Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
An interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, occurring between 21-80 years of age. It is characterized by a dramatic onset of a "pneumonia-like" illness with cough, fever, malaise, fatigue, and weight loss. Pathological features include prominent interstitial inflammation without collagen fibrosis, diffuse fibroblastic foci, and no microscopic honeycomb change. There is excessive proliferation of granulation tissue within small airways and alveolar ducts.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).
A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
Pneumonia due to aspiration or inhalation of various oily or fatty substances.
A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A group of interstitial lung diseases with no known etiology. There are several entities with varying patterns of inflammation and fibrosis. They are classified by their distinct clinical-radiological-pathological features and prognosis. They include IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS; CRYPTOGENIC ORGANIZING PNEUMONIA; and others.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A species of the genus PNEUMOVIRUS causing pneumonia in mice.
A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.
A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.
An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A chronic, clinically mild, infectious pneumonia of PIGS caused by MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE. Ninety percent of swine herds worldwide are infected with this economically costly disease that primarily affects animals aged two to six months old. The disease can be associated with porcine respiratory disease complex. PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA is often found as a secondary infection.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.
Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Child hospitalized for short term care.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
Pneumonia caused by infections with the genus CHLAMYDIA; and CHLAMYDOPHILA, usually with CHLAMYDOPHILA PNEUMONIAE.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Infections with viruses of the genus PNEUMOVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTIONS, an important cause of respiratory disease in humans.
Infections with species in the genus PNEUMOCYSTIS, a fungus causing interstitial plasma cell pneumonia (PNEUMONIA, PNEUMOCYSTIS) and other infections in humans and other MAMMALS. Immunocompromised patients, especially those with AIDS, are particularly susceptible to these infections. Extrapulmonary sites are rare but seen occasionally.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
A common interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, usually occurring between 50-70 years of age. Clinically, it is characterized by an insidious onset of breathlessness with exertion and a nonproductive cough, leading to progressive DYSPNEA. Pathological features show scant interstitial inflammation, patchy collagen fibrosis, prominent fibroblast proliferation foci, and microscopic honeycomb change.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Pneumonia caused by infection with bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE.
A mental state characterized by bewilderment, emotional disturbance, lack of clear thinking, and perceptual disorientation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
A renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.
A cattle disease of uncertain cause, probably an allergic reaction.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Postmortem examination of the body.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Inhaling liquid or solids, such as stomach contents, into the RESPIRATORY TRACT. When this causes severe lung damage, it is called ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA OF SWINE. The organism damages the CILIA in the airways of the pig, and thus compromises one of the most effective mechanical barriers against invading pathogens. The resulting weakening of the IMMUNE SYSTEM can encourage secondary infections, leading to porcine respiratory disease complex.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Chronic endemic respiratory disease of dairy calves and an important component of bovine respiratory disease complex. It primarily affects calves up to six months of age and the etiology is multifactorial. Stress plus a primary viral infection is followed by a secondary bacterial infection. The latter is most commonly associated with PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA producing a purulent BRONCHOPNEUMONIA. Sometimes present are MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA; HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS and mycoplasma species.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
A species of sheep, Ovis canadensis, characterized by massive brown horns. There are at least four subspecies and they are all endangered or threatened.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.
Suppurative inflammation of the pleural space.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Act of listening for sounds within the body.

Route and type of nutrition influence mucosal immunity to bacterial pneumonia. (1/1885)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a model of established respiratory immunity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and to investigate the effects of route and type of nutrition on this immunity. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Diet influences the ability of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) to maintain mucosal immunity. Complex enteral diets and chow maintain normal GALT populations against established IgA-mediated antiviral respiratory immunity. Both intravenous and intragastric total parenteral nutrition (TPN) produce GALT atrophy, but only intragastric TPN preserves established antiviral immunity. The authors hypothesized that both GALT-depleting diets (intragastric and intravenous TPN) would impair immunity against bacterial pneumonia. METHODS: P. aeruginosa was administered intratracheally to determine the mortality rate at increasing doses, and liposomes containing P. aeruginosa antigens were used to generate effective respiratory immunization. In the final experiment, mice received liposomes containing P. aeruginosa antigens to establish immunity and then were randomized to chow, complex enteral diets, intragastric TPN, or intravenous TPN. After 5 days of diet, mice received live intratracheal P. aeruginosa, and the death rate was recorded at 24 and 48 hours. RESULTS: The LD50 and LD100 were 9 x 10(7) and 12 x 10(7), respectively. Immunization reduced the mortality rate from 66% to 12%. This immunization was maintained in mice fed chow or a complex enteral diet and was lost in animals receiving intravenous TPN. Intragastric TPN partially preserved this respiratory immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Protection against bacterial pneumonia can be induced by prior antigenic immunization. This protection is lost with intravenous TPN, partially preserved with a chemically defined enteral diet, and completely preserved with chow or complex enteral diets. Both route and type of nutrition influence antibacterial respiratory tract immunity.  (+info)

Optimizing aminoglycoside therapy for nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. (2/1885)

Nosocomial pneumonia is a notable cause of morbidity and mortality and leads to increases in lengths of hospital stays and institutional expenditures. Aminoglycosides are used to treat patients with these infections, but few data on the doses and schedules required to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes exist. We analyzed aminoglycoside treatment data for 78 patients with nosocomial pneumonia to determine if optimization of aminoglycoside pharmacodynamic parameters results in a more rapid therapeutic response (defined by outcome and days to leukocyte count resolution and temperature resolution). Cox proportional hazards, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and logistic regression analyses were applied to the data. By all analyses, the first measured maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC predicted days to temperature resolution and the second measured Cmax/MIC predicted days to leukocyte count resolution. For days to temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution, CART analyses produced breakpoints, with an 89% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.7 and an 86% success rate at 7 days of therapy for a Cmax/MIC of > 4.5, respectively. Logistic regression analyses predicted a 90% probability of temperature resolution and leukocyte count resolution by day 7 if a Cmax/MIC of > or = 10 is achieved within the first 48 h of aminoglycoside therapy. Aggressive aminoglycoside dosing immediately followed by individualized pharmacokinetic monitoring would ensure that Cmax/MIC targets are achieved early in therapy. This would increase the probability of a rapid therapeutic response for pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria and potentially decreasing durations of parenteral antibiotic therapy, lengths of hospitalization, and institutional expenditures, a situation in which both the patient and the institution benefit.  (+info)

Ketolide treatment of Haemophilus influenzae experimental pneumonia. (3/1885)

The MICs of HMR 3004 and HMR 3647 at which 90% of beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae isolates were inhibited were 4 and 2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Both HMR 3004 and HMR 3647 were active against beta-lactamase-producing H. influenzae in a murine model of experimental pneumonia. As assessed by pulmonary clearance of H. influenzae, HMR 3004 was more effective (P < 0.05) than was azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, pristinamycin, or HMR 3647 in this model.  (+info)

Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a population-based case-control study. (4/1885)

Although community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of hospitalization and death, few studies on risk factors have been performed. A population-based case-control study of risk factors for CAP was carried out in a mixed residential-industrial urban area of 74,610 adult inhabitants in the Maresme (Barcelona, Spain) between 1993 and 1995. All patients living in the area and clinically suspected of having CAP at primary care facilities and hospitals were registered. In total, 205 patients with symptoms, signs and radiographic infiltrate compatible with acute CAP participated in the study. They were matched by municipality, sex and age with 475 controls randomly selected from the municipal census. Risk factors relating the subject's characteristics and habits, housing conditions, medical history and treatments were investigated by means of a questionnaire. In the univariate analysis, an increased risk of CAP was associated with low body mass index, smoking, respiratory infection, previous pneumonia, chronic lung disease, lung tuberculosis, asthma, treated diabetes, chronic liver disease, and treatments with aminophiline, aerosols and plastic pear-spacers. In multivariate models, the only statistically significant risk factors were current smoking of >20 cigarettes x day(-1) (odds ratio (OR)=2.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-6.70 compared with never-smokers), previous respiratory infection (OR=2.73; 95% CI 1.75-4.26), and chronic bronchitis (OR=2.22; 95% CI 1.13-4.37). Benzodiazepines were found to be protective in univariate and multivariate analysis (OR=0.46; 95% CI 0.23-0.94). This population-based study provides new and better established evidence on the factors associated with the occurrence of pneumonia in the adult community.  (+info)

Bacterial pneumonia as a suprainfection in young adults with measles. (5/1885)

The aim of this study was to report the clinical and laboratory characteristics of bacterial pneumonia related to measles infection, and also to assess any correlation between severity and time of onset. Four hundred and twenty-four previously healthy young males (age 22+/-2.1 yrs) were hospitalized with typical symptoms and signs of measles. One hundred and twelve (26%) developed bacterial pneumonia on admission (n=41), during their hospital stay (n=20) or days after their discharge (n=51): groups A, B and C, respectively. Single lobar consolidation was the most common finding, accounting for 89% of cases. Pleural effusion was uncommon and associated in half of the cases with empyema. A microbiological diagnosis was made in 81 cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae (65 cases) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9 cases) were the most commonly identified organisms. Patients from group C had significantly higher values of white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and lower values of arterial oxygen tension (14+/-0.8 x 10(9) x L(-1), 88+/-4 mm and 6.3+/-0.4 kPa (47+/-3 mmHg), respectively) than the other two groups. There were no deaths during the hospitalization period. The mean duration of hospital stay was 13+/-2.4 days and was longer in the presence of K. pneumoniae infection (19+/-1.6 days). Six patients from group C were admitted to the intensive care unit. In conclusion, these data suggest that bacterial pneumonia associated with measles is not unusual in hospitalized adults, and it seems to be more severe when it occurs days after the onset of rash.  (+info)

Cytokines and inflammatory mediators do not indicate acute infection in cystic fibrosis. (6/1885)

Various treatment regimens and difficulties with research design are encountered with cystic fibrosis (CF) because no standard diagnostic criteria exist for defining acute respiratory exacerbations. This study evaluated the role of serial monitoring of concentrations of selected cytokines and inflammatory mediators in serum and sputum as predictors of respiratory exacerbation, as useful outcome measures for CF, and to guide therapy. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), neutrophil elastase-alpha-1-protease inhibitor complex (NE complex), protein, and alpha-1-protease inhibitor (alpha-1-PI) were measured in serum and sputum collected from CF patients during respiratory exacerbations and periods of well-being. Levels of NE complex, protein, and alpha-1-PI in sputum rose during respiratory exacerbations and fell after institution of antibiotic therapy (P = 0.078, 0.001, and 0.002, respectively). Mean (+/- standard error of the mean) levels of IL-8 and TNF-alpha were extremely high in sputum (13,780 +/- 916 and 249.4 +/- 23.5 ng/liter, respectively) but did not change significantly with clinical deterioration of the patient (P > 0.23). IL-8 and TNF-alpha were generally undetectable in serum, and therefore these measures were unhelpful. Drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was the only clinical or laboratory parameter that was close to being a determinant of respiratory exacerbation (P = 0.055). This study provides evidence of intense immunological activity occurring continually within the lungs of adult CF patients. Measurement of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in CF sputum is not helpful for identifying acute respiratory exacerbations.  (+info)

Differential sensitivity of distinct Chlamydia trachomatis isolates to IFN-gamma-mediated inhibition. (7/1885)

Resistance to the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis has been mapped to MHC class II-restricted, IL-12-dependent CD4+ T cells that secrete a type 1 profile of proinflammatory cytokines, which includes IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. The relative contribution of IFN-gamma is controversial, however, due to variation in results presented by different laboratories. To determine whether C. trachomatis strain differences contributed to this apparent conflict, the relative resistance of IFN-gamma-deficient mice to murine and human strains of C. trachomatis was compared. All human serovars were much more sensitive to the direct inhibitory actions of IFN-gamma than the MoPn strain. Furthermore, genital clearance of human serovar D in the C57BL/6 mouse was mediated by class II-independent mechanisms that probably involved local production of IFN-gamma by cells of the innate immune system. TNF-alpha also contributed indirectly to host resistance against all strains tested. The differential susceptibility of distinct C. trachomatis strains to effector cytokines such as IFN-gamma could not have been predicted by interstrain biologic variation or by the profile of cytokines stimulated during infection. These findings indicate that strain variation should be considered in situations where related isolates of a given parasite produce conflicting data in models of infection and immunity. They also suggest that stimulation of mucosal IFN-gamma activity is a relevant goal for a human chlamydial vaccine.  (+info)

Cross-colonisation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa of patients in an intensive care unit. (8/1885)

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is usually preceded by colonisation of the respiratory tract. During outbreaks, colonisation with P aeruginosa is mainly derived from exogenous sources. The relative importance of different pathways of colonisation of P aeruginosa has rarely been determined in non-epidemic settings. METHODS: In order to determine the importance of exogenous colonisation, all isolates of P aeruginosa obtained by surveillance and clinical cultures from two identical intensive care units (ICUs) were genotyped with pulsed field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were studied, 44 in ICU 1 and 56 in ICU 2. Twenty three patients were colonised with P aeruginosa, seven at the start of the study or on admission and 16 of the remaining 93 patients became colonised during the study. Eight patients developed VAP due to P aeruginosa. The incidence of respiratory tract colonisation and VAP with P aeruginosa in our ICU was similar to that before and after the study period, and therefore represents an endemic situation. Genotyping of 118 isolates yielded 11 strain types: eight in one patient each, two in three patients each, and one type in eight patients. Based on chronological evaluation and genotypical identity of isolates, eight cases of cross-colonisation were identified. Eight (50%) of 16 episodes of acquired colonisation and two (25%) of eight cases of VAP due to P aeruginosa seemed to be the result of cross-colonisation. CONCLUSIONS: Even in non-epidemic settings cross-colonisation seems to play an important part in the epidemiology of colonisation and infection with P aeruginosa.  (+info)

Bacterial pneumonia and sepsis are two important causes of mortality in the world. Emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has necessitated the development of new treatment and/or prevention strategies to augment host immune defense. In this context, the innate host defense is critical in clearing pathogenic bacteria from the host. Early neutrophil recruitment is a critical step in a multistep requence leading to bacterial clearance. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a critical role in the innate immune system. Receptor interacting protein 2 (RIP-2) is an adaptor for the nod-like receptors (NLR) NOD1 and NOD2. Nucleotide oligomerisation domain 2 (NOD2) is an intracellular PRR that is shown to be important for host defense against intracellular bacterial pathogens. However, the role of NOD2 and RIP-2 during Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia and polymicrobial sepsis has not been explored. Thus, we hypothesize that the NOD2/RIP-2 axis is critical for host defense during bacterial pneumonia and
This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-1461453253 Mucosal Immunology of Acute Bacterial Pneumonia Product Will Be Delivered Via Email Or Cloud Drive W
Pneumonia due to Escherichia coli (Escherichia coli Pneumonia): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis.
This is the largest US claims database study of healthcare costs and outcomes for ICU patients with a diagnosis of S. aureus or P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Our findings highlight the comprehensive economic consequences attributed to S. aureus and P. aeruginosa pneumonia and can permit policy makers, payers, and healthcare providers to assess the effect of prevention or therapeutic efforts on the cost and morbidity of these ICU infections.. In our study, ICU patients with pneumonia had substantially higher healthcare costs during the index admission: , $213,000 for P. aeruginosa pneumonia and , $146,000 for with S. aureus pneumonia versus ,$33,000 for patients without pneumonia. Increased utilization continued after index hospitalization discharge, with total healthcare costs through 90 days post discharge of , $17,000 for patients with S. aureus pneumonia and , $22,000 for patients with P. aeruginosa pneumonia versus , $10,000 for patients without pneumonia. Patients with S. aureus or P. aeruginosa ...
For this, the Hospital-acquired Pneumonia Drugs Market report covers the company overview, financial metrics, tactics, business strategies, trends, acquisitions, and merger of the key participants active in the global Hospital-acquired Pneumonia Drugs Market. Further, the analysis offers a thorough evaluation of the latest key trends and technologies playing an imperative part in the Hospital-acquired Pneumonia Drugs Market growth.. Hospital-acquired Pneumonia Drugs Market includes identifying and comparing major competitors such as Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Mylan, Novartis, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, AstraZeneca, Arsanis, Combioxin, Shinogi, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, The Medicines Company, Theravance Biopharma. The market can be segmented into Product Types as - Antibacterial, Antiviral, Antifungal. The market can be segmented into Applications as - Hospitals, Clinics, Other. The Regional Focused Zone Includes:-. * The Middle East and Africa Hospital-acquired Pneumonia Drugs ...
Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection. Pneumonia Fever Rigors Cough Runny nose (either direct bacterial pneumonia or accompanied by primary viral pneumonia) Dyspnea - shortness of breath Chest pain Shaking chills Pneumococcal pneumonia can cause coughing up of blood, or hemoptysis, characteristically associated with rusty sputum Streptococcus pneumoniae (J13) is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in all age groups except newborn infants. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that often lives in the throat of people who do not have pneumonia. Other important Gram-positive causes of pneumonia are Staphylococcus aureus (J15.2) and Bacillus anthracis. Gram-negative bacteria are seen less frequently: Haemophilus influenzae (J14), Klebsiella pneumoniae (J15.0), Escherichia coli (J15.5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (J15.1), Bordetella pertussis, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common. These bacteria often live in the gut and enter the ...
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality in children. Despite more than 50% of pneumonias are due to viruses, because it is difficult to rule out bacterial etiology, initial management of pneumonia in children usually includes antibiotics, often unnecessary. In 2006 was designed and validated a clinical prediction rule (BPS: Bacterial Pneumonia Score) which accurately identifies hospitalized childrens risk of bacterial pneumonia. However, BPS efficacy on guiding therapeutic decision in children with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not been yet assessed.. Aim: The aim of this study is to test if BPS guided antibiotic use in children with non severe community acquired pneumonia will reduce antibiotic use as compared to standard care practice (current guidelines for CAP) Design: This is a randomized, controlled, blinded trial, to assess antibiotics use regarding two methods for initial management of children aged 3-60 months with non severe community acquired pneumonia. ...
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48-72 hours after being admitted. It is thus distinguished from community-acquired pneumonia. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection, rather than a virus. HAP is the second most common nosocomial infection (after urinary tract infections) and accounts for 15-20% of the total. It is the most common cause of death among nosocomial infections and is the primary cause of death in intensive care units. HAP typically lengthens a hospital stay by 1-2 weeks. New or progressive infiltrate on the chest X-ray with one of the following: Fever > 37.8 °C (100 °F) Purulent sputum Leukocytosis > 10,000 cells/μl In an elderly person, the first sign of hospital-acquired pneumonia may be mental changes or confusion. Other symptoms may include: A cough with greenish or pus-like phlegm (sputum) Fever and chills General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling (malaise) Loss of ...
Specialists group bacterial pneumonia in view of whether it created inside or outside a healing Centre.. Group procured pneumonia (CAP): This is the most widely recognized sort of bacterial pneumonia. Top happens when you get a disease after the presentation to bacterial operators outside of a medicinal services setting. You can get CAP by taking in respiratory beads from hacks or wheezes, or by skin-to-skin contact.. Healing facility obtained pneumonia (HAP): HAP happens within a few days of presentation to germs in a therapeutic setting, for example, a doctors facility or specialists office. This is additionally called a nosocomial contamination. This sort of pneumonia is regularly more impervious to anti-toxins and more is hard to treat than CAP.. ...
Bacterial Pneumonia Recovery Bacterial Pneumonia Recovery Pneumonia, whісh means inflammation οf thе lungs, іѕ a common illness thаt саn affect anyone. It іѕ a much more serious condition іn thе elderly, іn chronically ill individuals аnd іn those wіth impaired immunity frοm cancer οr сеrtаіn medications. Bacterial
The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors and investigators in the clinical development of drugs for the treatment of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and ventilator associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP).2 Specifically, this guidance addresses the Food and Drug Administrations (FDAs) current thinking regarding the overall development program and clinical trial designs for drugs to support an indication for treatment of HABP and VABP. This draft guidance is intended to serve as a focus for continued discussions among the Division of Anti-Infective Products, pharmaceutical sponsors, the academic community, and the public ...
This field guide was prepared by PAHO to support health workers participating in the epidemiological surveillance of bacterial pneumonia and meningitis. Pneumonia is among the leading causes of hospitalization and death for children aged under 5 years in the Region of the Americas. In developed countries, the majority of pneumonias are believed to be of viral origin; however, the etiology of pneumonia is almost always bacterial in developing countries. Bacterial meningitis, although not as frequent as pneumonia, is always a serious disease, given the risk of sequelae and its high case-fatality rate. Three bacteria are principally responsible for the diseases: Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) type b (Hib), Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). The introduction of the Hib vaccine in countries of the Region produced a dramatic decline of invasive disease due to this bacterium, and pneumococcus is now the principal etiologic agent responsible for bacterial ...
In response to cAMP stimulation by isoproterenol, clearance was inhibited by glibenclamide or the CFTR-172 inhibitor (respectively, 12.2 ± 0.39% and 9.7 ± 3.5% versus 20.7 ± 2.9% in the control group, P , 0.05). Four hours after bacterial instillation, the lung wet-to-dry ratio and lung vascular permeability as measured by the extravascular accumulation of 125I-albumin were increased compared with the control group (respectively, 4.8 ± 0.18 g/g versus 3.8 ± 0.18 g/g, P , 0.05 and 61.8 ± 10.4 μl versus 20 ± 5.9 μl, P , 0.05). No significant statistical change was found among lung water and endothelial permeability in the glibenclamide or CFTR-172 inhibitor group. ...
Guerra and Baughman obtained BAL for quantitative bacterial culture at one dilution in 54 patients receiving mechanical ventilation who underwent bronchoscopy for clinical pneumonia (30 patients) or a noninfectious process (24 patients). In the pneumonia group, nine patients had an opportunistic infection and three had either Legionella or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The remaining 18 patients were believed to have bacterial pneumonia. Using a diagnostic threshold of 104 cfu/ml, a significant growth was seen in 16 patients (89 percent) with pneumonia and in none of those without. Seventy percent of patients with pneumonia were receiving antimicrobials and none of the significant organisms (^lO cfu/ml) was sensitive to the administered antibiotic. Seventy-five percent of patients in the control group were receiving antimicrobials, and this treatment was discontinued after results of cultures were available. proventil inhaler ...
This phase II trial will investigate the efficacy and tolerability of IV cethromycin [Restanza; Advanced Life Sciences] in patients hospitalised with
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a common and severe complication of critically ill patients. It has been associated with increased length of stay in the hospital and intensive care unit, as well as to high mortality rates. The potentially causative HAP pathogens can be suspected based on the assessment of a variety of risk factors, including the severity of the pneumonia itself, the presence of risk factors for specific organisms, length of hospital stay and prior antimicrobial use. The selection of empirical antimicrobial treatment of HAP has been challenged by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant organisms. Initial antimicrobial therapy should be guided against the most frequent HAP etiologic agents taking into the consideration the local frequency and susceptibility patterns exhibited by the most prevalent pathogens. Early and appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy should be prescribed with adequate doses to optimize antimicrobial efficacy. De-escalation of the ...
When you breathe, air travels through your mouth or nose and into your throat. From there, it goes down your windpipe. Your windpipe branches into two tubes called bronchial tubes. Your bronchial tubes branch several more times in your lungs, and then end in tiny sacs called alveoli. Your body gets oxygen from your alveoli.. Small particles, including bacteria, are in the air you breathe every day. Most dont make it to your lungs because of your bodys natural defenses. Some particles get caught in your nose and throat, while others get trapped in mucus as they go through your airways. Fine, hair-like structures called cilia move the trapped particles up and out of your lungs. Your immune system fights bacteria and other germs that make it into your lungs. Pneumonia occurs when germs overcome your immune system.. Many different types of bacteria can cause pneumonia. In the U-S, a bacterium called Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. This bacterium causes ...
Vibativ (telavancin) has been approved by the FDA to treat HABP/VABP (hospital-acquired ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia) caused by Staphylococcus
Current guidelines suggest that patients may be treated in an outpatient setting or may require hospitalization depending on their PSI risk class, as follows: Classes I and II - Outpatient mana... more
Patients (age ≥15 years) admitted with respiratory infections to two Guatemalan hospitals between November 2007 and March 2012 had urine and nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs collected; blood cultures and CXR were also performed at physician clinical discretion. Any bacterial infection was defined as a positive urine pneumococcal antigen test, isolation of a bacterial pneumonia pathogen from blood culture, or detection of an atypical bacterial pathogen by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) specimens. Viral infection was defined as detection of viral pathogens by PCR of NP/OP specimens. CXRs were interpreted according to the WHO protocol as having endpoint consolidation, other infiltrate, or normal findings. We examined associations between bacterial and viral infections and endpoint consolidation ...
Bacterial pneumonia is a lung infection. Main symptoms are coughing up mucus and fever. Treatment is by antibiotics. If untreated, it can be deadly.
Effects on clinical symptoms, cure rate, and recurrence rate of patients with bacterial pneumonia treated with Tanreqing injection combined with antibiotics, Hong-Xia Zhang, Xiao-L
Bacterial pneumonia and measures of poor immune function (notably, a low CD4/CD8 ratio) predicted incident lung cancer in HIV-positive members of the ...
Bacterial pneumonia and measures of poor immune function (notably, a low CD4/CD8 ratio) predicted incident lung cancer in HIV-positive members of the ...
Care guide for Bacterial Pneumonia (Inpatient Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
Numerator counts are based on ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. Surgical codes are usually excluded to ensure that the admission was for a medical condition. Bacterial Pneumonia: 481xx, 482.2x, 482.3x, 482.9x, 483xx, 485xx, 486xx: excl. secondary dx 282.6x. ...
Bacterial pneumonia is a common problem for many HIV-positive people, even for those who have high CD4 cell counts or are responding well to HIV treatment.
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Signs of bacterial pneumonia may include the following: Hyperthermia (fever, typically |38°C){ref1} or hypothermia (| 35°C) Tachypnea (|18 respirations/min) Use of accessory respir... more
Bacterial Pneumonia ADRPresented by Dr. Richard MarkellCellulitisPresented by Dr. Phoebe SmithFoal DiarrheaPresented by Dr. Bonnie BarrLaminitisPresent...
Bacterial pneumonia refers specifically to an inflammation of the lungs in response to a disease-causing bacteria. Prognosis for bacterial pneumonia is generally good if properly treated. Learn more about the causes and treatment of bacterial pneumonia in cats on PetMD.com.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia answers are found in the Guide to Diagnostic Tests powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Communicating through sources trusted by the target audience can heighten the credibility of silagra 100 mg otc, and attention to purchase 100mg silagra with amex, messages. Coeliac disease predis- System Symptom Frequency (%) poses toaTcelllymphoma,treatmentwithglutenfree Skin Flushing 85 diets may reduce the risk. You can see from making a 2 × 2 table that if there is an equal number in each cell the agreement occurs purely by chance (Fig. If you think your child Symptoms has Infectious Diarrhea: A child with infectious diarrhea may have bowel movements  Tell your childcare that are loose and runny compared to normal. The pathogenesis, symptoms, and signs of the complications of acute bacterial pneumonia including: bacteremia, sepsis, parapneumonic effusion, empyema, meningitis, and metastatic microabscesses. The aim is to inculcate a sense of professional responsibility and adaptability so that the student will function effectively when posted later to the various health care centres in ...
Our objective is to develop a low-cost Smartphone attachment and application to diagnose and treat bacterial neonatal pneumonia in Pakistan. Currently, serious bacterial infection - pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis - results in preventable deaths of 700,000 neonates every year, 99% dying in resource limited settings such as Pakistan. Signs of serious infection in young babies are difficult to recognize. Diagnostic tests and chest X-rays are rarely available outside tertiary care hospitals. The proposed device has the potential to identify and treat bacterial pneumonia quickly and decrease mortality. Our technology is an attachment that snaps on to a Smartphone and acquires, then displays a thermal image of a neonates lungs. An application (app) will calculate the chance a neonate has bacterial pneumonia, based on the presence of hot spots or temperature differences which represent the increased blood flow/inflammation that occurs with bacterial pneumonia. The app will produce a read-out ...
Another name for Bacterial Lung Infection is Bacterial Pneumonia. What is bacterial pneumonia? A person with bacterial pneumonia has inflammation and ...
We applied Cox regression analysis to investigate the association between response to IFN-RBV and the development of new AIDS-defining conditions, non-liver-related death, and non-liver-related non-AIDS-related death. When we adjusted for age, sex, HIV transmission category, nadir CD4+ cell count, cART, HIV-RNA level below the limit of detection, and liver fibrosis, we found that the adjusted hazard ratio of each of these clinical endpoints was higher for non-responders than for responders, although it reached statistical significance only for non-liver-related death and non-liver-related non-AIDS-related death (Table 4). We carried out 2 sensitivity analyses. In the first, we excluded those patients with recurrent pneumonia as a new AIDS-defining condition and those who died of bacterial pneumonia. In the second, we did not exclude patients with recurrent pneumonia as a new AIDS-defining condition or those who died of bacterial pneumonia, although we did censor their follow-up until these ...
FIG. 1. Survival of TLR4 mutant and WT mice after intranasal inoculation with 4× 103 CFU (A), 6 × 103 CFU (B), or 6 × 104 CFU (C) of S. pneumoniae organisms. A total of 12 mice per group were studied. Survival of TLR4 mutant mice inoculated with 6.5 × 103 CFU was significantly decreased compared to that seen with WT mice (P , 0.05). ...
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Bacterial colonization of the upper respiratory tract (e.g., nasal passages) frequently precedes the development of bacterial pneumonia, but how viral infections alter the microbial composition of the upper respiratory tract has not been investigated. Animal data from murine models of sequential influenza and bacterial infections suggest that either the viral infection itself or activation of the antiviral immune state enhances the susceptibility to bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract (i.e., pneumonia), but this has yet to be examined in human patients. Since the nose is the main portal of entry for respiratory viruses, this location serves as a logical and easily accessible site for analyzing how viruses or host antiviral immune responses induce changes in the nasal microbiome, which may predict risk of secondary bacterial pneumonias. This comparative analysis of the microbial diversity found in the nasal passages of normal and influenza-infected individuals will provide insights ...
Pneumonia can be generally defined as an infection of the lung parenchyma, in which consolidation of the affected part and a filling of the alveolar air spaces with exudate, inflammatory cells, and fibrin is characteristic. Infection by bacteria or viruses is the most common cause, although infection by other micro-orgamisms such as rickettsi...
Immunity is short-lived, and most horses are re-infected during their careers. Re-infection is generally mild except in the case of brood mares. The most significant side effect of the respiratory version of herpesvirus is secondary bacterial pneumonia. Any respiratory virus compromises the horses immune system and defense mechanisms, thereby predisposing it to bacterial pneumonia. It also appears very likely that once a horse has been infected with either EHV-1 or -4, it will persist within the horse without clinical signs until there is a period of stress or immunosuppression. Once the latent virus is reactivated, it will be shed into the environment, and clinical signs will again become apparent. Preventative programs, including vaccination, have no effect on latent infections. While respiratory disease is the most common, there are other problems associated with herpesvirus EHV-1, which can cause abortions and neurologic disease. The neurologic form of herpes is uncommon. However, if your ...
Unasyn-S 12g/day (3 g four times a day) is the commonly used dosage depending on the severity for US, EU, China, Taiwan and Korea for over 20 years, however, Unasyn-S 12g/day has not yet been approved in Japan. The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety in Japanese adult subjects with community acquired pneumonia receiving ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium, 12g/day (3 g four times a day ) IV ...
Hospital-Acquired and Healthcare-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia I. What every physician needs to know. Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HAP) refers to pneumonias occurring after a patient has been hospitalized for 48 hours or more, which was not clinically suspected to be present on admission. The diagnosis of HAP implies that the patient is at risk for organisms more…. ...
Life in the fast lane, Jim, but not as we know it … precordial thump has just posted a series of thumbnail sketches of pneumonia, complete with a series of questions. A good revision exercise on the range of clinical presentations you may encounter, aetiology, and antibiotic choice. Go on; test your knowledge. You know […]. ...
Hospital‑acquired pneumonia increases the length of in-patient hospital stay and is associated with high mortality rates, particularly in older people. Pharmacists and healthcare professionals need to know how to diagnose and manage the condition, and be cognisant of the gaps in the evidence base.
Pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in adults with about 5 million cases reported annually in the United States itself.
Oxidative stress is an important part of host innate immune response to foreign pathogens. However, the impact of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation remains unclear in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation. CAP patients were enrolled. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-6 were analyzed in CAP patients and LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. MH-S cells were transfected with RFP-LC3 plasmids. Autophagy was measured in LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. Severe CAP patients showed significantly increased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. SOD was significantly decreased in severe CAP. Vitamin C significantly decreased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. Vitamin C inhibited LPS-induced ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, IL-6, and p38 in macrophages cells. Vitamin C inhibited autophagy in LPS-induced macrophages cells.
Opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have been shown to increase the rate of HIV replication. In populations where prophylaxis against Pneumocystis pneumonia is utilized, bacterial pneumonia is now the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in HIV+ patients. Our prior studies have shown that chronic alcohol consumption in demarcated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques increases plasma viral load set point and accelerates progression to end-stage acquired immune deficiency syndrome. While chronic alcohol abuse is well known to increase the incidence and severity of bacterial pneumonia, the impact of alcohol consumption on local and systemic SIV/HIV burden during lung infection is unknown. Therefore, we utilized the macaque SIV infection model to examine the effect of chronic ethanol (EtOH) feeding on SIV burden during the course of pulmonary infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most commonly identified ...
Immediate management, as in any patient presenting with pneumonia, includes oxygen therapy and intravenous fluids if necessary. Timely initiation of antibiotics, as in any case of pneumonia, is very important.. As in community acquired pneumonia, S. pneumoniae is the most frequently isolated organism in recurrent pneumonia. S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were the three most common organisms isolated in one series of immunocompetent adults over the age of 50 with recurrence of pneumonia after hospitalization.. However, other organisms are also common in recurrent pneumonia and consideration should be given to the patients risk factors. H. influenzae is a common pathogen in patients with COPD. Smokers and those with COPD and other chronic respiratory conditions are predisposed to infection with Legionella. Patients with alcohol dependence are susceptible to infections by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and anaerobes. Patients with recurrent pneumonia related ...
BACKGROUND. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk for bacterial pneumonia in addition to opportunistic infection. However, the risk factors for bacterial pneumonia and its incidence in this population are not well defined. METHODS. In a multicenter, prospective, observational study, we monitored 1130 HIV-positive and 167 HIV-negative participating adults for up to 64 months for pulmonary disease. The HIV-positive group comprised 814 homosexual or bisexual men, 261 injection-drug users, and 55 female partners of HIV-infected men. RESULTS.
Researchers have found heart complications in patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia are more serious than in patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia.
If the radiographic abnormality is persistent, particularly in a specific area of the lung, a congenital anomaly or airway obstruction is more likely than if the abnormalities come and go and are found in different regions of the lung. Therefore, the evaluation of persistent may be different than for truly recurrent pneumonia.. Common cause of recurrent pneumonia #1: Asthma. The mechanism is viral infection that produces both fever and an asthma exacerbation. Increased airway edema, bronchoconstriction, and excessive mucus production with mucus plugging produce the abnormalities on CXR. The fever, abnormal auscultation, and abnormal CXR lead the clinician to diagnose pneumonia. The patient with recurrent pneumonias due to repeated asthma exacerbations may have cough, wheeze, or dyspnea with triggers other than upper respiratory infection (URI), such as exercise, allergen, or irritant exposure. They may not always have fever when they have pneumonia. Their personal history may reveal ...
The report is devoted to an analysis of the results of a complicated and dynamic examination of the ventilation apparatus in eighty-five patients having chronic pneumonia. The patients were examined both in a state of rest after performing an assigned physical task, and after inhaling ephedrine. The conclusions drawn from these studies are as follows: (1) There is a relationship between the functional condition of the ventilation apparatus and the clinically determined severity of respiratory failure: definite functional disturbances in a series of indices (MVL, VCL, pneumotachometric data, FVCL, frequency and depth of respiration) correspond to the degree of respiratory failure. (2) In chronic pneumonia, even during the early stages of development, there are disturbances of the bronchial permeability. (3) Dyspnea is not the first sign of respiratory failure. Even before it occurs, some functional disorders of the ventilation apparatus become manifest in chronic pneumonia patients (reduction of MVL
Pneumonia is among the major killer diseases in under-five children in the world. In developing countries 3 million children die each year due to pneumonia. Ethiopia is one of the 15 pneumonia high burden countries. The aim of this study was to examine the risk factors of the survival time of under-five pneumonia patients using Bayesian approach analysis. Total of 281 under-five pneumonia patients included in this study. The parametric survival models such as Weibull, Lognormal and Log-logistic baseline distributions were used to fit the datasets by introducing prior distributions. The DIC value was used to compare the baseline distributions, and based on the DIC value the Weibull baseline distribution was selected as good model to fit under-five pneumonia dataset well. The results obtained from the Weibull survival model showed that patients from urban residence and patients who were admitted during patient nurse ratio (PNR) was small; were prolong timing death of under-five pneumonia patients, while
In the pre-HAART era, infectious pulmonary complications were the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV-infected population. Bacterial pneumonias, bronchitis and pneumocystis pneumonia were common causes of illness in this patient population. In the post-HAART era and with the advent of antimicrobial prophylaxis, the epidemiology of lung disease in HIV-infected individuals has changed. Bacterial pneumonia and pneumocystis pneumonia rates have decreased, and more non-infectious complications have emerged.. While HIV often conjures up thoughts of opportunistic infections, HIV-infected patients often fall prey to infections we see in immunocompetent individuals. Bacterial pneumonias are common in HIV-infected individuals, the most common isolated causative agent being Streptococcus pneumoniae, and occur more frequently as CD4 counts fall. The rates of bacterial pneumonia in patients with CD4 greater than 500 are similar to those of the general population, whereas patients with CD4 ...
Pneumonia has traditionally been classified into two subtypes: community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and nosocomial pneumonia (NP). Recently, a new entity has been defined, called healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Few studies have investigated the potential of population-based, electronic, healthcare databases to identify the incidences of these three subtypes of pneumonia. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of the three subtypes of pneumonia in elderly patients (aged 65+ years) in a large region of central Italy. A retrospective cohort study was performed using linked regional Hospital Information System and Mortality Register. All episodes of pneumonia in elderly patients, who were discharged from the hospital in 2006-2008, were selected for the study. Following a validated ICD-9-coding algorithm, incidents of pneumonia events were classified into three groups (HCAP; probable nosocomial pneumonia, PNP; and CAP). Hospitalisation rates were calculated by age group (65-79, 80+), gender,
Pneumonia has traditionally been classified into two subtypes: community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and nosocomial pneumonia (NP). Recently, a new entity has been defined, called healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Few studies have investigated the potential of population-based, electronic, healthcare databases to identify the incidences of these three subtypes of pneumonia. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of the three subtypes of pneumonia in elderly patients (aged 65+ years) in a large region of central Italy. A retrospective cohort study was performed using linked regional Hospital Information System and Mortality Register. All episodes of pneumonia in elderly patients, who were discharged from the hospital in 2006-2008, were selected for the study. Following a validated ICD-9-coding algorithm, incidents of pneumonia events were classified into three groups (HCAP; probable nosocomial pneumonia, PNP; and CAP). Hospitalisation rates were calculated by age group (65-79, 80+), gender,
Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs. Its caused by germs, such as bacteria and viruses, and fungi. Some people develop pneumonia by coming in contact with germs in the course of daily life, such as at school, work, or the gym. This is sometimes called community-acquired pneumonia. Others develop pneumonia during a stay in the hospital. This is called hospital-acquired pneumonia. And still others develop pneumonia following some type of contact with the health care system.
Wellness care-associated bacterial pneumonias thanks to multiple-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens are an important open public wellness issue and are main causes of morbidity and fatality worldwide. of health-care linked microbial pneumonias (mutants that absence flagella is certainly noticed in chronic air infections as a response not really just to their evasion of measurement, but also to their absence of immunostimulation (22, 246). Microorganisms that are enmeshed in mucin are subject matter to devastation by the multiple antimicrobial peptides constitutively portrayed by air mucosal cells, and additional portrayed as a element of resistant account activation. The combine of antimicrobial peptides contains cathelicidins and lipocalins that compete with bacteria for iron, offering a picky milieu that allows fairly resistant microorganisms to flourish while getting rid of growth of the even more prone types. Elements such as pH and NaCl concentrations influence the efficiency of antimicrobial ...
|p||b|Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs that is usually caused by infection. Pneumonia can also be caused by inhaling irritants such as vomit, liquids, or chemicals.|/b| With pneumonia, the air sacs in the lungs fill with liquid or pus, which interferes with the lungs ability to transfer oxygen to the blood.|/p| |p| Before the invention of antibiotics in the 1930s, pneumonia was a leading cause of death. Though it has since become very treatable, pneumonia remains a public health problem.|/p| |p| There are many different kinds of pneumonia, ranging from mild to severe. There are 4 basic types: |/p| |ul| |li||b|Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP),|/b| the most common type of pneumonia, is caused by bacteria, viruses, and other organisms that are acquired outside of the hospital or other health care settings. |/li| |li||b|Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)|/b| occurs at least 48 hours after someone has been admitted to the hospital. It can be caused by bacteria and other organisms that are
Community-acquired pneumonia is diagnosed by clinical features (e.g., cough, fever, pleuritic chest pain) and by lung imaging, usually an infiltrate seen on chest radiography. Initial evaluation should determine the need for hospitalization versus outpatient management using validated mortality or severity prediction scores. Selected diagnostic laboratory testing, such as sputum and blood cultures, is indicated for inpatients with severe illness but is rarely useful for outpatients. Initial outpatient therapy should include a macrolide or doxycycline. For outpatients with comorbidities or who have used antibiotics within the previous three months, a respiratory fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, or moxifloxacin), or an oral beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide should be used. Inpatients not admitted to an intensive care unit should receive a respiratory fluoroquinolone, or a beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide. Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia or who are ...
Is it a cold, influenza, or pneumonia? Medscape. · is it a chilly, influenza, or pneumonia? W. Steven pray, phd, dph; joshua j. Pray strolling pneumonia, normally because of mycoplasma, produces. strolling pneumonia. On foot pneumonia lower back ache search now! Over eighty five million site visitors. Pneumonia and backache ? Yahoo answers. · hi all, my accomplice had pneumonia 3 weeks in the past, it all regarded to solve adequate, however the day prior to this he began with a terrible backache, he reveals it. taking walks pneumonia taking walks pneumonia. Search outcomes. Locate information, signs & treatments. Depended on by means of 50 million visitors. Pneumonia causes, signs, diagnosis, treatment. Pneumonia is a severe and potentially deadly bacterial or viral infection of the lungs causes, symptoms, prognosis, remedy. Pneumonia and backache ? Yahoo solutions. Pneumonia is a lung contamination which can make you very sick. You can cough, run a fever, and feature a hard time ...
VetVine Critical Care expert, Dr. Melissa Holahan, explains findings and the clinical significance of a recent publication detailing the outcome for 111 dogs with bacterial pneumonia that were treated with empirically selected antimicrobials. Learn more o...
Internal Medicine clinical trial detail - Evaluation of Ceftaroline Fosamil Versus a Comparator in Adult Subjects With Community-acquired Bacterial Pneumonia (CABP) With Risk for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
There are two types of pneumonia we talk about in medicine. The first is typical pneumonia or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This type generally affects young children and older adults and can make you very sick over a short period of time. The top three bacteria usually associated with this type of pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumonia (different from the Strep that causes Strep throat), Haemophilus influenza and Moraxella catarrhalis that account for about 85% of the two to four million cases per year.. Symptoms include cough, fever, chest pain when taking deep breaths, trouble breathing and a lot of mucus production. These infections are normally treated with antibiotics once the illness is found to be bacterial and may require hospitalization depending on how bad the symptoms are.. The other type is atypical pneumonia, more commonly known as walking pneumonia. It gets this moniker because the symptoms are generally less severe than typical pneumonia, allowing those infected to ...
The growth rate, feed consumption and carcase composition of nine untreated wether lambs (controls) were compared with those of lambs in which a chronic pneumonia had been experimentally induced. Six pneumonic lambs (group 1) were killed with the controls on day 109 and eight (group 2) lambs were killed when they had a similar mean liveweight to the controls (42 kg) on day 172. The mean liveweight gain of infected animals to day 108 was 59 per cent, the mean feed intake 69 per cent and the mean carcase weight of group 1 was 73.5 per cent that of the controls. Group 2 lambs required 25 per cent more feed and nine weeks longer than the controls to reach similar live and carcase weights. This depression of appetite and growth rate was most marked in the first 35 days after inoculation, but growth rates of infected lambs continued to be lower than those of the controls throughout the experiment. At slaughter, all infected lambs had consolidated lesions of pneumonia and a significant correlation was ...
Animals with bacterial pneumonia usually have a history of a productive cough, fever, tachypnea, and respiratory distress. However, some animals (and particularly cats) present with more vague signs of illness, such as malaise, depression, anorexia, and weight loss. An early clue to the diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia is a change in the respiratory pattern. Parenchymal infection with alveolar flooding by inflammatory debris leads to restrictive lung disease, and a rapid shallow breathing pattern results. Thoracic auscultation is typically abnormal with loud or harsh lung sounds, and crackles can be variably detected throughout the lung fields. Absence of lung sounds in an area is suggestive of lung consolidation. A mucopurulent nasal discharge can be observed when animals cough respiratory secretions into the nasopharynx or have concurrent nasal infection. Fever may or not be present. These general rules are followed much more closely in dogs than in cats, in which bacterial pneumonia can ...
Recurrent pneumonia (RP), i.e., at least two episodes of pneumonia in one year or three episodes ever with intercritical radiographic clearing of densities, occurs in 7.7%-9% of children with community-acquired pneumonia. In RP, the challenge is to discriminate between children with self-limiting or minor problems, that do not require a diagnostic work-up, and those with an underlying disease. The aim of the current review is to discuss a reasoned diagnostic approach to RP in childhood. Particular emphasis has been placed on which children should undergo a diagnostic work-up and which tests should be performed. A pediatric case series is also presented, in order to document a single centre experience of RP. A management algorithm for the approach to children with RP, based on the evidence from a literature review, is proposed. Like all algorithms, it is not meant to replace clinical judgment, but it should drive physicians to adopt a systematic approach to pediatric RP and provide a useful guide to the
Nosocomial pneumonia is the most important infectious complication in patients admitted to intensive care units. Kinetic bed therapy may reduce the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. The objective of this study was to investigate whether kinetic bed therapy reduces the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia and improves outcomes in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. We searched Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and AMED for studies, as well as reviewed abstracts of conference proceedings, bibliographies of included studies and review articles and contacted the manufacturers of medical beds. Studies included were randomized or pseudo-randomized clinical trials of kinetic bed therapy compared to standard manual turning in critically ill mechanically ventilated adult patients. Two reviewers independently applied the study selection criteria and extracted data regarding study validity, type of bed used, intensity of kinetic therapy, and population under
Who is at risk? Anyone with a cold or prolonged illness can easily contract pneumonia. Healthy persons may also be exposed to it simply through normal daily activities. Anyone with an impaired immune system is at greater risk of contracting pneumonia. Persons who have suffered a stroke or seizure are at risk of developing pneumonia due to the aspiration of food, vomit or other particles from the mouth or nose into the lungs.. Treatment In addition to performing a physical exam, your doctor might order a chest x-ray and blood test to help diagnose pneumonia or to determine its severity. Bacterial pneumonia will be treated with antibiotics, but typical pneumonia symptoms are treated with rest, sleep and liquids for up to three weeks. Other medications may be useful for treating the symptoms associated with pneumonia such as cough, fever and wheezing.. Emergency Warning Signs: When should I see a doctor? Seek treatment right away if mucus coughed up from your lungs runs yellow or green for more ...
Tygacil (tigecycline), an antibacterial manufactured by the drug maker Pfizer, increases the risk of death, whether used for approved uses or for purposes that are off-label, according to a warning just issued by the U.S. food and Drug Administration (FDA).. The agency said that Pfizer must now update Tygacils warning information to include the so-called Black Box label, the agencys most serious warning indication. Tygacil, which is administered intravenously, should only be used when no other alternative treatments are available, the FDA stated, according to Reuters.. Tygacil received agency approval in 2004 for the treatment of complicated skin and abdominal infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Tygacil is not approved for the treatment of diabetic foot infection or for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia, Reuters reported.. A physician reminder was issued by the FDA in September 2010. That reminder indicated that Tygacil carried an increased risk of death when ...
|p>Recent changes in clinical practice guidelines for the management of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) suggest that
In this report, we describe the generation and preliminary characterization of mice lacking the novel CXC chemokine Lungkine. In the adult mouse, Lungkine is produced at appreciable levels only by lung epithelial cells and collects in the lung airspace, suggesting that it might function in pulmonary host defense. We now show that deletion of the Lungkine gene is associated with diminished host defense against the pulmonary pathogen K. pneumoniae.. The rapid clearance of bacterial pathogens from the respiratory tract is mediated by resident alveolar macrophages and neutrophils that are recruited from the blood into the airspace (15, 16, 17). This neutrophil recruitment is mediated by the production in the lung of chemotactic cytokines (16). ELR+ CXC chemokines, including MIP-2 and KC, contribute to antibacterial host defense by affecting neutrophil trafficking and activation (9, 11, 18).. The increased mortality in Lungkine−/− mice following infection with K. pneumonia demonstrates that ...
Hospital admissions for CAP are currently increasing by ∼9% per year among Oxfordshire adults and cannot be attributed simply to a growing, ageing population. This is not an artefact of repeat admissions for the same illness episode nor an increase in hospital-acquired pneumonia as trends persisted when excluding all readmissions and when excluding those with any previous recent hospitalisations, respectively. Additionally, trends in admissions for reasons other than pneumonia differ significantly to CAP (table 1 and figure 1C), suggesting that the increases are not merely a reflection of overall changes in admission numbers. The rise is also not explainable by diagnosis-code-switching since hospitalisations for other, similar, diagnoses also increased during the same time period. However, the fact that pneumonia diagnoses increased at a faster rate after 2008 while COPD and other lower respiratory infections started to increase more slowly at around the same time suggests some limited ...
Published on 4/1/2017. Kasotakis G, Galvan M, King E, Sarkar B, Stucchi A, Mizgerd JP, Burke PA, Remick D. Valproic acid mitigates the inflammatory response and prevents acute respiratory distress syndrome in a murine model of Escherichia coli pneumonia at the expense of bacterial clearance. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Apr; 82(4):758-765. PMID: 28099388.. Read at: PubMed ...
Some pneumonia can often be prevented with vaccines against Hib and pneumococcus. Measles and pertussis (whooping cough) infections can result in pneumonia complications, so vaccinating against these childhood diseases can prevent some pneumonia cases. Inexpensive antibiotics can effectively treat pneumonia at the community level. Early recognition and early management are very important. If pneumonia cannot be managed at the health centre, then early referral to a better health centre can become life saving at times. But all cases dont need highest level of medical care. Pneumonia can be effectively managed (depending upon the condition) by providing home-based care. Early recognition of signs by family members, or by those who look after the child, that a child needs medical attention without delay at an appropriate health centre, are crucial. Aseptic and clean environment should be maintained to raise the child and those who are caring for the child should wash their hands properly, wash ...
Altered Mental Status & Hypotension & Recurrent Pneumonia due to Aspiration Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Hypotension. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Today is the first World Pneumonia Day (WPD).To demonstrate your solidarity with the millions of children who are afflicted with pneumonia every year, WPD asks that you wear blue jeans to school, work, or wherever you go on this day.. WPD has organized a Global Pneumonia Summit of over 100 media representatives, scientists, political leaders, donors, and public health organizations in New York City, a national press conference on pneumonia in Bangladesh, a Run for Child Survival in Kenya, a film screening in Baltimore, a launch of a new pneumonia treatment policy in Uganda, and much more.. Every 15 seconds, a child dies from pneumonia.Of the four million lives claimed by it every year, two million are children under the age of five.Of these two million children who die from pneumonia annually, an estimated 98% live in developing countries.. Pneumonia, an infection of the lungs that causes coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing, is often caused by bacteria (such as Hib and pneumococcus), ...
Two common and sometimes dangerous respiratory diseases, a viral one caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and a bacterial one caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae may be linked, suggests a study published in this weeks PLOS Medicine. Daniel Weinberger, from Yale University School of Public Health, and colleagues, analyzed hospitalization data to investigate a possible association between RSV and pneumonia in young children, and found that infection with RSV may increase the risk of pneumonia.
Diagnosis of childhood pneumonia: clinical assessment without radiological confirmation may lead to overtreatment.: Treatment of childhood pneumonia on the basi
Strategies to Prevent Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update Case Study of Spina Bifida 1. We conducted active population based surveillance for community acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among adults 18 years of age or older in five. AIDS case is classified as early if the death occurred before 5 June 1981, when the AIDS epidemic was formally. Heres another reason to go: Twice yearly dental visits may reduce levels of dangerous, pneumonia causing bacteria in the mouth, resPneumonia Definition Pneumonia is an infection of the lung that can be caused by nearly any class of organism known to cause human infections! Embase is a comprehensive biomedical literature database, clarify your biomedical research questions! Heres another reason to go: Twice yearly dental visits may reduce levels of dangerous, pneumonia causing bacteria in the mouth, resThis article is a timeline of early AIDS cases? Ese include. Defining Pneumonia by Location in the Lung. Base ...
Canine bacterial pneumonia is a common and serious respiratory infection. Pneumonia can develop from contagious environmental bacteria or from the dog\s own bacteria gaining access to the lungs (e.g., after accidentally inhaling food, liquids or vomit). Diagnosis relies on clinical signs, x-rays, and lung fluid (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or BALF) analysis. Analysis of BALF helps identify the causative bacteria and aids in appropriate antibiotic selection. While key to definitive diagnosis and management of bacterial pneumonia, collection of BALF requires general anesthesia, which can be especially risky in dogs with severe lung disease. To address the clinical need for a minimally invasive diagnostic test, the first study objective is to determine if blood cultures, acting as a surrogate for BALF analysis, can identify the bacteria causing pneumonia and provide antibiotic susceptibility information. In addition, the investigators will employ molecular means of identification of bacterial populations
New research from OMRF could improve survival rates for patients with pneumonia.. Pneumonia is inflammation caused by bacterial or viral infections in the lungs. The illness affects about 10 million Americans annually, killing about 50,000, and is the third highest cause of hospitalization. Symptoms include fever, chills, a productive cough and shortness of breath.. Often, doctors use antibiotics to treat bacterial pneumonia, but in some patients with weakened immune systems-like the elderly-the antibiotics dont work fast enough and antibiotic-resistant strains are becoming an increasing threat.. But in a paper published in the journal Immunobiology, OMRF scientists Ken Smith, Ph.D., and Judith James, M.D., Ph.D., used a process developed at OMRF to find a new way to fight pneumococcus bacteria-a major cause of pneumonia, ear infections, meningitis and even bacteremia or sepsis.. One way patients can decrease their risk of diseases related to pneumococcal disease is through a vaccine, but that ...
Epidemiologie der Beatmungspneumonie Inzidenz: % bzw /1000 Tage VAP-Rate: 1-3 % pro Beatmungstag ICU-Therapie: +6d d Beatmung: +10d d Letalität: % 1 Torres A et.al. Incidence, risk, and prognosis factor of nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990; 142: Hauer T et. al. Nosokomiale Infektionen in Deutschland. Med Klinik 1996; 9: Fagon JY et. al. Nosocomial Pneumonia. in: Schoemaker. Critical Care Medicine. 4th Ed. Philadelphia 2000: Fagon JY, Chastre J, Vuagnat A, Trouillet J-L, Novara A, and Gibert C. Nosocomial pneumonia and mortality among patients in intensive care units. JAMA 1996;275:866-9 George DL, AJRCCM 1998;158:1839 Craven DE, Steger KA. Epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia. Chest 1995:108:1S-16S Fagon JY et al. Nosocomial pneumonia and mortality among patients in intensive care units. JAMA 1996;275:866-9 Cook DJ et al. Incidence of and risk factors for ventilator-associated pneuminoa in critically ill patients. Ann Intern Med 1998;129: Fagon JY et. al.
In the phase 3 ASPECT-NP trial (NCT02070757), ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) was noninferior to meropenem for treatment of Gram-negative ventilated hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (vHABP/VABP). Here, we report outcomes in participants from ASPECT-NP with renal impairment (RI). Participants were categorized by their baseline renal function as follows: normal renal function (NRF;... ...
by Dr. Chizoba Wonodi, MD, PhD. On November 12, the world will mark the 3rd World Pneumonia Day. On that day, I will be thinking about all the faces of pneumonia I know and about Precious, a cute 1-year old I met last year in Lagos, Nigeria.. I met Precious at a seminar we organized for pneumonia advocates; her mother brought her to shine a light on the real lives and families touched by pneumonia. Precious ordeal began innocuously as a fever, which her mother thought was malaria.. After two days of malaria treatment, her condition worsened, deteriorating so fast that by the time she was rushed to hospital, the little girl was barely breathing and merely hanging on to life. She had pneumonia - the worst kind. The infection raging in her lungs had taken it over, collapsed it and filled it with fluid. It took 30 days of hospitalization, intravenous antibiotics, a draining tube stuck in her little chest and 7,000 dollars to save the girls life.. Precious was lucky. She was lucky to have had ...
IIPhD. Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE, Brazil. The learned study by Sarria et al. which goes into the diagnosis of acute pneumonia (AP), in the current issue of our ever improving Jornal de Pediatria, is most welcome.1 This is a subject in which even the most experienced professionals should be constantly updating themselves.. While the scientific fundamentals of AP have not changed for decades, current epidemiological data and the dynamics of the theme itself, which is proper to medicine, stimulate us all to read with attention when this theme is the subject.. Around 10-20% of all children under five in poor countries present AP every year.2 In 1995, of the 11.6 million deaths of under-fives, 4 million were due to AP, making it the most common cause of death. Ninety-five percent of these deaths occurred in poor countries and 50-75% of the victims were less than a year old2,3.. In Brazil, in 1998, 5.4% and 12.8% of deaths among children less than one year old and ...
I am 27 years old, and have a 34 degree S- curve that was diagnosed at age 12 as idiopathic pneumonia. Although the curve itself hasnt bothered me beyond making me sore after intense exercise, I have been having reoccurring pneumonia now for 5 years and we think there may be a link between this and the scoliosis. Has anyone else had this problem?. The type of pneumonia I have is typical streptococcus bacteria pneumonia, but an array of antibiotics are not curing it as they should in a relatively healthy 27 year old. A CT scan shows that the pneumonia hasnt moved in the last 2 years, and I get a flare up of pneumonia symptoms about 1x a month which either keeps me out of work for 3-5 days with someone caring for me, or puts me in the hospital. For the last two years I have had to seriously cut back exercise and after work activities as long days and exercise seem to bring on the symptoms more frequently. My pulmonologist hasnt found anything beyond the strepto-pneumo when going in for a ...
Recent research from McMaster Universitys Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine published online Monday in the Annals of Internal Medicine suggests that pneumonia patients have significant benefits from corticosteroid therapy.
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Bacterial pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung usually caused by bacterial or viral infection but can be caused by inhalation of an irritant. Typical signs of bacterial pneumonia include fever, difficulty breathing, lethargy and coughing. As these can also be caused by other disease, diagnostics include a full physical exam, blood work, radiographs, and may also require bronchoscopy with sample collection for cytology and bacterial culture and sensitivity. Treatment includes the use of one or more antibiotics that ideally would be selected using the results of a culture. Affected dogs may also require hospitalization and supportive care including intravenous fluids. Prognosis is good to guarded depending on the presence of predisposing factors.. Login Required ...
I have always thought that with enough time passing there would be severe unintended consequences for mask mania.. First we see dentists claiming it causes bad breath and Gum Disease Now Doctors are seeing Bacterial Infections. https://muchadoaboutcorona.ca/bacterial-pneumonias/. duh…wtf do you think is gonna happen when you put like your underwear strapped around your face…effing idiots. ...
Children below the age of 5 years are at a heightened risk of pneumonia. There are simple and practical modifications in our daily lives that can considerably reduce the risk of childhood pneumonia, such as, keeping the child warm and dry, away from those with infections such as cold or cough, not exposing the child to smoke (tobacco smoke, smoke from cook stoves), breastfeeding (exclusive) the child for first six months, among others. Children should be taken to healthcare services on the first symptom such as fever or cold. If the child is not breastfeeding then instead of giving her or him other home-made food please consult a doctor without delay. If the healthcare provider is recommending hospitalization for the child then dont avoid it unless indicated otherwise. Maintaining strict hygiene and cleanliness is also important for child care and preventing pneumonia and other infections ...
Bacterial pneumonia multiple bacteria Bacterial vaginosis List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota Bacteroides infection ... Bacterial diseases: BV4 non-proteobacterial G- (primarily A00-A79, 001-041, 080-109) ...
Sethi Sanjeev (2002). "Bacterial Pneumonia. Managing a Deadly Complication of Influenza in Older Adults with Comorbid Disease ... Among those who survived the first several days, however, many died of secondary bacterial pneumonia. It has been argued that ... Lethal synergism between influenza virus and pneumococcus, causes excess mortality from secondary bacterial pneumonia during ... "Predominant role of bacterial pneumonia as a cause of death in pandemic influenza: implications for pandemic influenza ...
m Bacterial pneumonia‎; 13:36 . . (+8)‎ . . ‎. Kku. (talk , contribs)‎ (link antibiotic resistance using Find link) ... Pneumonia‎; 02:58 . . (0)‎ . . ‎. JenOttawa. (talk , contribs)‎ (replaced 'comorbidity' with easier to understand explanation. ...
Principles of Bacterial Pathogenesis. Academic Press. pp. 619-674. ISBN 0-12-304220-8. Mattoo S, Cherry J (2005). "Molecular ... ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. Bauwens J, Spach D, Schacker T, Mustafa M, Bowden R (1992). "Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia and ... being a normal product of the breakdown of the bacterial cell wall. Other bacteria recycle this molecule back into the ...
Dynabac (Dirithromycin), for acute bacterial exacerbations. Ketek (Telithromycin), for community acquired pneumonia. Priftin ( ... Bacterial diseases: ActHIB (Hib vaccine) Adacel (DPT vaccine) Daptacel (DPT vaccine) Dengvaxia (Dengue vaccine) Menactra ( ...
bacterial pneumonia: Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients has been reported to reduce the risk of ventilator ... "Denture wearing during sleep doubles the risk of pneumonia in the very elderly." Journal of Dental Research. 2015;94(3_suppl): ... wearing a denture during sleep has been proven to greatly increase the risk of pneumonia.[53] ... as this has been proved to reduce bacterial mass and pathogenicity.[55][56] ...
Pneumonia is the most common, and frequent lower respiratory tract infection. This can be either viral, bacterial, or fungal. ... This is a bacterial infection which deteriorates the lung tissue resulting in coughing up blood.[8][dead link] This infection ... With bacterial infections, antibiotics are prescribed, while viral infections are harder to treat, but still curable. ... This infection is very common, because pneumonia can be airborne, and when you inhale this infection in the air, the particles ...
Hib can cause bacterial meningitis and pneumonia. There was not enough research found in the review to show whether giving the ... Inactivated bacterial vaccine is used during pregnancy for women who have a specific risk of exposure and disease. Vaccination ... Pneumococcal disease can cause serious illnesses such as pneumonia and meningitis. A review looking at the pneumococcal vaccine ...
Bacterial pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia may result. If a tracheal tube used for intubation is inserted too far, it will ... Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viral or bacterial infections. Many sufferers of chronic bronchitis also suffer from ...
Pneumonia may develop with secondary bacterial infections. In addition to stomatitis, some cats may develop a polyarthritis, ... Antibiotics are used for secondary bacterial infections, and immune modulators, such as lymphocyte T-cell immune modulator, ...
Secondary bacterial pneumonia occurs in many cases. Chronic respiratory disease, such as nasal discharge, is common in ...
and Ostertagia sp.) or bacterial infections (12 cases, mostly pneumonia). Elk hoof disease was first noticed in the state of ... The Gram-negative bacterial disease brucellosis occasionally affects elk in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the only place ...
SARS may eventually lead to shortness of breath and pneumonia; either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia.[ ... For a case to be considered probable, a chest X-ray must be indicative for atypical pneumonia or acute respiratory distress ... As SARS is a viral disease, antibiotics do not have direct effect but may be used against bacterial secondary infection. ...
Presumed bacterial pneumonia is typically treated with antibiotics. Al-Tubaikh, JA (2010). "Chapter 3.2 Alveolar lung diseases ... Causes of acute alveolar lung disease include pulmonary edema (cardiogenic or neurogenic), pneumonia (bacterial or viral), ... obstructive pneumonia, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism with infarction, or tuberculosis. The two focuses of management for ... Some more commonly seen instances of alveolar lung disease include pulmonary edema and pneumonia. For pulmonary edema, medical ...
One major cause of bacterial pneumonia is tuberculosis. Chronic infections often occur in those with immunodeficiency and can ... The tissue of the lungs can be affected by a number of respiratory diseases, including pneumonia and lung cancer. Chronic ... Inflammatory conditions of the lung tissue are pneumonia, of the respiratory tract are bronchitis and bronchiolitis, and of the ... as in pneumonia. In embryonic development, the lungs begin to develop as an outpouching of the foregut, a tube which goes on to ...
... s may suffer from bacterial infections. Aeromonas and Pseudomonas are two genera of bacteria that cause pneumonia in ... "Bacterial pneumonia in free-ranging bog turtle, Glyptemys muhlenbergii, from North Carolina and Virginia" (PDF). Journal of the ... individuals.[39] Bacterial aggregates (sometimes known as biofilms) have also been found in the lungs of two deceased specimens ...
Brundage, John F.; Shanks, G. Dennis (August 2008). "Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic". ...
... s are used to treat community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Other respiratory tract infections were removed as ... due to their ability to bind at two sites at the bacterial ribosome as well as having a structural modification that makes them ...
The majority of deaths were from bacterial pneumonia, a common secondary infection associated with influenza. This pneumonia ... "Bacterial Pneumonia Caused Most Deaths in 1918 Influenza Pandemic". National Institutes of Health. 23 September 2015. Archived ... Morens DM, Taubenberger JK, Fauci AS (October 2008). "Predominant role of bacterial pneumonia as a cause of death in pandemic ... However, during the second wave the disease was much more serious, often complicated by bacterial pneumonia, which was often ...
Villanueva died on May 28, 2020 from bacterial pneumonia. Tugna also serves as President and CEO of ZOE Broadcasting Network, ...
She was suffering from pneumonia (a bacterial lung infection). Private estates Wazir Mansion, Jinnah's birthplace in Karachi ...
In November 1987, Moore was struck down with bacterial pneumonia. He initially tried to ignore the illness and attended a ...
... is used to treat adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. It was also investigated for treatment of acute ... "FDA approves new antibiotic to treat community-acquired bacterial pneumonia". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press ... is an antibiotic medication used it to treat adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. It is taken by mouth or by ... for Treatment of Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia: The Phase 3 LEAP 1 Trial". Clin. Infect. Dis. 69 (11): 1856-1867. doi: ...
The disease is commonly misdiagnosed as bacterial community-acquired pneumonia. The fungal infection can be demonstrated by ... Coccidioidomycosis is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the endemic areas of the United States. Infections ... Because the symptoms of coccidioidomycosis are similar to the common flu, pneumonia, and other respiratory diseases, it is ... In endemic regions, coccidioidomycosis is responsible for 20% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Notable ...
The cause of death was reported to be bacterial pneumonia. York was buried at Sunset Memory Gardens in Cartersville. In 1972, ...
It is a human pathogen that causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia, a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia related to cold ... Mycoplasma Mollicutes Bacterial pneumonia Hayflick L, Chanock RM (June 1965). "Mycoplasma Species of Man". Bacteriological ... and manifestation of pneumonia can be confused with a number of other bacterial pathogens and conditions that cause pneumonia. ... Rarely, M. pneumoniae pneumonia results in death due to lesions and ulceration of the epithelial lining, pulmonary edema, and ...
"Bacterial Pneumonia Caused Most Deaths in 1918 Influenza Pandemic". National Institutes of Health. 23 September 2015.. ... Slower-progressing cases featured secondary bacterial pneumonias, and there may have been neural involvement that led to mental ... The majority of deaths were from bacterial pneumonia,[67][68] a common secondary infection associated with influenza. The virus ... whereas late deaths showed bacterial pneumonia. She suggests that the wave of aspirin poisonings was due to a "perfect storm" ...
A chest x-ray can be useful to differentiate pneumonia from congestive heart failure.[2] As the cause is usually a bacterial ... Pneumonia[edit]. The symptoms of pneumonia are fever, productive cough, shortness of breath, and pleuritic chest pain.[2] ... A chest x-ray is useful to confirm or rule out a pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, or pneumonia.[14] Spiral computed tomography ... In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic ...
21,0 21,1 21,2 Anevlavis S; Bouros D (February 2010). "Community acquired bacterial pneumonia". Expert Opin Pharmacother. ... "A systematic review on the diagnosis of pediatric bacterial pneumonia: when gold is bronze". PLoS ONE. svezak 5 (broj 8): str. ... 20,0 20,1 20,2 20,3 20,4 20,5 20,6 20,7 20,8 Sharma, S; Maycher, B, Eschun, G (2007). "Radiological imaging in pneumonia: ... 33,0 33,1 Fein, Alan (2006). Diagnosis and management of pneumonia and other respiratory infections (2. izdanje izd.). Caddo, ...
Pneumonia is the most common of the S. pneumoniae diseases which include symptoms such as fever and chills, cough, rapid ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... S. pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children and the elderly,[5] and of ... In 1881, the organism, known later in 1886 as the pneumococcus[7] for its role as a cause of pneumonia, was first isolated ...
"Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.5 (2010): 340-349. Kourkoumpetis, ... risk of positive interaction of candida with topical bacteria that could increase the risk for Ventilator Associated Pneumonia ...
Pneumonia/. pneumonitis. By pathogen. Viral · Bacterial (Pneumococcal, Klebsiella) / Atypical bacterial (Mycoplasma, ... ARDS · Pulmonary edema · Löffler's syndrome/Eosinophilic pneumonia · Respiratory hypersensitivity (Allergic bronchopulmonary ...
Anevlavis S; Bouros D (2010). "Community acquired bacterial pneumonia". Expert Opin Pharmacother. 11 (3): 361-74. doi:10.1517/ ... "World Pneumonia Day Official Website. Fiinex. Nakuha noong 13 August 2011.. *↑ Gaboy, Luciano L. Pneumonia, pulmonya, pamamaga ... "A systematic review on the diagnosis of pediatric bacterial pneumonia: when gold is bronze". PLoS ONE. 5 (8): e11989. doi: ... Ang pulmonya o pamamaga ng baga (Ingles: pneumonia)[92][93], binabaybay ding pulmunia o pulmuniya,[93] baga o karamdaman ng ...
Ballinger, MN; Standiford, TJ (Sep 2010). "Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia: host defenses gone awry". J Interferon Cytokine ...
Mcintosh, M (19 October 2004). "Curdlan and other bacterial (1→3)-β-D-glucans". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 68 (2 ... Immunocompromised Mechanical Ventilated Critically Ill Patients with ARDS and Suspected Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia". ...
Pneumonia, Atypical Bacterial at eMedicine Pneumonia, Typical Bacterial at eMedicine Memish ZA, Ahmed QA, Arabi YM, Shibl AM, ... "non-bacterial". In literature the term atypical pneumonia (contrasted with bacterial pneumonia) is still in use, though ... Atypical pneumonia, also known as walking pneumonia, is the type of pneumonia not caused by one of the pathogens most commonly ... This is occult pneumonia. In general, occult pneumonia is rather often present in patients with pneumonia and can also be ...
Some diseases, such as tetanus, cause disease not by bacterial growth but by bacterial production of a toxin. Tetanus toxin is ... a toxoid might be attached to a polysaccharide from the capsule of the bacteria responsible for most lobar pneumonia.[20][21] ...
One of the exotoxins is encoded on the bacterial chromosome, while the other is encoded on a plasmid. These exotoxins are ...
Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... pneumonia, rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, sepsis), parasitic (acute phase of malaria). *Medications - chemotherapy ( ... They defend against bacterial or fungal infection. They are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and ...
COPD develops as a significant and chronic inflammatory response to inhaled irritants.[9] Chronic bacterial infections may also ... such as pneumonia, pulmonary edema, or a pneumothorax.[81] A high-resolution CT scan of the chest may show the distribution of ... pneumonia, or pneumothorax. Many people with COPD mistakenly think they have asthma.[36] The distinction between asthma and ... When used with inhaled steroids they increase the risk of pneumonia.[2] While steroids and LABAs may work better together,[126] ...
Bronchiolitis obliterans with organized pneumonia can ensue when granulation tissue accumulates in the terminal airways and ... Those with significant lower airway involvement may develop bacterial infection. Importantly, victims suffering body surface ...
Lungs: pulmonary nodules (referred to as "coin lesions"), infiltrates (often interpreted as pneumonia), cavitary lesions, ... Bacterial colonization with Staphylococcus aureus has been hypothesized as an initiating factor of the autoimmunity seen in ... Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is a common complication and prophylaxis against this pathogen is recommended.[8] ...
Open air defecation leads to the spread of disease and malnutrition through parasitic and bacterial infections. Several million ... Diseases such as dengue fever, hepatitis, tuberculosis, malaria and pneumonia continue to plague India due to increased ...
細菌性肺炎(英语:Bacterial pneumonia) *肺炎球菌感染(英语:Pneumococcal infection) ... 吸入性肺炎(英语:Aspiration pneumonia)/肺脂性肺炎(英语:Lipid pneumonia) ... 化學性肺炎(英语:Chemical pneumonia)/肺部酸吸入綜合症(英语:Mendelson's syndrome
Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per ... Urinary tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infection in women.[17] They occur most frequently between the ages of ... Chronic prostatitis in the forms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and chronic bacterial prostatitis (not ... they are the most common form of bacterial infection.[17] Up to 10% of women have a urinary tract infection in a given year, ...
Proteus species can also cause wound infections, sepsis, and pneumonia, mostly in hospitalized patients.[2] ... Type strain of Proteus mirabilis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ... Gué, Michaël; Dupont, Virginie; Dufour, Alain; Sire, Olivier (2001). "Bacterial swarming: A biological time-resolved FTIR-ATR ... resulting in a macroscopically visible line of reduced bacterial growth where two swarming strains intersect. This line is ...
Bacterial pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia may result. If a tracheal tube used for intubation is inserted too far, it will ... Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viral or bacterial infections. Many sufferers of chronic bronchitis also suffer from ...
Occasionally, influenza can cause severe illness including primary viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia.[31][32] ... Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of ... Flu symptoms that improve but then relapse with a high fever and severe cough (can be bacterial pneumonia) ... The majority of deaths were from bacterial pneumonia, a secondary infection caused by influenza, but the virus also killed ...
Management of pneumonia before antibiotics". JAMA. 220 (10): 1341-5. doi:10.1001/jama.1972.03200100053011. PMID 4553966.. ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... The introduction of the sulfa drugs led to the mortality rate from pneumonia in the U.S. to drop from 0.2% each year to 0.05% ...
Eosinophilic pneumonia. *Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. *Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. *Farmer's ...
Pneumonia/. pneumonitis. By pathogen. *Viral. *Bacterial *Pneumococcal. *Klebsiella). *Atypical bacterial *Mycoplasma. * ...
Small heat and moisture exchangers, or humidifying / bacterial filters, can be used. ... aspiration pneumonia, adult respiratory distress syndrome and "pulmonary injuries similar to that seen in victims of chlorine ...
In the US, it is the second-most-common bacterial sexually transmitted infections; chlamydia remains first.[64][65] According ... Culture (growing colonies of bacteria in order to isolate and identify them) and Gram-stain (staining of bacterial cell walls ... Rhinoscleroma, Pneumonia. *Klebsiella granulomatis *Granuloma inguinale. *Klebsiella oxytoca. *Escherichia coli: ... "Bacterial conjunctivitis". BMJ Clinical Evidence. 2012. ISSN 1752-8526. PMC 3635545. PMID 22348418 ...
Skerman, V.B.D.M.; Sneath, P.H.A. (1980). "Approved list of bacterial names". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 30: 225-420. doi:10.1099/ ... Less commonly it can present as pneumonia, endocarditis, genital or intraabdominal infections. Primary bacteraemia, infection ... In 1980, they were even removed from the List of Approved Bacterial species. Three years later, though, DNA hybridization ... S. dysgalactiae has been particularly linked to mastitis occurring during the summer time ("Summer mastitis"), and bacterial ...
... , also known as penicillin G, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.[2] This includes ... pneumonia, strep throat, syphilis, necrotizing enterocolitis, diphtheria, gas gangrene, leptospirosis, cellulitis, and tetanus. ...
Ez dute horma zelularrik, oso txikiak dira, bizkarroiak eta batzuek eragile patogenoak dira (gizakiarengan pneumonia eragiten ... "The bacterial nucleoid: a highly organized and dynamic structure" J Cell Biochem 506-521. orr. 2005 ... "Thinking about bacterial populations as multicellular organisms" Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 81-104. orr. 1998 online ...
B95-B97) Bacterial, viral and other infectious agents[संपादित करें]. *(B95.) Streptococcus and staphylococcus as the cause of ... B20.6) HIV disease resulting in Pneumocystis pneumonia. *(B20.7) HIV disease resulting in multiple infections ... A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs[संपादित करें]. (A00-A09) Intestinal ... A20-A28) Certain zoonotic bacterial diseases[संपादित करें]. *(A20.) Plague *(A20.0) Bubonic plague ...
Spanish physician Jaume Ferran i Clua developed a cholera inoculation in 1885, the first to immunize humans against a bacterial ... This article is about the bacterial disease. For the dish, see Cholera (food). ... who discovered the cholera toxin and successfully demonstrated the transmission of cholera pathogen by bacterial enteric toxin ... Rhinoscleroma, Pneumonia. *Klebsiella granulomatis *Granuloma inguinale. *Klebsiella oxytoca. *Escherichia coli: ...
In addition, chronic arthritis secondary to S. flexneri infection, called reactive arthritis, may be caused by a bacterial ... Bacillary dysentery should not be confused with diarrhea caused by other bacterial infections. One characteristic of bacillary ... including an amoebicidal drug to kill the parasite and an antibiotic to treat any associated bacterial infection. ... Rhinoscleroma, Pneumonia. *Klebsiella granulomatis *Granuloma inguinale. *Klebsiella oxytoca. *Escherichia coli: ...
Signs of bacterial pneumonia may include the following: Hyperthermia (fever, typically ,38°C){ref1} or hypothermia (, 35°C) ... Bacterial pneumonia. Radiographic images in a patient with bilateral lower lobe pneumonia. Note the spine sign, or loss of ... Bacterial pneumonia. Radiographic images in a patient with right upper lobe pneumonia. Note the increased anteroposterior chest ... Bacterial pneumonia. Radiographic images in a patient with early right middle lobe pneumonia. ...
... studies have found that the incidence of lung cancer following pneumonia is relat... more ... Drugs & Diseases , Pulmonology , Bacterial Pneumonia Q&A How common is lung cancer following bacterial pneumonia?. Updated: Sep ... Bacterial pneumonia. Radiographic images in a patient with bilateral lower lobe pneumonia. Note the spine sign, or loss of ... Bacterial pneumonia. Radiographic images in a patient with right upper lobe pneumonia. Note the increased anteroposterior chest ...
Pneumonia can be generally defined as an infection of the lung parenchyma, in which consolidation of the affected part and a ... Bacterial Pneumonia) and Bacterial Pneumonia What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Viral Pneumonia ... It is indicated for treatment of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP ... Bacterial pneumonia. Radiographic images in a patient with bilateral lower lobe pneumonia. Note the spine sign, or loss of ...
Scientific Sessions 2018 in Chicago suggests that bacterial pneumonia is more harmful to the heart than viral pneumonia. ... PneumoniaComplications. Bacterial Pneumonia Poses High Risk for Heart Complications. Diane Domina. Nov 12, 2018. ... the reason for this is probably that bacterial pneumonia causes more inflammation in the arteries than viral pneumonia. Viruses ... Bacterial pneumonia also typically causes higher fevers, higher levels of inflammation markers in the blood, and higher white ...
New Antibiotic to Treat Patients With Community-acquired Pneumonia Due to a Specific Bacteria (S. Pneumoniae Pneumonia). * ... Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of KBSA301 in Severe Pneumonia (S. Aureus). *Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus Aureus ... Delayed Antibiotic Treatment in Community-acquired Pneumococcal Pneumonia.. *Community-acquired Pneumonia. *Procedure: ... Safety, Tolerability, Efficacy and Pharmacodynamics of CAL02 in Severe Pneumonia Caused by Streptococcus Pneumoniae. *Pneumonia ...
Bacterial Pneumonia Score (BPS) Guided Antibiotic Use in Children With Community Acquired Pneumonia. *Pneumonia ... A Study to Assess Beta-Lactam in the Treatment of Hospitalized Patients With Bacterial Pneumonia. *Pneumonia, Bacterial ... Thermal Imaging of the Lung on a Smartphone to Differentiate Bacterial From Non Bacterial Causes of Pneumonia. *Pneumonia, ... in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Community-Acquired Acute Bacterial Pneumonia Due to S. Pneumoniae. *Pneumonia, Bacterial ...
Bacterial PneumoniaA Study Of Intravenous Sulopenem And Oral PF-03709270 In Community Acquired Pneumonia That Requires ... Bacterial PneumoniaThe Study of Unasyn-S 12g/Day for Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) NCT01189487 ... Pneumonia, Bacterial Intervention ICMJE Drug: ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium is ... Bacterial PneumoniaStudy Evaluating Safety and Efficacy of Tigecycline Versus Imipenem/Cilastatin Subjects With Hospital- ...
Learn about bacterial pneumonia causes, symptoms, the contagious period, treatments, and recovery time. This lung infection ... Bacterial Pneumonia Topic Guide. Bacterial Pneumonia: Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. People with pneumonia ... Pneumonia is a leading cause of death from infection. Read the Bacterial Pneumonia Main Article ... Pneumonia Pneumonia is inflammation of one or both lungs with consolidation. Pneumonia is frequently but not always caused by ...
... bacterial+pneumonia? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat ... or reduce the symptoms of nosocomial+bacterial+pneumonia ... bacterial+pneumonia. Follow the links to read common uses, side ... Considering taking medication to treat nosocomial+bacterial+pneumonia? Below is a list of common medications used to treat or ...
Care guide for Bacterial Pneumonia (Inpatient Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options ... Bacterial pneumonia is a lung infection caused by bacteria. It makes your lungs inflamed, which means they cannot work well. ... Learn more about Bacterial Pneumonia (Inpatient Care). Associated drugs. *Pleuropulmonary Infection. IBM Watson Micromedex. * ... Bacterial pneumonia germs are easily spread when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or has close contact with others. ...
Care guide for Bacterial Pneumonia (Ambulatory Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options ... Bacterial pneumonia. is a lung infection caused by bacteria. Your lungs become inflamed and cannot work well. Bacterial ... Prevent bacterial pneumonia:. *Prevent the spread of germs. Wash your hands often with soap and water. Use gel hand cleanser ... depends on what caused your bacterial pneumonia and how bad your symptoms are. You may need any of the following:. *Antibiotics ...
Drug smoking, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and immunosuppression increase risk of bacterial pneumonia in human ... Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is a form of pneumonia that is an AIDS defining illness. ... with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and bacterial pneumonia being the diagnosis in 80% of them. A 2009 US study reported about 40 ... and bacterial pneumonia, 35 to 50 times higher.3,4,5,6 A Danish national cohort study of hospitalisation for pneumonia among ...
... Bacterial pneumonia is a lung infection caused by bacteria (such as ... Most cases of bacterial pneumonia are treated successfully with 1-2 weeks of antibiotics. Even after the infection has cleared ... Bacteria that cause pneumonia are contagious and usually found in fluid from the mouth or nose of someone whos infected. ...
Prognosis for bacterial pneumonia is generally good if properly treated. Learn more about the causes and treatment of bacterial ... Bacterial pneumonia refers specifically to an inflammation of the lungs in response to a disease-causing bacteria. ... While pneumonia refers to an inflammation of the cats lungs, bacterial pneumonia refers specifically to an inflammation of the ... Bacterial pneumonia is just one cause of pulmonary dysfunction. Additional causes may include aspiration pneumonia, in which ...
Reducing atelectasis attenuates bacterial growth and translocation in experimental pneumonia.. van Kaam AH1, Lachmann RA, ... intratracheal instillation of bacteria induced severe pneumonia with bacterial translocation into the blood stream, resulting ... and/or open lung ventilation on bacterial growth and translocation in a piglet model of Group B streptococcal pneumonia. After ... that exogenous surfactant and open lung ventilation attenuate bacterial growth and translocation in experimental pneumonia and ...
View top-quality stock photos of Bacterial Pneumonia Medical Concept. Find premium, high-resolution stock photography at Getty ...
PUBLIC Bacterial Pneumonia Admissions This measure is used to assess the number of admissions for bacterial pneumonia per ...
Learn about bacterial pneumonia causes, symptoms, the contagious period, treatments, and recovery time. This lung infection ... Are There Home Remedies for Bacterial Pneumonia?. *What Is the Medical Treatment for Bacterial Pneumonia? Are Antibiotics ... Pneumonia is a fungal, viral, or bacterial infection of the lungs. Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. People with ... However, pneumonia due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and tuberculosis are exceptions. Both these types of bacterial pneumonia are ...
Bacterial pneumonia during the Hong Kong influenza epidemic of 1968-1969.. Schwarzmann SW, Adler JL, Sullivan RJ Jr, Marine WM. ...
... is a type of lung infection thats caused by bacteria. Anyone can get pneumonia, but ... Pneumonia can also happen after you get the flu.. Symptoms. Some of the symptoms you might get with bacterial pneumonia include ... Vaccines help prevent bacterial pneumonia.. What We Have Learned. *. You dont need to finish all your antibiotics if you feel ... Your risk of getting bacterial pneumonia is increased if youre over the age of sixty-five or have a weak immune system. True ...
... and a bacterial one caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae may be linked, suggests a study published in this weeks PLOS Medicine. ... analyzed hospitalization data to investigate a possible association between RSV and pneumonia in young children, and found that ... infection with RSV may increase the risk of pneumonia. ... may be associated with higher risk for bacterial pneumonia PLOS ... RSV infection may be associated with higher risk for bacterial pneumonia. PLOS ...
Pneumonia can be generally defined as an infection of the lung parenchyma, in which consolidation of the affected part and a ... encoded search term (Bacterial%20Pneumonia) and Bacterial Pneumonia What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and ... Bacterial pneumonia. Radiographic images in a patient with bilateral lower lobe pneumonia. Note the spine sign, or loss of ... Bacterial pneumonia. Radiographic images in a patient with right upper lobe pneumonia. Note the increased anteroposterior chest ...
Pulmonary bacterial burden and incidence of bacteremia were measured in saline/. S. pneumoniae. - and PR8. /. S. pneumoniae. - ... believe to be a novel mechanism by which the antiviral response to influenza sensitizes hosts to secondary bacterial pneumonia ... infected animals on days 1 and 2 after secondary bacterial challenge (2,000 CFU). (. C. ) Survival was examined for 3 weeks ... This resulted in inadequate neutrophil responses during the early phase of host defense against secondary bacterial infection. ...
Type I IFNs mediate development of postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia in mice. Arash Shahangian,1,2 Edward K. Chow,3 Xiaoli Tian ... Bacterial pneumonia. Managing a deadly complication of influenza in older adults with comorbid disease. Geriatrics. 57:56-61. ... Importantly, we found that Ifnar-/- mice were more resistant to secondary bacterial pneumonia in the post-influenza setting, ... In light of our findings that type I IFNs sensitized mice to secondary bacterial pneumonia, we next examined whether we could ...
... for patients with massive blood loss and shock as transfusion with such older stored RBCs increases the severity of bacterial ... pneumonia. This finding calls for improvement in the safety of stored red blood cell transfusions. ... Blood Transfusion With Old Blood Increases Risk of Bacterial Pneumonia. by Chrisy Ngilneii on March 10, 2018 at 4:48 PM Health ... Pneumonia. Pneumonia is a lung infection that can be caused by a bacteria or a virus. It causes inflammation of the alveoli or ...
... to treat hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP). ... FDA Approves Antibiotic to Treat Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia. * Share ... FDA Approves Antibiotic to Treat Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia ... to treat hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) in patients 18 years ...
Hirschtick, R., Glassroth, J., Jordan, M., Wilcosky, T., Wallace, J., Kvale, P., ... Hopewell, P. (1995). Bacterial Pneumonia ...
It was secondary bacterial pneumonia not the influenza virus by itself that killed most of the millions who perished in the ... 1918 flu pandemic, which suggests that current pandemic preparations should include stockpiling of antibiotics and bacterial ... efforts should also include the stockpiling of antibiotics and bacterial vaccines to protect against bacterial pneumonia. ... Study: Bacterial pneumonia was main killer in 1918 flu pandemic. Filed Under: ...
Bacterial pneumonia was implicated in 43% of all community-based, unexpected infectious disease deaths during a recent 2-year ... Bacterial pneumonia most common cause of unexpected infectious death. Sehgal P, et al. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019;doi:10.1093/ ... Bacterial pneumonia was implicated in 43% of all community-based, unexpected infectious disease deaths during a recent 2-year ... Bacterial pneumonia was implicated in 43% of all community-based, unexpected infectious disease deaths during a recent 2-year ...
Although broad-spectrum antibiotic regiments have led to advances in the treatment of pneumonia, this approach has resulted in ... Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality within the United States and abroad. ... Cytokine immunotherapy during bacterial pneumonia: from benchtop to bedside Semin Respir Infect. 2001 Mar;16(1):27-37. doi: ... Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality within the United States and abroad. Although broad-spectrum ...
  • Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Recarbrio (a combination of imipenem-cilastatin and relebactam) to treat hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) in patients 18 years of age and older. (fda.gov)
  • SILVER SPRING, Md., June 3, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved a new indication for the previously FDA-approved drug, Zerbaxa (ceftolozane and tazobactam) for the treatment of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) in patients 18 years and older. (pharmiweb.com)
  • TUESDAY, June 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) - Zerbaxa (ceftolozane and tazobactam) has been approved for a new indication to treat hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) in patients aged 18 years and older, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced yesterday. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam (IMI/REL) (MK-7655A) compared to piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZ) in the treatment of adults diagnosed with Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia (HABP) or Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia (VABP). (centerwatch.com)
  • The Biomarkers Consortium's Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia (HABP) and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia (VABP) Project aims to develop clinically relevant endpoints in clinical trials to improve antibacterial trial feasibility. (fnih.org)
  • Evidence-Based Study Design for Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia. (fnih.org)
  • Signs, Symptoms, and Existing Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Measures in Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia (HABP): A Comprehensive Literature Review. (fnih.org)
  • Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia: Development of a New Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument. (fnih.org)
  • Clinigen has announced the initiation of an early access program, managed by Clinigen Global Access Programs (Clinigen GAP), to provide the anti-bacterial Vibativ® (telavancin) to patients in Europe with hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HAP) known or suspected to be caused by MRSA. (hospitalhealthcare.com)
  • Amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic that is used to treat many different types of infection caused by bacteria, such as tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia is a lung infection caused by bacteria. (drugs.com)
  • The infecting organism may be bacteria (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae) , a virus (such as influenza), a fungus (such as Pneumocystis pneumonia or PCP) or something else. (aidsmap.com)
  • Bacteria that cause pneumonia are contagious and usually found in fluid from the mouth or nose of someone who's infected. (rchsd.org)
  • While pneumonia refers to an inflammation of the cat's lungs, bacterial pneumonia refers specifically to an inflammation of the lungs in response to a disease-causing bacteria. (petmd.com)
  • This thesis presents experimental studies focused on the immune response against bacteria during (nosocomial) pneumonia and sepsis, and aims to increase our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of immunotolerance as a feature of patients with sepsis. (uva.nl)
  • In bacterial pneumonia, bacteria reproduce in the lungs, while the body tries to fight off the infection. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Most pneumonia is caused by bacteria or a virus. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The most common cause of bacterial pneumonia is a type of bacteria known as Streptococcus pneumoniae . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila are some other major bacteria that cause pneumonia. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Pneumonia from these types of bacteria are referred to as health-care-associated pneumonia (HAP). (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The most common way you catch pneumonia is to aspirate bacteria from the upper airway, usually the oral cavity. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Bacteria can enter the bloodstream from any source and be deposited in the lungs, resulting in pneumonia. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Many different types of bacteria can cause pneumonia. (baycare.org)
  • Bacterial pneumonia is generally treated with medications called antibiotics, which kill bacteria. (baycare.org)
  • Because they found evidence of many different types of invading bacteria, it was probably not due to specific virulent bacterial strains. (umn.edu)
  • Although broad-spectrum antibiotic regiments have led to advances in the treatment of pneumonia, this approach has resulted in the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • The detailed study of several distinct animal models of bacterial pneumonia has identified cytokines involved in eradication of bacteria deposited within the pulmonary airspace. (nih.gov)
  • The pneumonia was caused when bacteria that normally inhabit the nose and throat invaded the lungs along a pathway created when the virus destroyed the cells that line the bronchial tubes and lungs. (biologynews.net)
  • The weight of evidence we examined from both historical and modern analyses of the 1918 influenza pandemic favors a scenario in which viral damage followed by bacterial pneumonia led to the vast majority of deaths," says co-author NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "In essence, the virus landed the first blow while bacteria delivered the knockout punch. (biologynews.net)
  • Pathologists of the time, he adds, were nearly unanimous in the conviction that deaths were not caused directly by the then-unidentified influenza virus, but rather resulted from severe secondary pneumonia caused by various bacteria. (biologynews.net)
  • Atypical bacteria causing pneumonia are Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila pneumoniae (J16.0), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (J15.7), and Legionella pneumophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pneumonia Fever Rigors Cough Runny nose (either direct bacterial pneumonia or accompanied by primary viral pneumonia) Dyspnea - shortness of breath Chest pain Shaking chills Pneumococcal pneumonia can cause coughing up of blood, or hemoptysis, characteristically associated with "rusty" sputum Bacteria typically enter the lung with inhalation, though they can reach the lung through the bloodstream if other parts of the body are infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • This lung infection is caused by a variety of bacteria and tends to be the most serious of all the types of pneumonia. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia occurs when a contagious bacteria finds its way into the lungs. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Depending on your overall health, the bacteria may cause a localized infection or lead to pneumonia in which the air sacs ( alveoli ) of one or both lungs fill with fluid. (verywellhealth.com)
  • When you have COPD, you are especially vulnerable to pneumonia for a number of reasons Over the years, chronic inflammation of the lungs interferes with your body's natural ability to clear and destroy bacteria that enter into your lungs. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pulmonary bacteria and the growing number of immunocompromised individuals have made the treatment of these infections increasingly difficult ( 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 ), emphasizing the importance of modulating host defense in treating and/or preventing severe bacterial infections without these adverse effects. (asm.org)
  • Other major bacteria that cause bacterial pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumonia (primary causative agent of walking pneumonia that is very common in the adults under the age of 40 years), Chlamydia pneumonia and Legionella pneumoniae. (md-health.com)
  • The contagious nature of bacterial pneumonia is variable depending on the type of bacteria that cause this condition. (md-health.com)
  • Approximately half of all pneumonia infections are caused by bacteria, the remainder are viral in origin. (labroots.com)
  • Other major gram-positive bacteria which cause pneumonia include staphylococcus aureus and bacillus anthracis. (epainassist.com)
  • HAP is more difficult to treat than community acquired pneumonia as the bacteria are resistant to antibiotics. (epainassist.com)
  • Daughter has bacterial pneumonia and step bacteria was identified. (healthtap.com)
  • The most common types of pneumonia are caused by bacteria, so antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment. (travelvax.com.au)
  • Sometimes the virus, or the bacteria, will end up in a child's nostrils, sometime it'll end up in the middle ear, and rarely a bacterium or a virus will end up in the lungs, pneumonia. (kidsinthehouse.com)
  • In these cases, many clinicians begin empiric therapy with amoxicillin, but its spectrum of activity is lacking, because children in this group who do not have nonviral pneumonia usually have an infection caused by S pneumoniae and Mycoplasma species. (medscape.com)
  • World Pneumonia Day (November 12) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2009 to raise awareness about this serious lung infection. (healthcentral.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Pneumonia is a leading cause of death from infection. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the lungs. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Pneumonia is frequently but not always caused by infection. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Antibiotics help treat a bacterial infection. (drugs.com)
  • Disease caused by the bacterial infection Streptococcus pneumoniae . (aidsmap.com)
  • 1 Nearly half of people with HIV admitted to ICUs (48%) had a pulmonary (lung) infection, with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and bacterial pneumonia being the diagnosis in 80% of them. (aidsmap.com)
  • Simply put, pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that causes inflammation. (aidsmap.com)
  • Causes of bacterial infection in a cat's lungs may vary -- no single bacterium is responsible for this condition. (petmd.com)
  • Pneumonia is a fungal, viral, or bacterial infection of the lungs. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Inflammation is the body's attempt to destroy infection, and causes many of the other symptoms of bacterial pneumonia, including fever and chest pain. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Coccidioidomycosis, usually seen in the Southwest, is a type of fungal infection that causes a pneumonia called 'San Joaquin fever' or 'Valley fever. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The infection you have with pneumonia causes inflammation. (baycare.org)
  • Daniel Weinberger, from Yale University School of Public Health, and colleagues, analyzed US hospitalization data to investigate a possible association between RSV activity and pneumonia in children under two, and found that infection with RSV may increase the risk of pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae, especially in infants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nonetheless, the results point to possible interaction between the two diseases, and suggest that RSV infection may increase the risk for pneumococcal pneumonia, particularly in young infants. (eurekalert.org)
  • This resulted in inadequate neutrophil responses during the early phase of host defense against secondary bacterial infection. (jci.org)
  • Primary influenza pneumonia enhances sensitivity to secondary pneumococcal infection. (jci.org)
  • One such infection is bacterial pneumonia. (medindia.net)
  • This study finds that blood transfusion with red blood cells that have been stored for a long time may increase the risk of lung infection such as bacterial pneumonia. (medindia.net)
  • Nearly all of the lung tissue examinations yielded "compelling histologic evidence of severe acute bacterial pneumonia, either as the predominant pathology or in conjunction with underlying pathologic features now believed to be associated with influenza virus infection," including damage to the bronchial epithelium, the report says. (umn.edu)
  • Instead, most victims succumbed to bacterial pneumonia following influenza virus infection. (biologynews.net)
  • Have a diagnosis of a serious infection (complicated intra-abdominal infections [cIAI] or community acquired pneumonia [CAP] as applicable) requiring hospitalization and administration of IV antibiotic therapy. (pfizer.com)
  • This is more generally known as pneumonia, though that term can also be reserved for specific types of infection. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) is the number one cause of death from an infection, particularly in the very young and in the elderly. (cnbc.com)
  • The progressive lung deterioration of COPD can increase your vulnerability to a bacterial lung infection, while a bout of bacterial pneumonia can induce rapid and often irreversible progression of your COPD. (verywellhealth.com)
  • If you have COPD, it's important that you take steps to avoid bacterial pneumonia infection and learn to recognize the earliest signs. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Evidence from laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic studies suggests that bacterial co-infection contributes substantially to the illness and death that occurs in pandemic and seasonal influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • We consider bacterial co-infection in the context of current preparedness activities and guidelines regarding antimicrobial drug stockpiling and deployment, including reference to existing quinolone stockpiles held by a number of countries. (cdc.gov)
  • Of laboratory-confirmed cases of community-acquired pneumonia, ≈30% involve bacterial-viral co-infection ( 6 - 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • S. pneumonia is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and bacterial co-infection with influenza A ( 9 - 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a significant cause of hospital and community acquired pneumonia and causes secondary infection after influenza A. Recently, patients with hyper-IgE syndrome, who often present with S. aureus infections of the lung and skin, were found to have mutations in STAT3, required for Th17 immunity, suggesting a potential critical role for Th17 cells in S. aureus pneumonia. (jimmunol.org)
  • HIV patients with depleted CD4 + T cells are more susceptible to bacterial infection in the lung ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Is a bacterial chest infection the same as pneumonia? (mumsnet.com)
  • A bacterial chest infection can cause pneumonia but doesn't necessarily result in pneumonia. (mumsnet.com)
  • Our consultant (DS has long term lung condition that means he has persistent chest infections) has said that there is no clinical difference between a bacterial chest infection and pneumonia. (mumsnet.com)
  • Chest infection is a bit of a vague term but it usually means pneumonia however it does depend on context / sometimes it can mean bronchitis. (mumsnet.com)
  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as an infection of the alveolar, distal airway and interstitium of the lungs acquired while the patient is in the community. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk for bacterial pneumonia in addition to opportunistic infection. (rti.org)
  • One of the most important components of the initial innate immune response in the lung against bacterial infection is the vigorous recruitment of neutrophils. (asm.org)
  • The mechanisms underlying neutrophil accumulation during lower respiratory tract bacterial infection is learned from experimental animal models, particularly with mice ( 61 ). (asm.org)
  • In the lung, effective host defense against bacterial infection is dependent primarily upon the rapid clearance of the etiologic agent from the respiratory tract. (asm.org)
  • Originally, it was noted in 1920 that lower respiratory tract bacterial infection caused the appearance of morphologically immature neutrophils in the circulation or a "left shift," resulting from a massive release of neutrophils from the marrow ( 25 - 26 , 49 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Hou and colleagues used mouse pulmonary bacterial infection models to see how inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) mediates protective and detrimental responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • The infection of lungs that is caused by bacterial pathogens is usually referred to as bacterial pneumonia. (md-health.com)
  • The bacterial pneumonia is usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in U.S, and is mostly reported after you had a trivial but poorly managed flu or cold infection. (md-health.com)
  • Second, following successful infection, bacterial colony-forming units are recovered by excision and homogenization of the lungs. (jove.com)
  • Recent advances within this field have demonstrated that bacterial gene regulation may have a large role in determining the outcome of infection. (jove.com)
  • Pneumonia is an infection of the lung that can be serious and fatal, especially among older adult patients with comorbidities. (yahoo.com)
  • As a result the US FDA has re-assigned the infection to be called Community Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia (CABP). (labroots.com)
  • In comparison to WT mice, APC high -mice showed decreased bacterial dissemination to liver and spleen, while no differences in bacterial loads were detected at the primary site of infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Forest Laboratories announced that the FDA has approved Teflaro (ceftaroline fosamil), a cephalosporin, for the treatment of adults patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) caused by susceptible strains of indicated pathogens. (empr.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia is a medical condition where there is infection in one or both of the lungs. (epainassist.com)
  • Thus, CCR2 significantly contributes to increased susceptibility to bacterial infection after influenza pneumonia likely via altered dendritic cell responses and thus, CCR2 antagonism represents a potential therapeutic strategy. (flutrackers.com)
  • Can procalcitonin help identify associated bacterial infection in patients with severe influenza pneumonia? (harvard.edu)
  • Often fatal, pneumonia is an infection of the small air sacs in the lungs (the alveoli). (travelvax.com.au)
  • Objective: To evaluate the presence of concurrent bacterial infection in BMT recipients with GVHD and invasive aspergillosis (IA). (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • I know that most of the germs that cause both sinusitis and pneumonia are prexisting in our respiratory tracts but could my daughter have "caught" this pneumonia from my bacterial infection? (healthcaremagic.com)
  • Elevated procalcitonin levels in response to bacterial infection might help 'lazy doctors' when deciding on antibiotic treatment in patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia but the test is no substitute for a competent clinical assessment, according to Professor Grant Waterer from Royal Perth Hospital. (thelimbic.com)
  • Secondary bacterial respiratory infection can be subdivided into combined viral/bacterial pneumonia and post-influenza pneumonia, which differ in their pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During combined viral/bacterial infection, the virus, the bacterium and the host interact with each other. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Post-influenza pneumonia may, at least in part, be due to resolution of inflammation caused by the primary viral infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review we summarize the underlying mechanisms leading to combined viral/bacterial infection or post-influenza pneumonia and highlight important considerations for effective treatment of bacterial pneumonia during and shortly after influenza. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Primary influenza virus infection may lead to lower respiratory tract symptoms, but secondary bacterial infections during and shortly after recovery from influenza virus infection are a much more common cause of pneumonia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Retrospective analysis of post-mortem lung tissue of individuals that died from the 1918 pandemic influenza strain indicated that most of these people also had a bacterial infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Daptomycin is an antibiotic that is used to treat bacterial infections of the skin and underlying tissues, and infections that have entered the bloodstream. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Dr Marc Lipman, consultant in HIV and respiratory medicine at the Royal Free hospital, London, says that people with HIV - including those on treatment - should still be aware of respiratory infections, particularly bacterial pneumonia. (aidsmap.com)
  • Here, we report what we believe to be a novel mechanism by which influenza-induced type I IFNs sensitize hosts to secondary bacterial infections. (jci.org)
  • These efforts provide more options to fight serious bacterial infections and get new, safe and effective therapies to patients as soon as possible. (fda.gov)
  • This adverse effect of aggressive antibiotic therapy underscores the importance for understanding the host inflammatory response to pulmonary bacterial infections. (nih.gov)
  • Absent the secondary bacterial infections, many patients might have survived, experts at the time believed. (biologynews.net)
  • The main purpose of this study is to compare the safety of tigecycline versus a ceftriaxone regimen in pediatric subjects (aged 8 to 17 years) with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP). (pfizer.com)
  • CABP is one of the most commonly diagnosed bacterial infections in the U.S. resulting in 5 to 10 million cases per year. (cnbc.com)
  • therefore, more data are available about bacterial infections associated with seasonal than pandemic influenza A strains. (cdc.gov)
  • An FDA advisory panel voted Wednesday in favor of the safety and efficacy of Paratek's two NDAs for omadacycline tablets and omadacycline injection as treatments for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CAPB) and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). (fdanews.com)
  • Prevention of infections by β-adrenoreceptor blockade suggests that immunodepression by sympathetic hyperactivity is essential for progression of bacterial aspiration to pneumonia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recently, we described stroke-induced immunodeficiency in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia, 11 which is mainly caused by sympathetic nervous system overactivation and results in spontaneous bacterial infections resulting from impaired cell-mediated immune responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • Significantly different abundances between bacterial and viral infections (219 proteins) and bacterial infections and mixed (viral and malaria) infections (151 proteins) were found. (broadinstitute.org)
  • A key global challenge we face as a public health agency is addressing the threat of antimicrobial-resistant infections," said FDA Principal Deputy Commissioner Amy Abernethy, M.D., Ph.D. "Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia are serious infections that can result in death in some patients. (pharmiweb.com)
  • I know pneumonia can be bacterial or viral, but are bacterial chest infections always pneumonia? (mumsnet.com)
  • The aim of this review is to highlight some of the most important recent advances in neutrophil infiltration, particularly in the roles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), transcription factors, chemokines, and adhesion molecules in acute lower respiratory tract bacterial infections. (asm.org)
  • Despite the development of broad-spectrum antibiotics, lower respiratory tract bacterial infections continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both industrialized and developing countries ( 55 - 56 ). (asm.org)
  • Respiratory infections are the third leading cause of mortality worldwide, not helped by the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pneumonia. (inserm.fr)
  • The bacterial pneumonia usually starts with normal respiratory tract infections in upper part of lungs, along with flu and fever. (md-health.com)
  • The practical result of our study is that caregivers should be aware of the greater cardiovascular risks associated with respiratory infections like pneumonia, and especially bacterial pneumonia," said Dr Muhlestein. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • Secondary bacterial pneumonias following influenza infections consistently rank within the top ten leading causes of death in the United States. (jove.com)
  • I'm seeing patients that have facial rashes, fungal infections, bacterial infections. (michaelsavage.com)
  • Clinical efficacy along with patient safety are critical priorities to clinicians managing serious Gram-negative bacterial infections. (allergan.com)
  • Pneumonia infections (bacterial, viral or fungal) cause the lungs to fill with pus and fluid which makes breathing painful, causing coughing and limiting oxygen intake. (travelvax.com.au)
  • Pneumococcal pneumonia caused by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterium is the most common of the two bacterial lung infections for which vaccine protection is available - the other is Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib). (travelvax.com.au)
  • It is important to note that not all COVID-19 infections develop into pneumonia - approximately 6-10% at the very most. (travelvax.com.au)
  • Never more so than now, it is vital to ensure our pneumonia and influenza vaccinations are current to help to reduce the severity and spread of these infections. (travelvax.com.au)
  • Enterococcal endocarditis and gram-negative bacillary pneumonia are two serious infections that are particularly difficult to treat with currently available antimicrobial agents. (deepdyve.com)
  • Hunter HT: The treatment of some bacterial infections of the heart and pericardium. (deepdyve.com)
  • 9. Reynolds HY, Fick RB: Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infections (emphasizing nosocomial pneumonia and respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis) , in Sabath LD (ed): Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (deepdyve.com)
  • TUCSON, Ariz., Jan. 10, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Accelerate Diagnostics, Inc. announced today its declaration of conformity to the European In Vitro Diagnostic Directive 98/79/EC and CE mark of its latest assay for the Accelerate Pheno™ system targeting severe bacterial pneumonia infections. (businessinsider.com)
  • Seasonal and pandemic influenza are frequently complicated by bacterial infections, causing additional hospitalization and mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • How do bacterial infections differ from viruses? (kidsinthehouse.com)
  • To assess the microbiologic efficacy of linezolid in the treatment of patients with pneumonia caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the U-S, a bacterium called Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. (baycare.org)
  • Two common and sometimes dangerous respiratory diseases, a viral one caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and a bacterial one caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae may be linked, suggests a study published in this week's PLOS Medicine . (eurekalert.org)
  • For their analysis, the researchers used data collected between 1992 and 2009 on more than 700,000 hospitalizations for RSV and more than 16,000 hospitalizations for pneumococcal pneumonia (caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae) among young children. (eurekalert.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (J13) is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in all age groups except newborn infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that often lives in the throat of people who do not have pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevention of bacterial pneumonia is by vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for adults and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for children), Haemophilus influenzae type B, meningococcus, Bordetella pertussis, Bacillus anthracis, and Yersinia pestis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza are the most common causes of bacterial pneumonia. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Aspiration pneumonia was induced by intranasal application of 20 μL of a defined suspension of Streptococcus pneumoniae in phosphate-buffered saline 4 or 14 days after MCAO. (ahajournals.org)
  • To induce pneumonia, we used Streptococcus pneumoniae as a result of its clinical relevance. (ahajournals.org)
  • This minireview includes important gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumonia e, Klebsiella pneumoniae , Legionella pneumophila , Haemophilus influenzae , and Staphylococcus aureus . (asm.org)
  • We detected activated MLKL in the lungs from mice and nonhuman primates experiencing Serratia marcescens and Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia, respectively. (jcvi.org)
  • The short answer is that if this is streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common bacterial pneumonia, as a general rule something in your system predisposes you to this and it is likely to already be resident in the back of the throat. (healthtap.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae accounts for the majority of the bacterial cases. (labroots.com)
  • Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Research presented at the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions 2018 in Chicago suggests that bacterial pneumonia is more harmful to the heart than viral pneumonia. (healthcentral.com)
  • During a 90-day follow-up period, 34 percent of study participants diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia experienced a major heart complication - heart attack, stroke, heart failure, or death - compared to 26 percent of study participants with viral pneumonia. (healthcentral.com)
  • According to the senior author of the study, Joseph Brent Muhlestein, MD, the reason for this is probably that bacterial pneumonia causes more inflammation in the arteries than viral pneumonia. (healthcentral.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia also typically causes higher fevers, higher levels of inflammation markers in the blood, and higher white blood cell counts than viral pneumonia, which can all increase heart damage risk. (healthcentral.com)
  • Symptoms of viral pneumonia inclu. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Examination revealed a spectrum of tissue damage "ranging from changes characteristic of the primary viral pneumonia and evidence of tissue repair to evidence of severe, acute, secondary bacterial pneumonia," says Dr. Taubenberger. (biologynews.net)
  • This is due, in part, to the fact that bacterial pneumonia is more likely to strike if you have a compromised immune system , while viral pneumonia can affect even those with an intact immune system. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Heart complications in patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia are more serious than in patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia, according to new research from the Intermountain Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center in Salt Lake City. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • In the study of nearly 5,000 patients, researchers found that patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia had a 60 percent greater risk of a heart attack, stroke, or death than patients who had been diagnosed with viral pneumonia. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • At the same time, 21 percent of the patients were diagnosed with viral pneumonia, and 26 percent (258 patients) had a major adverse event within the 90-day window. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • The likely underlying cause is that bacterial pneumonia causes greater inflammation of the arteries compared to viral pneumonia," said Dr Muhlestein. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • Viral pneumonia predominates. (kidsinthehouse.com)
  • Pneumonia is inflammation of one or both lungs with consolidation. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Additional causes may include aspiration pneumonia, in which the lungs become inflamed due to inhalation of material, such as a foreign body, or vomit. (petmd.com)
  • People who inhale toxic materials can injure the lungs and cause chemical pneumonia . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Compared to fresh blood, resuscitation with the stored blood significantly increased bacterial lung injury, as shown by higher mortality, and increases in fluid accumulation and bacterial numbers in the lungs. (medindia.net)
  • But the new report suggests that more than 90% actually died of invading bacterial pneumonia after the virus wiped out cells lining the bronchial tubes and lungs. (umn.edu)
  • Frontal chest X-ray of the lungs of a patient with bacterial pneumonia affecting the lung at lower right. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Pneumonia causes an inflammation of the lungs and symptoms include chest pain, fever and shortness of breath. (sciencephoto.com)
  • N5/C10 protected alveolar macrophages, reduced bacterial burden, and lessened hemorrhage in the lungs. (jcvi.org)
  • Pneumonia affects one or more of the lobes of the lungs and these lobes looks foggy. (mumsnet.com)
  • We conclude that M-CSF is critical to host defenses against bacterial pneumonia by mediating survival and antimicrobial functions of mononuclear phagocytes in the lungs and liver," the authors write. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia mostly affects the lower lobe of the lungs. (md-health.com)
  • Impact of the duration of antibiotics on clinical events in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia: study protocol for a randomized controlled study. (medscape.com)
  • In children who have features suggesting a bacterial etiology (eg, an infiltrate on chest radiograph and/or positive findings at sputum Gram stain), the administration of antibiotics may be good clinical practice. (medscape.com)
  • Most cases of bacterial pneumonia are treated successfully with 1-2 weeks of antibiotics. (rchsd.org)
  • Aug 22, 2008 (CIDRAP News) - It was secondary bacterial pneumonia-not the influenza virus by itself-that killed most of the millions who perished in the 1918 flu pandemic, which suggests that current pandemic preparations should include stockpiling of antibiotics and bacterial vaccines, influenza researchers reported this week. (umn.edu)
  • Therefore, the authors conclude, comprehensive pandemic preparations should include not only efforts to produce new or improved influenza vaccines and antiviral drugs but also provisions to stockpile antibiotics and bacterial vaccines as well. (biologynews.net)
  • Antibiotics are the treatment of choice for bacterial pneumonia, with ventilation (oxygen supplement) as supportive therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cempra, Inc. is a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company focused on developing antibiotics to meet critical medical needs in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. (cnbc.com)
  • CHAPEL HILL, N.C., May 01, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Cempra, Inc. (Nasdaq:CEMP), a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company focused on developing antibiotics to meet critical medical needs in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases, today announced the completion of its rolling submission of the New Drug Applications (NDA) for solithromycin to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). (globenewswire.com)
  • Completion of the rolling submission of our first NDAs during Cempra's ten year anniversary year represents a major milestone for the company and a significant step toward our goal of developing antibiotics to meet the critical medical needs of patients in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases," stated Prabhavathi Fernandes, Ph.D., president and chief executive officer of Cempra. (globenewswire.com)
  • Antibiotics should be given within 8 hours of ER arrival if pneumonia is confirmed in this location. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • If aspiration pneumonia is suspected, then symptoms should be watched without antibiotics for 24 hours. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Indeed, Sirard and his colleagues have shown that administering flagellin via the respiratory route improves the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in animals with bacterial pneumonia: recovery is more rapid and requires a lower dose of antibiotics than is usually given. (inserm.fr)
  • It is important to mention that such bacterial pneumonias are more serious because of low immunity and high risk of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. (md-health.com)
  • As with many other bacterial species the pneumococcus is becoming resistant to many of the commonly used antibiotics. (labroots.com)
  • Antibiotics are the main line of treatment for bacterial pneumonia. (epainassist.com)
  • But COVID-19 pneumonia is caused by a novel virus, SARS-CoV-2, one to which humans have no previous immunity and antibiotics are not effective. (travelvax.com.au)
  • So quite frankly most doctors, myself included, treat all cases of pneumonia with antibiotics, whether we should or we shouldn't. (kidsinthehouse.com)
  • Solithera™ (solithromycin, CEM-101) has successfully completed two Phase 3 clinical trials for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and new drug applications for both intravenous and oral capsule formulations have been accepted for review by the FDA. (cnbc.com)
  • Solithromycin (CEM-101) has successfully completed two Phase 3 clinical trials for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and is licensed to strategic commercial partner Toyama Chemical Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of FUJIFILM Holdings Corporation, for certain exclusive rights in Japan. (globenewswire.com)
  • The clinical trial report, "Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2019" provides an overview of Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia clinical trials scenario. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • XENLETA™ is a first-in-class pleuromutilin antibiotic approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. (yahoo.com)
  • Post Hoc Assessment of Time to Clinical Response Among Adults Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia Who Received Either Lefamulin or Moxifloxacin in Two Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Clinical Trials , published in Open Forum Infectious Diseases, April 24, 2020. (yahoo.com)
  • Community Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia- a 2016 perspective. (labroots.com)
  • The FDA has awarded approval in the US to Nebriva Therapeutics' Xenleta (lefamulin) for the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), it has emerged. (pharmafile.com)
  • Tackling empirical antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in your ICU: guidance for implementing the guidelines. (medscape.com)
  • The mainstay of drug therapy for bacterial pneumonia is antibiotic treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Ideally, future treatment would combine immunoadjuvant and conventional antibiotic therapy for the treatment of life-threatening bacterial pneumonia. (nih.gov)
  • The antibiotic choice depends on the nature of the pneumonia, the microorganisms most commonly causing pneumonia in the geographical region, and the immune status and underlying health of the individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid identification of bacterial pneumonia with high quality diagnostic tools would enable appropriate, point of care antibiotic treatment. (broadinstitute.org)
  • With appropriate technology, these markers could provide the basis for a rapid diagnostic for field-based triage for antibiotic treatment of pediatric pneumonia. (broadinstitute.org)
  • It is for this purpose that the research consortium he leads has obtained European funding of 10 million euros for the FAIR (Flagellin aerosol therapy as an immunomodulatory adjunct to the antibiotic treatment of drug-resistant bacterial pneumonia) project. (inserm.fr)
  • How common is lung cancer following bacterial pneumonia? (medscape.com)
  • Although guidelines have routinely recommended follow-up chest radiography in order to exclude underlying lung cancer, studies have found that the incidence of lung cancer following pneumonia is relatively low. (medscape.com)
  • Chemical pneumonia is a type of lung irritation. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • A 2009 US study reported about 40% of HIV-positive people in intensive care were admitted with respiratory failure, including pneumonia and other lung conditions such as emphysema. (aidsmap.com)
  • Besides being one of the mechanisms responsible for ventilator-induced lung injury, atelectasis also seems to aggravate the course of experimental pneumonia. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we examined the effect of reducing the degree of atelectasis by natural modified surfactant and/or open lung ventilation on bacterial growth and translocation in a piglet model of Group B streptococcal pneumonia. (nih.gov)
  • Combining both exogenous surfactant and open lung ventilation prevented bacterial translocation completely, comparable to Group B streptococci instillation into healthy animals. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that exogenous surfactant and open lung ventilation attenuate bacterial growth and translocation in experimental pneumonia and that this attenuation is at least in part mediated by a reduction in atelectasis. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that minimizing alveolar collapse by exogenous surfactant and open lung ventilation may reduce the risk of pneumonia and subsequent sepsis in ventilated patients. (nih.gov)
  • Lung disease, diabetes, and other health problems can all increase your risk for pneumonia. (baycare.org)
  • In perusing the contemporary autopsy studies, the authors found 96 reports of lung tissue culture results from 5,266 patients, in which only 4.2% showed no bacterial growth. (umn.edu)
  • In 68 "higher quality" autopsy series, representing 3,074 patients, 92.7% of the lung cultures were positive for at least one bacterial species. (umn.edu)
  • Readout was lung histology and bacterial counts in lung and blood. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pneumonia is when you get fluid in the lung, can be in any one or more of the lobes. (mumsnet.com)
  • HealthDay)-The cytokine M-CSF promotes survival of lung and liver mononuclear phagocytes to mediate host defense during bacterial pneumonia, according to an experimental study published in the June 15 issue of The Journal of Immunology . (medicalxpress.com)
  • The researchers observed reduced survival, increased bacterial burden, and greater lung injury with genetic deletion or immunoneutralization of M-CSF. (medicalxpress.com)
  • However, several life-threatening bacterial lung diseases are caused by excessive neutrophil-mediated inflammation. (asm.org)
  • inhibition of IP6K1 enhanced bacterial clearance and reduced lung damage. (sciencemag.org)
  • Pore-forming toxin-mediated ion dysregulation leads to death receptor-independent necroptosis of lung epithelial cells during bacterial pneumonia. (jcvi.org)
  • Bacterial pneumonia and measures of poor immune function (notably, a low CD4/CD8 ratio) predicted incident lung cancer in HIV-positive members of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). (thebodypro.com)
  • Two or more episodes of bacterial pneumonia (versus none) were linked to incident lung cancer (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5, P = .0004), and one episode (versus none) yielded almost the same risk (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.4, P = .0004). (thebodypro.com)
  • The researchers propose that abnormal immune activation (indicated by low CD4/CD8 ratio) and prior bacterial pneumonia "could have a role in the development of lung cancer in people with HIV and could explain some of the increased risk of lung cancer in this population. (thebodypro.com)
  • This year in particular the focus of Lung Foundation Australia's Pneumonia Awareness Week (May 13-20) is very much on members of the community who are the most vulnerable, numbering among them those impacted by lung disease and lung cancer, but also people aged 65 years and older. (travelvax.com.au)
  • We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of elevated CRP for "confirmed" bacterial pneumonia (positive blood culture or positive lung aspirate or pleural fluid culture or polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) compared to "RSV pneumonia" (nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal or induced sputum PCR-positive without confirmed/suspected bacterial pneumonia). (eur.nl)
  • Additionally, microbiologic efficacy will be assessed in all pneumonia patients infected with S pneumoniae SP) and in those infected with penicillin-sensitive (PSSP) and penicillin-intermediate (PISP) S pneumoniae. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To assess clinical efficacy and safety in pneumonia patients infected with S pneumoniae. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • B ) Pulmonary bacterial burden and incidence of bacteremia were measured in saline/ S. pneumoniae - and PR8 / S. pneumoniae -infected animals on days 1 and 2 after secondary bacterial challenge (2,000 CFU). (jci.org)
  • Results- Nasal inoculation of only 200 colony-forming units of S pneumoniae caused severe pneumonia and bacteremia after experimental stroke, whereas 200 000 colony-forming units are needed to induce comparable disease in sham animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • This protein makes up the flagella that are found on the surface of many bacterial species, including those most problematic in terms of public health, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Klebsiella pneumoniae. (inserm.fr)
  • Most bacterial pneumonias are not highly contagious but some exceptions exist such as walking pneumonia by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and tuberculosis. (md-health.com)
  • Pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae and related pneumococcal sepsis are among the most common causes of death in the Western world rendering them a serious threat to health [ 4 ] and stressing the importance of understanding host defense mechanisms during this disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, there are two secondary effects (hypoxemia and sepsis ) that may result from bacterial pneumonia, and which are associated with increased fatalities. (petmd.com)
  • Due to unclear mechanisms, a substantial number of influenza-related deaths result from bacterial superinfections, particularly secondary pneumococcal pneumonia. (jci.org)
  • Indeed, influenza-infected wild-type mice cleared secondary pneumococcal pneumonia after pulmonary administration of exogenous KC and Mip2, whereas neutralization of Cxcr2, the common receptor for KC and Mip2, reversed the protective phenotype observed in Ifnar-/- mice. (jci.org)
  • Collectively, these findings highlight what we believe to be a novel mechanism by which the antiviral response to influenza sensitizes hosts to secondary bacterial pneumonia. (jci.org)
  • Histological and bacteriologic evidence suggests that the vast majority of influenza deaths resulted from secondary bacterial pneumonia," says the report by David M. Morens, MD, Jeffery K. Taubenberger, MD, PhD, and NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, MD. (umn.edu)
  • At the time of the pandemic, nearly all experts agreed that deaths were almost never caused by the then-unidentified flu virus itself, "but resulted directly from severe secondary pneumonia caused by well-known bacterial 'pneumopathogens' that colonized the upper respiratory tract," the report states. (umn.edu)
  • The authors also reviewed evidence from the relatively mild pandemic of 1957-58 and determined that most deaths were due to secondary bacterial pneumonia. (umn.edu)
  • The authors suggest that, as in past pandemics, secondary bacterial pneumonia is likely to be the leading killer in the next pandemic-if it is caused by "a human-adapted virus similar to those recognized since 1918. (umn.edu)
  • The published reports "clearly and consistently implicated secondary bacterial pneumonia caused by common upper respiratory flora in most influenza fatalities," says Dr. Morens. (biologynews.net)
  • Far less work has been conducted on stockpiling and planning for deployment of antimicrobial drugs against secondary bacterial pneumonia, a cause of substantial illness and death in previous pandemics and epidemics. (cdc.gov)
  • These data indicate a novel mechanism by which influenza A-induced type I IFNs inhibit Th17 immunity and increase susceptibility to secondary bacterial pneumonia. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we present methods to improve secondary bacterial pneumonia studies by providing a non-invasive route of instillation into the lower respiratory tract followed by pathogen recovery and transcript analysis. (jove.com)
  • The overall goal of this procedure is to enhance secondary bacterial pneumonia studies by providing a simple and noninvasive route of bacterial inoculation into the lower respiratory tract followed by bacterial recovery and purification of RNA for transcript analysis. (jove.com)
  • Once this technique is conceptualized, it becomes a simple and effective procedure to interrogate secondary bacterial pneumonia within a murine host. (jove.com)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in host defense against bacterial pneumonia, but their contribution to post influenza-susceptibility to secondary bacterial pneumonia is incompletely understood. (flutrackers.com)
  • Lethal synergism between influenza virus and pneumococcus, causes excess mortality from secondary bacterial pneumonia during influenza epidemics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of glucocorticoids in acute bacterial pneumonia has yet to be clearly elucidated. (medscape.com)
  • Pore-Forming Toxins Induce Macrophage Necroptosis during Acute Bacterial Pneumonia. (jcvi.org)
  • In a 2-year study of all coroner cases involving sudden unexpected deaths in Ontario, Canada (population 14 million), we found more than 400 cases caused by a variety of infectious syndromes and pathogens, of which the most common were bacterial pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus , respectively. (healio.com)
  • Other important Gram-positive causes of pneumonia are Staphylococcus aureus (J15.2) and Bacillus anthracis. (wikipedia.org)
  • HABP and VABP are a type of pneumonia that occurs in hospitalized patients and can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, cough, chest pain and increased oxygen requirements. (fda.gov)
  • Symptoms of bacterial pneumonia are not unlike those of any other type of pneumonia . (verywellhealth.com)
  • The most common type of pneumonia is community-acquired pneumonia which is usually acquired from the community settings or outside of health care venues like hospitals and dispensaries. (md-health.com)
  • What we didn't know was which type of pneumonia was more dangerous. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • Executive Summary: Management of Adults With Hospital-acquired and Ventilator-associated Pneumonia: 2016 Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety in Japanese adult subjects with community acquired pneumonia receiving ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium, 12g/day (3 g four times a day ) IV. (pfizer.com)
  • Treatment with 300 mg/kg of exogenous surfactant before instillation of streptococci attenuated both bacterial growth and translocation and prevented clinical deterioration. (nih.gov)
  • 6 However, even minor strokes, without clinical symptoms, may be complicated by pneumonia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Biomarkers to distinguish bacterial from viral pediatric clinical pneumonia in a malaria endemic setting. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Blood samples from 195 pediatric Mozambican patients with clinical pneumonia were analyzed with an aptamer-based, high dynamic range, quantitative assay (~1200 proteins). (broadinstitute.org)
  • Diagnosis of pneumonia is almost exclusively clinical in terms of signs and symptoms although a positive chest X ray is vital. (labroots.com)
  • According to the clinical and microbiological results, patients were classified in the study group (27 with bacterial pneumonia) or the control group (31 without bacterial pneumonia). (eurekamag.com)
  • The first diagnosis was a clinical disgnosis of right sided pneumonia and she was given 14 days of amoxicillin which seemed to work. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia is just one cause of pulmonary dysfunction. (petmd.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a dangerous cause-and-effect relationship. (verywellhealth.com)
  • KO mice deficient in MLKL or RIP3 had increased survival and reduced pulmonary injury during S. marcescens pneumonia. (jcvi.org)
  • Conclusions: Concurrent gram-negative pneumonia occurs with high frequency in BMT recipients with GVHD and pulmonary aspergillosis. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • The study also found that patients with severe pneumonia who received systemic corticosteroids had an apparent mortality benefit over patients with severe pneumonia who did not receive systemic corticosteroids, which may be related to the higher incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome and the need for mechanical ventilation in patients with severe pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia and sepsis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. (uva.nl)
  • Consider using the pneumonia severity index (PSI) score as a guide for inpatient care and mortality risk. (medscape.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality within the United States and abroad. (nih.gov)
  • Community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and the world. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mortality was almost four times higher among participants with an episode of pneumonia than among the others. (rti.org)
  • Post influenza bacterial pneumonia is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. (flutrackers.com)
  • Nosocomial gram-negative bacillary pneumonia is associated with an extremely high mortality. (deepdyve.com)
  • Aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Aspiration pneumonia in stroke animals outlasted acute stroke state but was preventable by β-adrenoreceptor blockade. (ahajournals.org)
  • My pediatrician thought that may be possible and he was also considering aspiration pneumonia as a possibility. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • If approved, Solithera would be a significant milestone in the treatment of CABP, as bacterial resistance to older treatments has continued to rise. (cnbc.com)
  • Chalmers JD, Rother C, Salih W, Ewig S. Healthcare-associated pneumonia does not accurately identify potentially resistant pathogens: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (medscape.com)
  • We report that diverse bacterial pathogens that produce a pore-forming toxin (PFT) induce necroptosis of macrophages and this can be blocked for protection against Serratia marcescens hemorrhagic pneumonia. (jcvi.org)
  • These mechanisms restore tissue homeostasis but greatly impair the host response against unrelated bacterial pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evolution and current status of United States Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency regulatory guidance for studies of nosocomial pneumonia. (fnih.org)
  • Protected specimen brush or bronchoalveolar lavage to diagnose bacterial nosocomial pneumonia in ventilated adults: A meta-analysis. (ugent.be)
  • de Jaeger A, LITALIEN C, LACROIX J, GUERTIN M, INFANTE-RIVARD C. Protected specimen brush or bronchoalveolar lavage to diagnose bacterial nosocomial pneumonia in ventilated adults: A meta-analysis. (ugent.be)
  • It can also cause serious pneumococcal diseases including severe bacterial pneumonia, sepsis (blood poisoning) or meningitis (inflammation of the brain lining). (aidsmap.com)
  • If left untreated, pneumonia can lead to acute respiratory distress and blood poisoning (sepsis). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Pneumonia is different from acute bronchitis (another disease that can cause fever, cough , chest pain, and shortness of breath) because acute bronchitis is caused by inflammation in the air passages (called bronchi ) leading to the alveoli, not the alveoli themselves. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • This results in the fever, chills, and fatigue common in bacterial and fungal pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • 100/min) and fever has a higher probability of pneumonia. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • There are also some cases with mycoplasma pneumonia which are a different group of organisms. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • A Randomized Trial of the Amikacin Fosfomycin Inhalation System for the Adjunctive Therapy of Gram-Negative Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: IASIS Trial. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms of bacterial pneumonia include shortness of breath, pain when taking a breath and chest pain. (epainassist.com)
  • The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia are more noticeable in young children. (md-health.com)
  • The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia are different for children of different age groups. (md-health.com)
  • Pneumonia from any cause can occur at any age, but people in certain age groups are at higher risk for certain types of pneumonia. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • In cats, the bacterial organisms Bordetella bronchiseptica , Pasteurella , and Moraxella are most frequently reported in cases of bacterial pneumonia. (petmd.com)
  • Prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a 67 percent reduction in confirmed episodes of bacterial pneumonia (P = 0.007). (rti.org)
  • They used VACS records to collect longitudinal lab data and to identify episodes of bacterial pneumonia. (thebodypro.com)
  • The diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia typically starts with a review of your symptoms. (verywellhealth.com)
  • This knowledge can then lead to the development of therapeutic modalities aimed at augmenting host responses, resulting in enhanced resolution of bacterial pneumonia. (nih.gov)
  • For this study, which has not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal, researchers at the Intermountain Heart institute in Utah examined data collected from 2014 to 2017 involving 4,800 people hospitalized with pneumonia . (healthcentral.com)
  • Smoking increases your risk for pneumonia. (drugs.com)
  • Because pneumonia can occur as a result of the flu, flu vaccines also reduce your risk for pneumonia. (baycare.org)
  • 7 The risk for pneumonia is highest in the acute state of stroke, but it remains increased for up to several months during rehabilitation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pneumonia can be very serious, because it directly interferes with the body's ability to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Sometimes a chest X-ray is the only way to distinguish pneumonia from bronchitis . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • If there are chest x ray changes of consolidation it's pneumonia. (mumsnet.com)
  • Attempt to obtain cultures if possible, but more importantly, chest x-ray findings are needed to confirm the diagnosis of pneumonia. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Conclusions- Experimental stroke propagates bacterial aspiration from harmless intranasal colonization to harmful pneumonia. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions Low vitamin D is associated observationally and genetically with increased risk of bacterial pneumonias. (onmedica.com)
  • Pneumonia FAQs Get answers to your frequently asked questions (FAQs) on pneumonia and learn the causes, symptoms, treatments, related complications, and facts of this serious, potentially deadly infectious disease. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • thus, compared with industrialized countries, the benefits of treating bacterial complications in developing countries may be substantially greater. (cdc.gov)
  • Reduction of bulbar reflexes, drowsiness, the bedridden patient's state, and subsequent aspiration are considered to account for the high incidence of bacterial pneumonia after stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, aspiration alone cannot explain the high incidence of stroke-associated pneumonia. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 The reasons for the high incidence of pneumonia in patients sustaining a stroke are still incompletely understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the risk factors for bacterial pneumonia and its incidence in this population are not well defined. (rti.org)
  • Incidence of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients treated with sucralfate or cimetidine as prophylaxis for stress bleeding: bacterial colonization of the stomach. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides serve as a part of the innate immune system of respiratory epithelia, potentially reducing bacterial numbers nonspecifically and therefore limiting bacterial colonization ( 9 , 11 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • This will depend primarily on the causative agent of the pneumonia , the severity, how it is being treated and the proximity of contact with the patient. (healthtap.com)
  • Generally pneumonia in children,it is difficult to identify the causative organisms unless extensive investgations are done. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • Vaccines can help reduce your risk of getting pneumonia. (baycare.org)
  • Vaccines help prevent bacterial pneumonia. (baycare.org)
  • Is bacterial pneumonia contagious? (md-health.com)
  • How long is bacterial pneumonia contagious to other people? (healthtap.com)
  • Docs, usually how long is someone with walking pneumonia contagious for? (healthtap.com)
  • How long is community aquired pneumonia contagious? (healthtap.com)
  • Mrsa pneumonia is contagious for how long? (healthtap.com)