial Pneumonia. Aug 21, 2019 , Business News, FDA Approvals, ... The US Food and Drug Administration approved Xenleta (lefamulin) to treat adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. ... about one million people are hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia and 50,000 people die from the disease. ...
While key to definitive diagnosis and management of bacterial pneumonia, collection of BALF requires general anesthesia, which ... Pneumonia can develop from contagious environmental bacteria or from the dog\s own bacteria gaining access to the lungs (e.g ... In addition, the investigators will employ molecular means of identification of bacterial populations in samples, so called ... can identify the bacteria causing pneumonia and provide antibiotic susceptibility information. ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Bacterial Pneumonia in Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex. Find specific ... Etiology of Bacterial Pneumonia in Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1 is the bacterial ... Clinical Findings of Bacterial Pathogens Associated With Bovine Respiratory Disease Clinical signs of bacterial pneumonia are ... Bacterial Pneumonia in Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex By John Campbell , DVM, DVSc, Department of Large Animal ...
Medical doctor warns that bacterial pneumonias are on the rise from mask wearing. national , health / disability issues , news ... Reports coming from my colleagues, all over the world, are suggesting that the bacterial pneumonias are on the rise. ... I m seeing patients that have facial rashes, fungal infections, bacterial infections. ...
Learn how procalcitonin was used to assess for bacterial co-infection in a COVID-19+ patient in this case study. ... Hemodialysis, Bacterial Pneumonia and Antibiotic De-escalation. Learn how procalcitonin was used for de-escalating antibiotics ... Bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infections are relatively infrequent (, 10%) in hospitalized patients with COVID ... Procalcitonin is the most sensitive biomarker for bacterial specificity providing results to determine bacterial infection. ...
the herbs in VelociTea are cure treatment for bacterial infection pneumonia, wheezing asthma, chronic bronchitis and other ... Herbal tea formula for preventing wheezing asthma and bacterial infection pneumonia.. Submitted by AsthmaHerbs on 28 August ... Home » Forums » Discussion Forum » Herbal tea formula for preventing wheezing asthma and bacterial infection pneumonia. ... the herbs in VelociTea are cure treatment for bacterial infection pneumonia, wheezing asthma, chronic bronchitis and other ...
... bacterial pneumonia symptoms. 2. bacterial pneumonia prognosis. 3. bacterial pneumonia incubation. 4. bacterial pneumonia ... bacterial pneumonia is contagious. Bacterial infection in the lungs causes bacterial pneumonia. Some other causes of bacterial ... pneumonia are viral agents, fungus and other organisms. TAGS: 1. ...
... to treat adult patients with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia caused by susceptible isolates of ... FDA approves Vibativ for hospitalized patients with bacterial pneumonia. June 26, 2013. Article ... to treat adult patients with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia caused by susceptible isolates of ... to treat adult patients with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) caused by susceptible ...
Pneumonia can be generally defined as an infection of the lung parenchyma, in which consolidation of the affected part and a ... encoded search term (Bacterial Pneumonia) and Bacterial Pneumonia What to Read Next on Medscape ... For patient education information, see the Pneumonia Center, as well as Bacterial Pneumonia and Viral Pneumonia. ... Bacterial pneumonia. Radiographic images in a patient with bilateral lower lobe pneumonia. Note the spine sign, or loss of ...
Respiratory samples from 367 patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia were analysed by PCR amplification of Pneumocystis ... the clinical importance of a positive Pneumocystis-PCR among HIV-uninfected patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia, a ... hominis) is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. Pneumocystis ... two patients had verified bacterial pneumonia and two patients had pneumonia of unknown cause. All four patients were old (age ...
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Bacterial pneumonia: Nursing Process (ADPIE). ... Bacterial pneumonia: Nursing Process (ADPIE) Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. ... Now, there are lots of different pneumonia-causing microbes. Usually its caused by viruses and bacteria, but it can also be ... In individuals with a normal immune system, fungi are a rare cause of pneumonia and often its regional - for example, theres ...
Bacterial pneumonia. *Pneumocystis pneumonia, a dangerous lung infection. Smoking when you have HIV also makes you more likely ... When you quit, your risk goes down for many serious illnesses, including heart attacks and pneumonia.1,3 ... Smoking raises your risk for heart disease, cancer, serious lung diseases and infections such as pneumonia, and other illnesses ... This, in turn, helps protect you from life-threatening illnesses, such as pneumonia and cancer.9 ...
2. bacterial versus viral bronchitis. 3. difference viral bacterial bronchitis. 4. acute bronchitis viral bacterial. 5. ... How do you know if bronchitis is bacterial or viral or both?. ...
Bacterial Pneumonia Market Share is anticipated to reach USD XX.X MN by 2030, this market report provides the growth, key ... Bacterial pneumonia arises as a result of different bacterial strains infecting the lungs, leading to an infection within the ... Global Bacterial Pneumonia Market Share by Region (Representative Graph). The research report also covers the comprehensive ... 5 . GLOBAL BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA MARKET ANALYSIS BY TYPE. 5.1 Overview by Type. 5.2 Historical and Forecast Data. 5.3 Analysis by ...
Typical bacterial pathogens that cause the condition include Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-sensitive and -resistant ... Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infectious diseases and is an important cause of mortality and ... Which bacterial pathogens commonly cause community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)?. What is the most common bacterial pathogen ... Atypical community-acquired pneumonia pathogens. Atypical bacterial pneumonias can be differentiated into those caused by ...
Acute bacterial sinusitis; acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis ... Community-Acquired Pneumonia. 400 mg PO/IV qDay for 7-14 days ... Acute Bacterial Sinusitis. 400 mg PO/IV qDay for 5-10 days ... USES: Moxifloxacin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. This medication belongs to a class of drugs called ... It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for virus ...
Bacterial pneumonia is a considerable problem worldwide. Here, we follow the inter-kingdom respiratory tract microbiome (RTM) ... Coinfecção; Microbiota; Pneumonia Bacteriana; Humanos; Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico; Sistema Respiratório; Disbiose ... The respiratory tract microbiome, the pathogen load, and clinical interventions define severity of bacterial pneumonia. ... Texto completo: Disponível Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Assunto principal: Pneumonia ...
Procalcitonin to Distinguish Viral From Bacterial Pneumonia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.. Ishan S Kamat, Vignesh ... is whether the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin levels enable the practitioner to distinguish bacterial pneumonia, ... Because of the diverse etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the limitations of current diagnostic modalities, ... which requires antibiotic therapy, from viral pneumonia, which does not. In this meta-analysis of 12 studies in 2408 patients ...
Symptoms of pneumonia vary to mild to severe. Read about the signs of pneumonia. ... Pneumonia is an infection in one or both of the lungs. ... What causes pneumonia?. Bacterial, viral, and fungal infections ... Antibiotics treat bacterial pneumonia and some types of fungal pneumonia. They do not work for viral pneumonia. ... If you have viral pneumonia, you are at risk of also getting bacterial pneumonia. The different viruses that can cause ...
Conduct surveillance of bacterial pneumonia among ICU patients at high risk for nosocomial bacterial pneumonia (e.g., patients ... bacterial pneumonia, including Legionnaires disease; fungal pneumonia (i.e., aspergillosis); and virus-associated pneumonia (i. ... BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA * Etiologic Agents The reported distribution of etiologic agents that cause nosocomial pneumonia differs ... they greatly increase the risk for nosocomial bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonias caused by Legionella sp., Aspergillus sp., and ...
It can cause viral and bacterial complicated pneumonia. Encephalitis occurs at a rate of about one per 1,000 cases and even now ...
Pneumonia-Bacterial answers are found in the 5-Minute Pediatric Consult powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad ... Although viral pneumonias still generally comprise a large proportion of pediatric pneumonia, this chapter focuses on bacterial ... Etiology of bacterial pneumonia differs by age:*Neonates: group B Streptococcus, enteric gram-negative rods (e.g., Escherichia ... "Pneumonia-Bacterial." 5-Minute Pediatric Consult, 8th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2019. Pediatrics Central, peds.unboundmedicine.com/ ...
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (J13) is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in all age groups except newborn infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that often lives in the throat of people who do not have pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevention of bacterial pneumonia is by vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for adults and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for children), Haemophilus influenzae type B, meningococcus, Bordetella pertussis, Bacillus anthracis, and Yersinia pestis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial pneumonia is caused by Streptococcus (pneumococcus). (differencebetween.net)
  • In adults, bacterial causes include Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , and Staphylococcus aureus . (osmosis.org)
  • Typical bacterial pathogens that cause CAP include Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , and Moraxella catarrhalis . (medscape.com)
  • Zn deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most commonly identified cause of community-acquired pneumonia. (cdc.gov)
  • The World Health Organization states that pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcal pneumonia, is the major cause of pneumonia deaths globally every year. (azolifesciences.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia is usually caused by the bacteria in Streptococcus pneumonia, however, other etiologic agents such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila can also cause the disease. (entirelyhealth.com)
  • The pathogen identified most often in both groups of participants was Streptococcus pneumonia - in at least 60% of individuals. (pulmonologyadvisor.com)
  • One reason why it has been difficult to distinguish between viral and bacterial pneumonia is that there are so many microbes that can cause pneumonia, including the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae , and viruses such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (mit.edu)
  • The most common cause of pneumonia is a bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae . (carenow.com)
  • therefore, more data are available about bacterial infections associated with seasonal than pandemic influenza A strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Ceftin, Omnicef is available as a generic drug and is prescribed to treat infections with susceptible bacteria including skin and middle ear infections, tonsillitis, throat infections, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and gonorrhea. (rxlist.com)
  • The persistence of Strep pneumonia or pneumococcus, infections remain. (differencebetween.net)
  • The increased bacterial growth rate in the upper respiratory tract, followed by inhalation and colonization of the lungs, may occur because of suppression of the host's defense mechanism related to environmental stressors or viral infections. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • I m seeing patients that have facial rashes, fungal infections, bacterial infections. (indymedia.ie)
  • Explore our learning center to find educational resources and FAQs on procalcitonin (PCT) testing, bacterial infections, antibiotic resistance, and more. (thermofisher.com)
  • Smoking raises your risk for heart disease, cancer, serious lung diseases and infections such as pneumonia, and other illnesses. (cdc.gov)
  • RTMs with the highest bacterial and fungal loads show low diversity and pathogen enrichment, suggesting high biomass as a biomarker for secondary and/or co-infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • Bacterial , viral , and fungal infections can cause pneumonia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sections on the prevention of bacterial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated and/or critically ill patients, care of respiratory-therapy devices, prevention of cross-contamination, and prevention of viral lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., respiratory syncytial virus {RSV} and influenza infections) have been expanded and updated. (cdc.gov)
  • Traditional preventive measures for nosocomial pneumonia include decreasing aspiration by the patient, preventing cross-contamination or colonization via hands of personnel, appropriate disinfection or sterilization of respiratory-therapy devices, use of available vaccines to protect against particular infections, and education of hospital staff and patients. (cdc.gov)
  • These efforts provide more options to fight serious bacterial infections and get new, safe and effective therapies to patients as soon as possible. (bacterial.org)
  • MIT researchers have designed a sensor that can distinguish between viral and bacterial pneumonia infections. (mit.edu)
  • MIT researchers have now designed a sensor that can distinguish between viral and bacterial pneumonia infections, which they hope will help doctors to choose the appropriate treatment. (mit.edu)
  • Viral and bacterial infections provoke distinctive types of immune responses, which include the activation of enzymes called proteases, which break down proteins. (mit.edu)
  • As we saw in our study, infection with human metapneumovirus, or HMPV for short, may make them more vulnerable to secondary bacterial infections, further compounding the problem. (cdc.gov)
  • Details of the patient's history aid in differentiating a common cold from conditions that require targeted therapy, such as group A streptococcal pharyngitis , bacterial sinusitis, and lower respiratory tract infections. (medscape.com)
  • Evaluation of Subcutaneous Interleukin-2 in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT), a trial of intermittent recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) with cART vs. cART alone (control arm) in HIV-infected adults with CD4 counts =300cells/µL, offered the opportunity to explore associations between bacterial pneumonia and rIL-2, a cytokine that increases the risk of some bacterial infections. (figshare.com)
  • Azithromycin (Azipos (250mg)) is a macrolide antibiotic used for various bacterial infections such as infections of the middle ear, throat, bronchus, sinuses, skin and soft tissue. (medindia.net)
  • Unlike some other respiratory infections (e.g. acute bronchitis) an antibiotic is always indicated when a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is made. (nih.gov)
  • Melinta Therapeutics, a privately held company developing novel antibiotics to treat bacterial infections, announced the initiation of an international Phase 3 trial (study ML-3341-306) comparing Baxdela (delafloxacin), an investigational fluoroquinolone, to moxifloxacin for the treatment of hospitalized patients with radiographic evidence of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). (malinplc.com)
  • Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP), are the most common infections in hospitalized patients, particularly those in the intensive care units. (chennaijournal.org)
  • The most common cause of pneumonia in adults is a bacterial infection, but other causes include viral and fungal infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A doctor may prescribe antibiotics for bacterial infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many conditions can lead to pleurisy, including viral and bacterial infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • after bacterial or viral infections. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Xenleta (lefamulin) is a pleuromutilin antibacterial indicated for the treatment of adults with community- acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by susceptible microorganisms. (rxlist.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration approved Xenleta (lefamulin) to treat adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. (rtmagazine.com)
  • This new drug provides another option for the treatment of patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, a serious disease," Ed Cox, MD, MPH, director of FDA's Office of Antimicrobial Products, said in a statement. (rtmagazine.com)
  • To investigate the efficacy and safety of the pleuromutilin antibiotic lefamulin (LEF) in patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) who have or may be at risk for severe pneumonia, researchers analyzed pooled data from LEAP 1 and 2 clinical trials comparing LEF and moxifloxacin (MOX), analyzing the data based on the presence of unilobar vs multilobar infiltrates. (pulmonologyadvisor.com)
  • File T, Mariano D, Gelone S, Moran G, Waterer G, Sandrock C. Lefamulin efficacy and safety in adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: pooled analysis of the Lefamulin Evaluation Against Pneumonia (LEAP) 1 and LEAP 2 trials in patients with multilobar or unilobar pneumonia . (pulmonologyadvisor.com)
  • The U.S. FDA has designated Baxdela as a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. (malinplc.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any type of pneumonia is a frightening illness. (differencebetween.net)
  • Often, this type of pneumonia will occur when someone has difficulty swallowing or is sedated from medication. (carenow.com)
  • The type of pneumonia also plays a factor in symptoms. (carenow.com)
  • The term "typical" CAP refers to a bacterial pneumonia caused by pathogens such as S pneumoniae , H influenzae , and M catarrhalis . (medscape.com)
  • Myeloid cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are at the front line of host defense against invading bacterial pathogens in the lung and play a critical role early on in shaping the immune response. (cdc.gov)
  • The challenge is that there are a lot of different pathogens that can lead to different kinds of pneumonia, and even with the most extensive and advanced testing, the specific pathogen causing someone's disease can't be identified in about half of patients. (mit.edu)
  • PERCH (Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health) is a case-control study of pneumonia in children aged 1-59 months investigating pathogens in blood, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs, and induced sputum by culture and PCR. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Antibiotic exposure and blood culture volume affect detection of bacterial pathogens in children with pneumonia and should be accounted for in studies of etiology and in clinical management. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • PERCH Study Group 2017, ' The effect of antibiotic exposure and specimen volume on the detection of bacterial pathogens in children with pneumonia ', Clinical Infectious Diseases , vol. 64, pp. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Bacterial pathogens are thus exposed to sustained levels of sulfamethazine for a period of time sufficient to allow body elimination of those which are sensitive to the drug. (drugs.com)
  • Antibiotic treatment is the mainstay of drug therapy for bacterial pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • The antibiotic choice depends on the nature of the pneumonia, the microorganisms most commonly causing pneumonia in the geographical region, and the immune status and underlying health of the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • To address the clinical need for a minimally invasive diagnostic test, the first study objective is to determine if blood cultures, acting as a surrogate for BALF analysis, can identify the bacteria causing pneumonia and provide antibiotic susceptibility information. (akcchf.org)
  • The B·R·A·H·M·S Clinical Portal is your on-demand training platform for learning about procalcitonin (PCT) testing, from use in differential diagnosis and antibiotic treatment decisions to making bacterial co-infection assessments. (thermofisher.com)
  • Because of the diverse etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the limitations of current diagnostic modalities, serum procalcitonin levels have been proposed as a novel tool to guide antibiotic therapy. (qxmd.com)
  • Outcome data from procalcitonin-guided therapy trials have shown similar mortality, but the essential question is whether the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin levels enable the practitioner to distinguish bacterial pneumonia, which requires antibiotic therapy, from viral pneumonia, which does not. (qxmd.com)
  • The FDA approved Merck's Recarbrio today, a three-drug combination antibiotic injection for the treatment of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia, or HABP, and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, or VABP, in patients aged 18 years and older, according to a press release from the FDA. (bacterial.org)
  • And if you treat a viral pneumonia with antibiotics, then you could be contributing to antibiotic resistance, which is a big problem, and the patient won't get better," says Sangeeta Bhatia, the John and Dorothy Wilson Professor of Health Sciences and Technology and of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT and a member of MIT's Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and Institute for Medical Engineering and Science. (mit.edu)
  • Atypical bacteria causing pneumonia are Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila pneumoniae (J16.0), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (J15.7), and Legionella pneumophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also more unusual bacteria like Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , and Legionella pneumophila , which don't have a cell wall and are well known for causing an "atypical or walking pneumonia " because they often cause vague symptoms. (osmosis.org)
  • Here, we follow the inter-kingdom respiratory tract microbiome (RTM) of a unique cohort of 38 hospitalized patients (n = 97 samples) with pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila . (bvsalud.org)
  • Pneumonias caused by Legionella sp. (cdc.gov)
  • Covid pneumonia is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus strain. (differencebetween.net)
  • Canine bacterial pneumonia is a common and serious respiratory infection. (akcchf.org)
  • Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1 is the bacterial pathogen most frequently isolated from the lungs of recently weaned feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and in dairy, beef or veal calves with enzootic pneumonia. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • This organism may opportunistically colonize lungs with chronically damaged respiratory defenses, such as occurs with enzootic calf pneumonia or existing lung lesions of feedlot cattle, and cause a purulent bronchopneumonia. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • the herbs in VelociTea are cure treatment for bacterial infection pneumonia, wheezing asthma, chronic bronchitis and other respiratory disorders. (asthmacommunitynetwork.org)
  • Respiratory samples from 367 patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia were analysed by PCR amplification of Pneumocystis jiroveci . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The remaining 106 respiratory samples represented all specimens submitted for investigation of bacterial pneumonia during a one-week period in August 1999, at the Department of Clinical Microbiology, Herlev University Hospital. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia arises as a result of different bacterial strains infecting the lungs, leading to an infection within the respiratory system. (valuemarketresearch.com)
  • The respiratory tract microbiome, the pathogen load, and clinical interventions define severity of bacterial pneumonia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Viruses that infect the respiratory tract may cause pneumonia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pneumonia is often preceded by symptoms of a respiratory illness (runny nose, sore or sore throat, dry cough). (entirelyhealth.com)
  • In children, the first manifestations of pneumonia may be symptoms of respiratory failure (shortness of breath, blue nasolabial triangle). (entirelyhealth.com)
  • Overview Pneumonia is an inflammation of the respiratory tract due to infection with viruses, bacteria, or fungi. (entirelyhealth.com)
  • It's possible that a respiratory virus can cause pneumonia. (carenow.com)
  • Antibiotics are the treatment of choice for bacterial pneumonia, with ventilation (oxygen supplement) as supportive therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Procalcitonin has a high negative-predictive value at ≤ 0.25 μg/L for determining need for antibiotics in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, including those who have underlying malignancy. (thermofisher.com)
  • Lastly, ongoing research and development efforts focus on developing new antibiotics, alternative treatments, and preventive measures for bacterial pneumonia. (valuemarketresearch.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia is usually not contagious and can be treated at home by taking antibiotics prescribed by the doctor. (entirelyhealth.com)
  • This uncertainty makes it harder for doctors to choose effective treatments because the antibiotics commonly used to treat bacterial pneumonia won't help patients with viral pneumonia. (mit.edu)
  • Because it may be more resistant to antibiotics, this is usually the most serious form of pneumonia and is acquired during a hospital stay or other healthcare related exposures such as office visits, nursing homes or exposure to healthcare workers. (carenow.com)
  • hominis ) is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the clinical importance of a positive Pneumocystis -PCR among HIV-uninfected patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia, a retrospective matched case-control study was conducted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a common and serious opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients that is caused by the fungal pathogen Pneumocystis jiroveci , formerly known as P. carinii f.sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When pulmonary abscessation occurs, generally in association with chronic pneumonia, Mycoplasma bovis is frequently isolated and Trueperella pyogenes can also be found in association with pulmonary abscessation. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia (see the image below) is caused by a pathogenic infection of the lungs and may present as a primary disease process or as the final, fatal disorder primarily in an individual who is already debilitated. (medscape.com)
  • Pneumonia is an infection of lungs. (differencebetween.net)
  • In covid pneumonia, viruses' impact both sides of the lungs by triggering a more homogeneous (uniform composition) inflammatory reaction that results in elevating cellular debris (organic waste left over after the death of a cell) and mucus (slippery and stringy fluid substance) where previously open lung pockets were present. (differencebetween.net)
  • When the doctor hears some sounds in the pneumon (lungs) that seem normal on one side but not present on the other, it is a classic case of bacterial pneumonia. (differencebetween.net)
  • How the virus or the bacterial affects the lungs? (differencebetween.net)
  • Pneumonia can develop from contagious environmental bacteria or from the dog's own bacteria gaining access to the lungs (e.g., after accidentally inhaling food, liquids or vomit). (akcchf.org)
  • Bacterial infection in the lungs causes bacterial pneumonia. (isbronchitiscontagious.net)
  • Pneumonia is an infection in one or both of your lungs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs involving the alveoli and distal airways. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, when the EETs are blocked with the help of a synthetic molecule named EEZE, the engulfing capacity of the macrophages increases, resulting in decreased bacterial numbers in the lungs of mice. (azolifesciences.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia is a severe infection that affects the lungs and causes typical symptoms such as fever, coughing with phlegm, and difficulty breathing, which often develops and manifests after flu or cold that does not go away or that gets worse over time. (entirelyhealth.com)
  • Pneumonia [1] is an acute disease characterized by the development of an inflammatory process in the lungs. (entirelyhealth.com)
  • Most deaths were caused by severe viral pneumonia: unlike seasonal influenza, the pandemic virus directly attacked the lungs in severe cases. (who.int)
  • Pneumonia occurs when a person's lungs become inflamed and filled with fluid as a result of infection by bacteria, viruses or fungi. (cosmolearning.org)
  • Pneumonia is a potentially dangerous condition that occurs when the airspaces in the lungs become inflamed as a result of an infection. (carenow.com)
  • If you inhale bacteria into your lungs from saliva, food or drink, aspiration pneumonia can occur. (carenow.com)
  • He or she will listen for wheezing or crackling sounds in your lungs, which can be an indication of pneumonia. (carenow.com)
  • Pneumonia is an inflammation of the air sacs within the lungs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Overview of Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection of the small air sacs of the lungs (alveoli) and the tissues around them. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common infectious diseases and an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. (medscape.com)
  • Pneumonia is the second most common nosocomial infection in the United States and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. (cdc.gov)
  • To determine whether HIV exposure without infection is an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity in children admitted to PICU with pneumonia. (who.int)
  • 9,14,15] However, the effect of HIV exposure of age annual y.[1-4] However, the mortality rate from pneumonia on pneumonia morbidity and mortality risk is less well known. (who.int)
  • in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is substantial y They are nevertheless considered a vulnerable population and greater than in high-income countries,[5] with sub-Saharan Africa appear to have an increased morbidity and mortality rate from accounting for almost 50% of global pneumonia deaths. (who.int)
  • 6,8] factor for mortality and morbidity in children with pneumonia. (who.int)
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Bacterial pneumonia still contributes to morbidity/mortality in HIV infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). (figshare.com)
  • Histophilus somni is also recognized as an important pathogen in enzootic pneumonia and in some cases of BRD. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The most common bacterial pathogen overall is S pneumoniae , although, in some settings, including in the United States, its incidence is decreasing, possibly owing to vaccination. (medscape.com)
  • Some forms of pneumonia are manifested by "atypical" symptoms, which is associated with the microbiological characteristics of the pathogen. (entirelyhealth.com)
  • Here we assess their effects on bacterial pathogen detection by both culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in children. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • S. pneumoniae is the most common bacterial pathogen of community acquired pneumonia in childhood. (nature.com)
  • Despite what many people think, pneumonia can be contagious. (carenow.com)
  • Additionally, Dr. Smiley believes these Th1-17 cells may be important in fighting other kinds of pneumonia: "Bacterial pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death in hospitals and, like plague, many of these pneumonias are caused by bacteria that grow both inside and outside the cells of our bodies. (scienceblog.com)
  • There are several different kinds of pneumonia, and each one is determined by where or how you acquired it. (carenow.com)
  • Evidence from laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic studies suggests that bacterial co-infection contributes substantially to the illness and death that occurs in pandemic and seasonal influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • Ecologic studies have demonstrated temporal relationships between influenza activity and bacterial pneumonia. (cdc.gov)
  • Substantial laboratory evidence for synergism between influenza A and bacterial agents has been reviewed by McCullers ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • S. pneumonia is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and bacterial co-infection with influenza A ( 9 - 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In adults, the most common viral cause of pneumonia is influenza , sometimes just called the flu . (osmosis.org)
  • Histologic inflammatory lung changes vary according to whether the patient has lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, or interstitial pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Pneumonia Fever Rigors Cough Runny nose (either direct bacterial pneumonia or accompanied by primary viral pneumonia) Dyspnea - shortness of breath Chest pain Shaking chills Pneumococcal pneumonia can cause coughing up of blood, or hemoptysis, characteristically associated with "rusty" sputum Bacteria typically enter the lung with inhalation, though they can reach the lung through the bloodstream if other parts of the body are infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • While key to definitive diagnosis and management of bacterial pneumonia, collection of BALF requires general anesthesia, which can be especially risky in dogs with severe lung disease. (akcchf.org)
  • Pneumonia is an infection in the lung tissue caused by microbes, resulting in inflammation. (osmosis.org)
  • Vitamin A concentrations in lung, serum and liver were measured post pneumonia until early adulthood. (nature.com)
  • Our data suggest that neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia induce serum vitamin A deficiency and long-time lung vitamin A reduction, vitamin A supplement after neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia inhibit the progression of asthma by altering CD4 + T cell subsets. (nature.com)
  • In this study, we established a neonatal non-lethal S. pneumoniae pneumonia mice model and monitored vitamin A levels in lung, serum and liver until early adulthood. (nature.com)
  • What are the symptoms of pneumonia? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Within a few days (to as long a week) after these symptoms begin, you will start to notice symptoms of pneumonia. (carenow.com)
  • The signs and symptoms of pneumonia can vary in severity, depending on the overall health of the person affected. (carenow.com)
  • People with symptoms of pneumonia should see a doctor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The global demand for Bacterial Pneumonia Market is presumed to reach the market size of nearly USD XX MN by 2030 from USD XX MN in 2022 with a CAGR of XX% under the study period 2023 - 2030. (valuemarketresearch.com)
  • Older adults who have pneumonia sometimes may feel weak or suddenly get confused. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Primary care summary of the British Thoracic Society Guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults: 2009 update. (nih.gov)
  • The identification and management of adults presenting with pneumonia is a major challenge for primary care health professionals. (nih.gov)
  • This paper summarises the key recommendations of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) Guidelines for the management of Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in adults. (nih.gov)
  • Adults and children who develop pneumonia can make a full recovery with the proper medical care. (carenow.com)
  • RÉSUMÉ Le vaccin contre Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) a été inclus dans le programme de vaccination du Yémen en 2005. (who.int)
  • Other important Gram-positive causes of pneumonia are Staphylococcus aureus (J15.2) and Bacillus anthracis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Covid pneumonia is more severe in comparison to bacterial pneumonia. (differencebetween.net)
  • Pneumonia can range from mild to severe, depending on what caused it, your age, and your overall health. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This study compared the rates of very severe pneumonia and all-cause meningitis hospitalization and death, before and after introduction of conjugate Hib vaccine, and reports the results of the 2010 bacterial meningitis surveillance. (who.int)
  • However, hospitalization and death for very severe pneumonia improved only modestly, and there was evidence of a decreasing but non-significant trend indicting that very severe pneumonia was a non-specific endpoint with multi-etiologies (both viral and bacterial). (who.int)
  • Depending on factors including the type of germ causing the infection, the age of patients, and general health, the symptoms and signs of bacterial pneumonia may vary from mild to severe. (entirelyhealth.com)
  • The researchers concluded that LEF is an alternative option to fluoroquinolones for the treatment of CABP in patients with multilobar pneumonia who either have or may be at risk for the development of severe pneumonia. (pulmonologyadvisor.com)
  • By pathology revealed inflammation consistent with severe pneumonia in the adult, as well as inflammation of the umbilical cord and the kidneys of the infant. (cdc.gov)
  • In most cases, viral pneumonia is less severe and will improve on its own within one to three weeks. (carenow.com)
  • Xenleta (lefamulin) and Ceftin , Omnicef ( cefuroxime ) are used to treat bacterial pneumonia . (rxlist.com)
  • Far less work has been conducted on stockpiling and planning for deployment of antimicrobial drugs against secondary bacterial pneumonia, a cause of substantial illness and death in previous pandemics and epidemics. (cdc.gov)
  • The adult gorilla likely succumbed to secondary bacterial pneumonia in the context of an acute metapneumovirus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The advancements in diagnostic technologies, such as PCR and rapid diagnostic tests, improve the accuracy and efficiency of bacterial pneumonia diagnosis. (valuemarketresearch.com)
  • Prompt diagnosis and early initiation of evidence-based intensive anti-microbial therapy yield effective pneumonia treatment and management and prevent associated fatalities. (centralbiohub.de)
  • The combination of the listed symptoms in an adult without concomitant pathology is considered a reason to suspect pneumonia (a comprehensive examination is carried out to establish the final diagnosis). (entirelyhealth.com)
  • Norman Rizk, MD, professor of medicine, discusses some of the current challenges in diagnosis and treatment, including the issue of drug-resistant bacteria and the prevalence of hospital-acquired pneumonia. (cosmolearning.org)
  • The Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia market is expected to surge due to the disease's increasing prevalence and awareness during the forecast period. (chennaijournal.org)
  • Furthermore, launching various multiple-stage Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia pipeline products will significantly revolutionize the Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia market dynamics. (chennaijournal.org)
  • DelveInsight's "Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia Market Insights, Epidemiology, and Market Forecast-2032″ report offers an in-depth understanding of the Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia, historical and forecasted epidemiology as well as the Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia market trends in the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, Italy, France, and United Kingdom) and Japan. (chennaijournal.org)
  • The Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia market report covers emerging drugs, current treatment practices, market share of the individual therapies, and current & forecasted market size from 2019 to 2032. (chennaijournal.org)
  • Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia market report covers a descriptive overview and comprehensive insight of the Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia Epidemiology and Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia market in the 7MM (the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, France, Italy, UK) & Japan. (chennaijournal.org)
  • The Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia market report provides insights on the current and emerging therapies. (chennaijournal.org)
  • Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia market report provides a global historical and forecasted market covering drug outreach in 7MM. (chennaijournal.org)
  • First-line antimicrobials for S pneumoniae , the most prevalent cause of bacterial pneumonia, are, for the penicillin-susceptible form of the bacterium, penicillin G and amoxicillin. (medscape.com)
  • Whether neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia induced asthma was associated with vitamin A levels remains unclear. (nature.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia on vitamin A expressions, to explore the effects of vitamin A supplement after neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia on adulthood asthma development. (nature.com)
  • Non-lethal S. pneumoniae pneumonia was established by intranasal inoculation of neonatal (1-week-old) female BALB/c mice with D39. (nature.com)
  • S. pneumoniae pneumonia mice were supplemented with or without all-trans retinoic acid 24 hours after infection. (nature.com)
  • We stated that serum vitamin A levels in neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia mice were lower than 0.7µmol/L from day 2-7 post infection, while pulmonary vitamin A productions were significantly lower than those in the control mice from day 7-28 post infection. (nature.com)
  • Vitamin A supplement after neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia significantly promoted Foxp3 + Treg and Th1 productions, decreased Th2 and Th17 cells expressions, alleviated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammatory cells infiltration during AAD. (nature.com)
  • The prevention and treatment of asthma induced by S. pneumoniae pneumonia is crucial, while it remains indistinctly. (nature.com)
  • Whether neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia promoted adulthood allergic asthma was associated with vitamin A levels remains unclear. (nature.com)
  • We also explored the effects of vitamin A supplement after neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia on the development of adulthood allergic asthma. (nature.com)
  • The most consistent presenting symptom of bacterial pneumonia is cough productive of sputum. (medscape.com)
  • The two patients that were culture negative did contain gram-positive diplococci in their sputum and had chest X-rays consistent with pneumonia. (nursingassignmentscare.com)
  • Bacterial detection in induced sputum by PCR decreased 7% for exposed compared to nonexposed cases. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection diagnosed in intensive care units (ICU) worldwide. (publichealthmy.org)
  • This study aims to describe the aetiological agents causing bacterial ventilator-associated pneumonia. (publichealthmy.org)
  • In North America, where the "atypical" forms of community-acquired pneumonia are becoming more common, clarithromycin, azithromycin, or fluoroquinolones as single therapy have displaced the amoxicillin as first-line therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspiration can also cause pneumonia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most bacterial nosocomial pneumonias occur by aspiration of bacteria colonizing the oropharynx or upper gastrointestinal tract of the patient. (cdc.gov)
  • thus, compared with industrialized countries, the benefits of treating bacterial complications in developing countries may be substantially greater. (cdc.gov)
  • Viral cases of pneumonia start with coughing and heaviness (congestion) with or without high body temperature (fever) in the first few days. (differencebetween.net)
  • From April 3 to April 24, 2001, nine cases of pneumonia occurred in elderly residents (median age of 86 years) living at a long-term care facility in New Jersey. (nursingassignmentscare.com)
  • If you're showing signs of pneumonia, your provider will need to perform a routine physical exam to check for infection. (carenow.com)
  • Epidemiological studies of the patients and controls revealed that all who developed pneumonia had no documented record of vaccination with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). (nursingassignmentscare.com)
  • In individuals with a normal immune system, fungi are a rare cause of pneumonia and often it's regional - for example, there's Coccidioidomycosis in California and the Southwest. (osmosis.org)
  • Fungi , archaea , and protozoa seem to contribute to progress of pneumonia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Another cause of pneumonia is fungi from bird droppings or soil. (carenow.com)
  • In the United Kingdom, amoxicillin is used as first-line therapy in the vast majority of patients acquiring pneumonia in the community, sometimes with added clarithromycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Langford BJ, So M, Raybardhan S, Leung V, Westwood D, MacFadden DR, Soucy JR, Daneman N. Bacterial co-infection and secondary infection in patients with COVID-19: a living rapid review and meta-analysis. (thermofisher.com)
  • The aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical significance and prevalence of a PCR positive signal in a broad spectrum of clinical samples from HIV-negative patients with suspected bacterial pneumonia by means of an age and sex matched nested case-control study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although patients receiving mechanically assisted ventilation do not represent a major proportion of patients who have nosocomial pneumonia, they are at highest risk for acquiring the infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Unfortunately, despite treatment, four of the nine patients with pneumonia died. (nursingassignmentscare.com)
  • NCT02559310 and NCT02813694 , respectively) demonstrated a high level of efficacy for LEF in the treatment of adult patients with unilobar or multilobar pneumonia - a level comparable to that of moxifloxacin (MOX). (pulmonologyadvisor.com)
  • Specific bacterial or viral testing is also warranted in other selected situations, such as when patients are immunocompromised, during certain outbreaks, or to provide specific therapy to contacts. (medscape.com)
  • New sections on Legionnaires disease and pneumonia caused by Aspergillus sp. (cdc.gov)
  • Many different types of bacteria and viruses can cause pneumonia, but there is no easy way to determine which microbe is causing a particular patient's illness. (mit.edu)
  • The high disease burden of bacterial pneumonia globally, affecting individuals of all ages, drives the demand for diagnostic tests, treatment options, and preventive measures. (valuemarketresearch.com)
  • Who is more likely to develop pneumonia? (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is possible, though, to develop pneumonia by coming into contact with a contaminated object or surface. (carenow.com)
  • Expression of the Zn transporter ZIP8 is rapidly induced following bacterial infection and regulates myeloid cell function in a Zn-dependent manner. (cdc.gov)
  • According to data from the Centers from Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), each year in the United States, about one million people are hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia and 50,000 people die from the disease. (rtmagazine.com)
  • This document updates and replaces CDC's previously published 'Guideline for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia' (Infect Control 1982;3:327-33, Respir Care 1983;28:221-32, and Am J Infect Control 1983;11:230-44). (cdc.gov)
  • This revised guideline addresses common problems encountered by infection- control practitioners regarding the prevention and control of nosocomial pneumonia in U.S. hospitals. (cdc.gov)
  • Part I, 'An Overview of the Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia, 1994,' provides the background information for the consensus recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) in Part II, 'Recommendations for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia. (cdc.gov)
  • In a study of mice, the researchers showed that their sensors could accurately distinguish bacterial and viral pneumonia within two hours, using a simple urine test to read the results. (mit.edu)
  • As of now, there is no approved 100% effective and curative treatment available for people suffering from covid pneumonia. (differencebetween.net)
  • Although viral pneumonias still generally comprise a large proportion of pediatric pneumonia, this chapter focuses on bacterial etiologies and treatment. (unboundmedicine.com)