Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Genome, Plastid: The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Chloroplast Proteins: Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.Cryptophyta: A class of EUKARYOTA (traditionally algae), characterized by biflagellated cells and found in both freshwater and marine environments. Pigmentation varies but only one CHLOROPLAST is present. Unique structures include a nucleomorph and ejectosomes.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Oenothera: A plant genus of the family ONAGRACEAE. Members contain oenotheins.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Cuscuta: A plant genus of the family Cuscutaceae. It is a threadlike climbing parasitic plant that is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Cercozoa: A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Genes, Chloroplast: Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Tetrapyrroles: Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.DNA, Algal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Alveolata: A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.Protochlorophyllide: A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Cyanophora: A genus of primitive plants in the family Cyanophoraceae, class GLAUCOPHYTA. They contain pigmented ORGANELLES (or PLASTIDS) called cyanelles, which have characteristics of both CYANOBACTERIA and CHLOROPLASTS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Euglenida: A phylum of unicellular flagellates of ancient eukaryotic lineage with unclear taxonomy. They lack a CELL WALL but are covered by a proteinaceous flexible coat, the pellicle, that allows the cell to change shape. Historically some authorities considered them to be an order of protozoa and others classed them as ALGAE (some members have CHLOROPLASTS and some don't).Hepatophyta: A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.RNA, Chloroplast: Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Geraniaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Fucus: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Fucaceae. It is found in temperate, marine intertidal areas along rocky coasts and is a source of ALGINATES. Some species of Fucus are referred to as KELP.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Haptophyta: A group (or phylum) of unicellular EUKARYOTA (or algae) possessing CHLOROPLASTS and FLAGELLA.Galactolipids: A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.

The Arabidopsis photomorphogenic mutant hy1 is deficient in phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis as a result of a mutation in a plastid heme oxygenase. (1/1280)

The HY1 locus of Arabidopsis is necessary for phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis and is defined by mutants that show a long hypocotyl phenotype when grown in the light. We describe here the molecular cloning of the HY1 gene by using chromosome walking and mutant complementation. The product of the HY1 gene shows significant similarity to animal heme oxygenases and contains a possible transit peptide for transport to plastids. Heme oxygenase activity was detected in the HY1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Heme oxygenase catalyzes the oxygenation of heme to biliverdin, an activity that is necessary for phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis. The predicted transit peptide is sufficient to transport the green fluorescent protein into chloroplasts. The accumulation of the HY1 protein in plastids was detected by using immunoblot analysis with an anti-HY1 antiserum. These results indicate that the Arabidopsis HY1 gene encodes a plastid heme oxygenase necessary for phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis.  (+info)

Plastidic pathway of serine biosynthesis. Molecular cloning and expression of 3-phosphoserine phosphatase from Arabidopsis thaliana. (2/1280)

In plants, Ser is biosynthesized by two different pathways: a photorespiratory pathway via Gly and a plastidic pathway via the phosphorylated metabolites from 3-phosphoglycerate. In contrast to the better characterization of the photorespiratory pathway at a molecular level, the molecular regulation and significance of the plastidic pathway are not yet well understood. An Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA encoding 3-phosphoserine phosphatase, the enzyme that is responsible for the conversion of 3-phosphoserine to Ser in the final step of the plastidic pathway of Ser biosynthesis, was cloned by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli serB- mutant. The 1.1-kilobase pair full-length cDNA, encoding 295 amino acids in its open reading frame, contains a putative organelle targeting presequence. Chloroplastic targeting has been demonstrated by particle gun bombardment using an N-terminal 60-amino acid green fluorescence protein fusion protein. Southern hybridization suggested the existence of a single-copy gene that mapped to chromosome 1. 3-Phosphoserine phosphatase enzyme activity was detected in vitro in the overexpressed protein in E. coli. Northern analysis revealed preferential gene expression in leaf and root tissues of light-grown plants with an approximately 1.5-fold abundance in the root compared with the leaf tissues. This indicates the possible role of the plastidic pathway in supplying Ser to non-photosynthetic tissues, in contrast to the function of the photorespiratory pathway in photosynthetic tissues. This work completes the molecular cloning and characterization of the three genes involved in the plastidic pathway of Ser biosynthesis in higher plants.  (+info)

Plastid sedimentation kinetics in roots of wild-type and starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis. (3/1280)

Sedimentation and movement of plastids in columella cells of the root cap were measured in seedlings of wild-type, a reduced starch mutant, and a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis. To assay for sedimentation, we used both linear measurements and the change of angle from the cell center as indices in vertical and reoriented plants with the aid of computer-assisted image analysis. Seedlings were fixed at short periods after reorientation, and plastid sedimentation correlated with starch content in the three strains of Arabidopsis. Amyloplasts of wild-type seedlings showed the greatest sedimentation, whereas plastids of the starchless mutant showed no significant sedimentation in the vertically grown and reoriented seedlings. Because previous research has shown that a full complement of starch is needed for full gravitropic sensitivity, this study correlates increased sensitivity with plastid sedimentation. However, although plastid sedimentation contributed to gravisensitivity, it was not required, because the gravitropic starchless mutant had plastids that did not sediment. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to measure plastid sedimentation in Arabidopsis roots after reorientation of seedlings. Taken together, the results of this study are consistent with the classic plastid-based and protoplast-based models of graviperception and suggest that multiple systems of perception exist in plant cells.  (+info)

Homeologous plastid DNA transformation in tobacco is mediated by multiple recombination events. (4/1280)

Efficient plastid transformation has been achieved in Nicotiana tabacum using cloned plastid DNA of Solanum nigrum carrying mutations conferring spectinomycin and streptomycin resistance. The use of the incompletely homologous (homeologous) Solanum plastid DNA as donor resulted in a Nicotiana plastid transformation frequency comparable with that of other experiments where completely homologous plastid DNA was introduced. Physical mapping and nucleotide sequence analysis of the targeted plastid DNA region in the transformants demonstrated efficient site-specific integration of the 7.8-kb Solanum plastid DNA and the exclusion of the vector DNA. The integration of the cloned Solanum plastid DNA into the Nicotiana plastid genome involved multiple recombination events as revealed by the presence of discontinuous tracts of Solanum-specific sequences that were interspersed between Nicotiana-specific markers. Marked position effects resulted in very frequent cointegration of the nonselected peripheral donor markers located adjacent to the vector DNA. Data presented here on the efficiency and features of homeologous plastid DNA recombination are consistent with the existence of an active RecA-mediated, but a diminished mismatch, recombination/repair system in higher-plant plastids.  (+info)

A plastidial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase from oilseed rape. (5/1280)

The biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of lipids, is controlled by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or 1-acyl-glycerol-3-P) acyltransferase (LPAAT, EC 2.3.1.51). We have isolated a cDNA encoding a novel LPAAT by functional complementation of the Escherichia coli mutant plsC with an immature embryo cDNA library of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Transformation of the acyltransferase-deficient E. coli strain JC201 with the cDNA sequence BAT2 alleviated the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the plsC mutant and conferred a palmitoyl-coenzyme A-preferring acyltransferase activity to membrane fractions. The BAT2 cDNA encoded a protein of 351 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 38 kD and an isoelectric point of 9.7. Chloroplast-import experiments showed processing of a BAT2 precursor protein to a mature protein of approximately 32 kD, which was localized in the membrane fraction. BAT2 is encoded by a minimum of two genes that may be expressed ubiquitously. These data are consistent with the identity of BAT2 as the plastidial enzyme of the prokaryotic glycerol-3-P pathway that uses a palmitoyl-ACP to produce phosphatidic acid with a prokaryotic-type acyl composition. The homologies between the deduced protein sequence of BAT2 with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microsomal LAP acytransferases suggest that seed microsomal forms may have evolved from the plastidial enzyme.  (+info)

Molecular phylogenetic analysis among bryophytes and tracheophytes based on combined data of plastid coded genes and the 18S rRNA gene. (6/1280)

The basal relationship of bryophytes and tracheophytes is problematic in land plant phylogeny. In addition to cladistic analyses of morphological data, molecular phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene and the plastic gene rbcL have been performed, but no confident conclusions have been reached. Using the maximum-likelihood (ML) method, we analyzed 4,563 bp of aligned sequences from plastid protein-coding genes and 1,680 bp from the nuclear 18S rRNA gene. In the ML tree of deduced amino acid sequences of the plastid genes, hornworts were basal among the land plants, while mosses and liverworts each formed a clade and were sister to each other. Total-evidence evaluation of rRNA data and plastid protein-coding genes by TOTALML had an almost identical result.  (+info)

Comparative analysis of splicing of the complete set of chloroplast group II introns in three higher plant mutants. (7/1280)

The barley mutant albostrians and the maize mutants crs1 and crs2 are defective in the splicing of various plastid group II introns. By analysing tRNA precursors and several mRNAs not previously examined, the investigation of in vivo splicing defects in these mutants has been completed. The albostrians mutation causes the loss of plastid ribosomes resulting secondarily in a disruption of splicing of all subgroup IIA introns in the chloroplast. Thus MatK, the only putative chloroplast intron-specific maturase of higher plants, might have evolved to function in splicing of multiple introns. We show that in the case of tRNA-Ala(UGC)the first step of splicing is affected, as suggested by the absence of lariat molecules. Thus the plastid-encoded splicing factor lacking in albostrians must participate in the formation of the catalytically active structure. In contrast, a mutation in the nuclear gene crs1 prevents splicing of only one intron but causes specific additional effects as precursor transcripts for tRNA-Ile(GAU), tRNA-Ala(UGC), tRNA-Lys(UUU)and tRNA-Val(UAC), but not tRNA-Gly(UCC), have significantly enhanced steady-state levels in this mutant. Our data provide evidence for a variety of splicing factors and pathways in the chloroplast, some encoded by nuclear and some by chloroplast genes, and possibly for a dual function of some of these factors.  (+info)

The phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator is required for phenolic metabolism, palisade cell development, and plastid-dependent nuclear gene expression. (8/1280)

The Arabidopsis chlorophyll a/b binding protein (CAB) gene underexpressed 1 (cue1) mutant underexpresses light-regulated nuclear genes encoding chloroplast-localized proteins. cue1 also exhibits mesophyll-specific chloroplast and cellular defects, resulting in reticulate leaves. Both the gene underexpression and the leaf cell morphology phenotypes are dependent on light intensity. In this study, we determine that CUE1 encodes the plastid inner envelope phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator (PPT) and define amino acid residues that are critical for translocator function. The biosynthesis of aromatics is compromised in cue1, and the reticulate phenotype can be rescued by feeding aromatic amino acids. Determining that CUE1 encodes PPT indicates the in vivo role of the translocator in metabolic partitioning and reveals a mesophyll cell-specific requirement for the translocator in Arabidopsis leaves. The nuclear gene expression defects in cue1 suggest that a light intensity-dependent interorganellar signal is modulated through metabolites dependent on a plastid supply of phosphoenolpyruvate.  (+info)

  • The former includes studies on Golgi biogenesis, vesicular trafficking, and cytoskeletal organization, while the latter includes the discovery, biochemical and cell biological characterization of the apicoplast - a nonphotosynthetic plastid acquired when an ancestral parasite 'ate' a eukaryotic alga, and retained the algal plastid (secondary endosymbiosis). (upenn.edu)
  • All plastids are derived from proplastids, which are present in the meristematic regions of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plant cells, long thin protuberances called stromules sometimes form and extend from the main plastid body into the cytosol and interconnect several plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each chapter includes an integrated view of plant biology from the standpoint of the plastid. (google.ca)
  • Today I was just reading about the organelles of plant cells and came across a page on plastids. (biology-online.org)
  • Now, efforts in the field are directed at understanding the roles in plastid transcription of each member of the rapidly expanding plant sigma factor gene family. (nih.gov)
  • books.google.ca - This volume provides a comprehensive look at the biology of plastids, the multifunctional biosynthetic factories that are unique to plants and algae. (google.ca)
  • The ability to observe plastids and MFs in vivo allowed us to document the relationship between MFs and stromules as they moved within the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • leucoplasts sometimes differentiate into more specialized plastids: Amyloplasts: for starch storage and detecting gravity (for geotropism) Elaioplasts: for storing fat Proteinoplasts: for storing and modifying protein Tannosomes: for synthesizing and producing tannins and polyphenols Depending on their morphology and function, plastids have the ability to differentiate, or redifferentiate, between these and other forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the development of proplastids to chloroplasts, and when plastids convert from one type to another, nucleoids change in morphology, size and location within the organelle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on their morphology and function, plastids have the ability to differentiate, or redifferentiate, between these and other forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, plastids may differentiate into several forms, depending upon which function they play in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids are in plants. (biology-online.org)
  • Although successful plastid transformation has been reported in some plants, particularly in soybean, oilseed rape, sugarbeet, cotton and lettuce, it is routinely possible only in tobacco. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Plastid stromules are stroma-filled tubules that extend from the surface of plastids in higher plants and allow the exchange of protein molecules between plastids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In plants, plastids may be segregated into numerous forms, which is dependent on what purpose they have in the cell. (byjus.com)
  • In plants, plastids may be categorized into several sections, based upon which purpose they need to serve in the cell. (byjus.com)
  • Subject to the prevailing pigments existent in plastids, they are additionally categorized into Rhodoplasts rich in red pigment i.e. phycoerythrin. (byjus.com)
  • All plastids comprising of diverse colored pigments are categorized under chromoplasts, of which green ones are called chloroplasts. (byjus.com)
  • But at the end of the day, the plastids are largely categorized into two key types to be precise chromoplasts and leucoplasts. (byjus.com)
  • These data mesh nicely with accumulating evidence that the core sigma-binding regions of plastid promoters mediate regulated transcription in response to light-regime and plastid type or developmental state. (nih.gov)
  • Neutral plastids that originate in storage, parenchyma and other colorless tissues are designated as leucoplasts. (byjus.com)
  • Transcription in plastids is accomplished by two distinct RNA polymerase enzymes, one of which resembles eubacterial RNA polymerases in both subunit structure and promoter recognition properties. (nih.gov)
  • Plastids can also store products like starch and can synthesize fatty acids and terpenes, which can be used for producing energy and as raw material for the synthesis of other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids can furthermore stock produces like starch and can process terrenes and fatty acids, which can be used for generating energy and as a raw substance for the processing of other particles. (byjus.com)
  • The holoenzyme contains a catalytic core composed of plastid-encoded subunits, assembled with a nuclear-encoded promoter-specificity factor, sigma. (nih.gov)
Plastid - Wikipedia
Plastid - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
CiteSeerX - gene cluster
CiteSeerX - gene cluster (citeseer.ist.psu.edu)
Plastid Biology - Cambridge University Press
Plastid Biology - Cambridge University Press (cambridge.org)
Life | Free Full-Text | Regulation of Expression and Evolution of Genes in Plastids of Rhodophytic Branch
Life | Free Full-Text | Regulation of Expression and Evolution of Genes in Plastids of Rhodophytic Branch (mdpi.com)
Proteome Dynamics during Plastid Differentiation in Rice | Plant Physiology
Proteome Dynamics during Plastid Differentiation in Rice | Plant Physiology (plantphysiol.org)
Genome Fragmentation Is Not Confined to the Peridinin Plastid in Dinoflagellates
Genome Fragmentation Is Not Confined to the Peridinin Plastid in Dinoflagellates (journals.plos.org)
Plastids - Methods and Protocols  | Eric Marechal | Springer
Plastids - Methods and Protocols | Eric Marechal | Springer (springer.com)
Category:Plastids - Wikimedia Commons
Category:Plastids - Wikimedia Commons (commons.wikimedia.org)
Acetylation and phosphorylation control both local and global stability of the chloroplast F 1 ATP synthase | Scientific Reports
Acetylation and phosphorylation control both local and global stability of the chloroplast F 1 ATP synthase | Scientific Reports (nature.com)
Dinoflagellates
Dinoflagellates (tolweb.org)
Symbiogenesis - Wikipedia
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In This Issue | PNAS
In This Issue | PNAS (pnas.org)
Organelle-nucleus cross-talk regulates plant intercellular communication via plasmodesmata | PNAS
Organelle-nucleus cross-talk regulates plant intercellular communication via plasmodesmata | PNAS (pnas.org)
Protozoan - Mixotrophy | Britannica.com
Protozoan - Mixotrophy | Britannica.com (britannica.com)
Contrasting patterns of the 5S and 45S rDNA evolutions in the Byblis liniflora complex (Byblidaceae) | SpringerLink
Contrasting patterns of the 5S and 45S rDNA evolutions in the Byblis liniflora complex (Byblidaceae) | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Plastid - New World Encyclopedia
Plastid - New World Encyclopedia (newworldencyclopedia.org)
Lössl: Cytoplasm Genome Research - Novel Plastid-Mitochondrial Configs
Lössl: Cytoplasm Genome Research - Novel Plastid-Mitochondrial Configs (lossl.de)
Frontiers | Cytochemical Localization of Polysaccharides in Dendrobium officinale and the Involvement of DoCSLA6 in the...
Frontiers | Cytochemical Localization of Polysaccharides in Dendrobium officinale and the Involvement of DoCSLA6 in the... (frontiersin.org)
Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates | PNAS
Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates | PNAS (pnas.org)
Warnowiid's Ocelloid [image] | EurekAlert! Science News
Warnowiid's Ocelloid [image] | EurekAlert! Science News (eurekalert.org)
Field Museum Women in Science Internships | Field Museum
Field Museum Women in Science Internships | Field Museum (fieldmuseum.org)
Cryptomonads
Cryptomonads (tolweb.org)
Table of Contents - May 08, 2007, 2007 (385) | Science Signaling
Table of Contents - May 08, 2007, 2007 (385) | Science Signaling (stke.sciencemag.org)
Eukaryote - Wikipedia
Eukaryote - Wikipedia (en.m.wikipedia.org)
Biosynthesis of Vitamins in Plants Part A: Volume 58 : Fabrice Rebeille : 9780123864796
Biosynthesis of Vitamins in Plants Part A: Volume 58 : Fabrice Rebeille : 9780123864796 (bookdepository.com)
Plastid genome of Seseli montanum: Complete sequence and comparison with plastomes of other members of the Apiaceae family |...
Plastid genome of Seseli montanum: Complete sequence and comparison with plastomes of other members of the Apiaceae family |... (link.springer.com)
Plant Transposable Elements -  - Englische E-Books | Ex Libris
Plant Transposable Elements - - Englische E-Books | Ex Libris (exlibris.ch)
Origins of Plastids by Ralph A. Lewin | Waterstones
Origins of Plastids by Ralph A. Lewin | Waterstones (waterstones.com)
Plastid Ribosome Biogenesis During the Early Steps of Chloroplast Differentiation | SpringerLink
Plastid Ribosome Biogenesis During the Early Steps of Chloroplast Differentiation | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Anther plastids in angiosperms | Springer for Research & Development
Anther plastids in angiosperms | Springer for Research & Development (rd.springer.com)
PNAS Plus Significance Statements | PNAS
PNAS Plus Significance Statements | PNAS (pnas.org)
Botany - Wikipedia
Botany - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Chloroplast - Wikipedia
Chloroplast - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Plastid DNA diversity and genetic divergence within Rhododendron dauricum s.l. ( R. dauricum s.s., R. ledebourii, R. sichotense...
Plastid DNA diversity and genetic divergence within Rhododendron dauricum s.l. ( R. dauricum s.s., R. ledebourii, R. sichotense... (link.springer.com)
Identification of a Novel Enzyme Required for Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis Leaves. The Phosphoglucan, Water Dikinase |...
Identification of a Novel Enzyme Required for Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis Leaves. The Phosphoglucan, Water Dikinase |... (plantphysiol.org)
The making of a photosynthetic animal | Journal of Experimental Biology
The making of a photosynthetic animal | Journal of Experimental Biology (jeb.biologists.org)
Reduced Genomes from Parasitic Plant Plastids: Templates for Minimal Plastomes? | SpringerLink
Reduced Genomes from Parasitic Plant Plastids: Templates for Minimal Plastomes? | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Plus it
Plus it (plantphysiol.org)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants, 2nd Edition | Plant Biochemistry | Plant Science | Life Sciences | Subjects |...
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants, 2nd Edition | Plant Biochemistry | Plant Science | Life Sciences | Subjects |... (wiley.com)