A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
A bone on the ventral side of the shoulder girdle, which in humans is commonly called the collar bone.
Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
Increased numbers of platelets in the peripheral blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The mechanical process of cooling.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
This was determined by cell plate counting and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). Aerobic azoreductases make a ... X. azovorans are Gram-negative bacteria with cells 0. 5 to 1 μm in width and 1 to 3 μm in length. The organism is known as ... Nevertheless, it has been determined that the intestine would suffer greatly as well as damage to DNA in colon cells. Other ...
Cell count accommodates volume at various cell shapes available from the laser engraving process. The same cell count can be ... The characteristics of an anilox roll determine the amount of ink that will be transferred to the plate: angle of the cells, ... utilizing hardened steel tools of various cell counts and cell shapes diamond pecking machine, but modern rolls are laser ... Cell count remains the same for the life of the roll, while volume changes over time due to wear, plugging and damage. ...
" ("raster elements," "raster count," and "cell raster"). The first use of raster specifically for a television scanning ... was a halftone-screened printing plate. There were more scanning-relevant uses of Raster by German authors Eichhorn in 1926: " ... or voltages for the horizontal deflection plates in an oscilloscope) are called the sweep circuits. These create a sawtooth ...
... and the bacteria plate count. Generally a lower somatic cell count indicates better animal health, while the bacteria plate ... The bacteria count using the standard plate count, direct microscopic count, or plate loop count methods shall be not more than ... The somatic cell count shall be not more than one million (1,000,000) cfu cells per milliliter. The milk shall not contain drug ... As discussed in the paper Guidelines for Using the DHI Somatic Cell Count Program The results of many studies suggest that cows ...
The purpose of plate counting is to estimate the number of cells present based on their ability to give rise to colonies under ... Counting with colony-forming units requires culturing the microbes and counts only viable cells, in contrast with microscopic ... The Most Probable Number method counts viable cells and is useful when enumerating low concentrations of cells or enumerating ... Cell counting Growth medium Miles and Misra method Most probable number Replica plating Viral plaque Goldman, Emanuel; Green, ...
Due to this stain it is possible to count the bud scars which is an indication for the age of the cell. It shows similar ... Calcofluor-white can be used to stain thecal plates in armoured dinoflagellates. Calcofluor is also used as the dye in white- ... In plant cell biology research, it is used for the staining of cell walls of both algae and higher plants. It is also useful in ... This can be reduced by looking at the cells under blue light or with other filters to see the best picture possible. Evans blue ...
... and are based on the somatic cell count and the bacteria plate count. Generally a lower somatic cell count indicates better ... The bacteria count using the standard plate count, direct microscopic count, or plate loop count methods shall be not more than ... A somatic cell count (SCC) is a cell count of somatic cells in a fluid specimen, usually milk. In dairying, the SCC is an ... The somatic cell count shall be not more than one million (1,000,000) cells per milliliter. The milk shall not contain drug ...
To quantify the number of cells in a culture, the cells can be simply plated on a petri dish with growth medium. If the cells ... require cell counting. Calculating the fraction of dead to live cells as a measure of cell viability, such as of cells exposed ... By the counting of cells in a known small volume, the concentration can be mediated. Examples of the need for cell counting ... Cell counting is any of various methods for the counting or similar quantification of cells in the life sciences, including ...
... and since many other diagnostic techniques involve physically counting the number of micro-organisms or cells on specials ... As, for instance, the number and size of bacterial colonies that grow on an agar plate in a given time is concentration- ... Serial dilution is also a cheaper and simpler method for preparing cultures from a single cell than optical tweezers and ... serial dilution may also be used to reduce the concentration of microscopic organisms or cells in a sample. ...
The cells are "plated" in a tissue culture vessel and allowed to grow. The colonies produced are fixed, stained, and counted. ... The cells are put in petri dishes or in plates which contain several circular "wells." Particular numbers of cells are plated ... 500 cells might be plated, but at 4 or 5 gray, 2500 might be plated, since very large numbers of cells are killed at this level ... human tumor cells are a typical choice. The cells either come from prepared "cell lines," which have been well-studied and ...
... because the plates need a known number of live replicating cells for the virus to attach to and replicate in, in order to get ... Viable count is a method used in cell culture to determine the number of living cells in a culture. This is different from ... Determining the viable cell count is important for cell culture in order to calculate the dilution required to passage the ... other cell counting techniques because it makes a distinction between live and dead cells. A dilution of the cells to be ...
Increased red blood cell count Irreversible changes Deepening of the voice Growth of facial and body hair Male-pattern baldness ... in some individuals) Enlargement of the clitoris Growth spurt and closure of growth plates if given before the end of puberty[ ... elevated red blood cell count) Cardiac failure, renal failure, or severe hypertension susceptible to sodium retention and fluid ... Increased red blood cell mass usually from overproduction by the bone marrow. Testosterone (frequently in large doses) was ...
These congregating cells make isolation of pure culture and colony counts on agar medium difficult as the bacterium spread and ... In lab samples, S. cellulosum grows on agar medium only when certain cell densities are plated. Quorum-sensing allows Sorangium ... Plasmids have been found to not function in S. cellulosum cells. Reproducible genetic alterations must be made directly into ... Chivosazol - a compound that destroys the actin skeleton of eukaryotic cells. It is effective against both fungal and mammalian ...
They are used for a wide range of applications, including culture storage, enumeration of cells (counting), isolation of pure ... TSA is frequently the base medium of other agar plate types. For example, blood agar plates (BAP) are made by enriching TSA ... plates with defibrinated sheep blood, and chocolate agar is made through additional cooking of BAP. Nutrient agar is also ...
Diagnostic tools include low-grade fever, elevated inflammatory markers (ESR and CRP), but white blood cell counts are ... as blood plate growth gives many false negatives. Osteomyelitis occurs in previously healthy children. The infection rate is ... K. kingae expresses type IV pili, which allow for enhanced adhesion to respiratory epithelial and synovial cells and thus ... kingae compared with direct plating of specimens on solid media. As an oropharyngeal colonizer, K. kingae is transmitted by ...
... cells on day 1}}}{\#\,{\text{cells plated on day 0}}}}\times 100} or P E = # colonies counted # cells inoculated × 100 {\ ... Plating Efficiency is the number of cells that grow into colonies per 100 cells inoculated. That is, it is the proportion of ... PE can be determined by the following formulae: P E = # cells on day 1 # cells plated on day 0 × 100 {\displaystyle \mathrm {PE ... The decrease in viable cells after plating is due to "anchorage-dependence"--cells must attach to the bottom of the culture ...
A Petri dish (alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish) is a shallow transparent lidded dish that biologists ... Shallow Petri dishes prepared in this way are called Replicate Organism Detection And Counting (RODAC) plates and are available ... Cell cultureEdit. Petri dishes are also used for cell cultivation of isolated cells from eukaryotic organisms, such as in ... use to culture cells,[1][2] such as bacteria, fungi or small mosses.[3] It is the most common type of culture plate. The Petri ...
In any design the driver's feet must not extend beyond the front wheel axle, static crash test of survival cell and fuel cell ... Front wing end plates to be no more than 10 mm thick to reduce damage to tyres of another car in the event of collision, all ... "Practice sessions will count towards F1 superlicence points". Autosport.com. Motorsport Network. Archived from the original on ... Rear wing height reduced from 100 cm to 90 cm, distance of front end plates from flat bottom increased from 25 to 40 mm (0.98 ...
... host cells are plated and serial dilutions of the virus are added. After incubation, the percentage of cell death (i.e. ... Plaques are generally counted manually and the results, in combination with the dilution factor used to prepare the plate, are ... A viral plaque is formed when a virus infects a cell within the fixed cell monolayer. The virus infected cell will lyse and ... The infected cell area will create a plaque (an area of infection surrounded by uninfected cells) which can be seen with an ...
Mutant male mice had a decrease in white blood cell count. An increased thickness in hippocampus was observed. Mutant female ... ". "Hot plate data for Git2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Git2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Eye ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Ku GM, Yablonski D, Manser E, Lim L, Weiss A (Feb 2001). "A PAK1-PIX-PKL complex is activated by the T-cell receptor ...
Luminescent Cell Viability Assay Cell counting instruments and methods: CASY cell counting technology, Coulter counter, ... in radioimmunoassays and equilibrium dialysis assays and can be detected by the amplification in Gamma counters or X-ray plates ... A cytotoxicity assay measures how toxic a chemical compound is to cells. MTT assay Cell Counting Kit-8 (WST-8 based cell ... Many cell assays have been developed to assess specific parameters or response of cells (biomarkers, cell physiology). ...
There is tumor cell positivity in 70% of the cells: Ki-67 labelling index = 70% Counting positive versus negative nuclei with ... The name is derived from the city of origin (Kiel, Germany) and the number of the original clone in the 96-well plate. Ki-67 ( ... Dividing cells show strong Ki-67 staining in cell nuclei while all cells contain large amounts of tubulin, the major component ... cells (G0). Cellular content of Ki-67 protein markedly increases during cell progression through S phase of the cell cycle. In ...
Thus, the plate will contain enzyme in proportion to the amount of secondary antibody bound to the plate. A substrate for the ... If both tags are present on a cell, then the cell is that specific strain. If only one is present, it is not. This test is done ... This test allows multiple antigens to be tagged and counted at the same time. This allows specific strains of bacteria to be ... The antigen-containing sample is applied to the plate, and captured by antibody. The plate is washed to remove unbound antigen ...
... plates and are available commercially. Petri dishes are also used for cell cultivation of isolated cells from eukaryotic ... Shallow Petri dishes prepared in this way are called Replicate Organism Detection And Counting (RODAC) ... A Petri dish (alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish) is a shallow transparent lidded dish that biologists ... Chowdhury, F. (2010). "Soft substrates promote homogeneous self-renewal of embryonic stem cells via downregulating cell-matrix ...
... but researchers using THF have developed severe occipital headaches and marked decreases in white blood cell counts. More ... It also lowers the viscosity of the etchant which enhances wetting of high aspect ratio features such as plated through-holes ...
The most common method to isolate individual cells and produce a pure culture is to prepare a streak plate. The streak plate ... low acyl clarified gellan gum has been proven to be the preferred gelling agent comparing to agar for the counting or isolation ... Virus cultures are obtained from their appropriate eukaryotic host cells. The streak plate method is a way to physically ... A pure culture may originate from a single cell or single organism, in which case the cells are genetic clones of one another. ...
General blood tests in people with melioidosis show low white blood cell counts (indicates infection), raised liver enzymes, ... Agar plates for melioidosis should be incubated at 37°C (98.6°F) in air and inspected daily for four days. On the agar plates, ... These immune molecules drive the recruitment of other immune cells such as neutrophils, dendritic cells, B cells, and T cells ... The bacteria can survive in antigen-presenting cells and dendritic cells. Thus, these cells act as vehicles that transport the ...
Plating with agar media is often used for counting of yeasts, with surface spreading technique is preferable to pour plate ... Z. bailii cell size varies within a range of (3.5 - 6.5) x (4.5 - 11.5) μm and the cells exist singly or in pair, rarely in ... Cell wall material is filled in the gap between the bud and the parent cell; eventually the bud is separated to form a daughter ... During the budding process, a parent cell produces a bud on its outer surface. As the bud elongates, the parent cell's nucleus ...
... was found to be running a temperature and had an abnormally high white blood cell count. She remained in Kentucky ... But, she stepped up to the plate and got the job done for us". Following another lengthy break, Farda Amiga was matched against ...
... containing a high count of pigment cells. Sometimes, very small gray-blue spots can appear on the sclera, a harmless condition ... In primitive fish, this ring consists of four plates, but the number is lower in many living ray-finned fishes, and much higher ... The inner third joins with some choroidal tissue to form a plate (lamina cribrosa) across the optic nerve with perforations ... In many vertebrates, the sclera is reinforced with plates of cartilage or bone, together forming a circular structure called ...
... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... The Leeds acne grading technique counts acne lesions on the face, back, and chest and categorizes them as inflammatory or non- ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together.[10] The accumulation of dead skin cell ...
For example, it is the main purification technique for removing organic impurities from bright nickel plating solutions. A ... In this illustration, the activated carbon is in the fourth level (counted from bottom). ... to higher temperatures and either combusted to do work or in the case of hydrogen gas extracted for use in a hydrogen fuel cell ... Their excessive build up can adversely affect plating quality and physical properties of deposited metal. Activated carbon ...
It was empty but the hood was raised and the engine running.[22] He ran the vehicle's license plate number and determined that ... In May 2011, Darcus Allen, the remaining suspect, was convicted of four counts of murder as the getaway driver for Clemmons, ... providing him with money and cell phones, making arrangements for him to flee the state, and treating his gunshot wound from ...
A metal plate supports a squat neodymium-iron-boron (NIB) high-flux magnet. Beneath this plate is the moving coil, often ... "LBA Count for Disk Drives Standard (Document LBA1-03)" (PDF). IDEMA. June 15, 2009. Retrieved February 14, 2016.. ... As bit cell size decreases, more data can be put onto a single drive platter. In 2013, a production desktop 3 TB HDD (with four ... The S.M.A.R.T (Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology) feature counts the total number of errors in the entire HDD ...
Orifice plate[edit]. An orifice plate is a plate with a hole through it, placed perpendicular to the flow; it constricts the ... d) Positive-displacement flowmeters, which accumulate a fixed volume of fluid and then count the number of times the volume is ... For example, an orifice plate produces a pressure drop that is a function of the square of the volume rate of flow through the ... The Dall tube is a shortened version of a Venturi meter, with a lower pressure drop than an orifice plate. As with these ...
Plate count agar. *Nutrient agar. *Trypticase soy agar. Minimal media[edit]. Minimal media are those that contain the minimum ... Cooper GM (2000). "Tools of Cell Biology". The cell: a molecular approach. Washington, D.C: ASM Press. ISBN 0-87893-106-6.. ... An agar plate - an example of a bacterial growth medium*: Specifically, it is a streak plate; the orange lines and dots are ... The two major types of growth media are those used for cell culture, which use specific cell types derived from plants or ...
The red blood cell count per unit volume in the ostrich is about 40% of that of a human; however, the red blood cells of the ... they exchange blood capillaries or avascular epithelial plates.[60] Like mammals, ostrich lungs contain an abundance of type II ... 2,3- DPG constitutes approximately 42-47%, of the cells phosphate of the embryonic ostrich.[73] However, the adult ostrich have ... It also contains fewer myofibrils than usual myocardial cells. The AV node connects the atrial and ventricular chambers. It ...
Note: CMI III seems not in count) *^ Vogel, Peter (c. 2011). "History (and future)". Peter Vogel Instruments. over 300 " ... Soft Cell used a synthesized melody on their 1981 hit "Tainted Love".[66] Nick Rhodes, keyboardist of Duran Duran, used various ... Older fingerboards used a long wire pressed to a resistive plate. A ribbon controller is similar to a touchpad, but a ribbon ... In the case of SMF playback using integrated synthesizers (as in computers and cell phones), the hardware component of the MIDI ...
The threadlike muscle fibers are the individual muscle cells (myocytes), and each cell is encased within its own endomysium of ... For example, one manufacturer of rowing equipment calibrates its rowing ergometer to count burned calories as equal to four ... usually formed from the somatic lateral plate mesoderm. Myoblasts follow chemical signals to the appropriate locations, where ... In one line of thought scientists have believed that muscle cells evolved once and thus all animals with muscles cells have a ...
... s have specialised light-sensing cells deep in their brains[permanent dead link] that respond to light without input from ... Most species create somewhat elaborate nests, which can be cups, domes, plates, beds scrapes, mounds, or burrows.[187] Some ... A wide variety of avian ecology field methods, including counts, nest monitoring, and capturing and marking, are used for ... Birds are tetrachromatic, possessing ultraviolet (UV) sensitive cone cells in the eye as well as green, red and blue ones.[88] ...
3 pages, 1 plate. In: Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E.; Cuvier, F. (eds.) Histoire naturelle des mammifères, avec des figures ... Therefore, population figures in the wild are determined by population density estimates and not direct counts.[1] ... Red pandas process bamboo poorly, especially the cellulose and cell wall components. This implies microbial digestion plays ...
From the existing bassets, Count Le Couteulx of Canteleu fixed a utilitarian type with straight front legs known as the Chien ... which is second only to the Bloodhound in scenting ability and number of olfactory receptor cells. The Basset's short legs are ... "Histopathologic study of long-bone growth plates confirms the basset hound as an osteochondrodysplastic breed". Can J Vet Res. ...
Ce, La and Nd are important in alloy making, and in the production of fuel cells and Nickel-metal hydride batteries. Ce, Ga and ... not counting China.[69] The Kuantan development brought renewed attention to the Malaysian town of Bukit Merah in Perak, where ... partial melting of the subducting plate within the asthenosphere (80 to 200 km depth) produces a volatile-rich magma (high ...
... "in that they can divide an unlimited number of times in a laboratory cell culture plate as long as fundamental cell survival ... making challenging summary counts based on original numbering. Researchers have also noted how stable these aberrant karyotypes ... These cells proliferate abnormally rapidly, even compared to other cancer cells. Like many other cancer cells,[36] HeLa cells ... and isolated one specific cell, multiplied it, and developed a cell line. Previously, cells cultured from other human cells ...
The cultures are then plated on agar plates and incubated overnight. The number of viral plaques are counted and can be used to ... Each transformed host cell of a library will contain only one vector with one insert of DNA. The whole library can be plated ... The titer of the transformation is determined by counting the number of colonies present on the plates. These vectors generally ... Using a host cell to carry the vector allows for easy amplification and retrieval of specific clones from the library for ...
Traffic flow radar uses a "side-fire" technique to look across all traffic lanes in a narrow band to count the number of ... Since video detection systems such as those used in automatic number plate recognition do not involve installing any components ... By measuring and analysing network data using triangulation, pattern matching or cell-sector statistics (in an anonymous format ... The simplest detectors simply count the number of vehicles during a unit of time (typically 60 seconds in the United States) ...
Humeral plates. First Axillary. Second Axillary. Third Axillary. Fourth Axillary. Median plates (m, m'). The humeral plate is ... Discal Cell (dc) - well defined in most species.. BlattodeaEdit. Species of Blattodea (cockroaches) have a forewing, are also ... There are five, if the R+M is counted as 1, main vein stems on dragonfly and damselfly wings, and wing veins are fused at their ... The median plates (m, m') are also sclerites that are not so definitely differentiated as specific plates as are the three ...
DEP as a cell characterisation tool[edit]. DEP is mainly used for characterising cells measuring the changes in their ... "Dielectrophoresis-activated multiwell plate for label-free high-throughput drug assessment". Analytical Chemistry. 80 (6): 2063 ... that are difficult to count with the previous technique;[30] particle velocity measurements: this technique measures the ... Instruments capable of separating cancer cells from healthy cells have been made [18][20][21][22] as well as isolating single ...
Then it reads or writes the data in the memory cells using the data bus. Additionally, a memory management unit (MMU) is a ... The health of optical media can be determined by measuring correctable minor errors, of which high counts signify deteriorating ... Plated wire memory (1957). *Core rope memory (1960s). *Thin-film memory (1962) ... Data is typically stored in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) memory cells. A semiconductor memory chip may contain millions of ...
"Trouble with cell phone radiation standard". CBS News. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013.. ... A part of the "near-field" close to the transmitter, forms part of the changing electromagnetic field, but does not count as ... Henri Becquerel found that uranium salts caused fogging of an unexposed photographic plate through a covering paper in a manner ... These radiations have the ability to cause chemical reactions and damage living cells beyond that resulting from simple heating ...
The Boeing Fuel Cell Demonstrator Airplane has a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell/lithium-ion battery hybrid system to ... "Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State". Retrieved 2013-03-31.. *^ Halber, Deborah. "What is the energy of gasoline ... Such a vehicle establishes contact with an electrified rail, plate or overhead wires on the highway via an attached conducting ... The fuel cell provides all power for the cruise phase of flight. During takeoff and climb, the flight segment that requires the ...
... as they possess a convergently evolved adaptive immunity with cells that function like the T cells and B cells seen in higher ... They attach their mouthparts to the target animal's body, then use three horny plates (laminae) on the tip of their piston-like ... which excludes the nostrils from the count. In British folklore, the monster known as the Lambton Worm may have been based on a ... International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology. 2016-09-30. ISBN 9780128052204.. ...
They also used the pigment verdigris, made by soaking copper plates in fermenting wine.[51] By the second century AD, the ... Human eyes have color receptors known as cone cells, of which there are three types. In some cases, one is missing or faulty, ... However, green was not counted among the four classic colors of Greek painting - red, yellow, black and white - and is rarely ... Following birth, cells called melanocytes start to discharge melanin, the earthy colored shade, in the child's irises. This ...
"Cell. 167 (3): 633-642.e11. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.09.028. PMC 5484524. PMID 27768887.. ... 48 plates. ISBN 0-395-37022-1. *^ Natural History Information Centre; Auckland War Memorial Museum. "Natural History Questions" ... Scale counts can sometimes be used to tell the sex of a snake when the species is not distinctly sexually dimorphic. A probe is ... The thymus is located in fatty tissue above the heart and is responsible for the generation of immune cells in the blood. The ...
Solar cells. Honda's solar cell subsidiary company Honda Soltec (Headquarters: Kikuchi-gun, Kumamoto; President and CEO: Akio ... "World motor vehicle production OICA correspondents survey without double counts world ranking of manufacturers year 2011" (PDF) ... while Primo and Clio products had the rear license plate installed on the trunk lid or rear door for minivans. ... In Takanezawa, Japan, on 16 June 2008, Honda Motors produced the first assembly-line FCX Clarity, a hybrid hydrogen fuel cell ...
On 14 February 2013, a vehicle bearing diplomatic plates registered to the US Embassy got into an accident in Islamabad, ... The British Parliament first guaranteed diplomatic immunity to foreign ambassadors in 1709, after Count Andrey Matveyev, a ... and held in a federal holding cell in New York, relating to allegations of non-payment of U.S. minimum wage and for ... ultimately sentenced to seven years in prison after pleading guilty to one count of involuntary manslaughter and four counts of ...
In the eleventh century, the Byzantine emperor gave them to the French Count Jocelin. Jocelin had them transferred to La-Motte- ... Another time Anthony was travelling in the desert and found a plate of silver coins in his path.[31] ... in a grave next to his cell.[11] ...
"13 Sextillion & Counting: The Long & Winding Road to the Most Frequently Manufactured Human Artifact in History". Computer ... It consists of two conducting plates separated by a thin insulating dielectric layer; in practice, thin metal foils are coiled ... The microbial fuel cell mimics this ubiquitous natural phenomenon. Some organisms, such as sharks, are able to detect and ... From the initial invention of the Voltaic pile, electrochemical cells have evolved into the many different types of batteries, ...
Microchannel plate detectors are commonly used in modern commercial instruments.[29] In FTMS and Orbitraps, the detector ... FTMS has the advantage of high sensitivity (since each ion is "counted" more than once) and much higher resolution and thus ... Membrane-inlet Mass Spectrometry, combines the Isotope ratio MS with a reaction chamber/cell separated by a gas-permeable ... Some detectors also give spatial information, e.g., a multichannel plate. Theoretical exampleEdit. The following example ...
A plate made of pewter, an alloy of 85-99% tin and (usually) copper. Pewter was first used around the beginning of the Bronze ... The unit cell for each crystal structure is the smallest group of atoms which has the overall symmetry of the crystal, and from ... Such metals include zinc, cadmium, tin, antimony (here counted as a metal), lead, and bismuth, some of which are quite toxic. ... In the case of the body-centered cubic crystal structure shown above, the unit cell is made up of the central atom plus one- ...
Furthermore, the number of RBCs and parasites stained with a fluorescent nuclear staining dye could be counted automatically ... plates was established. Because wide-range Giemsa microscopy can be performed on a hydrophilic-treated plate, the method may ... A method that allows for microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained cells spread in a monolayer on almost the whole surface of ... In addition, because Giemsa microscopy is exacting and time-consuming, automated counting of infection rates is highly ...
Home » Cell Migration & Invasion Assays » Oris™ 3D Embedded Cell Invasion Assay » Cell counts and plate reader measurements in ... Cell counts and plate reader measurements in the Oris™ Pro 3D Embedded Invasion Assay. ...
Posted by admin at 10:19 am Tagged with: Cell Colonies, Count, OpenCFU, Plate 424 views. Sorry, the comment form is closed at ... OpenCFU 3.9.0 - Software tool to Count Cell Colonies Growing on Plates. Image Analysis ... OpenCFU, a new free and open-source software to count cell colonies and other circular objects.. Geissmann Q. ...
Comparing Transfection Reagent Efficiency by Imaging & Cell Counting on the EnSight Multimode Plate Reader ... 1. Cell-based Assays 2. AlphaLISA & AlphaScreen 3. LANCE (Ultra) TR-FRET ... Determination of Transfection Efficiency using the EnSight Multimode Plate Reader Biomarkers Discovery with Simple Western and ...
Plate count 30°C (per ml). Somatic cell count (per ml) // ,= 100 000(*) ... be prepared from raw milk which, prior to heat treatment, has a plate count at 30°C below 300 000 per ml, where cows milk is ... be prepared from raw milk which, prior to heat treatment, has a plate count at 30°C below 300 000 per ml, where cows milk is ... be prepared from raw milk which, prior to heat treatment, has a plate count at 30°C below 300 000 per ml, where cows milk is ...
Relationship of somatic cell count, physical, chemical and enzymatic properties to the bacterial standard plate count in ...
For quantification of roof plate cells, the total number of positive cells was counted on each section. For quantification of ... PNP, Posterior neural plate; ANP, anterior neural plate. Cells that coexpress two markers appear yellow. Expression of Lmx1b ( ... However, together with the fact that Lmx1b is expressed in the chick roof plate progenitors and differentiated roof plate cells ... Because Lmx1b is highly expressed in roof plate progenitors and differentiated roof plate cells in the chick developing spinal ...
Drop Plate Method for Counting Biofilm Cells. Instructor Version (go to Student Version). Subject Area(s). microbiology. ... The plate is duplicated and the number of colonies appearing in the 10 x 10 µl drops are averaged to determine the plate count ... The basic methods of conducting serial dilutions and of plate counting should be reviewed prior to carrying out this exercise. ... This exercise describes a technique (drop plating) for enumerating biofilm cells that can be used instead of standard spread or ...
count cell colonies (CFUs) on agar plates by processing digital pictures. NEW: Take a look at the new package tracker: tracker. ...
Here, we report a bacterial cell counting method termed Start Growth Time (SGT) that allows rapid and serial quantification of ... The most common method is bacterial plating, which has the advantage of allowing live cell assessment through colony forming ... reproducible and non-laborious method that can be used in HTS settings to longitudinally assess live cells in bacterial cell ... SGT is based on the re-growth time required by a growing cell culture to reach a threshold, and the notion that this time is ...
Cell Counting > Assay Kits products in the SelectScience products and suppliers directory ... ready-to-use dsDNA stain for cell cycle analysis in fixed cells using flow cytometry. The cell-impermeable dye binds ds DNA ... CellTrace™ Dyes for Cell Proliferation. Thermo Fisher Scientific , See 4 Models. This product is used for labeling of cells to ... CellTrace Far Red Cell Proliferation Kit is used for in vitro and in vivo labeling of cells to trace multiple generations using ...
Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count. *Standard Plate Count. *Preliminary Incubation Count. *Laboratory Pasteurization Count ... Standard Plate Count averaged 3,911 cfu/mL (colony forming units per milliliter) and ranged from 420 to 7,846 cfu/mL. ... In conversations with a PA dairy farmer using AMS, I have been told that somatic cell count (SCC) on his dairy typically runs ...
Correlations between total cell concentration, total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts ... Abstract. The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). This ... total adenosine tri-phosphate concentration and heterotrophic plate counts during microbial monitoring of drinking water, Drink ... TCC in the samples ranged from 0.37-5.61×105 cells/ml, and two clusters, the so-called high (HNA) and low (LNA) nucleic acid ...
... heterotrophic plate count; ICC, intact cell concentration; IEX, ion exchange; MF, microfiltration; NF, nanofiltration; NOM, ... Flow cytometry enables the counting of bacterial cells down to concentrations of 100 cells/mL. Theoretically, this implies that ... in which the total bacterial cell concentration increased from 1.62 × 105 to 1.07 × 106 cells/mL and the percentage of cells ... Hammes, F., Berney, M., Wang, Y., Vital, M., Koster, O., and Egli, T. (2008). Flow-cytometric total bacterial cell counts as a ...
Cell Counting > Flow Cytometers (FACS) / Flow Cytometry Systems products in the SelectScience products and suppliers directory ... DynaPro Plate Reader III Dynamic and Static Light Scattering Detector by Wyatt Technology Corp. ... Vi-CELL® XR Cell Viability Analyzer (17). Beckman Coulter. The Vi-CELL Series Cell Viability Analyzers provide an automatic and ... S3e™ Cell Sorter (2). Bio-Rad , See 3 Models. The S3e Cell Sorter is enhanced with the AutoGimbal™ System, which enables hands- ...
Values represent the means ± SD of four experiments; a minimum of 500 cells was counted per culture plate. Cell viability was ... annexin-positive cells in plates containing Aβ(25-35) plus melatonin and 15 ± 10% annexin-positive cells in control plates ... Cell viability after exposure to Aβ alone or Aβ with various concentrations of melatonin or PBN. N2a cells were plated and ... Melatonin prevents cell death induced by inhibition of SOD. Cells were plated as previously noted in Figure 1and exposed to ...
There, he trained beginners to use the technique-which identifies and sorts specific populations of cells-on the new benchtop ... absolute cell counts. 12 x 75 mm or 1.5mL tubes; assorted plates. ... Forward and side scatter; absolute cell counts. Standard Eppendorf or Grainer sample tubes, 3.5 mL or similar; upgrade for more ... Forward and side scatter; absolute cell counts. Accommodates 17 mm x 100 mm to 8.8 mm x 45 mm tubes. ...
Standard plate assay Hemacytometer: With a counting chamber, mostly called Hemacytometer, one is able to measure cell densities ... As the name suggests it has been developed for counting blood cells but it is now widely established in a huge variety of ... 10000 ml/L and at a relative small size (~5 - 50 µm, single cells or short chains) under the microscope. ... Microscopic cell counting is also useful as a preliminary step for making colony counts. Besides that, counting cells of ...
5 Cell Imaging Multi-Mode Reader combines automated digital widefield microscopy with conventional multi-mode microplate ... cell count and more is obtained with Cytation 5s imaging mode.. Plate reading: absorbance, fluorescence; luminescence; ... Cell Migration and Invasion Cell migration and invasion are live cell kinetic assays useful in oncology research. The principle ... Stem Cell Research Research into the reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells received the Nobel Prize in ...
Candida shehatae cells, cultivated on d-glucose and d-xylose, were subjected to a shift from fully aerobic to anaerobic ... Fermentation Cell Viability Cell Volume Induce Cell Death Plate Count These keywords were added by machine and not by the ... Moreover, the cell volume distribution shifted to smaller volumes. Cell viability, measured by plate counts, declined nine ... Following the shift to anoxia, cell viability rapidly declined and the total cell volume declined in the d-xylose fermentations ...
5 Cell Imaging Multi-Mode Reader combines automated digital widefield microscopy with conventional multi-mode microplate ... Multi-Plate Live Cell Imaging System. *BioSpa Live Cell Analysis System. Peripherals. *Cell Count & Viability Starter Kit ... Automated Cell Counting with BioTek Imagers Label-free and fluorescence cell counting is fast and easy with BioTeks Cytation ... Cytation Cell Imaging Multi-Mode Plate Readers: Ready for Any Assay BioTeks Cytation Cell Imaging Multi-Mode Readers are the ...
... cell phones and bees and new music from Ocote Soul Sounds and Quiet Company. ... Bug count via license plate. Cell phones and bees. Well tell ya more on this weeks 22. Plus new jams from Ocote Soul Sounds ... Weird Science Ryan Britton talks about citizen science in the Netherlands - counting dead bugs on the license plates of your ...
Cells were seeded into 12 well plates on Day 0. Cell numbers were counted on Day 2 and Day 4. (B) The histograms show ... Cell number was counted at Day 2 and Day 4. (H) The histograms summarized the numbers of cells counted on Day 4. Data are the ... Cell number was counted at Day 2 and Day 4. (F) The histograms summarized the numbers of cells counted on Day 4. Data are the ... CAL 27 or SCC-9 cells with T7-PCBP1 stable overexpression were seeded into 12 well plates on Day 0. Cell numbers were counted ...
Dox cells were then plated. Cell numbers were counted 2.5 days after plating (n = 3; *P , .05; **P , .01). (F) AF9+Ri125b+Dox ... Cell numbers were counted on indicated days (n = 3; **P , .001). (E) AF9+Ri125b+Dox cells were transduced with control shRNA ( ... B) Cell numbers and (C-D) apoptosis levels were determined for the described experiment in (A) 2 days after plating cells (n = ... U6 was used as a control (n = 3; *P , .01). (B) Viable cell counts for +Dox and −Dox cells at indicated days, for experiment ...
Cells were washed, resuspended, and counted. Ninety-six-well polyvinylidene fluoride-backed plates (MAIPS4510; Millipore, ... Counting antigen-specific T cells: a new approach for monitoring response to tuberculosis treatment? Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38: ... tuberculosis; thus, levels of their circulating ESAT-6- or CFP-10-specific effector T cells, rather than memory T cells, ... Hill PC, Fox A, Jeffries DJ, Jackson-Sillah D, Lugos MD, Owiafe PK, Quantitative T cell assay reflects infectious load of ...
Cells treated with IHG showed significant decreased cell viability and increased cell proportion in G0/G1 phase. Cell cycle ... on both cell apoptosis and proliferation activity in INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms. ,i,Methods,/i,. Cells were ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS), xanthine oxidase (XOD) level, apoptosis, cell viability, cell cycle, and expression of cyclinD1 ... Excessive activation of cellular stress and regulation of cyclins might be potential mechanism of impairment in INS-1 cells ...
Exercise 88 Viable Plate Count Exercise 89 Direct Cell Count Appendix A: Spectrophotometric Determination of Bacterial Growth: ... Exercise 88 Viable Plate Count Exercise 89 Direct Cell Count Appendix A: Spectrophotometric Determination of Bacterial Growth: ... Case Study Exercise 12 Viable Plate Count Case Study Exercise 13 Cultivation of Anaerobes Case Study Exercise 14 Temperature ... Case Study Exercise 12 Viable Plate Count Case Study Exercise 13 Cultivation of Anaerobes Case Study Exercise 14 Temperature ...
Cell Culture & Analysis Cell Culture & Analysis * Cell Culture Dishes, Plates and Flasks ... Counting. Automated and manual cell counting tools. *Cell counters. *Colony counters. More ...
Satb2+ cells were counted in a 200-μm-wide column through the cortical plate. The cortical plate was divided into bins of 67-μm ... Prox1 postmitotically defines dentate gyrus cells by specifying granule cell identity over CA3 pyramidal cell fate in the ... The density of Satb2+ cells in each bin was calculated by dividing the number of Satb2+ cells in that bin by its area (200 μm ... 1b). We visualized the axonal projections of neurons derived from Fezf2+/− cells or Fezf2−/− cells by using the PLAP marker ...
  • Agilent cell metabolism assays detect discrete changes in cell bioenergetics in real time, providing a window into the critical functions that provide ATP, the energy that cells need for activation, signaling, proliferation, and biosynthesis. (biotek.com)
  • Here we investigated the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG) on both cell apoptosis and proliferation activity in INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • To investigate the function essential for cell proliferation, we have isolated a temperature-sensitive mutant of the rad21 + gene. (genetics.org)
  • A DNA double-strand break repair system is important for cell proliferation because DNA is often damaged during mitosis by γ rays and other DNA-damaging agents. (genetics.org)
  • Proliferation of αKO pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and regression in vivo. (jci.org)
  • A ) Proliferation rates of KPC cell lines in standard 2D culture. (jci.org)
  • In conclusion, IFN-β is much more potent, compared with IFN-α, in its inhibitory effect on GEP-NET cell proliferation in vitro through the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, SCH 717454 treatment markedly reduced Ki-67 expression and blood vessel formation in tumor xenografts, showing that the in vivo activity is derived from its inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cellular biodistribution, viability and proliferation can be monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of the cells transduced with the genetic reporter firefly luciferase (Luc). (rsc.org)
  • Because it simultaneously counts and sizes each individual microbe, one-by-one, the researcher can track the influence of environmental perturbations such as pH, gasses, sampling source, etc. on the size and proliferation rate of bacteria and have a better understanding of how these variables may influence microbial communities and the environment as a whole. (news-medical.net)
  • Bear in mind that although initial cell seeding densities are the same, cell densities at the time of plate assay differ due to low proliferation rate of senescent cells at higher passage levels. (dojindo.com)
  • LDHA is a key glycolytic enzyme controlling Cts L −/− cell proliferation. (mcponline.org)
  • Background -Mild oxidation of LDL enhances its atherogenic potential and induces a synergistic interaction with serotonin (5HT) on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. (ahajournals.org)
  • These studies directly show that GSTP1 promotes clonogenic survival and proliferation in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this context of binding to the stress signaling protein JNK, there is emerging evidence that GSTP1 may affect the proliferation of cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Forced overexpression of GSTP1 in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts increased JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and protected against hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced cell death, but the direct effect of GSTP1 on cell proliferation was not reported ( 25 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to measure the proliferation and transwell assay was performed to evaluate cell invasion. (portlandpress.com)
  • Assays to measure cellular proliferation, cell viability, and cytotoxicity are commonly used to monitor the response and health of cells in culture after treatment with various stimuli. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Measuring cell growth and proliferation of adherent cells are typical uses. (the-scientist.com)
  • TGN (≤120 µ g/ml) did not affect the proliferation of cervical cancer cells under normal culture conditions, but markedly inhibited the growth of serum‑deprived cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Ginsenosides, some of the most important active components in Panax ginseng , exert numerous pharmacological actions, including marked suppression of the proliferation and migration of tumour cells ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We show that OP significantly decreases mesangial cell proliferation within 24 hours and attenuates DNA synthesis throughout a 7-day period. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell proliferation rates and matrix synthesis were determined and compared with parallel cultures grown under atmospheric pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • c-Myc can increase proliferation rate, cell mass accumulation, and oncogenic transformation but can also induce apoptosis and G 2 arrest ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • c-Myc-driven oncogenic transformation is particularly significant because it models the phenotypic changes that c-Myc causes during tumorigenesis, including loss of cell contact inhibition, loss of the requirement for cell matrix attachment, and increased proliferation rate. (asm.org)
  • 1 In the second compartment, terminal maturation is accompanied by a decrease in proliferation, an increase in cell ploidy, and cytoplasmic maturation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We show several applications of SGT, including assessment of antibiotic effects on cell viability and determination of an antibiotic tolerant subpopulation fraction within a cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effects of melatonin were extremely reproducible and corroborated by multiple quantitative methods, including cell viability studies by confocal laser microscopy, electron microscopy, and measurements of intracellular calcium levels. (jneurosci.org)
  • The observed phenomenon was confirmed by various independent methodological approaches, including conventional microscopy (trypan blue exclusion method), fluorescent confocal laser microscopy for assessment of cell viability, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Ca 2+ imaging, and measurements of lipid peroxidation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cell viability studies. (jneurosci.org)
  • Shape and size of organisms are determined by light scattering while measurement with fluorescent light gives information on cell viability. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Hemacytometer is the way to go because in comparison to spectrophotometer allows an assessment of cell viability and distinguish cell type as well. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Cell health and viability measurements provide essential insight into a broad range of biological processes and treatment responses. (biotek.com)
  • Diverse assay formats and reagents have been developed that measure specific aspects of cell viability corresponding to particular cellular response pathways and mechanisms of injury. (biotek.com)
  • Following the shift to anoxia, cell viability rapidly declined and the total cell volume declined in the d -xylose fermentations. (springer.com)
  • Cell viability, measured by plate counts, declined nine times faster for d -xylose fermentations than for d -glucose fermentations. (springer.com)
  • The decline in cell viability and lack of anaerobic growth by C. shehatae were attributed to oxygen deficiency and not to ethanol inhibition. (springer.com)
  • Cells treated with IHG showed significant decreased cell viability and increased cell proportion in G0/G1 phase. (hindawi.com)
  • Measure Jurkat cell concentration and viability at a titration of cell concentration and viability to determine the linearity of the method. (nexcelom.com)
  • Beckman Coulter Life Sciences is proud to introduce our new Vi-CELL BLU Cell Viability Analyzer . (beckman.com)
  • However this requires approximately 3 hours to run the entire plate with may not be ideal, particularly for cell types that generally have low viability or are prone deterioration once outside the incubator or bioreactor. (beckman.com)
  • However resuspension in PBS buffer results in a drastic loss of viability and significant reduction in average cell diameter. (beckman.com)
  • Several other, but less common, methods for estimating bacterial concentration estimation have been described, including flow cytometry [ 3 ] and microscopy counting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Agilent Cell Fluorescence kits are ideally suited for easy, fast, and automated two-color flow cytometry analyses. (selectscience.net)
  • This product is used for labeling of cells to trace multiple generations by flow cytometry. (selectscience.net)
  • Recently, rapid and accurate detection methods have emerged, such as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) measurements to assess microbial activity in drinking water, and flow cytometry (FCM) to determine the total cell concentration (TCC). (drink-water-eng-sci.net)
  • IFN-β, apart from a more potent delay in S-G 2 -M phase transit of the cell cycle, also induced a strong stimulation of apoptosis, evaluated by flow cytometry (Annexin V and 7-AAD) and measurement of the DNA fragmentation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For cell sample by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry , Click Here for the product page. (dojindo.com)
  • Furthermore, the apoptosis rates of cells were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis, and the activity of caspase-3 in keloid fibroblasts was tested by Caspase-3 activity assay. (portlandpress.com)
  • Automated imaging tools can provide valuable information for improving routine cell culturing techniques and increasing the effectiveness and reproducibility of downstream cell-based assays. (biotek.com)
  • Cell migration and invasion are live cell kinetic assays useful in oncology research. (biotek.com)
  • There are numerous methods for performing these assays including scratch assays performed on a monolayer of cells adhered to plasticware (microplates or culture inserts) or using 3D cell culture models. (biotek.com)
  • We performed plate assays using this kit with WI-38 cells after adding doxorubicin which increases the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). (dojindo.com)
  • Cell-based assays are popular for high-throughput screens, where they strike a balance between ease of use and similarity to the human body that researchers aim to treat. (the-scientist.com)
  • Modern scientists now look to cell-based assays as a drug-development tool that ups the chances of picking a winner. (the-scientist.com)
  • In fact, Dunlay estimates that more than half of new drug-discovery assays are now cell-based. (the-scientist.com)
  • They are sometimes called "black box" assays, because it's hard to determine exactly what happened inside the cell between your treatment and the outcome you're measuring, says Terry Riss, a senior product specialist in cell health at Promega Corporation in Madison, Wisconsin. (the-scientist.com)
  • Here, The Scientist profiles four methods to maximize what cell assays have to offer. (the-scientist.com)
  • High-throughput cell-based fluorescent imaging assays often require removal of background fluorescent signal to obtain robust measurements. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast, traditional imaging assays require multiple plate washes to remove the background signal, long plate scan and data analysis times, and large data files. (aspetjournals.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This work has resulted in the development of broadly applicable cell-based fluorescence imaging assays without the requirement of washing out reagents to reduce background signal that effectively decreases the need for extensive plate processing by the researcher. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, Corning FluoroBlok multiwell insert systems provide reliable, lot-to-lot consistent protein coatings for tumor cell inva-sion and endothelial cell migration and invasion assays. (corning.com)
  • Corning BioCoat angiogenesis systems are composed of 3.0 μm inserts with biological coatings optimized for use in endothelial cell migration and invasion assays. (corning.com)
  • Conventional methods for evaluating cell culturing techniques and assay design consist of manual inspection of a small subset of the cell population at random locations and time points. (biotek.com)
  • Recent studies demonstrated that an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) produced by activated T cells after exposure to antigens of M . tuberculosis , early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6), and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) is a specific method for identifying M . tuberculosis infection ( 7 - 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Cell Cycle Analysis Kit and Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and Reactive Oxygen Species Assay Kit and Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit were from Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology. (hindawi.com)
  • This product is a simple detection kit by plate assay for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity which is used as a marker for senescent cells. (dojindo.com)
  • If all the tumor cells in your assay died, for example, you may have to do further experiments to figure out how the drug actually did them in. (the-scientist.com)
  • Here, we present the development of a wash-free cell-based fluorescence assay method for high-throughput screening (HTS) using a laser scanning fluorescence plate cytometer. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The advantages of this assay format include (1) no plate washing, (2) four-fold faster plate scan and analysis time, (3) high-throughput, and (4) greater than ten-fold smaller and direct data files. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A HMCA-based imaging plate is presented for invasion assay performance. (jove.com)
  • Conventional methods for detection of this bacterium in blood include detection of the endotoxin it produces by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay ( 30 ) and staining of the bacterial cells with hematologic stains such as acridine orange or Giemsa or Wright-Giemsa ( 10 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • We show that SGT detects only live bacteria and is sensitive enough to differentiate between 40 and 400 cells/mL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CFU method has two noteworthy advantages, namely the capacity for counts of any number of bacteria using dilutions, if too many, or concentrations if too few. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Second, only viable bacteria are counted with this method as the CFU method excludes dead bacteria and debris. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the potential for counting clumps as single units is in fact reason the results are reported as CFU/mL rather than bacteria/mL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteria counts dont go up without a reason! (powershow.com)
  • We report that in Japanese lamprey ( Lampetra japonica ), variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR)B interacts with C1q and C3 proteins to mediate complement-dependent cytotoxicity for bacteria and tumor cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In order for mammalian, insect, or bacteria cells to express high amounts of protein they must proliferate, but they must also grow and be maintained at an optimal size. (news-medical.net)
  • Students should be able to define a biofilm, describe the differences between biofilm (surface-attached) and planktonic (suspended bacterial cells) bacteria, and be able to describe why bacteria usually grow on surfaces. (montana.edu)
  • Cell morphologies of bacteria grown aerobically on plates included short rods, cocci, and actinomycete-like forms. (epa.gov)
  • Thus, packed red cells, which are usually stored at 4°C for up to 42 days, can allow the growth of these bacteria ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • X. azovorans are Gram-negative bacteria with cells 0. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study suggested that IHG plays a more toxic effect including both apoptosis-inducing and antiproliferative effects on INS-1 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Evidence from autopsy also demonstrated that -cell mass in diabetic patients is significantly reduced and its reduction is associated with increased apoptosis [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Several lines of studies showed that blood glucose fluctuations can increase activities of protein kinase C, activate oxidative stress, promote the apoptosis of cell including the -cells, and ultimately result in progressive beta cell failure and beta cell mass reduction [ 10 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A higher apoptosis of beta cell induced by intermittent high glucose was associated with the increased oxidative stress level [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Specifically, under growth-limiting conditions, ( a ) GSTP1 protected HCT116 cells from oxidative stress and associated apoptosis and ( b ) promoted mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated G 1 -S cell cycle progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, increased GSTP1 expression is associated with butyrate induction of differentiation and apoptosis in HT29 cells ( 18 , 19 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is an interferon-inducible type II transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as an NF-κB activator ( 9 ), host restriction factor that tethers virions on the cell membrane ( 10 ) and survival protein that increases cancer cell adhesion and resistance to apoptosis ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • OpenCFU, a new free and open-source software to count cell colonies and other circular objects. (mybiosoftware.com)
  • The plate is duplicated and the number of colonies appearing in the 10 x 10 µl drops are averaged to determine the plate count. (montana.edu)
  • 1. About how many cells were plated to count His+ revertant colonies? (physicsforums.com)
  • Survivors and revertants are measured by the number of colonies you get on a plate, which you can count. (physicsforums.com)
  • You don't, and you don't need to, measure every cell in this way - it would take a long time to count 10 14 colonies. (physicsforums.com)
  • You typically aim to have of the order of 100 colonies per plate. (physicsforums.com)
  • Cell sorting studies revealed that the CD41 + GPV + population contained 4N and 8N cells at day 7, and was less effective than CD41 + GPV − cells in generating burst-forming units of erythrocytes or MK colonies. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This exercise describes a technique (drop plating) for enumerating biofilm cells that can be used instead of standard spread or pour plating techniques. (montana.edu)
  • By this conventional criterion, biofilm cells do not necessarily show increased resistance. (asm.org)
  • With some exceptions, biofilm cells do not grow better than planktonic cells in the presence of a broad range of antimicrobials. (asm.org)
  • Why, then, do biofilm cells not die? (asm.org)
  • This will provide effective resistance for biofilm cells against large molecules such as antimicrobial proteins lysozyme and complement. (asm.org)
  • Unlike planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa that were very sensitive to killing by 50 mM H 2 O 2 , biofilm cells that actually had lower levels of catalase (KatA) were effectively protected ( 18 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Transplantation studies demonstrate that early progenitor cells are multipotent and can produce neurons of any layer, whereas late progenitors are restricted to producing upper-layer neurons ( 1 , 6 ⇓ - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, a subset of Axin2 + AT2 cells called alveolar epithelial progenitor cells (AEPs), marked by Tm4sf1 expression and fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) responsiveness, were shown to contribute to alveolar re-epithelialization following sterile and infectious lung injuries 19 . (nature.com)
  • Cellular differentiation, the process by which progenitor cells differentiate into specialized cell types, is fundamental to developmental biology. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Human cord blood CD34 + progenitor cells were cultured in the presence of cytokines inducing megakaryocytic differentiation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Megakaryocyte (MK) progenitor cells proliferate, polyploidize, increase in size, and develop lineage-specific cell surface and cytoplasmic markers. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Standard Plate Count averaged 3,911 cfu/mL (colony forming units per milliliter) and ranged from 420 to 7,846 cfu/mL. (agweb.com)
  • Sporeformers are generally not evaluated by processors as quality indicators like Somatic Cell Count and Standard Plate Count, but have significant quality impacts. (constantcontact.com)
  • In conversations with a PA dairy farmer using AMS, I have been told that somatic cell count (SCC) on his dairy typically runs between 300,000 and 350,000 and he does not think he can expect any better from robotic milkers. (agweb.com)
  • The microbiologist determines the somatic cell count by direct microscopic examination of the milk. (tarrantcounty.com)
  • Additionally, low somatic cell counts or low Standard Plate Counts are not necessarily indicative of low spore counts. (constantcontact.com)
  • Cells prepared in advance are lysed in the buffer supplied with this kit.Fluorescence intensity is obtainable according to SA-β-gal activity simply by adding the fluorescent substrate SPiDER-βGal to the cell lysate. (dojindo.com)
  • Using fluorescent reporters and non-destructive in situ imaging on Celigo cell imaging cytometer, these parameters can be rapidly optimized by repeated imaging of one set of wells or flasks over a period of time. (nexcelom.com)
  • In the present study, total ginsenosides (TGNs) were demonstrated to enhance autophagy by promoting acidic vacuole organelle formation, recruitment of enhanced green fluorescent protein‑microtubule‑associated protein light chain 3 and expression of autophagy‑related factors in cervical cancer cell lines. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The cytometry data consisted of cell count and fluorescent intensity measurements for phenotypic screening. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since 1cm³ is approximately equivalent to 1ml, the cell concentration per ml will be the average count per square x 104. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Then, primary cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats were used to measure the changes of calcium concentration in cells. (hindawi.com)
  • There is also some minor reduction in cell concentration which may be expected from losses during resuspension. (beckman.com)
  • Cytosolic ionized calcium often increases within seconds or minutes after an injury or other cell damage, long before cell death, and the increased calcium concentration activates various signaling processes that include phospholipases, endonucleases, proteases, and protein kinases, 11 - 13 followed by both apoptotic and necrotic cell death of neurons, 14 , 15 including retinal neurons. (dovepress.com)
  • At low labelling concentration, encapsulated SPIONs served as an efficient labelling agent for stem cells. (rsc.org)
  • Then to measure His+ revertants I would think they need to plate the same concentration of cells as they did to measure the total cell count? (physicsforums.com)
  • Its on screen instructions guide you through the sampling process and in less than 40 seconds reveil data on cell concentration, average diameter, average volume and a histogram displaying population information on your culture. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the present study, the effect of TGN on autophagy in HeLa cells was investigated and TGN treatment was found to induce irreversible autophagy in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The table below provides ranges for expected total yield of chromatin and expected DNA concentration from 25 mg of tissue or 4 x 10 6 HeLa cells, as determined in Section IV of the protocols. (cellsignal.com)
  • This process occurs when type II alveolar pneumocytes (AT2 cells) proliferate and transdifferentiate into type I alveolar pneumocytes (AT1 cells). (nature.com)
  • Although both VLRA and VLRB cells proliferate in response to antigenic stimulation, only VLRB lymphocytes bind native Ags and differentiate into plasmocytes, which secrete soluble VLRB Abs ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cts L −/− cells proliferate faster than wild types and shift to aerobic glycolysis. (mcponline.org)
  • The general microbial quality of drinking water is normally monitored by heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). (drink-water-eng-sci.net)
  • The flipside of this method is mainly the high cost which most wineries prevent from using it plus the lack of specific knowledge in microbial cell labeling and the management of the data obtained. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Unfortunately, many microbial types are not easily cultured in the laboratory in plates. (news-medical.net)
  • The Bacterial Interior 4.CONTENTS 1 The Scope of Microbiology Introduction Cells Binomial Nomenclature Morphology Specific Microbial Groups A. Taxonomy of Microorganisms VII. (scribd.com)
  • A restricted penetration of this small molecule coupled to its destruction by the microbial cells was apparently responsible for resistance. (asm.org)
  • SGT is a relatively quick, highly sensitive, reproducible and non-laborious method that can be used in HTS settings to longitudinally assess live cells in bacterial cell cultures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cells cultures of CHO (Chinese Hamster Ovary), EL4 (Mouse T Lymphocyte Cell Line), SF9 (Ovarian tissue from Spodoptera frugiperda) insect cells and of HELA cells were used to assess the effects of long analysis durations and different sample preparation conditions on different types of cells. (beckman.com)
  • Alternatively, microbiologists might have performed a serial dilution of bacterial cultures and then transferred these to Petri dishes in order to have a more accurate determination of cell counts. (news-medical.net)
  • Even the best-cared-for cultures are always a heterogeneous mix, so some cells might respond to a drug right away, while others in the same container take time to catch up. (the-scientist.com)
  • Cell cultures were grown under atmospheric pressure (AP) and a controlled OP corresponding to intraglomerular capillary pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our data show that the high glucose growth stimulatory effect on cell number and DNA synthesis was suppressed by OP. Under high glucose conditions, total CA collagen synthesis was increased in confluent cultures, whereas the EC collagen fraction remained unchanged. (ahajournals.org)
  • To address this, a model of impaired cellular respiratory function was established by incubating human skeletal muscle cell cultures with the mitochondrial inhibitor sodium azide and examining the effects on insulin action. (physiology.org)
  • Experiments assessing overexpression of the EGFR mutants in fibroblasts and mammary epithelial cells suggest that the EGFR mutants may display different kinetics of activation and deactivation ( 11 ), as well as differential patterns of autophosphorylation and intracellular signaling cascades ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • We show that c-Myc induces a profound morphological transformation in human mammary epithelial cells and anchorage-independent growth. (asm.org)
  • Despite the fact that 80% of cancers are epithelial in origin and that overexpression of c-Myc plays a prominent role in many of these tumors, the only Myc-regulated gene demonstrated to be necessary for epithelial cell transformation is CDK4 ( 35 ), and no specific genes have been shown to be necessary for transformation of mammary epithelial cells by Myc. (asm.org)
  • Another established oncogenic pathway in mammary epithelial cells is constitutive Wnt signaling, which also functions in other epithelial cell lineages. (asm.org)
  • After labeled cells migrate through the membrane, they are easily detected by a bottom-reading fluorescence plate reader or microscope, thereby eliminating manual cell counting and additional processing steps. (corning.com)
  • Microscopic cell counting is also useful as a preliminary step for making colony counts. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The bacterial microflora of two shallow aquifers in Oklahoma was characterized by direct observation with light (LM) and electron microscopy (EM), by plating, and by examination of colony morphology and distribution. (epa.gov)
  • Microscopy studies confirmed the late appearance of GPV, which was principally localized in the cytoplasm when GPIb-IX was found on the cell surface, suggesting a delayed program of GPV synthesis and trafficking. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Viable cells exclude the dye and do not change. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The bad thing is that you can't tell how viable that yeast is, unless you have the equipment to properly test and count it. (homebrewtalk.com)
  • If you really want to use it, you might consider pitching it in some starter wort to get the still viable cells active. (homebrewtalk.com)
  • The Viable Plate Count 2. (scribd.com)
  • All reagents for cell culture were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA). (hindawi.com)
  • We established previously that the LIM-homeodomain protein Lmx1a is required for roof plate formation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The finding that the amyloid β protein (Aβ) has neurotoxic properties and that such effects are, in part, mediated by free radicals has provided insights into mechanisms of cell death in AD and an avenue to explore new therapeutic approaches. (jneurosci.org)
  • Similar abnormalities were observed when the Rad21 protein was depleted from cells. (genetics.org)
  • The Rad21 protein is a nuclear protein that is involved in DNA double-strand break repair and that is phosphorylated during cell cycle ( B irkenbihl and S ubramani 1995 ). (genetics.org)
  • The depletion of Rad21 protein from cells was reported to result in disturbance of nuclear organization caused by aberrant mitosis ( B irkenbihl and S ubramani 1995 ). (genetics.org)
  • Track protein expression of key cell surface receptors, lineage markers, and regulatory molecules to monitor shifts in cell type abundance and activation status. (nanostring.com)
  • Click here to view Cancer cell profiling by barcoding allows multiplexed protein analysis in fine-needle aspirates. (nanostring.com)
  • Measure key intracellular protein targets including cytokines, chemoattractants, and transcription factors for the earliest indications of cell-cell communication and immune differentiation. (nanostring.com)
  • As determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis and immunocytochemistry, BON cells expressed the active type I IFN receptor mRNA and protein (IFNAR-1 and IFNAR-2c subunits). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The immune-based lysis involves deposition of VLRB and C1q-like protein complex on the surface of target cells, activation of C3, and ultimate disruption of cell wall integrity. (jimmunol.org)
  • When cells are analyzed in a microplate, the results obtained may sometimes differ depending on cell numbers per well.In such cases, normalization of the measured values obtained from cell counting and total protein will be necessary. (dojindo.com)
  • In conclusion, we propose that Cts L regulates this metabolic circuit to keep cell division under control, suggesting the therapeutic potential of targeting this protein and its networks in cancer. (mcponline.org)
  • The underlying metabolic shift is regulated at various levels including cell-signaling cascades or altered gene expression and protein degradation ( 1 , 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The method is also convenient for investigating G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, which causes subtle cell shape changes that the xCELLigence can detect. (the-scientist.com)
  • No need to label the cells, which might alter their biology, says Reena Halai, a research officer at the University of Queensland in St. Lucia, Australia, who studies G-protein signaling. (the-scientist.com)
  • Western Blot analysis demonstrated quantitative reduction of mutant protein in VHL-associated tumors (renal cell carcinoma [86% to 93%] and hemangioblastoma [73% to 85%]), but messenger RNA expression remained at normal physiologic levels. (jaoa.org)
  • Western blot analysis revealed that mutant VHL protein products retain the fundamental function as an E3 ligase to degrade hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) in stable transfections of 786-0 cells, a VHL-deficient cell line. (jaoa.org)
  • However, mutant proteins were highly unstable and with significantly reduced protein half-life as determined by timed cycloheximide treatment (from 3.3 to 1.5 hours) of transfected 786-0 cells. (jaoa.org)
  • Our results indicate that tumor cell PIK3CA-AKT signaling limits T cell recognition and clearance of pancreatic cancer cells. (jci.org)
  • Therefore, it's important to carefully decide how long to incubate the cells before you make your measurement, Riss advises. (the-scientist.com)
  • Currently, the molecular pathways of roof plate formation and function are poorly understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although numerous studies have firmly established the importance of the roof plate as a signaling center controlling dorsal CNS patterning, little is understood regarding the molecular pathways driving roof plate induction or function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Presumably, these mutations provide persistent stimulation of downstream pathways that drive cell transformation. (pnas.org)
  • Different ginsenoside monomers have different effects on autophagy in cancer cells and act on different pathways ( 6 , 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In a mouse model of F t inhalation, rCST9 significantly decreased organ bacterial burden and improved survival, which was not accompanied by excessive cytokine secretion or subsequent immune cell migration. (springer.com)
  • The fission yeast DNA repair gene rad21 + is essential for cell growth. (genetics.org)
  • My question is on yeast cell counts within a starter. (hbd.org)
  • Assuming one began with a 1L of 1.040 starter wort, and 50 ml of yeast containing 15 billion cells that has an Apparent Attenuation of 75%: 1) What would the cell count be in the starter if allowed to go to completion? (hbd.org)
  • I have used stir plate to capture and grow yeast from bottled beers, and success rate is much better. (hbd.org)
  • I've just started working on building a yeast bank and I'm having a hard time approximating yeast cell counts. (homebrewtalk.com)
  • Yeast Calc and Mr Malty tell me that I should have 375m cells afterwards. (homebrewtalk.com)
  • It looks like the WL is estimating 3 billion cells per mL based on a very low non-yeast percentage, no aging, and very dense cells. (homebrewtalk.com)
  • There are about 4.5 billion yeast cells in 1 milliliter of yeast solids (solids with no excess liquid). (homebrewtalk.com)
  • It could if it really had a very very small amount of yeast cells, but if it was something like an 80/20 split, you might not even notice, or have to really try to notice. (homebrewtalk.com)
  • Many common molds grow well on yeast media and compete effectively, over-growing the plates and obscuring those yeast that do manage to grow. (ksu.edu)
  • As development proceeds, roof plate progenitors exit the cell cycle, acquire typical roof plate morphology, and initiate expression of differentiated roof plate markers, including MafB. (jneurosci.org)
  • Megakaryocytic differentiation is accompanied by changes in cell morphology, notably an increase in size and the appearance of demarcation membranes, and by the sequential expression of a number of genes coding for specific cell surface markers, cytokines, and cytokine receptors. (bloodjournal.org)
  • For this, we used serum deprivation cell model, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced RGC-5 cell death models, and staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 in vitro. (dovepress.com)
  • An oscillating pressure (OP) chamber was constructed as an in vitro model to study human mesangial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cellular metabolism comprises a number of biochemical reactions that occur in concert within the cells of living organisms. (biotek.com)
  • Rapidly proliferating cells reshape their metabolism to satisfy their ever-lasting need for cellular building blocks. (mcponline.org)
  • This phenomenon is exemplified in certain malignant conditions such as cancer but also during embryonic development when cells rely heavily on glycolytic metabolism to exploit its metabolic intermediates for biosynthetic processes. (mcponline.org)
  • How cells reshape their metabolism is not fully understood. (mcponline.org)
  • Using mass spectrometry analysis of cells treated with a pan cathepsin inhibitor, we observed an increased abundance of proteins involved in central carbon metabolism. (mcponline.org)
  • Cells have the fundamental ability for metabolism remodeling in response to changing environments. (mcponline.org)
  • The latter has recently sparked continued interest since the rejuvenation of the lysosomes as a central hub for cell metabolism ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The lysosomes receive nutritional cues from various sources such as the extracellular environment or intracellular pools and dynamically regulate cell metabolism ( 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • In addition to identifying kynurenine metabolism as an important factor in ESC maintenance and ectodermal differentiation, these findings show that the secretion of kynurenine and the kynurenine catabolite 2-AAA are biomarkers for undifferentiated stem cells and nascent ectoderm, respectively. (sciencemag.org)
  • To explore the effects of OP on cell metabolism, cell-associated and medium-secreted extracellular (CA and EC, respectively) collagen synthesis were measured by [ 3 H]proline incorporation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Total cell counts varied only slightly from sample to sample, whereas colony counts varied widely. (epa.gov)
  • Colony counts on nutritionally-rich (NR) media were lower than on low-nutrient (LN) media, especially in samples from the saturated zone. (epa.gov)
  • Example: You count 187 particles in five small squares, each square has an area of 1/25 mm-squared and depth of 0.1 mm, so the total volume is 0.04 x 0.1 = 0.004 mm- cubed. (ucdavis.edu)
  • In this context, understanding the in vivo fate of the particles after injection of labelled cells is important for their eventual clinical use as well as for the interpretation of imaging results. (rsc.org)
  • The results suggest that, after being released from labelled cells after cell death, both formulations of particles are initially stored in liver and spleen and are not completely cleared from these organs 2 weeks post-injection. (rsc.org)
  • 20,22 Upon cell uptake, the clustering and confinement of these particles in endosomal and lysosomal compartments affects their abilities to alter the relaxation rate and hence relaxivity of the surrounding water molecules. (rsc.org)
  • 26,27 The critical parameter for imaging is the contrast obtained after cell labelling rather than the solution relaxivity of the particles. (rsc.org)
  • Similarly as in the original analyser, the MS4e counts particles using a glass "aperture" tube that contains a small orifice through which particles pass, termed an aperture. (news-medical.net)
  • The Scepter 2.0 handheld automated cell counter provides a fast and convenient method for counting cells and particles and is compatible with both the 40 and 60uM sensor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The method can improve the speed and efficiency of cell counting, where numerous samples are required to be counted on a daily basis for bioprocessing, PBMCs samples, or simply cell culture. (nexcelom.com)
  • 11,19-24 The uptake efficiency of SPIONs by cells is strongly influenced by the functionalization of SPIONs. (rsc.org)
  • If you have 500 cells per side (9 big squares) of the hemocytomter, and you collected your cells in 3 ml and diluted the count 1:1 with trypan blue. (protocol-online.org)
  • 1) Did you use trypan blue for your cell counting, if so, how much did you add to what volume of cells? (protocol-online.org)
  • How long can cells be exposed to trypan blue before all cells are stained with the dye? (thermofisher.com)
  • An entire dilution series with replicates can be obtained on just two plates of medium. (montana.edu)
  • Images show captured bright field images for each dilution (bottom row), GFP positive cells for each dilution (top row) and Celigo software identified and counted (cells outlined in red) GFP positive cells (middle row). (nexcelom.com)
  • Then plate onto survival plate after a 100,000 fold dilution. (physicsforums.com)
  • The user prepares a dilution of the cell culture of interest and uses the Scepter cell counter to aspirate a sample of this dilution into the Scepter sensor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • By use of culture technique (agar, incubation) the SPC count is assessed. (tarrantcounty.com)
  • Through a culture technique (agar, incubation) a count is assessed. (tarrantcounty.com)
  • We recommend increasing the incubation time of cells with alamarBlue™ reagent, changing the instrument's gain or voltage setting, and checking the instrument filter/wavelength settings. (thermofisher.com)
  • Decrease the incubation time and/or reduce the number of cells used in the experiment. (thermofisher.com)
  • These plates allow for a two-position orientation of the inserts for feeding and incubation of cells. (corning.com)
  • Incubation of human skeletal muscle cells with 50 and 75 μM azide resulted in 48 ± 3% and 56 ± 1% decreases, respectively, in respiration compared with untreated cells mimicking the level of impairment seen in type 2 diabetes. (physiology.org)
  • Most experiments were performed with murine N2a neuroblastoma cells using Aβ(25-35), although a number of confirming experiments were performed with PC12 cells and Aβ(1-40) (see below). (jneurosci.org)
  • miR-125b promotes MLL-AF9-driven murine acute myeloid leukemia involving a VEGFA-mediated non-cell-intrinsic mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • This study aimed to determine the protective effects of tetrandrine (Tet) on murine ischemia-injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). (dovepress.com)
  • Thus, Tet conferred protective effects on serum deprivation models of staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 cells and primary cultured murine RGCs. (dovepress.com)
  • Two recent studies investigated the effect of mitochondrial dysfunction on insulin action in rodent and murine muscle cell lines ( 17 , 21 ). (physiology.org)
  • Even when you prepare cells in 100 mm dishes or others, fluorescence intensity can be measured by transferring cell lysate in 96 well plates after cell lysis. (dojindo.com)
  • In addition, myeloid cells (DC precursors) from me v /me v mice show enhanced survival, cell growth, activation, and chemotactic responses ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Here we describe the ability of CST9 to increase the intracellular killing of Ft by macrophages ( Ft 's primary target cell population) and simultaneously restrained inflammation ultimately resulting in host survival. (springer.com)
  • Genetic silencing of Pik3ca in KrasG12D/Trp53R172H-driven pancreatic tumors resulted in infiltration of T cells, complete tumor regression, and 100% survival of immunocompetent host mice. (jci.org)
  • F ) Kaplan-Meier survival curves for B6 mice implanted with the indicated cell lines. (jci.org)
  • We also investigated cell survival of purified primary-cultured RGCs treated with Tet. (dovepress.com)
  • But I'm really confused as to how every time point had a survival plate with 10^7 survivors? (physicsforums.com)
  • In order to measure total survival don't you need to have a survival plate (min+his) and then replica plate these survivors onto the mutant plate (min-his). (physicsforums.com)
  • Autophagy is a vital metabolic process in eukaryotic cells, which plays a significant role in regulation of cell survival and death ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In certain cases, autophagy counteracts apoptotic cell death via a cell survival pathway ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, in most biofilm susceptibility studies, only survival of cells in a preformed biofilm rather than the ability of a biofilm to grow is recorded. (asm.org)
  • If some of your agar plates become contaminated, you can often tell by examining the plate how contamination took place. (ksu.edu)
  • Administration of SHP-1-inhibited DCs in vivo induced expansion of Ag-specific cytotoxic T cells and inhibited Foxp3 + regulatory T cell induction, resulting in an enhanced immune response against pre-established mouse melanoma and prostate tumors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Nanoparticle contrast agents are useful tools to label stem cells and monitor the in vivo bio-distribution of labeled cells in pre-clinical models of disease. (rsc.org)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers much higher spatial resolution (50 μm) than BLI allowing in vivo cell tracking combined with detailed anatomical information at the level of individual organs. (rsc.org)
  • Single-cell transcriptome analysis identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( Bdnf ) as a STAT3 target gene with newly accessible chromatin in a unique population of regenerating AT2 cells. (nature.com)
  • A unique feature of the rad21 + gene is that its function is essential for vegetative growth of cells ( B irkenbihl and S ubramani 1992 ). (genetics.org)
  • In an effort to gain further insights into the role of GSTP1 in tumorigenesis, we disrupted the GSTP1 gene in HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells using targeted homologous recombination. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Myc-dependent repression of DKK1 and SFRP1 is accompanied by Wnt target gene activation and endogenous T-cell factor activity. (asm.org)
  • It is now clear that STATs can be activated to participate in gene control when cells encounter various noncytokine polypeptides ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Early genes, such as mpl coding for the TPO receptor 9 and the GPIIb gene 10 are first expressed in CD34 + cells, but are still expressed in the late stages leading to platelet production. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 16 In conditional knockout mice in which the thymidine kinase gene was driven by the GPIIb promoter, 17 the administration of gancyclovir led to dramatic reduction in the platelet count. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Several concentrations of Tet significantly prevented 25-mM-glutamate-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. (dovepress.com)
  • Using chick in ovo electroporation technology in conjunction with mutant mouse analysis, we determined that roof plate induction is the primary activity of Lmx1b in the early developing dorsal spinal cord. (jneurosci.org)
  • The OD method can be performed automatically in a high throughput manner using a microtiter plate reader and is well suited for experiments requiring continuous growth curve analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The LUNA-II™ Automated Cell Counter uses precision brightfield optics, an autofocusing liquid lens, sophisticated image analysis software, and an onboard computer to provide a truly automated solution for brightfield cell counting. (selectscience.net)
  • We chose N2a cells for most of the experiments because these cells exhibit larger cytoplasmic areas and better attachment to plates than PC12 cells, allowing better morphological analysis of cell damage. (jneurosci.org)
  • C ) RT-PCR analysis of alternative splicing of exon 23 in HEK293 cells transfected with wild-type (wt) or mutant (mt) minigenes. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, proteomic analysis of Cts L-knockout cells identified LDHA overexpression that was demonstrated to be a key metabolic junction in these cells. (mcponline.org)
  • The RTCA Cardio (Real Time Cell Analysis) measures how cardiomyocytes beat in culture, providing a readout like an electrocardiogram. (the-scientist.com)
  • To determine the mechanism in which missense mutations underlie the pathogenesis of VHL, molecular characterization, functional analysis, and cell culture of VHL-associated tumors (renal cell carcinoma and hemangioblastoma) was performed. (jaoa.org)
  • FCM is an optical system which permits highly sensitive direct estimation of particle or cell numbers present in a suspension. (ucdavis.edu)
  • A Dounce homogenizer is strongly recommended for disaggregation of brain tissue, as the Medimachine does not adequately disaggregate brain tissue into a single-cell suspension. (cellsignal.com)
  • Numerous studies have identified the roof plate as an important signaling center controlling dorsal interneuron specification and differentiation in the developing spinal cord. (jneurosci.org)
  • Lmx1b acts upstream of Lmx1a in the chick roof plate differentiation program and can partially rescue roof plate development in the dreher mouse. (jneurosci.org)
  • One-piece 24-Multiwell insert system (insert plate, 24-well plate or single-well feeder tray, and lid) or 24-well individual cell culture inserts. (fishersci.com)
  • FluoroBlok cell culture inserts are designed with a patented light-tight polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membrane that efficiently blocks the transmission of light between 400 and 700 nm, allowing fluorescence detection in a simplified and non-destructive manner. (corning.com)
  • This plate facilitates the formation of three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroids and the measurement of cancer cell invasion into the extracellular matrix (ECM). (jove.com)
  • Overexpression of miR-125a or miR-125b is frequent in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and the overexpression of these miRNAs in mice leads to expansion of hematopoietic stem cells accompanied by perturbed hematopoiesis with mostly myeloproliferative phenotypes. (nih.gov)
  • 1-4 Tracking of stem cells in pre-clinical models is a prerequisite to determine their safety and efficacy. (rsc.org)
  • found that IDO1, kynurenine, and the AhR were required for self-renewal and for AhR-mediated expression of self-renewal genes in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we report that kynurenine was produced by undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and by induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (sciencemag.org)
  • Microbiological testing with Violet Red Bile agar enables the microbiologist to determine the coliform count. (tarrantcounty.com)
  • Retail products must have a coliform count below 10/g or ml to conform to State regulations. (tarrantcounty.com)
  • When titanium implants, bioactive implant surface is crucial aspects of bone tissue after implantation need to form a strong osseointegration, the cardiovascular stent materials, and endothelial cell compatibility is the key to success. (rexresearch.com)
  • In this study we demonstrate that melatonin, a pineal hormone with recently established antioxidant properties, is remarkably effective in preventing death of cultured neuroblastoma cells as well as oxidative damage and intracellular Ca 2+ increases induced by a cytotoxic fragment of Aβ. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study we report that melatonin prevented death of cultured neuroblastoma cells exposed to Aβ. (jneurosci.org)
  • Nutritional Requirements B. pH C. Summary Growth of Microorganisms I.Total Cell Counts 4. (scribd.com)
  • Here, we report a bacterial cell counting method termed Start Growth Time (SGT) that allows rapid and serial quantification of the absolute or relative number of live cells in a bacterial culture in a high throughput manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Determination of bacterial cell number is among the most fundamental procedures in microbiology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this interview, Dr. Rich Jones introduces bacterial cell counting and an example of when the Multisizer 4e from Beckman Coulter has been used for this application. (news-medical.net)
  • What are the main applications of bacterial cell counting and sizing? (news-medical.net)
  • In the absence of oxygen or an alternative electron acceptor, cells are tobramycin tolerant but chlorate sensitive via Nar-dependent reduction. (asm.org)
  • The immune system relies on diverse mechanisms working in concert to defend the host from infection and to identify and remove aberrant or damaged cells. (biotek.com)
  • Additionally, the immune system is a critical consideration for vaccine development and cell, tissue and organ transplants. (biotek.com)
  • Taken together, these data demonstrate that SHP-1 is an intrinsic global regulator of DC function, controlling many facets of T cell-mediated immune responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized APCs that initiate and direct innate and adaptive immune responses upon recognition of foreign or self-danger signals ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The Src homology region 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) is expressed in a wide variety of immune cells where it plays a largely inhibitory role in cell signaling initiated through a range of cytokine, chemokine, growth factor, and AgR stimuli ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The Immune Cell Profiling panel enables precise, digital detection of the most important cell surface targets in your immuno-oncology research. (nanostring.com)
  • Prepare cross-linked nuclei from 125 mg of tissue or 2 x 10 7 cells (equivalent of 5 IP preps), as described in Protocol Sections I, II, and III. (cellsignal.com)
  • Because there are 1000 cubic ml in one cubic cm, the particle count is 9,350,000 per ml. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The Multisizer 4e represents the latest in a long series of cell and particle analysers originally developed by Wallace Coulter in the 1940s. (news-medical.net)
  • MiR-125b expression enhances VEGFA expression and production from leukemia cells, in part by suppressing TET2 Recombinant VEGFA recapitulates the leukemia-promoting effects of miR-125b , whereas knockdown of VEGFA or inhibition of VEGF receptor 2 abolishes the effects of miR-125b In addition, significant correlation between miR-125b and VEGFA expression is observed in human AMLs. (nih.gov)
  • Loss of PIK3CA or inhibition of its effector AKT increased the expression of MHC class I and CD80 on tumor cells. (jci.org)
  • 9 Tet ameliorates amyloid-β(1-42)-induced spatial learning and memory impairment, and the beneficial effect of tetrandrine treatment may be linked to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity and downregulation of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. (dovepress.com)
  • whereas invasion describes cells actively invading surrounding tissue. (biotek.com)
  • G ) H&E-stained sections of pancreatic tissue collected at the indicated times after cell implantation in B6 mice. (jci.org)
  • This test measures the amount of white blood cells and tissue cells in a milk sample. (tarrantcounty.com)
  • In the SimpleChIP ® Enzymatic protocol, optimal conditions for the digestion of cross-linked chromatin DNA to 150-900 bp fragments is highly dependent on the ratio of micrococcal nuclease to the amount of tissue or number of cells used in the digest. (cellsignal.com)
  • Below is a protocol for determination of the optimal digestion conditions for a specific tissue or cell type. (cellsignal.com)
  • The detection limit was 10³ cells / ml. (ucdavis.edu)
  • By simply adding SPiDER-βGal, a reagent for detection of β-galactosidase, to 96 well plates, this kit allows you to quantify SA-β-gal activity and makes it possible to evaluate multiple specimens. (dojindo.com)
  • Mesangial structures with inherent centripetal forces are maintained by specific MC properties, including a smooth muscle cell phenotype, contractility, and contact points with the capillary basal membrane. (ahajournals.org)
  • Fluorescently labeled cells present in the top chamber of the insert are shielded from bottom-reading fluorescence plate readers and microscopes by the FluoroBlok membrane. (corning.com)
  • In this study, we observe that gefitinib reduces phospho-Akt levels only in NSCLC cell lines in which it inhibits growth. (pnas.org)
  • A checkpoint control system, which inhibits cell cycle progression when DNA is damaged, is also important for DNA repair ( H artwell and W einert 1989 ). (genetics.org)
  • DKK1 and SFRP1 inhibit the transformed phenotype of breast cancer cell lines, and DKK1 inhibits tumor formation. (asm.org)
  • The most common method is bacterial plating, which has the advantage of allowing live cell assessment through colony forming unit (CFU) counts but is not well suited for high throughput screening (HTS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • With cell culture, researchers can get as close as possible to a whole organism while maintaining an affordable, high-throughput platform. (the-scientist.com)