Plethysmography, Whole Body
Lung Volume Measurements
Total Lung Capacity
Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome
Functional Residual Capacity
Respiratory Function Tests
Blood Flow Velocity
Lower Body Negative Pressure
Reproducibility of Results
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Central Venous Pressure
Analysis of Variance
Sympathetic Nervous System
Forced Expiratory Volume
Forced Expiratory Flow Rates
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Bronchial Provocation Tests
Receptor, Endothelin A
Sensitivity and Specificity
Peripheral hemodynamics evaluated by acceleration plethysmography in workers exposed to lead. (1/1109)To clarify the effect of lead exposure on peripheral hemodynamics, acceleration plethysmography (APG) was performed for 48 male subjects occupationally exposed to lead (exposure group) and 43 male subjects with no history of occupational exposure to lead (control group). In the exposure group, the blood lead concentration (Pb-B) was also measured. Each APG parameter was assessed by comparing measured data with the standard aging curves. A significant negative correlation was obtained between the parameter--b/a and Pb-B. The exposure group showed significantly lower values of parameters--b/a (p < 0.01) and d/a (p < 0.05) than the control group. The parameter--b/a in the exposure group dose-dependently decreased with increases in length of working career (duration of exposure to lead) and Pb-B. The parameter--b/a significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in subjects with working careers of 5 years or more and in subjects whose Pb-B was 40 micrograms/100 ml or more. These results suggest that lead exposure affects peripheral hemodynamics as evaluated by APG. (+info)
Effect of intensive therapy for heart failure on the vasodilator response to exercise. (2/1109)OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the lower extremity vascular responsiveness to metabolic stimuli in patients with heart failure and to determine whether these responses improve acutely after intensive medical therapy. BACKGROUND: Metabolic regulation of vascular tone is an important determinant of blood flow, and may be abnormal in heart failure. METHODS: The leg blood flow responses were measured in 11 patients with nonedematous class III-IV heart failure before and after inpatient medical therapy and in 10 normal subjects. Venous occlusion plethysmography was used to measure peak blood flow and total hyperemia in the calf after arterial occlusion and also after isotonic ankle exercise. Measurements were repeated following short-term inpatient treatment with vasodilators and diuretics administered to decrease right atrial pressure (18+/-2 to 7+/-1 mm Hg), pulmonary wedge pressure (32+/-3 to 15+/-2 mm Hg), and systemic vascular resistance (1581+/-200 to 938+/-63 dynes.s.cm(-5), all p < 0.02). RESULTS: Leg blood flow at rest, after exercise, and during reactive hyperemia was less in heart failure patients than in control subjects. Resting leg blood flow did not increase significantly after medical therapy, but peak flow after the high level of exercise increased by 59% (p = 0.009). Total hyperemic volume in the recovery period increased by 73% (p = 0.03). Similarly, the peak leg blood flow response to ischemia increased by 88% (p = 0.04), whereas hyperemic volume rose by 98% (p = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: The calf blood flow responses to metabolic stimuli are blunted in patients with severe heart failure, and improve rapidly with intensive medical therapy. (+info)
Endothelium-dependent relaxation by acetylcholine is impaired in hypertriglyceridemic humans with normal levels of plasma LDL cholesterol. (3/1109)OBJECTIVES: Patients with high triglyceride (of which very low density lipoproteins [VLDL] are the main carriers), but with normal low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, were examined for in vivo endothelium function status. BACKGROUND: Very low density lipoproteins inhibit endothelium-dependent, but not -independent, vasorelaxation in vitro. METHODS: Three groups were studied: 1) healthy volunteers (n = 10; triglyceride 1.24+/-0.14 mmol/liter, LDL cholesterol 2.99+/-0.24 mmol/liter); 2) hypertriglyceridemic (n = 11; triglyceride 6.97+/-1.19 mmol/liter, LDL cholesterol 2.17+/-0.2 mmol/liter, p < 0.05); and 3) hypercholesterolemic (n = 10; triglyceride 2.25+/-0.29 mmol/liter, LDL cholesterol 5.61+/-0.54 mmol/liter; p < 0.05) patients. Vasoactive responses to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, noradrenaline, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine and postischemic hyperemia were determined using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography. RESULTS: Responses to acetylcholine (37 microg/min) were significantly dampened both in hypercholesterolemic (% increase in forearm blood flow: 268.2+/-62) and hypertriglyceridemic patients (232.6+/-45.2) when compared with controls (547.8+/-108.9; ANOVA p < 0.05). Responses to sodium nitroprusside (at 1.6 microg/min: controls vs. hypercholesterolemics vs. hypertriglyceridemic: 168.7+/- 25.1 vs. 140.6+/-38.9 vs. 178.5+/-54.5% increase), noradrenaline, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine and postischemic hyperemic responses were not different among the groups examined. CONCLUSIONS: Acetylcholine responses are impaired in patients with pathophysiologic levels of plasma triglycerides but normal plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. The impairment observed was comparable to that obtained in hypercholesterolemic patients. We conclude that impaired responses to acetylcholine normally associated with hypercholesterolemia also occur in hypertriglyceridemia. These findings identify a potential mechanism by which high plasma triglyceride levels may be atherogenic independent of LDL cholesterol levels. (+info)
Endothelial dysfunction, impaired endogenous fibrinolysis, and cigarette smoking: a mechanism for arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction. (4/1109)BACKGROUND: Effective endogenous fibrinolysis requires rapid release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) from the vascular endothelium. Smoking is a known risk factor for arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction, and it causes endothelial dysfunction. We therefore examined the effects of cigarette smoking on substance P-induced tPA release in vivo in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood flow and plasma fibrinolytic factors were measured in both forearms of 12 smokers and 12 age- and sex-matched nonsmokers who received unilateral brachial artery infusions of substance P (2 to 8 pmol/min). In both smokers and nonsmokers, substance P caused dose-dependent increases in blood flow and local release of plasma tPA antigen and activity (P<0.001 for all) but had no effect on the local release of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1. Compared with nonsmokers, increases in forearm blood flow (P=0.03) and release of tPA antigen (P=0.04) and activity (P<0.001) caused by substance P were reduced in smokers. The area under the curve for release of tPA antigen and activity decreased by 51% and 53%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking causes marked inhibition of substance P-induced tPA release in vivo in humans. This provides an important mechanism whereby endothelial dysfunction may increase the risk of atherothrombosis through a reduction in the acute fibrinolytic capacity. (+info)
Comparison of two new methods for the measurement of lung volumes with two standard methods. (5/1109)BACKGROUND: The two most commonly used methods for the measurement of lung volumes are helium dilution and body plethysmography. Two methods have been developed which are both easier and less time consuming to perform. Mathematical modelling uses complex calculations from the flow-volume loop to derive total lung capacity (TLC), and the nitrogen balance technique uses nitrogen from the atmosphere to calculate lung volume in a similar way to helium dilution. This study was designed to compare the two new methods with the two standard methods. METHODS: Sixty one subjects were studied, 23 with normal lung function, 17 with restrictive airway disease, and 21 with obstructive ventilatory defects. Each subject underwent repeated measurements of TLC by each of the four methods in random order. Reproducible values were obtained for each method according to BTS/ARTP guidelines. Bland-Altman plots were constructed for comparisons between the methods and paired t tests were used to assess differences in means. RESULTS: Bland-Altman plots showed that the differences between body plethysmography and helium dilution fell into clinically acceptable ranges (agreement limits +/-0.9 l). The agreement between mathematical modelling or the nitrogen balance technique and helium dilution or body plethysmography was poor (+/-1.8-3.4 l), especially for subjects with airflow obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Neither of the new methods agrees sufficiently with standard methods to be useful in a clinical setting. (+info)
Physiologic basis and interpretation of common indices of respiratory mechanical function. (6/1109)Tests of pulmonary mechanical function may be used in determining the prominent site of pulmonary reaction to intervention. Responses may be localized from a knowledge of changes in lung resistance and compliance. A peripheral airway or parenchymal response is characterized by a decrease in lung compliance. A central airway reaction is characterized by an increase in pulmonary resistance. In mixed reactions both parameters may change. In this communication some of the physiologic determinants of pulmonary resistance and compliance are discussed and examples of localized responses given. (+info)
Contribution of nitric oxide to beta2-adrenoceptor mediated vasodilatation in human forearm arterial vasculature. (7/1109)AIMS: beta2-adrenoceptor agonists are generally considered to produce endothelium independent vasodilatation through adenylate cyclase. We determined whether nitric oxide contributes to beta2-adrenoceptor vasodilatation in human arterial vasculature. METHODS: Forearm blood flow responses to brachial intra-arterial infusions of ritodrine (2.5-50 microg min(-1)), a selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonist, were determined in 24 healthy, normotensive subjects (mean age 22 years, 5F) on two occasions with initial and concomitant administration of L-NMMA (800 microg min(-1)), an NO synthase inhibitor, or noradrenaline (5-30 ng min(-1)), a control constrictor not affecting basal NO activity. Responses to the endothelium dependent vasodilator scrotonin (n = 6) and an endothelium independent vasodilator GTN (n = 9) were also determined. RESULTS: Maximal dilatation to ritodrine during L-NMMA infusion (310+/-32%; mean+/-s.e.mean) was reduced compared to that during noradrenaline infusion (417+/-41%, P<0.05), as were summary responses (1023+/-101 vs 1415+/-130; P<0.05). Responses to GTN were unaffected by L-NMMA compared to noradrenaline; max 177+/-26 vs 169+/-20%, 95% CI for difference -33,48; P=0.68; summary response 361+/-51 vs 396+/-37, 95% CI -142,71; P=0.46. Dilator responses to serotonin were reduced by L-NMMA; max 64+/-20 vs 163+/-26%, P<0.01; summary response 129+/-36 vs 293+/-60; P<0.05) and to a greater extent than ritodrine (58+/-7 vs 25+/-14%, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: beta2-adrenoceptor mediated vasodilatation in the human forearm has an NO mediated component. The underlying mechanism for this effect is unclear, but flow mediated vasodilatation is unlikely to be responsible. (+info)
Relationship between left ventricular mass and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in never-treated hypertensive patients. (8/1109)BACKGROUND: Hypertensive patients are characterized by development of both left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and endothelial dysfunction METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 65 never-treated hypertensive patients (36 men and 29 women aged 45.6+/-6.0 years) to assess the possible relationship between echocardiographic left ventricular mass (LVM) and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Left ventricular measurements were performed at end diastole and end systole according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography and the Penn Convention. LVM was calculated with the Devereux formula and indexed by body surface area and height raised to the 2.7th power. The endothelial function was tested as responses of forearm vasculature to acetylcholine (ACh), an endothelium-dependent vasodilator (7.5, 15, and 30 microg. mL-1. min-1, each for 5 minutes), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an endothelium-independent vasodilator (0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 microg. mL-1. min-1, each for 5 minutes). Drugs were infused into the brachial artery, and forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by strain-gauge plethysmography. A negative significant relationship between indexed LVM and peak of increase in FBF was found during ACh infusions (r=-0. 554; P<0.0001). In addition, hypertrophic patients had a significantly lower responsive to ACh than patients without LVH (the peak increase in FBF was 9.9+/-3.7 versus 16.1+/-8.1 mL per 100 mL of tissue per minute; P<0.0001). No significant correlation was observed between LVM and FBF during SNP infusion. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the first evidence that echocardiographic LVM in hypertensive patients is inversely related to FBF responses to the endothelium-dependent vasodilating agent ACh, but it is likely that both endothelium and LVM are damaged by hypertension. (+info)
In some cases, hyperemia can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition that requires medical attention. For example, if hyperemia is caused by an inflammatory or infectious process, it may lead to tissue damage or organ dysfunction if left untreated.
Hyperemia can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, muscles, organs, and other tissues. It is often diagnosed through physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment for hyperemia depends on its underlying cause, and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgery.
In the context of dermatology, hyperemia is often used to describe a condition called erythema, which is characterized by redness and swelling of the skin due to increased blood flow. Erythema can be caused by various factors, such as sun exposure, allergic reactions, or skin infections. Treatment for erythema may include topical medications, oral medications, or other therapies depending on its underlying cause.
HAVS is typically caused by prolonged exposure to vibrations from hand-held power tools, such as jackhammers, drills, and sanders. The vibrations can cause damage to the blood vessels, nerves, and joints in the hands, leading to the development of HAVS.
There are several risk factors for developing HAVS, including:
1. Prolonged exposure to hand-transmitted vibrations
2. Use of high-vibration tools and equipment
3. Poor tool maintenance and repair
4. Inadequate training on the safe use of tools and equipment
5. Smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors
The symptoms of HAVS can vary in severity and may include:
1. Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and fingers
2. Reduced dexterity and grip strength
3. Fatigue and weakness in the hands and arms
4. Tremors or spasms in the hands and fingers
5. Pale or discolored skin on the fingers and hands
6. Decreased sensation in the fingertips
7. Swelling, redness, or warmth in the hands and fingers
If left untreated, HAVS can lead to more severe symptoms, including:
1. Permanent nerve damage
2. Loss of dexterity and grip strength
3. Decreased sensation in the fingertips
4. Finger ulcers and amputations
5. Carpal tunnel syndrome
6. Other neurological disorders
There is no cure for HAVS, but it can be managed with a combination of medical treatment and lifestyle changes. Treatment options may include:
1. Medications to relieve symptoms such as pain and inflammation
2. Physical therapy to improve dexterity and grip strength
3. Lifestyle modifications such as avoiding cold temperatures and taking regular breaks to warm up hands
4. Assistive devices such as gloves, splints, or hand braces
5. Surgery in severe cases to relieve compression on nerves or repair damaged tissue.
Prevention is the best course of action for HAVS, and it involves taking steps to reduce exposure to cold temperatures and other risk factors. Some ways to prevent HAVS include:
1. Using proper protective gear such as gloves, hats, and scarves in cold environments
2. Avoiding prolonged exposure to cold temperatures
3. Taking regular breaks to warm up hands and fingers
4. Exercising regularly to improve circulation and reduce risk factors such as smoking and obesity
5. Maintaining a healthy diet and getting enough sleep.
There are several risk factors for developing venous insufficiency, including:
* Age: As we age, our veins become less effective at pumping blood back to the heart, making us more susceptible to venous insufficiency.
* Gender: Women are more likely to develop venous insufficiency than men due to hormonal changes and other factors.
* Family history: If you have a family history of venous insufficiency, you may be more likely to develop the condition.
* Injury or trauma: Injuries or traumas to the veins can damage valves or cause blood clots, leading to venous insufficiency.
* Obesity: Excess weight can put extra pressure on the veins, increasing the risk of venous insufficiency.
Symptoms of venous insufficiency may include:
* Pain, aching, or cramping in the legs
* Swelling, edema, or water retention in the legs
* Skin discoloration or thickening of the skin on the legs
* Itching or burning sensations on the skin
* Ulcers or sores on the skin
If left untreated, venous insufficiency can lead to more serious complications such as:
* Chronic wounds or ulcers
* Blood clots or deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
* Increased risk of infection
* Decreased mobility and quality of life
To diagnose venous insufficiency, a healthcare provider may perform one or more of the following tests:
* Physical examination: A healthcare provider will typically examine the legs and ankles to check for swelling, discoloration, and other symptoms.
* Duplex ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses sound waves to evaluate blood flow in the veins and can detect blockages or other problems.
* Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to visualize the veins and check for any blockages or abnormalities.
* Imaging tests: Such as MRI, CT scan, or X-rays may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
Treatment options for venous insufficiency depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include one or more of the following:
* Compression stockings: These specialized stockings provide gentle pressure to the legs and ankles to help improve blood flow and reduce swelling.
* Lifestyle changes: Maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and avoiding prolonged standing or sitting can help improve symptoms.
* Medications: Such as diuretics, anticoagulants, or pain relievers may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
* Endovenous laser therapy: This minimally invasive procedure uses a laser to heat and seal off the damaged vein, redirecting blood flow to healthier veins.
* Sclerotherapy: This involves injecting a solution into the affected vein to cause it to collapse and be absorbed by the body.
* Vein stripping: In this surgical procedure, the affected vein is removed through small incisions.
It's important to note that these treatments are usually recommended for more severe cases of venous insufficiency, and for those who have not responded well to other forms of treatment. Your healthcare provider will help determine the best course of treatment for your specific case.
The exact cause of postphlebitic syndrome is not known, but it is thought to be due to inflammation and scarring in the vein wall after a DVT has resolved. The condition can develop months or even years after the initial DVT and can affect one or both legs.
Symptoms of postphlebitic syndrome may include:
1. Chronic pain or tenderness in the affected limb
2. Swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected limb
3. Skin discoloration (hypo-pigmentation) or hyper-pigmentation in the affected limb
4. Limited mobility or stiffness in the affected limb
6. Night cramps
7. Muscle weakness
8. Raynaud's phenomenon (abnormal blood flow to the fingers and toes)
Postphlebitic syndrome can be difficult to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to other conditions such as chronic venous insufficiency or peripheral artery disease. A healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and order imaging tests such as ultrasound or venography to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for postphlebitic syndrome is focused on relieving symptoms and improving quality of life. This may include:
1. Pain management with medication or compression stockings
2. Elevating the affected limb to reduce swelling
3. Compression stockings to improve blood flow
4. Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength
5. Wound care if there are any open sores
6. Anticoagulation therapy to prevent future DVTs
Early diagnosis and treatment of postphlebitic syndrome can help improve symptoms and quality of life for individuals affected by the condition.
There are two main types of thrombophlebitis:
1. Superficial thrombophlebitis: This type of thrombophlebitis affects the superficial veins, which are located just under the skin. It is often caused by injury or trauma to the vein, and it can cause redness, swelling, and pain in the affected area.
2. Deep vein thrombophlebitis: This type of thrombophlebitis affects the deep veins, which are located deeper in the body. It is often caused by blood clots that form in the legs or arms, and it can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and warmth in the affected limb.
Thrombophlebitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Injury or trauma to the vein
2. Blood clotting disorders
3. Prolonged bed rest or immobility
4. Surgery or medical procedures
5. Certain medications, such as hormone replacement therapy or chemotherapy
6. Age, as the risk of developing thrombophlebitis increases with age
7. Family history of blood clotting disorders
8. Increased pressure on the veins, such as during pregnancy or obesity
Thrombophlebitis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:
1. Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create images of the veins and can help identify blood clots or inflammation.
2. Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to make it visible under X-ray imaging.
3. Blood tests: These can be used to check for signs of blood clotting disorders or other underlying conditions that may be contributing to the development of thrombophlebitis.
Treatment for thrombophlebitis typically involves anticoagulation therapy, which is designed to prevent the blood clot from growing larger and to prevent new clots from forming. This can involve medications such as heparin or warfarin, or other drugs that work by blocking the production of clots. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
In addition to anticoagulation therapy, treatment for thrombophlebitis may also include:
1. Elevation of the affected limb to reduce swelling
2. Compression stockings to help reduce swelling and improve blood flow
3. Pain management with medication or heat or cold applications
4. Antibiotics if there is an infection
5. Rest and avoiding strenuous activities until the symptoms resolve.
In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the affected vein.
It's important to note that early diagnosis and treatment of thrombophlebitis can help prevent complications such as infection, inflammation, or damage to the valves in the affected vein. If you suspect you or someone else may have thrombophlebitis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.
There are several possible causes of airway obstruction, including:
1. Asthma: Inflammation of the airways can cause them to narrow and become obstructed.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): This is a progressive condition that damages the lungs and can lead to airway obstruction.
3. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs) can cause them to narrow and become obstructed.
4. Pneumonia: Infection of the lungs can cause inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
5. Tumors: Cancerous tumors in the chest or throat can grow and block the airways.
6. Foreign objects: Objects such as food or toys can become lodged in the airways and cause obstruction.
7. Anaphylaxis: A severe allergic reaction can cause swelling of the airways and obstruct breathing.
8. Other conditions such as sleep apnea, cystic fibrosis, and vocal cord paralysis can also cause airway obstruction.
Symptoms of airway obstruction may include:
1. Difficulty breathing
2. Wheezing or stridor (a high-pitched sound when breathing in)
3. Chest tightness or pain
4. Coughing up mucus or phlegm
5. Shortness of breath
6. Blue lips or fingernail beds (in severe cases)
Treatment of airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as bronchodilators, inhalers, and steroids, as well as surgery to remove blockages or repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, a tracheostomy (a tube inserted into the windpipe to help with breathing) may be necessary.
There are several types of apnea that can occur during sleep, including:
1. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): This is the most common type of apnea and occurs when the airway is physically blocked by the tongue or other soft tissue in the throat, causing breathing to stop for short periods.
2. Central sleep apnea (CSA): This type of apnea occurs when the brain fails to send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing, resulting in a pause in breathing.
3. Mixed sleep apnea (MSA): This type of apnea is a combination of OSA and CSA, where both central and obstructive factors contribute to the pauses in breathing.
4. Hypopneic apnea: This type of apnea is characterized by a decrease in breathing, but not a complete stop.
5. Hypercapnic apnea: This type of apnea is caused by an excessive buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood, which can lead to pauses in breathing.
The symptoms of apnea can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include:
* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Difficulty concentrating or feeling tired during the day
* High blood pressure
* Heart disease
Treatment options for apnea depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, avoiding alcohol and sedatives before bedtime, and sleeping on your side
* Oral appliances or devices that advance the position of the lower jaw and tongue
* Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which involves wearing a mask during sleep to deliver a constant flow of air pressure into the airways
* Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy, which involves two levels of air pressure: one for inhalation and another for exhalation
* Surgery to remove excess tissue in the throat or correct physical abnormalities that are contributing to the apnea.
Hypercapnia is a medical condition where there is an excessive amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the bloodstream. This can occur due to various reasons such as:
1. Respiratory failure: When the lungs are unable to remove enough CO2 from the body, leading to an accumulation of CO2 in the bloodstream.
2. Lung disease: Certain lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or pneumonia can cause hypercapnia by reducing the ability of the lungs to exchange gases.
3. Medication use: Certain medications, such as anesthetics and sedatives, can slow down breathing and lead to hypercapnia.
The symptoms of hypercapnia can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
4. Shortness of breath
6. Sleep disturbances
If left untreated, hypercapnia can lead to more severe complications such as:
1. Respiratory acidosis: When the body produces too much acid, leading to a drop in blood pH.
2. Cardiac arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms can occur due to the increased CO2 levels in the bloodstream.
3. Seizures: In severe cases of hypercapnia, seizures can occur due to the changes in brain chemistry caused by the excessive CO2.
Treatment for hypercapnia typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing symptoms through respiratory support and other therapies as needed. This may include:
1. Oxygen therapy: Administering oxygen through a mask or nasal tubes to help increase oxygen levels in the bloodstream and reduce CO2 levels.
2. Ventilation assistance: Using a machine to assist with breathing, such as a ventilator, to help remove excess CO2 from the lungs.
3. Carbon dioxide removal: Using a device to remove CO2 from the bloodstream, such as a dialysis machine.
4. Medication management: Adjusting medications that may be contributing to hypercapnia, such as anesthetics or sedatives.
5. Respiratory therapy: Providing breathing exercises and other techniques to help improve lung function and reduce symptoms.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have hypercapnia, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
The exact cause of Raynaud disease is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to an autoimmune disorder, in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. The condition can occur on its own or as a secondary symptom of another underlying medical condition such as scleroderma or rheumatoid arthritis.
Symptoms of Raynaud Disease:
1) Discoloration: Raynaud disease causes the affected areas to turn white or blue in response to cold temperatures or stress.
2) Pain: The constriction of blood vessels can cause pain in the affected areas.
3) Numbness or tingling: The lack of blood flow can cause numbness or tingling sensations in the fingers and toes.
4) Swelling: In severe cases, swelling may occur in the affected areas.
5) Burning sensation: Some people with Raynaud disease may experience a burning sensation in their hands and feet.
Diagnosis of Raynaud Disease:
1) Medical history: A doctor will ask about symptoms, medical history, and any triggers that may cause the condition.
2) Physical examination: The doctor will perform a physical examination to look for signs of discoloration or swelling in the affected areas.
3) Tests: Additional tests such as nailfold capillary microscopy, pulse volume recording and thermography may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment options for Raynaud Disease:
1) Medications: Drugs such as calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers, and anticoagulants can help to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.
2) Lifestyle changes: Avoiding triggers such as cold temperatures and taking steps to keep hands and feet warm can help manage the condition.
3) Alternative therapies: Some people with Raynaud disease may find relief with alternative therapies such as acupuncture or biofeedback.
It is important to note that in some cases, Raynaud disease can be a symptom of an underlying autoimmune disorder, such as lupus or scleroderma. If you suspect you have Raynaud disease, it is essential to seek medical attention to rule out any other conditions.
The symptoms of a varicose ulcer may include:
* Pain and tenderness in the affected leg
* Swelling and redness around the wound site
* Discharge of fluid or pus from the wound
* Foul odor emanating from the wound
* Skin that is warm to touch
The risk factors for developing a varicose ulcer include:
* Age, as the risk increases with age
* Gender, as women are more likely to develop them than men
* Family history of varicose veins or other circulatory problems
* Pregnancy and childbirth
* Prolonged standing or sitting
* Previous history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE)
Treatment for varicose ulcers typically involves a combination of wound care, compression therapy, and addressing the underlying cause of the ulcer. This may include:
* Cleaning and dressing the wound to promote healing and prevent infection
* Applying compression stockings or bandages to reduce swelling and improve blood flow
* Elevating the affected limb to reduce swelling
* Taking antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Using sclerotherapy to close off the ruptured vein
* In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the affected vein.
It is important for individuals with varicose ulcers to seek medical attention if they experience any signs of infection, such as increased pain, swelling, redness, or pus, as these wounds can lead to serious complications if left untreated.
There are different types of anoxia, including:
1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.
Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.
Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.
In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.
There are two types of hypertension:
1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.
Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:
* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use
There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:
* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:
* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease
Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.
The diagnosis of BHR is based on a combination of clinical, physiological, and imaging tests. The most common method used to assess BHR is the methacholine or histamine challenge test, which involves inhaling progressively increasing concentrations of these substances to measure airway reactivity. Other tests include exercise testing, hyperventilation, and mannitol challenge.
BHR is characterized by an increased responsiveness of the airways to various stimuli, such as allergens, cold or exercise, leading to inflammation and bronchoconstriction. This can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness.
There are several risk factors for BHR, including:
* Respiratory infections
* Exposure to environmental pollutants
* Genetic predisposition
Treatment of BHR typically involves the use of bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and other medications to reduce inflammation and airway constriction. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as lung volume reduction or bronchial thermoplasty may be necessary. Environmental modifications, such as avoiding triggers and using HEPA filters, can also help manage symptoms.
In summary, bronchial hyperreactivity is a condition characterized by an exaggerated response of the airways to various stimuli, leading to increased smooth muscle contraction and narrowing of the bronchi. It is commonly seen in asthma and other respiratory diseases, and can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Treatment typically involves medications and environmental modifications to reduce inflammation and airway constriction.
Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected limb. In some cases, the clot can break loose and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening condition called Pulmonary Embolism (PE).
Treatment for venous thrombosis typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing and to prevent new clots from forming. In some cases, a filter may be placed in the vena cava, the large vein that carries blood from the lower body to the heart, to prevent clots from traveling to the lungs.
Prevention of venous thrombosis includes encouraging movement and exercise, avoiding long periods of immobility, and wearing compression stockings or sleeves to compress the veins and improve blood flow.
Symptoms of hypovolemia may include:
* Decreased blood pressure
* Tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
* Tachypnea (rapid breathing)
* Confusion or disorientation
* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Weakness or fatigue
Treatment of hypovolemia typically involves fluid resuscitation, which may involve the administration of intravenous fluids, blood transfusions, or other appropriate interventions to restore blood volume and pressure. In severe cases, hypovolemia can lead to sepsis, organ failure, and death if left untreated.
It is important for medical professionals to quickly identify and treat hypovolemia in order to prevent complications and improve patient outcomes.
Air displacement plethysmography
Structured light plethysmography
Respiratory inductance plethysmography
George E. Burch
Quantium Medical Cardiac Output
Vocal cord dysfunction
Bioelectrical impedance analysis
Body fat percentage
Deep vein thrombosis
Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre
Limb plethysmography: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Increased stress associated with head-out plethysmography testing can exacerbate respiratory effects and lead to mortality in...
Heroin- and Fentanyl-Induced Respiratory Depression in a Rat Plethysmography Model: Potency, Tolerance, and Sex Differences -...
Breathing Pattern Disorders Distinguished from Healthy Breathing Patterns Using Oxptoelectronic Plethysmography - Kent...
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Hemodynamic Changes in the Small Vessels in Man as Analyzed by Digital Plethysmography - Digital Collections - National Library...
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Agreement and validity between body fat estimated by skinfold measurement and air displacement plethysmography in adolescents ...
IMSEAR at SEARO: Evaluation of state of circulation in radiation injury using impedance plethysmography.
Thoracic Gas Volume Measured by Body Plethysmography during Anesthesia and Muscle Paralysis | Anesthesiology | American Society...
Evaluation of Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography Using the EMKAbelt System in the Conscious Dog and Primate - emka...
Reliability of a pulse oximeter in the detection of hyperoxemia
Publications - Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia
Novel whole body plethysmography system for the continuous characterization of sleep and breathing in a mouse - Fingerprint ...
Fitness Testing: Assessments for Health and Job Qualifications
Pulmonary Function Tests | NHLBI, NIH
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine: Back issue statistics
The EPA National Library Catalog | EPA National Library Network | US EPA
NAE Website - OTTO H.SCHMITT 1913-1998
NIH Clinical Center Search the Studies: Study Number, Study Title
Peter Thaysen Laurberg - Fingerprint - Aalborg Universitets forskningsportal
- IMSEAR at SEARO: Evaluation of state of circulation in radiation injury using impedance plethysmography. (who.int)
- Technical aspects of impedance plethysmography. (jpgmonline.com)
- BBF was measured by the method of impedance plethysmography. (epa.gov)
- 3. Reevaluation of the sensitivity of impedance plethysmography for the detection of proximal deep vein thrombosis. (nih.gov)
- 4. Limitations of impedance plethysmography in the diagnosis of clinically suspected deep-vein thrombosis. (nih.gov)
- 5. Comparison of the accuracy of impedance plethysmography and compression ultrasonography in outpatients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis. (nih.gov)
- 7. Features of thrombi and diagnostic accuracy of impedance plethysmography in symptomatic and asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis. (nih.gov)
- 9. An evaluation of impedance plethysmography and 125I-fibrinogen leg scanning in patients following hip surgery. (nih.gov)
- 13. Early diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis following total hip replacement using impedance plethysmography: advantages and limitations of this approach. (nih.gov)
- 14. The limitations of impedance plethysmography in the diagnosis of acute deep venous thrombosis. (nih.gov)
- 15. Deep vein thrombosis following aortic surgery: prospective evaluation of I125 fibrinogen and impedance plethysmography. (nih.gov)
- 16. Occlusive impedance plethysmography. (nih.gov)
- A comparison of venography, impedance plethysmography, and radiolabeled fibrinogen. (nih.gov)
- Care should be taken when choosing whether to use head-out versus whole-body plethysmography chambers during respiratory function testing in animals. (sri.com)
- Assess the agreement and validity between relative body fat percentages estimated using anthropometric measurements and air displacement plethysmography ( ADP ). (bvsalud.org)
- Neonatal body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. (nih.gov)
- and (3) low neonatal body fat percentage (BF%, measured by air displacement plethysmography) reflecting reduced nutritional reserve in utero. (biomedcentral.com)
- Plethysmography is the measurement of variations in the size of an organ or body part on the basis of the amount of blood passing through or present in the part. (nih.gov)
- Body plethysmography is considered the gold standard of lung volume measurement. (nih.gov)
- Lung function was assessed by a combination of whole-body barometric plethysmography, invasive measurement of airway resistance, and isometric force measurements in isolated bronchial rings. (nih.gov)
- When tested in a core battery of safety pharmacology assays, DSM421 did not produce any effects at oral doses up to 750 mg/kg in an Irwin test in rats, but a respiratory study in rats using head-out plethysmography resulted in substantial changes in respiratory function as well as moribundity and mortality at that and lower doses. (sri.com)
- Respiratory changes and toxicity (resulting in euthanasia in extremis) were confirmed in a repeat, head-out plethysmography test, but the effects of DSM421 were much less severe overall when the rats were tested in whole-body chambers. (sri.com)
- The generalized stress inherent to head-out plethysmography testing exacerbated the respiratory effects of DSM421 and was possibly compounded by DSM421's cardiovascular effects, thus artifactually resulting in moribundity and mortality in rats. (sri.com)
- A number of spectral parameters are extracted from the power spectral density (PSD) of the volume signal, derived from respiratory inductive plethysmography and evaluated through a linear discriminant analysis. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
- Plethysmography equipment: real time respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) technology, algorithm based (Ponemah, Buxco, SmartLab platforms-DSI Inc., Hans Rudolph Inc. (nih.gov)
- Potential testing errors, differences in types of plethysmography testing chambers, effects on stress indicators, and off-target activity were investigated. (sri.com)
- Lung function outcomes were measured by spirometry, plethysmography, and oscillometry. (cdc.gov)
- The ratio of T L,CO,sb measurements was strictly independent of the residual volume/total lung capacity ratio measured with plethysmography. (ersjournals.com)
- Estimation of sleep stages in a healthy adult population from optical plethysmography and accelerometer signals. (ohsu.edu)
- Optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) is a 3D motion capture technique that provides a comprehensive noninvasive assessment of chest wall during rest and exercise. (kent.ac.uk)
- A comparison with plethysmography and phlebography. (nih.gov)
- Patients with chronic persistent asthma may have hyperinflation, as evidenced by an increased total lung capacity (TLC) at plethysmography. (medscape.com)