The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
The preparation of platelet concentrates with the return of red cells and platelet-poor plasma to the donor.
The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
The transfer of blood components such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma from a donor to a recipient or back to the donor. This process differs from the procedures undertaken in PLASMAPHERESIS and types of CYTAPHERESIS; (PLATELETPHERESIS and LEUKAPHERESIS) where, following the removal of plasma or the specific cell components, the remainder is transfused back to the donor.
Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. These platelet-specific antigens are immunogenic and can result in pathological reactions to transfusion therapy.
A condition in newborns caused by immunity of the mother to PLATELET ALLOANTIGENS on the fetal platelets. The PLATELETS, coated with maternal ANTIBODIES, are destroyed and removed by the fetal MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Affected infants may have INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).
Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.
Any procedure in which blood is withdrawn from a donor, a portion is separated and retained and the remainder is returned to the donor.
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.
Passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt, in a monozygotic twin pregnancy. It results in anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. (Lee et al., Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p737-8)
A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.
The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.
A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
The process of generating thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via the MEGAKARYOCYTES. The humoral factor with thrombopoiesis-stimulating activity is designated THROMBOPOIETIN.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
Deficiency of all three cell elements of the blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.
A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.
Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
Liver disease that is caused by injuries to the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessels and subendothelial EDEMA, but not by THROMBOSIS. Extracellular matrix, rich in FIBRONECTINS, is usually deposited around the HEPATIC VEINS leading to venous outflow occlusion and sinusoidal obstruction.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.

Autologous transplantation of chemotherapy-purged PBSC collections from high-risk leukemia patients: a pilot study. (1/463)

We have recently demonstrated that the combination of the alkylating agent nitrogen mustard (NM) and etoposide (VP-16) is capable of eliminating, ex vivo, leukemic cells contaminating PBSC collections and this is associated with a significant recovery of primitive and committed hematopoietic progenitor cells. Based on these data a pilot study on autologous transplantation of NM/VP-16 purged PBSC for high-risk leukemic patients was recently initiated. Twelve patients (seven females and five males) with a median age of 46 years (range 18-57) have been treated. Two patients had acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) resistant to conventional induction treatment, four patients had secondary AML in I complete remission (CR), one patient was in II CR after failing a previous autologous BM transplantation, while two additional AML individuals were in I CR achieved after three or more cycles of induction treatment. Two patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in I CR and one patient with mantle cell lymphoma and leukemic dissemination were also included. Eight patients showed karyotypic abnormalities associated with a poor clinical outcome. The mobilizing regimens included cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone with (n = 6) or without fludarabine (n = 3) followed by subcutaneous administration of G-CSF (5 microg/kg/day until the completion of PBSC collection) and G-CSF alone (n = 3) (15 microg/kg/day). A median of two aphereses (range 1-3) allowed the collection of 7.2 x 10(8) TNC/kg (range 3.4-11.5), 5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg (range 2.1-15.3) and 9.2 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (0.3-236). PBSC were treated with a constant dose of 20 microg of VP-16/ml and a median individual-adjusted dose (survival < or = 5% of steady-state BM CFU-GM) of NM of 0.7 microg/ml (range 0.25-1.25). Eleven patients were reinfused after busulfan (16 mg/kg) and Cy (120 mg/kg) conditioning with a median residual dose of 0.3 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (0-11.5). The median time to neutrophil engraftment (>0.5 x 10(9)/l) for evaluable patients was 25 days (range 12-59); the median time to platelet transfusion independence (>20 and >50 x 10(9)/l) was 40 days (18-95) and 69 days (29-235), respectively. Hospital discharge occurred at a median of 25 days (18-58) after stem cell reinfusion. Four individuals are alive in CR (n = 3) or with residual nodal disease (n = 1 lymphoma patient) with a follow-up of 32, 26, 3 and 14 months, respectively. Seven patients died due to disease progression or relapse (n = 5) or extrahematological transplant toxicity (n = 2). Our data suggest that pharmacological purging of leukapheresis collections of leukemic patients at high-risk of relapse is feasible and ex vivo treated cells reconstitute autologous hematopoiesis.  (+info)

A restrictive platelet transfusion policy allowing long-term support of outpatients with severe aplastic anemia. (2/463)

The threshold for prophylactic platelet transfusions in patients with hypoplastic thrombopenia generally recommended in the standard literature is 20,000 platelets/microL. A more restrictive transfusion policy may be indicated in patients with chronic severe aplastic anemia (SAA) in need of long-term platelet support. We evaluated the feasibility and safety of a policy with low thresholds for prophylactic transfusions (+info)

Changes in endogenous TPO levels during mobilization chemotherapy are predictive of CD34+ megakaryocyte progenitor yield and identify patients at risk of delayed platelet engraftment post-PBPC transplant. (3/463)

Patients with delayed platelet recovery post-PBPC transplant (PBPCT) are a high-risk group for thrombocytopenic bleeding and platelet transfusion dependence. Total CD34+ cell dosage has been proposed as the most important factor influencing the rate of platelet recovery. To achieve the shortest time to platelet engraftment, a minimum leukapheresis target of 10x10(6) CD34+ cells/kg was established for 30 patients. Of the 29 evaluable patients, 62% had rapid (group I: time to platelets >20x10(9)/l < or =10 days and 50x10(9)/l < or =14 days) platelet recoveries while 38% had delayed (group II: 20x10(9)/l >10 days and 50x10(9)/l >14 days) recoveries. Groups I and II were compared for: (1) pretreatment variables; (2) mobilizing capability of CD34+ cells and subsets including megakaryocyte (Mk) progenitors; (3) infused dose of these cells at transplant; (4) changes in endogenous levels of Mpl ligand (or TPO) during mobilization and myeloablative chemotherapy. Group II patients received significantly more platelet transfusions (6 vs. 2.1, P = 0.002) post-PBPCT, had a higher proportion of patients with a prior history of BM disease (64% vs. 6%, P = 0.001), and showed a reduced ability to mobilize differentiated (CD34+/38+, CD34+/DR+) and Mk progenitors (CD34+/42a+, CD34+/61+). Only the number of Mk progenitors reinfused at transplant was significantly different between the groups (group II vs. group I: CD34+/42a+ = 1.02 vs. 2.56x10(6)/kg, P = 0.013; CD34+/61+ = 1.12 vs. 2.70x10(6)/kg, P = 0.015). The ability to mobilize Mk progenitors correlated with percentage changes in endogenous levels of TPO from baseline to platelet nadir during mobilization chemotherapy (CD34+/42a+: r = 0.684, P = 0.007; CD34+/61+: r = 0.684, P = 0.007), with group II patients experiencing lower percentage changes. An inverse trend but no correlation was observed between serial TPO levels and platelet counts. TPO levels remained elevated in group II patients throughout a prolonged period of thrombocytopenia (median days to 50x10(9)/l = 25 vs. 11 for group I), indicating that delayed engraftment was not due to a deficiency of TPO but to a lack of Mk progenitor target cells. Our results show that the number of reinfused Mk progenitors is a better predictor of platelet engraftment than total CD34+ cell dosage. Small changes in endogenous TPO levels during mobilization predict for low Mk progenitor yields.  (+info)

Subsets of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors and platelet recovery after high dose chemotherapy and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (4/463)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Randomized clinical trials have shown that peripheral blood stem cell transplantations (PBSCT) with appropriate doses of CD34+ cells are associated with rapid, complete and sustained recovery of marrow functions. Nevertheless, in a minority af patients delayed platelet recovery may occur and it remains to be established whether analysis of transplanted CD34+ cell subsets may demonstrate correlation with this phenomenon. We studied a series of 80 consecutive transplanted patients with the aim of evaluating the effect of CD34+ stem cell numbers and, in a subgroup of 32 patients, the effect of the lineage specific subset numbers on time to platelet engraftment (i.e. time to platelet counts higher than 20x10(9)/L for two consecutive days without the need for platelet transfusions). DESIGN AND METHODS: Different clinical and paraclinical factors were examined in a multivariate analysis for effect on platelet engraftment in 80 patients. RESULTS: The number of CD34+ cells/kg infused was the most important factor predicting the time to platelet engraftment. Patients receiving more than 10x10(6) CD34+ cells/kg had prompt platelet engraftment. The majority of the patients (78%) received fewer than 10x10(3) CD34+ cells/kg and 17/62 (27%) of these patients experienced delayed platelet engraftment. In 32 patients receiving fewer than 10x10(6) CD34+ cells/kg we focused on the content of different lineage specific CD34+ subsets in the PBSC products. The most significant correlation was recognized for CD34+/CD61+ megakaryocytic cell number and platelet engraftment. An inverse correlation between the CD34+/CD38Eth subset and platelet engraftment was found, indicating that a high number of CD34+/CD38Eth in the PBSC product might increase the risk for delayed engraftment. These results were further confirmed by the observation that patients who experienced platelet engraftment after day 20 had significantly more CD34+/CD38Eth cells/kg infused than patients with fast engraftment. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The number of total CD34+ cells/kg infused was the most important factor predicting time to platelet engraftment. CD34+ subset analysis in a subgroup of patients suggests that a high number of uncommitted progenitors may be associated with slower platelet recovery than transplantation with a higher fraction of more committed peripheral blood stem cells.  (+info)

Serious hazards of transfusion (SHOT) initiative: analysis of the first two annual reports. (5/463)

OBJECTIVE: To receive and collate reports of death or major complications of transfusion of blood or components. DESIGN: Haematologists were invited confidentially to report deaths and major complications after blood transfusion during October 1996 to September 1998. SETTING: Hospitals in United Kingdom and Ireland. SUBJECTS: Patients who died or experienced serious complications, as defined below, associated with transfusion of red cells, platelets, fresh frozen plasma, or cryoprecipitate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Death, "wrong" blood transfused to patient, acute and delayed transfusion reactions, transfusion related acute lung injury, transfusion associated graft versus host disease, post-transfusion purpura, and infection transmitted by transfusion. Circumstances relating to these cases and relative frequency of complications. RESULTS: Over 24 months, 366 cases were reported, of which 191 (52%) were "wrong blood to patient" episodes. Analysis of these revealed multiple errors of identification, often beginning when blood was collected from the blood bank. There were 22 deaths from all causes, including three from ABO incompatibility. There were 12 infections: four bacterial (one fatal), seven viral, and one fatal case of malaria. During the second 12 months, 164/424 hospitals (39%) submitted a "nil to report" return. CONCLUSIONS: Transfusion is now extremely safe, but vigilance is needed to ensure correct identification of blood and patient. Staff education should include awareness of ABO incompatibility and bacterial contamination as causes of life threatening reactions to blood.  (+info)

Correlation of cytokine elaboration with mononuclear cell adhesion to platelet storage bag plastic polymers: a pilot study. (6/463)

The basis for many febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions associated with platelet transfusion therapy is cytokine elaboration and accumulation in the storage bag, which correlate with the leukocyte content and the length of platelet storage. We propose that a possible additional variable in the elaboration and accumulation of cytokines is the differential adhesion of mononuclear cells to the plastic substrate of the platelet storage bag. We hypothesize that mononuclear cell adhesion-induced cytokine release is greater in random-donor platelet bags composed of the polyolefin polymer compared to the single-donor apheresis platelet bags composed of the polyvinyl chloride polymer with the tri-(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (TEHTM) plasticizer. For four blood donors, we demonstrate preferential mononuclear cell adhesion, in vitro, to discs of polyolefin polymer versus discs of polyvinyl chloride polymer with the TEHTM plasticizer. Scanning electron microscopy corroborates this. In addition, proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin 1beta [IL-1beta] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha]) levels are greater in culture wells containing discs of polyolefin polymer than in those containing discs of polyvinyl chloride polymer with the TEHTM plasticizer, and even more so in storage bags containing polyolefin polymer versus polyvinyl chloride polymer with the TEHTM plasticizer (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8). This study suggests, for the first time, that differential plastic substrate mononuclear cell adhesion may contribute to cytokine release during platelet storage. This may represent an additional variable in the pathophysiology of febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions in patients receiving stored platelet units.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin therapy for severe thrombocytopenia complicating falciparum malaria. (7/463)

A 12-year-old Saudi boy with falciparum malaria developed profound thrombocytopenia with associated significant bleeding. Immunoglobulin was used to treat this case.  (+info)

Sickle cell disease and aortic valve replacement: use of cardiopulmonary bypass, partial exchange transfusion, platelet sequestration, and continuous hemofiltration. (8/463)

Sickle cell disease in patients undergoing open heart procedures presents a multitude of challenges to the medical staff. With improved techniques of cardiopulmonary bypass, surgery, and anesthesia for treating patients with sickle cell disease, perfusionists will likely encounter patients with this genetic disorder on a more frequent basis. A 40-year-old black woman was admitted to our institution with recurrent Staphylococcus epidermidis and sepsis. She underwent transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac catheterization and was subsequently diagnosed with severe aortic insufficiency. The aortic valve was replaced. Herein, we report our experience in the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative management of this patient. We present a concise update on the current literature and techniques used by others in similar cases, and we provide a brief section on future considerations to assist fellow practitioners in recognizing this disease and meeting the accompanying challenges.  (+info)

There are several possible causes of thrombocytopenia, including:

1. Immune-mediated disorders such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
2. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia or leukemia.
3. Viral infections such as HIV or hepatitis C.
4. Medications such as chemotherapy or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
5. Vitamin deficiencies, especially vitamin B12 and folate.
6. Genetic disorders such as Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
7. Sepsis or other severe infections.
8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a condition where blood clots form throughout the body.
9. Postpartum thrombocytopenia, which can occur in some women after childbirth.

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), and prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgical sites. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include platelet transfusions, steroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and in severe cases, surgery.

In summary, thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by low platelet counts that can increase the risk of bleeding and bruising. It can be caused by various factors, and treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause.

The exact cause of NAIT is not fully understood, but it is thought to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition is more common in certain ethnic groups, such as African Americans and Hispanics, and in mothers who have a history of previous pregnancy complications or blood type incompatibility with their baby.

The symptoms of NAIT can vary from mild to severe and may include:

* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin)
* Nosebleeds
* Gingivitis (inflammation of the gums)
* Bleeding in the digestive tract

If NAIT is suspected, the baby's platelet count will be checked and the mother's blood will be tested for antibodies against the baby's platelets. Treatment may involve intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to reduce the mother's antibody production or a blood transfusion to increase the baby's platelet count. In severe cases, phototherapy may be used to help break down the antibodies and prevent bleeding.

Prevention of NAIT is challenging, but it is important for pregnant women to be aware of their risk factors and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms of the condition. Proper monitoring and prompt treatment can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for affected babies.

Example sentence: The patient had a hemorrhage after the car accident and needed immediate medical attention.

Blood group incompatibility can occur in various ways, including:

1. ABO incompatibility: This is the most common type of blood group incompatibility and occurs when the patient's blood type (A or B) is different from the donor's blood type.
2. Rh incompatibility: This occurs when the patient's Rh factor is different from the donor's Rh factor.
3. Other antigens: In addition to ABO and Rh, there are other antigens on red blood cells that can cause incompatibility, such as Kell, Duffy, and Xg.

Blood group incompatibility can be diagnosed through blood typing and cross-matching tests. These tests determine the patient's and donor's blood types and identify any incompatible antigens that may cause an immune response.

Treatment of blood group incompatibility usually involves finding a compatible donor or using specialized medications to reduce the risk of a negative reaction. In some cases, plasmapheresis, also known as plasma exchange, may be used to remove the incompatible antibodies from the patient's blood.

Prevention of blood group incompatibility is important, and this can be achieved by ensuring that patients receive only compatible blood products during transfusions. Blood banks maintain a database of donor blood types and perform thorough testing before releasing blood for transfusion to ensure compatibility. Additionally, healthcare providers should carefully review the patient's medical history and current medications to identify any potential allergies or sensitivities that may affect blood compatibility.

Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment options for aplastic anemia typically involve blood transfusions and immunosuppressive drugs to stimulate the bone marrow to produce new blood cells. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.

Overall, aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition that requires careful management by a healthcare provider to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

During fetofetal transfusion, blood flows from one fetus to another through the placenta, which is a vital organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetuses and removes waste products. The transfer of blood can occur through various channels, including the placental vasculature, umbilical cord, or other fetal-maternal interfaces.

There are different types of fetofetal transfusion, depending on the direction of blood flow:

1. Fetofetal transfusion in utero (in the womb): This is the most common type, where blood flows from one fetus to another within the womb.
2. Fetofetal transfusion through the placenta: In this type, blood flows from one fetus to the other through the placenta, which acts as a filter and regulates the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother's bloodstream and the fetuses'.
3. Fetofetal transfusion through the umbilical cord: This type occurs when the umbilical cord becomes tangled or compressed, causing blood to flow from one fetus to another.

The causes of fetofetal transfusion are not yet fully understood, but it is believed to be more common in multiple gestations (twins, triplets, etc.) and in cases where there is a placental abnormality or other complications during pregnancy.

Fetofetal transfusion can have both positive and negative effects on the development and health of the fetuses. On one hand, it can provide beneficial effects, such as:

1. Increased blood volume and oxygen supply: The transferred blood can help increase the blood volume and oxygen supply to the recipient fetus, which may be beneficial for its development and growth.
2. Improved nutrient supply: The transferred blood can also provide an increased supply of nutrients to the recipient fetus, which may improve its overall health and development.

However, fetofetal transfusion can also have negative effects, such as:

1. Anemia in the donor fetus: The loss of blood from the donor fetus can lead to anemia, which can negatively affect its growth and development.
2. Increased risk of complications: Fetofetal transfusion can increase the risk of complications during pregnancy, such as preterm labor, preeclampsia, and placental abruption.
3. Adverse effects on fetal development: The transferred blood can also contain substances that are not beneficial for the recipient fetus, which can lead to adverse effects on its development and growth.

Fetofetal transfusion is usually detected during routine ultrasound examinations, where it may appear as an abnormal flow of blood between the fetuses or as a collection of blood in the placenta or umbilical cord. If diagnosed early, fetofetal transfusion can be monitored and managed with regular ultrasound examinations and close maternal monitoring. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own without any complications.

In severe cases, however, fetofetal transfusion may require medical intervention, such as:

1. Blood sampling: Blood samples may be taken from the donor fetus to determine the extent of the transfer and to monitor the health of both fetuses.
2. Corticosteroid therapy: Corticosteroids may be administered to the mother to promote fetal maturity and reduce the risk of complications.
3. Planned delivery: In some cases, planned delivery may be necessary to avoid any potential risks to the fetuses.

It is important for pregnant women who have a multiple pregnancy to be aware of the risk of fetofetal transfusion and to seek regular prenatal care to monitor the health of both fetuses. Early detection and management can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for both fetuses.

There are several subtypes of refractory anemia, including:

1. Refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB): This type of anemia is characterized by a high number of immature red blood cells in the bone marrow.
2. Refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS): This type of anemia is characterized by the presence of abnormal red blood cells that have a "ring-like" appearance under a microscope.
3. Refractory anemia with multilineage dysplasia (RARMD): This type of anemia is characterized by abnormal cell development in the bone marrow, including immature red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Refractory anemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to certain chemicals or toxins, and certain medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease or rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment for refractory anemia typically involves blood transfusions and supportive care, such as folic acid supplements and antibiotics to prevent infection. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.

In general, surgical blood loss is considered excessive if it exceeds 10-20% of the patient's total blood volume. This can be determined by measuring the patient's hemoglobin levels before and after the procedure. A significant decrease in hemoglobin levels post-procedure may indicate excessive blood loss.

There are several factors that can contribute to surgical blood loss, including:

1. Injury to blood vessels or organs during the surgical procedure
2. Poor surgical technique
3. Use of scalpels or other sharp instruments that can cause bleeding
4. Failure to control bleeding with proper hemostatic techniques
5. Pre-existing medical conditions that increase the risk of bleeding, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand disease.

Excessive surgical blood loss can lead to a number of complications, including:

1. Anemia and low blood counts
2. Hypovolemic shock (a life-threatening condition caused by excessive fluid and blood loss)
3. Infection or sepsis
4. Poor wound healing
5. Reoperation or surgical intervention to control bleeding.

To prevent or minimize surgical blood loss, surgeons may use a variety of techniques, such as:

1. Applying topical hemostatic agents to the surgical site before starting the procedure
2. Using energy-based devices (such as lasers or ultrasonic devices) to seal blood vessels and control bleeding
3. Employing advanced surgical techniques that minimize tissue trauma and reduce the risk of bleeding
4. Monitoring the patient's hemoglobin levels throughout the procedure and taking appropriate action if bleeding becomes excessive.

The term "thrombasthenia" comes from the Greek words "thrombos," meaning clot, and "basis," meaning foundation. It was first used by the British physician Sir William Osler in the late 19th century to describe a group of rare bleeding disorders characterized by abnormal platelet function.

There are three main types of thrombasthenia:

1. Bernard-Soulier syndrome: This is the most common type of thrombasthenia and is caused by a defect in the gene that codes for the protein known as platelet membrane glycoprotein (PMG) IIb. People with this condition have large, fragile platelets that are prone to bleeding.
2. Glanzmann's thrombasthenia: This is a rare type of thrombasthenia caused by a defect in the gene that codes for the protein known as platelet membrane glycoprotein (PMG) IIIa. People with this condition have small, irregular platelets that are unable to form proper blood clots.
3. Gray platelet syndrome: This is a rare type of thrombasthenia caused by a defect in the gene that codes for the protein known as alpha-granule membrane protein (AGM). People with this condition have small, gray-colored platelets that are prone to bleeding.

Thrombasthenia can be diagnosed through blood tests that evaluate platelet function and genetic testing to identify the specific defect responsible for the disorder. Treatment typically involves avoiding medications that can exacerbate bleeding, using platelet transfusions to increase platelet numbers, and in some cases, undergoing surgery to repair or remove affected blood vessels.

There are several different types of leukemia, including:

1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts.
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This type of leukemia affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia affects older adults and is characterized by the slow growth of abnormal white blood cells called lymphocytes.
4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia is caused by a genetic mutation in a gene called BCR-ABL. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
5. Hairy Cell Leukemia: This is a rare type of leukemia that affects older adults and is characterized by the presence of abnormal white blood cells called hairy cells.
6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells. It can lead to leukemia if left untreated.

Treatment for leukemia depends on the type and severity of the disease, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Symptoms of pancytopenia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but may include blood transfusions, antibiotics, or immunosuppressive medications. In severe cases, pancytopenia can lead to anemia, infections, or bleeding complications that can be life-threatening.

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The main symptoms of PTI include:

* Purple spots or bruises (purpura) on the skin, which may be caused by minor trauma or injury.
* Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), typically less than 50,000 platelets/mm3.
* Mild anemia and reticulocytosis (increased immature red blood cells).
* Elevated levels of autoantibodies against platelet membrane glycoproteins (GP) and other platelet proteins.
* No evidence of other causes of thrombocytopenia, such as bone marrow disorders or infections.

The exact cause of PTI is unknown, but it is believed to involve an immune-mediated response triggered by a genetic predisposition. Treatment options for PTI include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and splenectomy in severe cases. The prognosis for PTI is generally good, with most patients experiencing resolution of symptoms and normalization of platelet counts within a few months to a year after treatment. However, some individuals may experience recurrent episodes of thrombocytopenia and purpura throughout their lives.

Myeloid leukemia can be classified into several subtypes based on the type of cell involved and the degree of maturity of the abnormal cells. The most common types of myeloid leukemia include:

1. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This is the most aggressive form of myeloid leukemia, characterized by a rapid progression of immature cells that do not mature or differentiate into normal cells. AML can be further divided into several subtypes based on the presence of certain genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities.
2. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This is a slower-growing form of myeloid leukemia, characterized by the presence of a genetic abnormality known as the Philadelphia chromosome. CML is typically treated with targeted therapies or bone marrow transplantation.
3. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders characterized by the impaired development of immature blood cells in the bone marrow. MDS can progress to AML if left untreated.
4. Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML): This is a rare form of myeloid leukemia that is characterized by the accumulation of immature monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. CMML can be treated with chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.

The symptoms of myeloid leukemia can vary depending on the subtype and severity of the disease. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options for myeloid leukemia can include chemotherapy, targeted therapies, bone marrow transplantation, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. The prognosis for myeloid leukemia varies depending on the subtype of the disease and the patient's overall health. With current treatments, many patients with myeloid leukemia can achieve long-term remission or even be cured.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are several subtypes of MDS, each with distinct clinical features and prognosis. The most common subtype is refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), followed by chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

The exact cause of MDS is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic mutations and environmental factors. Risk factors for developing MDS include exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, age over 60, and a history of previous cancer treatment.

Symptoms of MDS can vary depending on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, but may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, infection, bleeding, and easy bruising. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy.

Treatment for MDS depends on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Options may include supportive care, such as blood transfusions and antibiotics, or more intensive therapies like chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy.

Overall, myelodysplastic syndromes are a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders that can have a significant impact on quality of life and survival. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic accuracy, developing more effective treatments, and exploring novel therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for patients with MDS.

In DIC, the body's normal blood coagulation mechanisms become overactive and begin to form clots throughout the circulatory system, including in small blood vessels and organs. This can cause a range of symptoms, including bleeding, fever, and organ failure.

DIC is often seen in sepsis, which is a severe infection that has spread throughout the body. It can also be caused by other conditions such as trauma, cancer, and autoimmune disorders.

Treatment of DIC typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as treating an infection or injury, as well as supporting the body's natural clotting mechanisms and preventing further bleeding. In severe cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.

In summary, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) is a serious medical condition that can cause widespread clotting and damage to the body's organs and tissues. It is often seen in sepsis and other severe conditions, and treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and supporting the body's natural clotting mechanisms.

1. Leukemia: A type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells.
2. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the immune system, often involving the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues.
3. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells.
4. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): A group of disorders characterized by the impaired development of blood cells in the bone marrow.
5. Osteopetrosis: A rare genetic disorder that causes an overgrowth of bone, leading to a thickened bone marrow.
6. Bone marrow failure: A condition where the bone marrow is unable to produce enough blood cells, leading to anemia, infection, and other complications.
7. Myelofibrosis: A condition characterized by the scarring of the bone marrow, which can lead to an overproduction of blood cells and an increased risk of bleeding and infection.
8. Polycythemia vera: A rare blood disorder that causes an overproduction of red blood cells, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and other complications.
9. Essential thrombocythemia: A rare blood disorder that causes an overproduction of platelets, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and other complications.
10. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): A group of rare blood disorders that are characterized by the overproduction of blood cells and an increased risk of bleeding and infection.

These are just a few examples of bone marrow diseases. There are many other conditions that can affect the bone marrow, and each one can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a bone marrow disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can perform tests and provide a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

There are several subtypes of NHL, including:

1. B-cell lymphomas (such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma)
2. T-cell lymphomas (such as peripheral T-cell lymphoma and mycosis fungoides)
3. Natural killer cell lymphomas (such as nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma)
4. Histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma
5. Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma
6. Mantle cell lymphoma
7. Waldenström macroglobulinemia
8. Lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma
9. Myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) related lymphoma

These subtypes can be further divided into other categories based on the specific characteristics of the cancer cells.

Symptoms of NHL can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include:

* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Itching
* Abdominal pain
* Swollen spleen

Treatment for NHL typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, targeted therapy or immunotherapy. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of NHL, the stage of the cancer, and other individual factors.

Overall, NHL is a complex and diverse group of cancers that require specialized care from a team of medical professionals, including hematologists, oncologists, radiation therapists, and other support staff. With advances in technology and treatment options, many people with NHL can achieve long-term remission or a cure.

There are many different types of anemia, each with its own set of causes and symptoms. Some common types of anemia include:

1. Iron-deficiency anemia: This is the most common type of anemia and is caused by a lack of iron in the diet or a problem with the body's ability to absorb iron. Iron is essential for making hemoglobin.
2. Vitamin deficiency anemia: This type of anemia is caused by a lack of vitamins, such as vitamin B12 or folate, that are necessary for red blood cell production.
3. Anemia of chronic disease: This type of anemia is seen in people with chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.
4. Sickle cell anemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the structure of hemoglobin and causes red blood cells to be shaped like crescents or sickles.
5. Thalassemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin and can cause anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.

The symptoms of anemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and dizziness or lightheadedness. Anemia can be diagnosed with a blood test that measures the number and size of red blood cells, as well as the levels of hemoglobin and other nutrients.

Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes or supplements may be sufficient to treat anemia. For example, people with iron-deficiency anemia may need to increase their intake of iron-rich foods or take iron supplements. In other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address underlying conditions such as kidney disease or cancer.

Preventing anemia is important for maintaining good health and preventing complications. To prevent anemia, it is important to eat a balanced diet that includes plenty of iron-rich foods, vitamin C-rich foods, and other essential nutrients. It is also important to avoid certain substances that can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, such as alcohol and caffeine. Additionally, it is important to manage any underlying medical conditions and seek medical attention if symptoms of anemia persist or worsen over time.

In conclusion, anemia is a common blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the different types of anemia, their causes, and symptoms in order to seek medical attention if necessary. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of anemia can be successfully managed and prevented.

A condition where newborn babies have a lower than normal number of red blood cells or low levels of hemoglobin in their blood. The condition can be caused by various factors such as premature birth, low birth weight, infections, and genetic disorders. Symptoms may include jaundice, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. Treatment options may vary depending on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions and iron supplements.

Example usage: "Neonatal anemia is a common condition in newborn babies that can be caused by various factors such as premature birth or low birth weight."

AML is a fast-growing and aggressive form of leukemia that can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream. It is most commonly seen in adults over the age of 60, but it can also occur in children.

There are several subtypes of AML, including:

1. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the PML-RARA fusion gene. It is usually responsive to treatment with chemotherapy and has a good prognosis.
2. Acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified (NOS): This is the most common subtype of AML and does not have any specific genetic abnormalities. It can be more difficult to treat and has a poorer prognosis than other subtypes.
3. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. It can progress slowly over time and may require ongoing treatment.
4. Juvenile myeloid leukemia (JMML): This is a rare subtype of AML that occurs in children under the age of 18. It is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called blasts in the blood and bone marrow.

The symptoms of AML can vary depending on the subtype and the severity of the disease, but they may include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Shortness of breath
* Pale skin
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Swollen lymph nodes, liver, or spleen
* Bone pain
* Headache
* Confusion or seizures

AML is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

1. Complete blood count (CBC): This test measures the number and types of cells in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Bone marrow biopsy: This test involves removing a small sample of bone marrow tissue from the hipbone or breastbone to examine under a microscope for signs of leukemia cells.
3. Genetic testing: This test can help identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with AML.
4. Immunophenotyping: This test uses antibodies to identify the surface proteins on leukemia cells, which can help diagnose the subtype of AML.
5. Cytogenetics: This test involves staining the bone marrow cells with dyes to look for specific changes in the chromosomes that are associated with AML.

Treatment for AML typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of AML, the patient's age and overall health, and other factors. Some common treatments for AML include:

1. Chemotherapy: This involves using drugs to kill cancer cells. The most commonly used chemotherapy drugs for AML are cytarabine (Ara-C) and anthracyclines such as daunorubicin (DaunoXome) and idarubicin (Idamycin).
2. Targeted therapy: This involves using drugs that specifically target the genetic abnormalities that are causing the cancer. Examples of targeted therapies used for AML include midostaurin (Rydapt) and gilteritinib (Xospata).
3. Bone marrow transplantation: This involves replacing the diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor. This is typically done after high-dose chemotherapy to destroy the cancer cells.
4. Supportive care: This includes treatments to manage symptoms and side effects of the disease and its treatment, such as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Examples of supportive care for AML include blood transfusions, antibiotics, and platelet transfusions.
5. Clinical trials: These are research studies that involve testing new treatments for AML. Participating in a clinical trial may give patients access to innovative therapies that are not yet widely available.

It's important to note that the treatment plan for AML is highly individualized, and the specific treatments used will depend on the patient's age, overall health, and other factors. Patients should work closely with their healthcare team to determine the best course of treatment for their specific needs.

The condition is caused by sensitization of the mother's immune system to the Rh factor, which can occur when the mother's blood comes into contact with the fetus's blood during pregnancy or childbirth. The antibodies produced by the mother's immune system can attack the red blood cells of the fetus, leading to hemolytic anemia and potentially causing stillbirth or death in the newborn.

Erythroblastosis fetalis is diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of antibodies against the Rh factor. Treatment typically involves the administration of Rh immune globulin, which can help to prevent the mother's immune system from producing more antibodies against the Rh factor and reduce the risk of complications for the fetus. In severe cases, a blood transfusion may be necessary to increase the newborn's red blood cell count.

Erythroblastosis fetalis is a serious condition that requires close monitoring and proper medical management to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.

There are several types of thrombosis, including:

1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.

The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:

1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic

Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

Symptoms of neutropenia may include recurring infections, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. The diagnosis is typically made through a blood test that measures the number of neutrophils in the blood.

Treatment options for neutropenia depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, supportive care to manage symptoms, and in severe cases, bone marrow transplantation or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy to increase neutrophil production.

1. Injury to blood vessels during surgery
2. Poor suturing or stapling techniques
3. Bleeding disorders or use of anticoagulant medications
4. Infection or hematoma (a collection of blood outside the blood vessels)
5. Delayed recovery of blood clotting function

Postoperative hemorrhage can range from mild to severe and life-threatening. Mild bleeding may present as oozing or trickling of blood from the surgical site, while severe bleeding can lead to hypovolemic shock, organ failure, and even death.

To diagnose postoperative hemorrhage, a physical examination and medical history are usually sufficient. Imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be ordered to evaluate the extent of bleeding and identify any underlying causes.

Treatment of postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity and location of the bleeding. Mild bleeding may be managed with dressings, compression bandages, and elevation of the affected limb. Severe bleeding may require interventions such as:

1. Surgical exploration to locate and control the source of bleeding
2. Transfusion of blood products or fresh frozen plasma to restore clotting function
3. Use of vasopressors to raise blood pressure and perfuse vital organs
4. Hemostatic agents such as clotting factors, fibrin sealants, or hemostatic powder to promote clot formation
5. In some cases, surgical intervention may be required to repair damaged blood vessels or organs.

Prevention of postoperative hemorrhage is crucial in reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures include:

1. Proper preoperative evaluation and preparation, including assessment of bleeding risk factors
2. Use of appropriate anesthesia and surgical techniques to minimize tissue trauma
3. Conservative use of hemostatic agents and blood products during surgery
4. Closure of all bleeding sites before completion of the procedure
5. Monitoring of vital signs, including pulse rate and blood pressure, during and after surgery
6. Preoperative and postoperative management of underlying conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and coagulopathies.

Early recognition and prompt intervention are critical in effectively managing postoperative hemorrhage. In cases of severe bleeding, timely and appropriate interventions can reduce the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

VOD is most commonly seen in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or solid organ transplantation, as well as those with certain inherited genetic disorders. It is caused by a combination of factors, including immune system dysfunction, infection, and exposure to certain drugs or toxins.

Symptoms of VOD can include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In severe cases, VOD can lead to liver failure, sepsis, and death.

Treatment for VOD typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and medications to manage symptoms, as well as therapies aimed at addressing any underlying causes of the condition. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Prognosis for VOD varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

... transfusions when the platelet count is less than 10 x 109/L compared to giving platelet transfusions when the platelet count ... Platelet transfusion, also known as platelet concentrate, is used to prevent or treat bleeding in people with either a low ... In people with a low platelet count, prophylactic platelet transfusions do not need to be given prior to procedures that have a ... The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of platelet transfusions prior to surgery for people with a low platelet count ...
PI = post-transfusion platelet count - pre-transfusion platelet count However, it is affected by the number of platelets given ... "". Retrieved 2018-12-28. Hod, Eldad; Schwartz, Joseph (2008). "Platelet transfusion ... All measures of platelet refractoriness are defined by the timing of the post-transfusion platelet count, usually 1 hour post ... Platelet transfusion refractoriness is the repeated failure to achieve the desired level of blood platelets in a patient ...
Platelet count increase as well as platelet survival after transfusion is related to the dose of platelets infused and to the ... Not all platelet transfusions use platelets collected by automated apheresis. The platelets can also be separated from ... platelet increment at one hr x BSA (m2) / # platelets infused x 1011 Expected platelet increase (per μL) = platelets infused x ... Early platelet transfusions used a filter to remove white blood cells at the time of transfusion. It takes a trained person ...
Consecutively, platelet transfusion and ddAVP can be carried out. Medication that interferes with platelet count should be ... There are a variety of tests that can be carried out, like karyotypes, cardiac echocardiograms, a renal sonogram, a platelet ... which is a bleeding disorder and causes a lifelong risk of abnormal bleeding and bruising due to dysfunction in the platelets. ...
For plasma and platelet transfusions the system is reversed: AB positive is the universal platelet donor type while both AB ... "Transfusion Handbook, summary information for Platelets". National Blood Transfusion Committee. Archived from the original on ... "In Vitro Evaluation of Buffy Coat Derived Platelet Concentrates in SSP+ Platelet Storage Medium". Transfusion Medicine. 16: 26 ... This process is especially common for plasma, platelets, and red blood cells. For direct transfusions a vein can be used but ...
1989). "A new platelet-specific antigen, Naka, involved in the refractoriness of HLA-matched platelet transfusion". Vox ... despite multiple platelet transfusions, continued to exhibit low platelet levels. This condition is known as refractoriness to ... platelet transfusion. Subsequent studies have shown that CD36 found on the surface of platelets. This antigen is recognized by ... August 1999). "CD36 deficiency is frequent and can cause platelet immunization in Africans". Transfusion. 39 (8): 873-9. doi: ...
Dose of prophylactic platelet transfusions and prevention of hemorrhage. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010 Feb 18;362(7): ... Transfusion medicine-blood transfusion. New England Journal of Medicine. 1999 Feb 11;340(6):438-47. (Cited 1068 times, ... "Bacterial Contamination of Platelets for Transfusion". ... Transfusion medicine: looking to the future. The Lancet. 2003 Jan 11;361(9352):161-9.(Cited 409 times, according to Google ...
Platelet transfusions are generally not recommended. About 1 per 100,000 people are affected. Onset is typically in adulthood ... Platelets are consumed in the aggregation process and bind vWF. These platelet-vWF complexes form small blood clots which ... This results in a low platelet count, low red blood cells due to their breakdown, and often kidney, heart, and brain ... TTP, as with other microangiopathic hemolytic anemias (MAHAs), is caused by spontaneous aggregation of platelets and activation ...
Platelet transfusion is discouraged, as this too may aggravate thrombosis. UK guidelines by the British Society for Haematology ... which includes a platelet count) as the initial investigation. If the platelet count is decreased, determination of the D-dimer ... The low platelet count may manifest as petechia (tiny blood spots under the skin) beyond the site of the injection. ... On 7 April 2021, the EMA noted one "plausible explanation" for the combination of blood clots and low blood platelets is "an ...
Platelet transfusion is transfused to those with low platelet count. Platelets can be stored at room temperature for up to 5-7 ... Single donor platelets, which have a more platelet count but it is bit expensive than regular. Plasma transfusion is indicated ... Transfusions of platelets are comparatively far less numerous, but they present unique storage/management issues. Platelets may ... Platelets are typically pooled before transfusion and have a shelf life of 5 to 7 days, or 3 days once the facility that ...
Functional platelets are generated throughout the culture allowing the prospective collection of several transfusion units from ... Thon JN, Medvetz DA, Karlsson SM, Italiano JE (June 2015). "Road blocks in making platelets for transfusion". Journal of ... A significant problem for multitransfused patients is refractoriness to platelet transfusions. Thus, the ability to generate ... RBC transfusion is necessary for many patients. However, to date the supply of RBCs remains labile. In addition, transfusion ...
"14-year-old needs regular platelet transfusions". Retrieved 26 February 2013. "Best foot forward for transplant girl". Harrow ... June 2012 at the Great Ormond Street Hospital after a lengthy battle with her lung condition and chronic platelet transfusion ... However, she was left chronically platelet and red cell dependent after the transplant. In addition, she inherited her brothers ... rarer blood type AB-. Therefore it became increasingly difficult to source negative platelets for her, and she organised ...
"Peanut and fish allergy due to platelet transfusion in a child". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 187 (12): 905-907. doi: ... An allergic transfusion reaction is a type of transfusion reaction that is defined according to the Center for Disease Control ... An allergic transfusion reaction is when a blood transfusion results in allergic reaction. It is among the most common ... Treatment of an allergic transfusion reaction is to immediately stop the transfusion. If the only symptoms are mild (i.e., ...
"Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing ... It is possible that patients undergoing a chemotherapy need a platelet transfusion. If a stem cell transplantation is necessary ... Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group) (May 2012). "Prophylactic platelet transfusion for prevention of bleeding in ...
If the platelet count is extremely low, a platelet transfusion may be performed. Thrombocytosis, meaning a high platelet count ... Platelet clumps may be counted as single platelets by automated analyzers, leading to a falsely decreased platelet count. This ... 2015). "Platelet transfusion: a clinical practice guideline from the AABB". Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (3): 205-213. doi: ... The results may indicate a need for a blood or platelet transfusion. The complete blood count has specific applications in many ...
Platelet transfusion is the main treatment for people presenting with bleeding symptoms. There have been experiments with DDAVP ... Platelet Disorders Overview of Platelet Disorders at eMedicine Mhawech, Paulette (2000). "Inherited Giant Platelet Disorders". ... Giant platelet disorder occurs for inherited diseases like Bernard-Soulier syndrome, gray platelet syndrome and May-Hegglin ... This would utilize platelet aggregation studies and flow cytometry. Giant platelet disorders can be further categorized: caused ...
"Past and future approaches to assess the quality of platelets for transfusion". Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 21 (4): 295-306. ... Platelet swirling is a noninvasive method for testing the quality of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Platelet swirling is caused by ... and glucose tests for the detection of bacterial contamination in platelet concentrates". Transfusion. 36 (11-12): 989-993. doi ... "The Physics of Platelet 'Swirling'". AABB. 12 April 2006. Archived from the original on 30 June 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009. v ...
"Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing ... Chemotherapies or stem cell transplantations may require a platelet transfusion to prevent bleeding. Moreover, patients ... "Prophylactic platelet transfusion for prevention of bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy and ... and platelets. Diagnosis is typically based on blood tests and bone marrow examination. ALL is typically treated initially with ...
"Passive reporting greatly underestimates the rate of transfusion-associated circulatory overload after platelet transfusion". ... In transfusion medicine, transfusion-associated circulatory overload (aka TACO) is a transfusion reaction (an adverse effect of ... Death TACO and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) are both complications following a transfusion, and both can ... Skeate, Robert C; Eastlund, Ted (November 2007). "Distinguishing between transfusion related acute lung injury and transfusion ...
Whole blood is collected to make packed red blood cells and plasma for transfusion. Plasma and platelets for transfusion are ... Transfusion medicine "Donor FAQ". SANBS. "What tests do SANBS use?". SANBS. "2008 Haemovigilance Report" (PDF). SANBS. "Nucleic ... The South African National Blood Service (SANBS) is a non-profit organisation that provides human blood for transfusion that ... SANBS collects blood from volunteer unpaid donors and processes that blood into components for transfusion. The donors are ...
"Platelets induce neutrophil extracellular traps in transfusion-related acute lung injury". The Journal of Clinical ... which sense severe infection via platelet TLR4 and then bind to and activate neutrophils to form NETs. Platelet-induced NET ... NETs possibly contribute to the hypercoagulable state in HIV by trapping platelets, and expressing tissue factor. NETs also ... Vital NETosis can be stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), other "bacterial products, TLR4-activated platelets, or ...
In the event of significant bleeding, platelet transfusions should be administered. Circumcision should be avoided for infant ... Platelets are cell fragments in the blood that aid in clotting. Platelets are produced in the bone marrow. Normal platelet ... Individuals with XLT usually have drastically reduced platelet counts, typically less than 70,000 platelets per µL of blood. ... Not only are there fewer platelets circulating, but individuals with XLT also have smaller platelets. Fewer and smaller ...
Some patients require blood and platelet transfusion, or G-CSF injections to boost neutrophil counts. Fludarabine is associated ... The profound lymphopenia caused by fludarabine renders patients susceptible to transfusion-associated graft versus host disease ... an oftentimes fatal complication of blood transfusion. For this reason, all patients who have ever received fludarabine should ...
Although transfusions of platelets are far less numerous (relative to RBC), platelet storage lesion and resulting efficacy loss ... Blood Transfusion Leaflets (NHS Blood and Transplant) Blood Transfusion Leaflets (Welsh Blood Service) Blood Transfusion ... at about 1 in 50,000 platelet transfusions, and 1 in 500,000 red blood cell transfusions. Blood product contamination, while ... febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction, cytomegalovirus infection, and platelet-transfusion refractoriness. Pathogen ...
Decreased platelet counts are dangerous, but platelet transfusions are also not safe. Transfused platelets can augment ... He has also evaluated the importance of decreased blood monocyte and platelet counts for early diagnosis of NEC in these ... "Role of platelets in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis." Pediatric Research. 2021;89:1087-1093 Namachivayam et al. "Targeted ... In his laboratory, he investigated the role of intestinal macrophages and platelets in intestinal inflammation. In 2018, he ...
Platelets for transfusion can also be prepared from a unit of whole blood. Some blood banks have replaced this with platelets ... Whole blood has similar risks to a transfusion of red blood cells and must be cross-matched to avoid hemolytic transfusion ... The first transfusion of whole blood was in 1818; however, common use did not begin until the First and Second World Wars. It ... Whole blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and blood plasma. It is best within a day of ...
"Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing ... It was seen that platelet transfusions for people undergoing a chemotherapy or a stem cell transplantation for the prevention ... Chemotherapies and stem cell transplants can cause unwanted bleedings and may require platelet transfusions. ... "Prophylactic platelet transfusion for prevention of bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy and ...
Extremely low platelet counts may be temporarily boosted through platelet transfusions and new drugs to increase platelet ... "Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing ... Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group) (May 2012). "Prophylactic platelet transfusion for prevention of bleeding in ... and platelets. Anemia and thrombocytopenia may require blood transfusion. Neutropenia (a decrease of the neutrophil granulocyte ...
Cryoprecipitate Cryosupernatant Fresh frozen plasma PF24 Platelet transfusion Red blood cells The Clinical Use of Blood ... Whole blood is not commonly used in transfusion medicine. Blood components include: red blood cell concentrates or suspensions ... platelets produced from whole blood or via apheresis; plasma; and cryoprecipitate. Plasma derivatives are plasma proteins ...
When comparing therapeutic/non-prophylactic platelet transfusions to prophylactic platelet transfusions there is little to no ... "Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing ... Platelet transfusions may be necessary for those who receive chemotherapy or undergo a stem cell transplantation due to the ... The evidence suggests that therapeutic platelet transfusions result in a large increase in the number of people with at least ...
One affected person was reported to have a reduced number of platelets (thrombocytopaenia) in infancy, requiring transfusion. ... Platelets are cellular fragments formed from protrusions on megakaryocytes that enable blood clotting. Blood symptoms have not ...
Rarely the disease is spread by blood transfusions. Diagnosis in the early stages is difficult. A number of laboratory tests ... Abnormal laboratory findings seen in patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever may include a low platelet count, low blood ...
Doctors diagnosed a low blood platelet count and Dolan began a series of blood transfusions, after each, he felt better for a ... Despite the blood transfusions and other medical interventions, Dolan became weaker and he was finally discharged from the ...
There is no scientific evidence to support Lyme disease transmission via blood transfusion, sexual contact, or breast milk. ... or who have abnormally low levels of white or red cells or platelets in the blood, should be investigated for possible ...
Fitter S, Tetaz TJ, Berndt MC, Ashman LK (1995). "Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding a novel platelet-endothelial cell tetra- ... Transfusion medicine). ... identifies a novel platelet surface antigen". Br. J. Haematol. ...
Klein developed a technique that allowed the separation of whole human blood into its component parts of plasma, platelets, ... white blood cells, and red blood cells, greatly increasing the efficiency of the entire transfusion process; now three people ... could benefit from a single donor instead of one, with red blood cells used for anemic individuals, platelets for cancer ...
Fluid replacement, blood transfusions, and medication for low blood pressure may be required. Intravenous interferon therapy ... low platelets), and elevated aspartate transaminase levels in the blood. Lassa fever virus can also be found in cerebrospinal ...
This reduces NO-dependent vasodilation and induces platelet activation, thrombin generation, procoagulant factors and tissue ... an 18-year study of 865 cases referred to a regional transfusion centre". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 282 (6281): 2023-7. doi: ... through either a blood transfusion or a previous pregnancy. Because in vivo hemolysis destroys red blood cells, in uncontrolled ...
Sandrock, Kirstin; Zieger, Barbara (2010). "Current Strategies in Diagnosis of Inherited Storage Pool Defects". Transfusion ... Therefore, the following examples include: Platelet alpha-granules Gray platelet syndrome Quebec platelet disorder Dense ... such as platelet alpha-granules[citation needed] one of three types of platelet secretory granule Platelet α-granules are ... Platelet storage pool deficiency is a type of coagulopathy characterized by defects in the granules in platelets, particularly ...
Blood transfusions can also be used to treat severe anemia in DBA. Periods of remission may occur, during which transfusions ... DBA causes low red blood cell counts (anemia), without substantially affecting the other blood components (the platelets and ... This option may be considered when patients become transfusion-dependent because frequent transfusions can lead to iron ... "Unexpected complications after bone marrow transplantation in transfusion-dependent children". Bone Marrow Transplantation. 12 ...
... platelets and red blood cells Blood and its products have special storage times and conditions. The red blood cell product can ... In 1978, in addition to Tehran, blood transfusion centers were established by the "Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization" in 3 ... "Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization" is as follows: The Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization has defined these criteria ... The Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization or acronymly IBTO (Persian: سازمان انتقال خون ایران) is the highest and only ...
Platelet count, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and haptoglobin are usually unaffected and may be used to ... It can be associated with parvovirus B19 infection and with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Although the exact ... "Selective fetocide reversed mirror syndrome in a dichorionic triplet pregnancy with severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome: a ...
In 1869 he noted the value of blood transfusions in treating anemia. In 1881 he described platelets as a third element in blood ... Platelets had been described by Max Schultze in 1865 but Bizzozero identified their function. He called them petit plaques ( ... He was a pioneer of histology and is credited with the coining of the term platelets and identifying their function in ... Ribatti, D; Crivellato, E (2007). "Giulio Bizzozero and the discovery of platelets". Leuk Res. 31 (10): 1339-41. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... impact on platelet and red blood cell component use". Transfusion. 49 (7): 1412-1422. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2009.02151.x. ... in platelet and plasma blood components prepared for transfusion support of patients. Prior to clinical use, amotosalen-treated ... "FDA approves pathogen reduction system to treat platelets". Archived from the original on 2014-12-25. Alexandru D ... Ciaravino V, McCullough T, Dayan AD: Pharmacokinetic and toxicology assessment of INTERCEPT (S-59 and UVA treated)platelets. ...
The specialist Immunohematology and Transfusion Physician provides expert opinion for difficult transfusions, massive ... platelet rich plasma therapies, HLA and cord blood banking. Other research avenues are in the field of stem cell researches, ... Clinical laboratory scientist Transfusion medicine Todd, C. Interview. 16 May 2008. Immunohematologist. v t e (All articles ... Immunohematology is a branch of hematology and transfusion medicine which studies antigen-antibody reactions and analogous ...
Heparin and platelet transfusions should not be used as a treatment for any form of cerebral venous thrombosis caused by immune ... due to unpredictable effects of heparin on anti-platelet factor-4 antibodies (PF-4). In cases of VITT, intravenous immune ... benefits still outweigh the risks despite possible link to rare blood clots with low blood platelets". European Medicines ... globulins (IVIG) are recommended as they block the anti-PF4 antibody interaction with platelets and a non-heparin anticoagulant ...
Transfusion. 50 (5): 1014-8. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2009.02535.x. PMID 20003046. Transfusion-Related Lung Injury (TRALI). Karp ... Removing multiparous women from this limited donor pool would likely cause too great a shortage of platelets, resulting in more ... The production of PF24 began in response to an increase in reported cases of transfusion-related acute lung injury, or TRALI. ... The phrase "FFP" is sometimes used to refer to any frozen blood plasma product intended for transfusion. PF24 is stored, thawed ...
Other risk factors potentially implicated include congenital heart disease, birth asphyxia, exchange transfusion, and prelabor ... too few platelets in the bloodstream) Bell's stage 3 (advanced disease): Severe systemic illness (low blood pressure) ... Intestinal dysbiosis Acute hypoxia Antibiotic exposure Blood transfusions Cardiac anomalies Neonatal anemia Poor intestinal ...
Blood transfusions have been ruled out as a risk factor. The diagnosis of CLL is based on the demonstration of an abnormal ... or platelets. Or there is fever, night sweats, weight loss, and the person feels tired. CLL can be grouped with small ... and is based primarily on the presence of a low platelet or red cell count. Early-stage disease does not need to be treated. ...
Frequent platelet transfusions are required to keep the patient from bleeding to death until transplant has been completed, ... It is essential for the formation of an adequate quantity of platelets. After budding off platelets, what remains is mainly the ... In either scenario, each of these proto-platelet processes can give rise to 2000-5000 new platelets upon breakup. Overall, 2/3 ... In one scenario, these proto-platelet processes break up explosively to become platelets. It is possible to visualize the ...
... and typing and cross-matching for transfusion of blood products. A clotting abnormality and low platelet concentration in the ... Platelets should be maintained above 50,000/mL and clotting abnormalities should be corrected with vitamin K or fresh frozen ...
For apheresis platelet donation the donor's pre platelet count should be above 150 x 10^9/L. For apheresis plasma donation, the ... Transfusion Today, 2007, 71:7-9. Koch, Holger M.; Bolt, Hermann M.; Preuss, Ralf; Eckstein, Reinhold; Weisbach, Volker; Angerer ... The yield is normally the equivalent of between six and ten random platelet concentrates. Quality control demands the platelets ... removal of platelets in people with symptoms from extreme elevations in platelet count such as those with essential ...
Blood transfusions may be given if the level of hemoglobin in the blood is extremely low, that is less than 8.0 g/dL or 4.5-5.0 ... A platelet test is also an important test in such conditions. Medicines such as painkillers or antibiotics, e.g. ciprofloxacin ... could decrease platelet count which can lead to thrombocytopenia (when the body does not have sufficient platelets in the blood ... Blood transfusion is required in such conditions if the body loses more than 20 percent of body blood volume. Severe loss makes ...
The platelet as a sponge: a review. Blood. 1961 Jun;17:767-74. Hyposplenism: an inquiry into normal functions of the spleen. ... At this time he studied and published on various aspects of blood transfusion following injury. It was also during this period ... In addition he studied methods of blood transfusions and the quality of available blood and concluded that the procedures were ...
Blood transfusion also caused the transfer of platelets that can work along with coagulating factors for blood clotting to ... Blood transfusion involves the transfer of plasma containing all the necessary coagulating factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin, ... this may result in the reduction of platelets being produced and leads to excessive bleeding. Several types of coagulopathy are ...
The Welsh Blood Service's roles include[citation needed] the collection of voluntary, non-remunerated blood, platelet and stem- ... Medical Consultant support to Hospital Blood Transfusion Committees, which includes support in achieving the objectives of WHC ... contribution to the maintenance of quality standards in the transfusion and transplantation community. On 2 May 2016 the Welsh ... 2002)137 Better Blood Transfusion. Clinical advice is provided to customer hospitals as required. hosting the UK NEQAS external ...
"The role of point-of-care assessment of platelet function in predicting postoperative bleeding and transfusion requirements ... cAMP inhibits platelet aggregation, and decreased amounts of cAMP in platelets lead to platelet aggregation. The PGE1 reagent ... Binding of fibrinogen to GPIIb/IIIa receptors leads to platelet-to-platelet bridges and results in platelet aggregation. ... TXA2 increases platelet aggregation, promotes degranulation and stimulates platelet activation. Inhibition of COX1, as with ...
April 2007). "Platelet TLR4 activates neutrophil extracellular traps to ensnare bacteria in septic blood". Nature Medicine. 13 ... Estcourt LJ, Stanworth S, Doree C, Blanco P, Hopewell S, Trivella M, Massey E (June 2015). "Granulocyte transfusions for ... Research suggests giving granulocyte transfusions to prevent infections decreased the number of people who had a bacterial or ... Estcourt LJ, Stanworth SJ, Hopewell S, Doree C, Trivella M, Massey E (April 2016). "Granulocyte transfusions for treating ...
2015)‎. Collaborative study to enlarge the first WHO repository of platelet transfusion-relevant bacterial reference strains: ... Collaborative study to enlarge the first WHO repository of platelet transfusion-relevant bacterial reference strains: Expert ...
title = "Randomized trial of platelet-transfusion thresholds in neonates",. abstract = "BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusions are ... those randomly assigned to receive platelet transfusions at a platelet-count threshold of 50,000 per cubic millimeter had a ... those randomly assigned to receive platelet transfusions at a platelet-count threshold of 50,000 per cubic millimeter had a ... those randomly assigned to receive platelet transfusions at a platelet-count threshold of 50,000 per cubic millimeter had a ...
Evaluation of Platelet Responses in Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI). I: Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2020 ; Vol ... Evaluation of Platelet Responses in Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI). Transfusion Medicine Reviews, 34(4), 227-233 ... Evaluation of Platelet Responses in Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), Transfusion Medicine Reviews, vol. 34, nr. ... Evaluation of Platelet Responses in Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI). Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2020 okt.;34(4 ...
Among preterm infants with severe thrombocytopenia, those randomly assigned to receive platelet transfusions at a platelet- ... Randomized Trial of Platelet-Transfusion Thresholds in Neonates.. Curley, Anna; Stanworth, Simon J; Willoughby, Karen; Fustolo- ... Platelet transfusions are commonly used to prevent bleeding in preterm infants with thrombocytopenia. Data are lacking to ... In the high-threshold group, 90% of the infants (296 of 328 infants) received at least one platelet transfusion, as compared ...
... evidence supporting the routine administration of prophylactic platelets is absent. Furthermore, platelet transfusion bears ... The objective of the current trial is, therefore, to demonstrate that omitting prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to CVC ... or receive no prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to CVC insertion. The primary endpoint is WHO grades 2-4 bleeding. ... randomised controlled trial powered to test the hypothesis of whether omitting forgoing platelet transfusion prior to central ...
Fatal Bacterial Infections Associated with Platelet Transfusions ― United States, 2004. Although the blood supply is very safe ... Fatal Bacterial Infections Associated with Platelet Transfusions ― United States, 2004. *Tularemia Transmitted by Insect Bites ... This is because the risk of transfusion-transmitted viral diseases has declined with improved testing, while the risk from ... Hospital transfusion services, blood collection center personnel, and when, necessary, public health departments, should ...
Participants were randomly assigned to receive one unit of prophylactic platelet transfusion or no platelet transfusion before ... Study Weighs Timing of Platelet Transfusion With Central Venous Catheter Placement. By Jason Junior On May 27, 2023. ... The net savings were $410 per catheter placement for withholding prophylactic platelet transfusion before CVC placement. ... results in more CVC-related bleeding events than prophylactic platelet transfusion, according to guidelines published in the ...
Dunne et al report that platelets from type O subjects bound poorly to von Willebrand factor (VWF) of mixed ABOs under arterial ... ABO on platelets goes beyond transfusion Jing-fei Dong Jing-fei Dong ... Platelets are known to express ABO,2,3 but its physiological relevance has been almost exclusively considered for platelet ... The findings extend the relevance of platelet ABO beyond transfusion medicine, but require further validation. The findings ...
White cells and platelets in blood transfusion : proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Symposium on Blood Transfusion, Groningen ... Blood transfusion -- congresses , Blood platelets -- congresses , Leukocytes -- congressesNLM classification: WB 356 ... By: (11th: Symposium on Blood Transfusion (11th: 1986: Groningen, Netherlands)Contributor(s): Smit Sibinga, C. T , Das, P. C , ...
For patients receiving FARYDAK, 33% required platelet transfusion *For patients with platelet count ,50 x 109/L with bleeding ( ... For patients with platelet count ,50 x 109/L (grade 3), maintain FARYDAK and bortezomib doses and monitor platelet counts at ... For patients with severe thrombocytopenia, consider platelet transfusions *Discontinue FARYDAK if thrombocytopenia does not ... Interrupt FARYDAK therapy and monitor platelets at least weekly until ≥50 x 109/L, and restart at reduced dose ...
... platelet-poor plasma, fibrinogen, rFVIIa, rFXIII, thrombopoietin mimetics, antifibrinolytic drugs or platelet transfusions) in ... patients with chronic bone marrow failure and to derive a hierarchy of potential alternate treatments to platelet transfusions. ... platelet-poor plasma, fibrinogen, rFVIIa, rFXIII, thrombopoietin mimetics, antifibrinolytic drugs or platelet transfusions) in ... Alternative agents versus prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with thrombocytopenia due to ...
Hemorrhage affecting the spinal cord is rare. It most commonly is caused by trauma, vascular malformations, or bleeding diatheses and can be intramedullary, subarachnoid, subdural, or epidural.
... causing a low platelet count. Learn more here. ... when the maternal immune system attacks the babys platelets, ... Treatment for NAIT may involve blood transfusions to raise platelet levels or infusions of immunoglobulins for the birthing ... Platelets have proteins on their surface called human platelet antigens (HPAs). A fetus will inherit half of their antigens ... It occurs when the maternal immune system attacks the fetuss platelets, causing a low platelet count and potentially life ...
Problems can occur when platelets are low in number or do not work properly or when certain coagulation factors are low or ... Bleeding disorders can also result from a problem with the number or function of platelets. These disorders can also be either ... Normal blood clotting involves blood particles, called platelets, and as many as 20 different plasma proteins that layer over ... Von Willebrand disease and hemorrhagic abnormalities of platelet and vascular function. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman ...
Listeria monocytogenes Transmission from Donated Blood to Platelet Transfusion Recipient, Italy M. Gori et al. View Abstract. ... Environmental samples were collected from a platelet collection set manufacturing facility. Seven sepsis cases from 6 platelet ... confirming transfusion transmission. Additional surveillance and secondary bacterial screening could improve transfusion safety ... Transfused platelet components underwent bacterial risk control strategies (primary culture, pathogen reduction or primary ...
"Management of Platelet Disorders and Platelet Transfusions in ICU Patients." Transfusion medicine reviews.. 2017 Oct; 31(4):252 ... "ABO-mismatched platelet transfusions and clinical outcomes after cardiac surgery." Transfusion.. 2002 Nov; 42(11):1527-8; ... "Platelet collection and transfusion using the fenwal CS-3000 cell separator." Transfusion.. 1981 21(5):560-3. ... "Improving platelet transfusion safety: biomedical and technical considerations." Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue.. ...
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications: Refractoriness to platelet transfusion, subdural hematoma. Investigations: ...
Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common transfusion-associated pathogen contaminating platelet concentrates. Methods to ... Rapid selection of single-stranded DNA aptamers binding Staphylococcus epidermidis in platelet concentrates. ... reduce or eliminate contaminating bacteria from platelet units are critical for improving the safety of blood transfusions. We ... Furthermore, when binding assays were conducted in platelet concentrate, there was a twofold increase in binding affinity ...
Platelet Transfusion American Society of Clinical Oncology Last Updated: Jan 15, 2018 ...
Platelet count ≥75 × 103/µL without transfusion in the past 7 days ... Hemoglobin ≥8 g/dL (4.96 mmol/L), transfusion allowed. *Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and ...
Her haemoglobin and blood platelet are low so need blood transfusion. The heart beat is still high; we were told it may be due ...
Blood transfusion or infusion of platelet or clotting factors is necessary for the treatment of DIC. ...
50,000/µL AND did not receive a platelet transfusion in the previous 7 days. ... Administration of regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusion therapy, defined as receiving ≥8 transfusions per year for ≥1 year ... Time to platelet engraftment [ Time Frame: Up to one year after HCT ]. Defined as the first day of a minimum of 3 measurements ... MSCs will be expanded ex vivo in human platelet lysate to the specified dose level. All MSC infusions will be dosed at 2 x 10^6 ...
... platelet transfusions may be life-saving for them. Protein-rich plasma is the fluid that carries and suspends all the other ... Platelets, which are the key to blood clotting, are also separated and saved. Various conditions can drop a patients platelet ... Endurance athletes have long known that blood transfusions may enhance exercise performance by increasing hemoglobin ...
Platelet transfusions may be life saving for them. Finally, the protein-rich plasma has many possible roles and can be given to ... Platelets are important for blood clotting and various conditions can drop patient platelet counts dangerously low in which ... Endurance athletes have long known that receiving blood transfusions may enhance exercise performance by increasing hemoglobin ... according to a 2017 study in Transfusion. Hematocrit, or the measure of what percentage of blood volume is made up of red blood ...
Oncologists were also just starting to mitigate the negative effects of chemotherapy with platelet transfusions. Within a ...
If the platelet count becomes too low, you may receive a transfusion of platelets. ... Low Platelet Count (Thrombocytopenia). Platelets help your blood clot, so when the count is low you are at a higher risk of ... If the count gets too low, you may receive a blood transfusion. ...
Blood transfusion to add platelets directly into your blood.. *Splenectomy (surgical removal of your spleen). ... A blood test will reveal a low platelet level. If platelet levels are OK, a skin biopsy may be the next step. ... The two main types of purpura are related to blood platelet levels. Platelets help your blood clot and prevent severe bleeding. ... A person with thrombocytopenic purpura has low platelet counts.. *A person with nonthrombocytopenic purpura has platelet levels ...
  • BACKGROUND: Platelet transfusions are commonly used to prevent bleeding in preterm infants with thrombocytopenia. (
  • Data are lacking to provide guidance regarding thresholds for prophylactic platelet transfusions in preterm neonates with severe thrombocytopenia. (
  • METHODS: In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned infants born at less than 34 weeks of gestation in whom severe thrombocytopenia developed to receive a platelet transfusion at platelet-count thresholds of 50,000 per cubic millimeter (high-threshold group) or 25,000 per cubic millimeter (low-threshold group). (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Among preterm infants with severe thrombocytopenia, those randomly assigned to receive platelet transfusions at a platelet-count threshold of 50,000 per cubic millimeter had a significantly higher rate of death or major bleeding within 28 days after randomization than those who received platelet transfusions at a platelet-count threshold of 25,000 per cubic millimeter. (
  • Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a type of platelet disorder . (
  • Severe thrombocytopenia should be corrected by prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to central venous catheter (CVC) insertion, according to national and international guidelines. (
  • This is the first prospective, randomised controlled trial powered to test the hypothesis of whether omitting forgoing platelet transfusion prior to central venous cannulation leads to an equal occurrence of clinical relevant bleeding complications in critically ill and haematologic patients with thrombocytopenia. (
  • FRIDAY, May 26, 2023 (HealthDay News) - For patients with severe thrombocytopenia, withholding of prophylactic platelet transfusion before ultrasound-guided placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) results in more CVC-related bleeding events than prophylactic platelet transfusion, according to guidelines published in the May 25 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine . (
  • Floor L.F. van Baarle, M.D., from the University of Amsterdam, and colleagues conducted a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial involving patients with severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count, 10,000 to 50,000 per mm 3 ) who were treated on the hematology ward or the intensive care unit. (
  • Alternative agents versus prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with thrombocytopenia due to chronic bone marrow failure: a network meta-analysis and systematic review. (
  • The objectives are as follows: To compare the relative efficacy of different treatments for thrombocytopenia (artificial platelet substitutes, platelet-poor plasma, fibrinogen, rFVIIa, rFXIII, thrombopoietin mimetics, antifibrinolytic drugs or platelet transfusions) in patients with chronic bone marrow failure and to derive a hierarchy of potential alternate treatments to platelet transfusions. (
  • Learn more about low platelet counts, or thrombocytopenia. (
  • However, the spectrum of disease ranges from mild to moderate thrombocytopenia , which refers to a low platelet count, to more severe. (
  • 14. Vincristine-laden platelet transfusion for patients with refractory thrombocytopenia. (
  • 18. Clinical effect of buffy-coat vs. apheresis platelet concentrates in patients with severe thrombocytopenia after intensive chemotherapy. (
  • Thus, the development of safe, small, molecules to enhance platelet production would be advantageous for the treatment of thrombocytopenia. (
  • No cases of thrombocytopenia (low platelets) were diagnosed among almost 490,000 vaccinated adults. (
  • Even though correction is thought to prevent bleeding complications, evidence supporting the routine administration of prophylactic platelets is absent. (
  • The objective of the current trial is, therefore, to demonstrate that omitting prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to CVC placement in severely thrombocytopenic patients is non-inferior compared to prophylactic platelet transfusion. (
  • Consecutive patients are randomly assigned to either receive 1 unit of platelet concentrate, or receive no prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to CVC insertion. (
  • Current national and international guidelines are conflicting, most recent Dutch and UK guidelines support prophylactic platelet transfusion below a platelet count of 50 × 10 9 /L, prior to CVC placement [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • Participants were randomly assigned to receive one unit of prophylactic platelet transfusion or no platelet transfusion before ultrasound-guided CVC placement. (
  • The net savings were $410 per catheter placement for withholding prophylactic platelet transfusion before CVC placement. (
  • 10. Efficacy of prophylactic transfusions using single donor apheresis platelets versus pooled platelet concentrates in AML/MDS patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • an estimated one in 1,000--3,000 platelet units are contaminated with bacteria, resulting in transfusion-associated sepsis in many recipients ( 2 ). (
  • In the Trial to Reduce Alloimmunization to Platelets (TRAP) study, 101 of 530 participants became refractory to platelet transfusions without evidence of HLA or human platelet antigen (HPA) antibodies. (
  • Platelets have proteins on their surface called human platelet antigens (HPAs). (
  • MSCs will be expanded ex vivo in human platelet lysate to the specified dose level. (
  • Patient A. In October 2004, a man aged 74 years in Ohio with leukemia received a transfusion consisting of a pool of five platelet unit concentrates. (
  • Rapid selection of single-stranded DNA aptamers binding Staphylococcus epidermidis in platelet concentrates. (
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common transfusion-associated pathogen contaminating platelet concentrates. (
  • Our data identified an aptamer that may be useful as a ligand to capture, detect or remove S. epidermidis contaminant from platelet concentrates. (
  • 1. Comparative clinical studies of platelet concentrates: effects on clinical outcome and the use of healthcare resources. (
  • 3. Use of random versus apheresis platelet concentrates. (
  • 9. A prospective randomized study of three types of platelet concentrates in patients with haematological malignancy: corrected platelet count increments and frequency of nonhaemolytic febrile transfusion reactions. (
  • 12. [Risk Assessment of Single-Donor (Apheresis) Platelet Concentrates and Pooled Whole-Blood-Derived Platelet Concentrates]. (
  • 13. [Introduction of platelet additive solution in platelet concentrates: towards a decrease of blood transfusion reactions]. (
  • 16. Markers of platelet activation and apoptosis in platelet concentrates collected by apheresis. (
  • You also may have a blood test to check for the antibodies that attack platelets. (
  • It occurs when the birthing parent's immune system produces antibodies that attack and destroy the fetuses' platelets. (
  • The antibodies then cross the placenta and target the fetus's platelets. (
  • These antibodies are responsible for platelet destruction in the fetus or newborn. (
  • There is no routine blood test to see if a birthing parent has antibodies to platelets. (
  • The serologic test can determine if the birthing parent has produced antibodies against any of the platelet antigens from the other parent. (
  • Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis. (
  • 8. The use of PEG-rhuMGDF in platelet apheresis. (
  • It is imperative to first validate the involvement of recipient platelets by standardizing the animal models, methods, reagents, and readouts for lung injury and taking the animal housing environment into consideration. (
  • Methods to reduce or eliminate contaminating bacteria from platelet units are critical for improving the safety of blood transfusions. (
  • 6. A critical comparison of platelet preparation methods. (
  • Biomolecular Consequences of Platelet Pathogen Inactivation Methods. (
  • Platelets are versatile cells which are capable of eliciting nonhemostatic immune functions, especially under inflammatory conditions. (
  • In ITP, however, your immune system attacks and destroys your body's platelets by mistake. (
  • Typically, NAIT occurs when the immune cells in the birth parent's bloodstream identify the platelets from the baby as foreign and begin attacking them. (
  • Immune platelet refractoriness responsive to treatment with IVIg or eculizumab, or other immunosuppressive therapy within the 3 preceding months. (
  • This trial is being conducted as a step toward testing the long-term hypothesis that freshly cultured, autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) grown in platelet lysate-containing medium will modulate recipient T-cell immune responses and promote engraftment in haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. (
  • Transfusion Medicine Reviews, 2019 Jan;33(1):29-34. (
  • Platelets are tiny blood cells that are made in the bone marrow. (
  • 15d-PGJ(2) also promotes platelet formation from culture-derived mouse and human megakaryocytes and accelerates platelet recovery after in vivo radiation-induced bone marrow injury. (
  • The platelets arise from the fragmentation of the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and circulate in blood as disc-shaped anucleate particles for 7-10 days. (
  • Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) involves by Oelofse and Truter[5] found that haematological malignancies the transfusion of donor haematopoietic stem and progenitor were not uncommon in Eastern Cape Province, and the incidence cel s (HSPC) procured from bone marrow, peripheral blood or was comparable to some European populations. (
  • 7. Background, rationale, and design of a clinical trial to assess the effects of platelet dose on bleeding risk in thrombocytopenic patients. (
  • Collectively, these data support the concept that megakaryocyte redox status plays an important role in platelet generation and that small electrophilic molecules may have clinical efficacy for improving platelet numbers in thrombocytopenic patients. (
  • A person with thrombocytopenic purpura has low platelet counts. (
  • Low platelet counts can cause severe bleeding. (
  • Platelets help your blood clot and prevent severe bleeding. (
  • Before transfusion, the pooled platelet unit had been tested for bacterial contamination with a reagent strip test (Multistix ® , Bayer Diagnostics, Tarrytown, New York) to determine the pH level, a means for detecting the presence of bacteria. (
  • Evaluation of the procoagulant properties of a newly developed platelet modified lysate product. (
  • Genotyping confirmed HEV in a transfused platelet pool and the donor. (
  • Some people get very low platelet counts during a disease or treatment. (
  • The platelet GP IIb/IIIa complex mediates platelet-to-platelet interactions (platelet aggregation). (
  • Bleeding disorders can also result from a problem with the number or function of platelets. (
  • Platelet disorders lead to defects in primary hemostasis and produce signs and symptoms different from coagulation factor deficiencies (disorders of secondary hemostasis). (
  • These data demonstrate that weak to moderate HLA antibody levels detectable by modern binding assays are not associated with platelet refractoriness. (
  • This is called platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR). (
  • Platelet transfusion is the most commonly used therapy but has limitations of alloimmunization, availability, and expense. (
  • Problems can occur when platelets are low in number or do not work properly or when certain coagulation factors are low or missing. (
  • The hemostatic system consists of platelets, coagulation factors, and the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. (
  • Under physiological circumstances, the resistance of the endothelial cell lining to interactions with platelets and coagulation factors prevents thrombosis. (
  • 20. A prospective observational cohort safety study of 5106 platelet transfusions with components prepared with photochemical pathogen inactivation treatment. (
  • ABSTRACT We assessed the practicality of using the transfusion Basic Information Sheet (BIS) for data collection, to determine the overall adequacy of physician documentation of blood product transfusion, and to make an audit of the appropriateness of blood product transfusion. (
  • Normal blood clotting involves blood particles, called platelets, and as many as 20 different plasma proteins that layer over the platelets. (
  • Platelet activation allows binding of these proteins, which bridges adjacent platelets. (
  • The alpha granules contain hemostatic proteins such as fibrinogen, vWf, and growth factors (eg, platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factors). (
  • isolates from the patient's blood and the platelet bag were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). (
  • 5. The value of crossmatch tests and panel tests as a screening tool to predict the outcome of platelet transfusion in a non-selected haematological population of patients. (
  • In this issue of Blood , Dunne et al report that platelets from type O subjects bound poorly to von Willebrand factor (VWF) of mixed ABOs under arterial shear stress, as compared with those from non-O subjects. (
  • Von Willebrand disease and hemorrhagic abnormalities of platelet and vascular function. (
  • Platelets play a primary role in this process, interacting with subendothelium-bound von Willebrand factor (vWf) via the membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib complex. (
  • Is there a risk of transfusion‐transmissible infections after percutaneous needle treatments in blood donors? (
  • On resting platelets, GP IIb/IIIa is unable to bind fibrinogen or vWf. (
  • 17. Therapeutic efficacy of pooled buffy-coat platelet components prepared and stored with a platelet additive solution. (
  • To reduce this risk, AABB (formerly the American Association of Blood Banks) adopted a new standard on March 1, 2004, that requires member blood banks and transfusion services to implement measures to detect and limit bacterial contamination in all platelet components ( 3 ). (
  • This report summarizes two fatal cases of transfusion-associated sepsis in platelet recipients in 2004 and describes results of a 2004 survey of infectious-disease consultants regarding their knowledge of transfusion-associated bacterial infections and the new AABB standard. (
  • Health-care providers should be aware of the new standard and the need for bacterial testing of platelets to improve transfusion safety. (
  • However, health-care providers also should be able to diagnose transfusion-associated infections, because even when testing complies with the new standard, false negatives can occur and fatal bacterial sepsis can result. (
  • Before transfusion, platelets from the unit bag were tested for bacterial contamination with liquid culture media (BacT/Alert ® , BioMerieux Inc., Durham, North Carolina) by using 4 mL in a standard aerobic blood culture bottle and were found to be negative after 5 days' incubation. (
  • To assess clinician experience with transfusion-associated bacterial infections and knowledge of the new AABB standard, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (ISDA) conducted a survey of infectious-disease consultants in the United States. (
  • A total of 143 (36%) respondents reported they were aware that bacterial contamination of platelets is one of the most common infectious risks of transfusion therapy. (
  • The occurrence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in intravenous (IV) drug users, blood transfusion recipients, and persons with hemophilia indicates that parenteral transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) occurs via infectious blood or blood products (1). (
  • Currently available practices have nearly eliminated these risks for transfusion recipients and persons with hemophilia (2,3). (
  • 2. Universal leukodepletion of blood components results in a significant reduction of febrile non-hemolytic but not allergic transfusion reactions. (
  • 11. Effects of prestorage vs poststorage leukoreduction on the rate of febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions to platelets. (
  • 15. Analysis of transfusion reactions associated with prestorage-pooled platelet components. (
  • This initial interaction (platelet adhesion) sets the stage for other adhesive reactions that allow the platelets to interact with other agonists in the vicinity of vessel injury, such as adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), subendothelial collagen, and thrombin. (
  • 15-deoxy-delta12,14-PGJ2 enhances platelet production from megakaryocytes. (
  • Second, platelet-VWF interaction is the first step that tethers platelets to the subendothelial matrix exposed at the site of vessel injury to initiate hemostasis. (
  • In ITP, your blood does not clot as it should, because you have a low platelet count. (
  • When you have a low platelet count, you may have trouble stopping bleeding. (
  • This test measures your platelet count and the number of other blood cells in your blood. (
  • Most people who have chronic ITP can stop treatment at some point and maintain a safe platelet count. (
  • Treatment depends on your platelet count and whether you have any symptoms. (
  • In mild cases, you may not need any treatment, and your provider will monitor your condition to make sure that your platelet count does not become too low. (
  • If your ITP was caused by an infection, treating the infection may help increase your platelet count and lower your risk of bleeding problems. (
  • The PACER trial is an investigator-initiated, national, multicentre, single-blinded, randomised controlled, non-inferior, two-arm trial in haematologic and/or intensive care patients with a platelet count of between 10 and 50 × 10 9 /L and an indication for CVC placement. (
  • Platelets are responsible for blood clotting, and when their count becomes too low, it can lead to bleeding in the baby's brain or other organs. (
  • Its symptoms can depend on how low the platelet count drops. (
  • Having a low platelet count can be harmful to the infant. (
  • Therefore, many people do not know they are at risk of having a pregnancy involving this condition until they give birth to a baby with a low platelet count and petechiae. (
  • This test can help determine whether the platelet count is within typical ranges. (
  • Platelets help your blood clot, so when the count is low you are at a higher risk of bleeding. (
  • If the platelet count becomes too low, you may receive a transfusion of platelets. (
  • We describe HEV infection in a previously healthy man in France who received massive transfusions of blood, plas- ma, and platelets after a traumatic skiing accident. (
  • reported recent travel to HEV endemic areas or intake of This case describes HEV infection acquired by an uncooked or poorly cooked pork or game meat in the 3 immunocompetent patient through transfusion of a con- months before the accident. (
  • It is not known whether any of the individual platelet donors or the patient with leukemia had HTLV-III infection. (
  • Preoperative anemia management program reduces blood transfusion in elective cardiac surgical patients, improving outcomes and decreasing hospital length of stay. (
  • The transfusion process and clinical indications for transfusions administered to adult hospitalized patients in 3 tertiary care teaching hospitals in Qazvin were prospectively reviewed. (
  • Le processus de transfusion et les indications cliniques de transfusions sanguines administrées aux patients adultes hospitalisés dans trois hôpitaux universitaires de soins tertiaires à Qazvin ont été étudiés prospectivement. (
  • however, it has been hypothesized that recipient platelets and transfused platelets both play a pathogenic role in TRALI. (
  • next generation transfusion practices to improve recipient safety. (
  • There are 2 possible locations of ABO epitopes on platelets: the mucin-rich region of GPIbα and membrane glycolipids. (
  • 7 The alternative to being GPIb anchored, ABO could also be attached to glycolipids on platelet membrane and thus regulate GPIb-VWF interaction by orienting the GPIb-IX-V complex differently. (
  • In addition, when platelets are activated, negatively charged phospholipids move from the inner to the outer leaflet of the membrane bilayer. (
  • As part of his job, he processed platelets pooled from individual donors for transfusion. (
  • Endurance athletes have long known that blood transfusions may enhance exercise performance by increasing hemoglobin concentration and allowing for improved oxygen delivery to the cells. (
  • Post-transfusion hemoglobin values and patient blood management. (
  • Platelets contain 2 receptors that bind VWF: the glycoprotein Ib (GPIb)-IX-V complex and the integrin αIIbβ3, but this ABO effect is likely on the GPIb-VWF interaction, which is regulated by fluid shear stress and exhibits "catch bond" characteristics. (
  • The 2 potential locations of ABO on platelets could also lead to different mechanisms of regulating GPIb-VWF interaction in flowing blood. (
  • These studies will also need to be validated, and moreover, the platelet-derived lipid-mediated mechanisms leading to TRALI will need to be investigated. (
  • Once activated, platelets have two major mechanisms to recruit additional platelets to the growing hemostatic plug. (
  • To obtain data to improve the effectiveness of platelet transfusions in people with PTR and decrease the risk of bleeding in some people. (
  • BIS-based information along with data collection can be used to provide feedback regarding the effectiveness of and compliance with local and national transfusion guidelines. (
  • Next to the burden of transfusion exposure, blood products are expensive and scarce. (
  • Other modes of transmission for dengue virus are less common but include vertical transmission from a mother to a baby, blood transfusion or organ transplantation, needle stick, mucocutaneous exposure, or hospital or laboratory accidents, breast milk, and rarely, sexual transmission. (
  • First, this is the first study to demonstrate that the platelet ABO regulates how GPIb interacts with VWF under hydrodynamic conditions that mimic blood flow. (
  • The noninferiority of withholding transfusion was not shown for the primary outcome of grade 2 to 4 bleeding," the authors write. (
  • To study the effects of transfusing platelets more slowly than the standard rate. (
  • The treating provider may change the platelet transfusion threshold based on the clinical circumstance, patient population, and/or concurrent primary protocol considerations - similar to the PLADO study. (
  • NBS Platelet Study Group. (