Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
A class of EUKARYOTA (traditionally algae), characterized by biflagellated cells and found in both freshwater and marine environments. Pigmentation varies but only one CHLOROPLAST is present. Unique structures include a nucleomorph and ejectosomes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A plant genus of the family ONAGRACEAE. Members contain oenotheins.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A plant genus of the family Cuscutaceae. It is a threadlike climbing parasitic plant that is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.
The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
A genus of primitive plants in the family Cyanophoraceae, class GLAUCOPHYTA. They contain pigmented ORGANELLES (or PLASTIDS) called cyanelles, which have characteristics of both CYANOBACTERIA and CHLOROPLASTS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A phylum of unicellular flagellates of ancient eukaryotic lineage with unclear taxonomy. They lack a CELL WALL but are covered by a proteinaceous flexible coat, the pellicle, that allows the cell to change shape. Historically some authorities considered them to be an order of protozoa and others classed them as ALGAE (some members have CHLOROPLASTS and some don't).
A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Fucaceae. It is found in temperate, marine intertidal areas along rocky coasts and is a source of ALGINATES. Some species of Fucus are referred to as KELP.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
A group (or phylum) of unicellular EUKARYOTA (or algae) possessing CHLOROPLASTS and FLAGELLA.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Basic functional unit of plants.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.

The Arabidopsis photomorphogenic mutant hy1 is deficient in phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis as a result of a mutation in a plastid heme oxygenase. (1/1280)

The HY1 locus of Arabidopsis is necessary for phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis and is defined by mutants that show a long hypocotyl phenotype when grown in the light. We describe here the molecular cloning of the HY1 gene by using chromosome walking and mutant complementation. The product of the HY1 gene shows significant similarity to animal heme oxygenases and contains a possible transit peptide for transport to plastids. Heme oxygenase activity was detected in the HY1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Heme oxygenase catalyzes the oxygenation of heme to biliverdin, an activity that is necessary for phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis. The predicted transit peptide is sufficient to transport the green fluorescent protein into chloroplasts. The accumulation of the HY1 protein in plastids was detected by using immunoblot analysis with an anti-HY1 antiserum. These results indicate that the Arabidopsis HY1 gene encodes a plastid heme oxygenase necessary for phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis.  (+info)

Plastidic pathway of serine biosynthesis. Molecular cloning and expression of 3-phosphoserine phosphatase from Arabidopsis thaliana. (2/1280)

In plants, Ser is biosynthesized by two different pathways: a photorespiratory pathway via Gly and a plastidic pathway via the phosphorylated metabolites from 3-phosphoglycerate. In contrast to the better characterization of the photorespiratory pathway at a molecular level, the molecular regulation and significance of the plastidic pathway are not yet well understood. An Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA encoding 3-phosphoserine phosphatase, the enzyme that is responsible for the conversion of 3-phosphoserine to Ser in the final step of the plastidic pathway of Ser biosynthesis, was cloned by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli serB- mutant. The 1.1-kilobase pair full-length cDNA, encoding 295 amino acids in its open reading frame, contains a putative organelle targeting presequence. Chloroplastic targeting has been demonstrated by particle gun bombardment using an N-terminal 60-amino acid green fluorescence protein fusion protein. Southern hybridization suggested the existence of a single-copy gene that mapped to chromosome 1. 3-Phosphoserine phosphatase enzyme activity was detected in vitro in the overexpressed protein in E. coli. Northern analysis revealed preferential gene expression in leaf and root tissues of light-grown plants with an approximately 1.5-fold abundance in the root compared with the leaf tissues. This indicates the possible role of the plastidic pathway in supplying Ser to non-photosynthetic tissues, in contrast to the function of the photorespiratory pathway in photosynthetic tissues. This work completes the molecular cloning and characterization of the three genes involved in the plastidic pathway of Ser biosynthesis in higher plants.  (+info)

Plastid sedimentation kinetics in roots of wild-type and starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis. (3/1280)

Sedimentation and movement of plastids in columella cells of the root cap were measured in seedlings of wild-type, a reduced starch mutant, and a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis. To assay for sedimentation, we used both linear measurements and the change of angle from the cell center as indices in vertical and reoriented plants with the aid of computer-assisted image analysis. Seedlings were fixed at short periods after reorientation, and plastid sedimentation correlated with starch content in the three strains of Arabidopsis. Amyloplasts of wild-type seedlings showed the greatest sedimentation, whereas plastids of the starchless mutant showed no significant sedimentation in the vertically grown and reoriented seedlings. Because previous research has shown that a full complement of starch is needed for full gravitropic sensitivity, this study correlates increased sensitivity with plastid sedimentation. However, although plastid sedimentation contributed to gravisensitivity, it was not required, because the gravitropic starchless mutant had plastids that did not sediment. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to measure plastid sedimentation in Arabidopsis roots after reorientation of seedlings. Taken together, the results of this study are consistent with the classic plastid-based and protoplast-based models of graviperception and suggest that multiple systems of perception exist in plant cells.  (+info)

Homeologous plastid DNA transformation in tobacco is mediated by multiple recombination events. (4/1280)

Efficient plastid transformation has been achieved in Nicotiana tabacum using cloned plastid DNA of Solanum nigrum carrying mutations conferring spectinomycin and streptomycin resistance. The use of the incompletely homologous (homeologous) Solanum plastid DNA as donor resulted in a Nicotiana plastid transformation frequency comparable with that of other experiments where completely homologous plastid DNA was introduced. Physical mapping and nucleotide sequence analysis of the targeted plastid DNA region in the transformants demonstrated efficient site-specific integration of the 7.8-kb Solanum plastid DNA and the exclusion of the vector DNA. The integration of the cloned Solanum plastid DNA into the Nicotiana plastid genome involved multiple recombination events as revealed by the presence of discontinuous tracts of Solanum-specific sequences that were interspersed between Nicotiana-specific markers. Marked position effects resulted in very frequent cointegration of the nonselected peripheral donor markers located adjacent to the vector DNA. Data presented here on the efficiency and features of homeologous plastid DNA recombination are consistent with the existence of an active RecA-mediated, but a diminished mismatch, recombination/repair system in higher-plant plastids.  (+info)

A plastidial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase from oilseed rape. (5/1280)

The biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of lipids, is controlled by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or 1-acyl-glycerol-3-P) acyltransferase (LPAAT, EC 2.3.1.51). We have isolated a cDNA encoding a novel LPAAT by functional complementation of the Escherichia coli mutant plsC with an immature embryo cDNA library of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Transformation of the acyltransferase-deficient E. coli strain JC201 with the cDNA sequence BAT2 alleviated the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the plsC mutant and conferred a palmitoyl-coenzyme A-preferring acyltransferase activity to membrane fractions. The BAT2 cDNA encoded a protein of 351 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 38 kD and an isoelectric point of 9.7. Chloroplast-import experiments showed processing of a BAT2 precursor protein to a mature protein of approximately 32 kD, which was localized in the membrane fraction. BAT2 is encoded by a minimum of two genes that may be expressed ubiquitously. These data are consistent with the identity of BAT2 as the plastidial enzyme of the prokaryotic glycerol-3-P pathway that uses a palmitoyl-ACP to produce phosphatidic acid with a prokaryotic-type acyl composition. The homologies between the deduced protein sequence of BAT2 with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microsomal LAP acytransferases suggest that seed microsomal forms may have evolved from the plastidial enzyme.  (+info)

Molecular phylogenetic analysis among bryophytes and tracheophytes based on combined data of plastid coded genes and the 18S rRNA gene. (6/1280)

The basal relationship of bryophytes and tracheophytes is problematic in land plant phylogeny. In addition to cladistic analyses of morphological data, molecular phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene and the plastic gene rbcL have been performed, but no confident conclusions have been reached. Using the maximum-likelihood (ML) method, we analyzed 4,563 bp of aligned sequences from plastid protein-coding genes and 1,680 bp from the nuclear 18S rRNA gene. In the ML tree of deduced amino acid sequences of the plastid genes, hornworts were basal among the land plants, while mosses and liverworts each formed a clade and were sister to each other. Total-evidence evaluation of rRNA data and plastid protein-coding genes by TOTALML had an almost identical result.  (+info)

Comparative analysis of splicing of the complete set of chloroplast group II introns in three higher plant mutants. (7/1280)

The barley mutant albostrians and the maize mutants crs1 and crs2 are defective in the splicing of various plastid group II introns. By analysing tRNA precursors and several mRNAs not previously examined, the investigation of in vivo splicing defects in these mutants has been completed. The albostrians mutation causes the loss of plastid ribosomes resulting secondarily in a disruption of splicing of all subgroup IIA introns in the chloroplast. Thus MatK, the only putative chloroplast intron-specific maturase of higher plants, might have evolved to function in splicing of multiple introns. We show that in the case of tRNA-Ala(UGC)the first step of splicing is affected, as suggested by the absence of lariat molecules. Thus the plastid-encoded splicing factor lacking in albostrians must participate in the formation of the catalytically active structure. In contrast, a mutation in the nuclear gene crs1 prevents splicing of only one intron but causes specific additional effects as precursor transcripts for tRNA-Ile(GAU), tRNA-Ala(UGC), tRNA-Lys(UUU)and tRNA-Val(UAC), but not tRNA-Gly(UCC), have significantly enhanced steady-state levels in this mutant. Our data provide evidence for a variety of splicing factors and pathways in the chloroplast, some encoded by nuclear and some by chloroplast genes, and possibly for a dual function of some of these factors.  (+info)

The phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator is required for phenolic metabolism, palisade cell development, and plastid-dependent nuclear gene expression. (8/1280)

The Arabidopsis chlorophyll a/b binding protein (CAB) gene underexpressed 1 (cue1) mutant underexpresses light-regulated nuclear genes encoding chloroplast-localized proteins. cue1 also exhibits mesophyll-specific chloroplast and cellular defects, resulting in reticulate leaves. Both the gene underexpression and the leaf cell morphology phenotypes are dependent on light intensity. In this study, we determine that CUE1 encodes the plastid inner envelope phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator (PPT) and define amino acid residues that are critical for translocator function. The biosynthesis of aromatics is compromised in cue1, and the reticulate phenotype can be rescued by feeding aromatic amino acids. Determining that CUE1 encodes PPT indicates the in vivo role of the translocator in metabolic partitioning and reveals a mesophyll cell-specific requirement for the translocator in Arabidopsis leaves. The nuclear gene expression defects in cue1 suggest that a light intensity-dependent interorganellar signal is modulated through metabolites dependent on a plastid supply of phosphoenolpyruvate.  (+info)

Plastids reside in all plant cells, and take on different forms in relation to their cellular function, biochemistry and storage capacity. The modern era of molecular biology and molecular genetics has enabled much to be learnt about how plastids function, and how they relate to their evolutionary past. In this accessible text, Kevin Pyke expertly describes how the plastids are highly complex organelles at the very core of plant cellular function, providing final year undergraduate and graduate students with an overview of plastid biology and recent developments in the field. Topics covered include: a consideration of different plastid types and how they relate to cell function; plastid genomes and how proteins are imported into plastids; photosynthesis and core aspects of plastid biochemistry; plastid signalling and functionality within a cellular context; and plastid genetic manipulation. Supplementary colour images are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521885010.. • Highly ...
This volume provides a comprehensive look at the biology of plastids, the multifunctional biosynthetic factories that are unique to plants and algae. Fifty-six international experts have contributed 28 chapters that cover all aspects of this large and diverse family of plant and algal organelles. The book is divided into five sections: (I): Plastid Origin and Development; (II): The Plastid Genome and Its Interaction with the Nuclear Genome; (III): Photosynthetic Metabolism in Plastids; (IV): Non-Photosynthetic Metabolism in Plastids; (V): Plastid Differentiation and Response to Environmental Factors. Each chapter includes an integrated view of plant biology from the standpoint of the plastid. The book is intended for a wide audience, but is specifically designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and scientists in the fields of photosynthesis, biochemistry, molecular biology, physiology, and plant biology.
Plastids perform essential biosynthetic and metabolic functions in plants, including photosynthetic carbon fixation and synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, starch, and secondary metabolites (Neuhaus and Emes, 2000; Lopez-Juez and Pyke, 2005). In response to tissue-specific and environmental signals, they differentiate into specialized plastid types that can be distinguished by their structure, pigment composition (color), and function. Examples of such different plastid types are elaioplasts in seed endosperm, chromoplasts in fruits and petals, amyloplasts in roots, etioplasts in dark-grown leaves, and chloroplasts in photosynthetically active leaf tissues (Neuhaus and Emes, 2000; Lopez-Juez and Pyke, 2005). Depending on their specific biosynthetic activity and energy metabolism, plastids are broadly classified as photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic plant organelles. Photosynthetic chloroplasts synthesize sugar phosphates that are catabolized by oxidative metabolism to produce NADPH and ATP. ...
The majority of Arabidopsis thaliana plastid proteins is nuclear encoded and has to be synthesized in the cytosol as preproteins. Plastid preproteins are modified in the cytosol and subject to quality control prior to their organellar translocation. We show here that the second amino acid of plastid preproteins determines N-terminal modifications and influences import efficiency or stability in transiently transformed protoplasts. Further inhibition of the 26S proteasome leads to accumulation of preproteins, supporting a connection between the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and preprotein degradation. The mutation of the regulatory proteasome subunit Rpn8A in the plastid protein import mutant 2 (ppi2) background leads to partial rescue of the ppi2 plastid phenotype. A proteome-wide comparison of ppi2 with the rpn8a ppi2 double mutant showed among other things increased abundance of photosynthetic proteins. These results refer to regulatory effects of the proteasome on the plastid biogenesis. ...
Photosynthetic development in any plant requires the intracellular co-ordination of chloroplast and nuclear gene expression programs. In this report, we investigate the role of a nuclear gene in photosynthetic development by examining C4 photosynthetic differentiation in a yellow mutant of maize (Zea mays L.). The plastids undifferentiated (pun) mutation disrupts plastid biogenesis in both bundle sheath and mesophyll cells, at an early developmental stage and in a light-independent manner. Chloroplast thylakoids are disrupted in the mutant and both membrane-associated and soluble chloroplast-encoded proteins accumulate at much reduced levels. The observed plastid morphology is consistent with a general defect in chloroplast biogenesis that is most likely exerted at the post-translational level. Despite aberrant chloroplast development, nuclear photosynthetic genes are expressed normally in pun mutants. Thus, neither functional chloroplasts nor the Pun gene product are required to establish nuclear
We showed in the past that starch accumulation in potato tubers is strongly affected by altering the plastidic ATP/ADP-transporter activity (Tjaden et al., 1998a) leading to a high metabolic-flux control coefficient (Geigenberger et al., 2001). Therefore, we analyzed whether reduced plastidic ATP import capacity governs the end-product accumulation in Arabidopsis embryos to a similar extent as observed in potato. This analysis was further encouraged, since experiments on isolated rapeseed seed-embryo plastids showed that the highest rates of fatty-acid synthesis depend upon the supply with exogenous ATP (Eastmond and Rawsthorne, 1998; Rawsthorne, 2002), whereas a recently developed mathematical carbon-flux model indicated that net ATP import is not required for maximal fatty-acid synthesis in rapeseed embryos (Schwender et al., 2004).. As given in Figure 11, AtNTT1∷T-DNA did not show altered seed weight, lipid, and protein content when compared to wild-type seeds, whereas AtNTT2∷T-DNA seeds ...
Uncorrected OCR) Abstract of thesis entitled PRODUCTION OF TRANSGENIC PLANT-DERIVED VACCINES VIA PLASTID TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Submitted by Lee Yuk Ting for the degree of Master of Philosophy at The University of Hong Kong in July 2004 With the advent of genetic engineering in higher plants, the need for very large quantities of therapeutic protein at low cost, and the desire to have heat-stable edible vaccines directed at human and animal diseases, transgenic plant-derived vaccines offer a new strategy for the development of safe, inexpensive vaccines against infectious diseases. The first success of plastid transformation in tobacco in 1990 has opened up the opportunities for genetically modifying plastids in higher plants for high level expression of biopharmaceuticals, such as antibodies and vaccines for oral administration. Since each plant cell contains up to 10,000 copies of identical plastid genome, plastid engineering should result in very high levels of transgene expression. In ...
In recent years there has been extensive experimental evidence indicating that the nuclear expression of certain genes , in particular those that encode chloroplast proteins is subject to regulation by signals of retrograde plastid origin . This can be done both at the level of transcription and translation of mRNA . Certain plastid origin signals could be identified - these include metabolic precursor of chlorophyll plastochinonu redox state , thioredoxin and glutathione and phosphoenolpyruvate translocator located in the chloroplast inner envelope membrane . Identity plastid other signals , e.g., regulating cell differentiation and morphogenesis leaf remains unexplained . Signaling plastids - nucleus signaling and dependent on the light remain in a fairly complicated relationships , in some cases, are used for different transduction pathways , in others some of the same . Retrograde signaling is likely to be an important part of global regulatory networks that control metabolism and growth of ...
Expression of plastid genes is controlled at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in response to developmental and environmental signals. In many cases this regulation is mediated by nuclear-encoded proteins acting in concert with the endogenous plastid gene expression machinery. Tra …
Depending on their morphology and function, plastids have the ability to differentiate, or redifferentiate, between these and other forms. Each plastid creates multiple copies of a circular 10-250 kilobase plastome [6][7]. The number of genome copies per plastid is variable, ranging from more than 1000 in rapidly dividing cells, which, in general, contain few plastids, to 100 or fewer in mature cells, where plastid divisions have given rise to a large number of plastids. The plastome contains about 100 genes encoding ribosomal and transfer ribonucleic acids (rRNAs and tRNAs) as well as proteins involved in photosynthesis and plastid gene transcription and translation. However, these proteins only represent a small fraction of the total protein set-up necessary to build and maintain the structure and function of a particular type of plastid. Plant nuclear genes encode the vast majority of plastid proteins, and the expression of plastid genes and nuclear genes is tightly co-regulated to coordinate ...
The plastid signal was originally defined as a pathway that informs the nucleus of the chloroplast status and results in the modulation of expression of nuclear-encoded plastid protein genes. However, the transfer of chloroplast genes into the nuclear genome is a prerequisite in this scheme, although it should not have been established during the very early phase of chloroplast evolution. We recently demonstrated in a primitive red alga that the plastid-derived Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg-ProtoIX) activates nuclear DNA replication through the stabilization of a G1 cyclin, which coordinates the timing of organelle and nuclear DNA replication. This mechanism apparently does not involve any transcriptional regulation in the nucleus, and could have been established prior to gene transfer events. However, a retrograde signal mediating light-responsive gene expression may have been established alongside gene transfer, because essential light sensing and regulatory systems were originally incorporated into plant
The occurrence of RNA in plastids from etiolated and green maize leaves was demonstrated cytochemically, with both the light and the electron microscope. Etiolated leaves were allowed to incorporate tritiated cytidine for several hours and were subsequently fixed in formalin. Radioautographs of leaf sections 2 µ thick showed silver grains over the regions of the cytoplasm containing plastids. Plastids in these sections appeared intensely basophilic when stained with azure B. Both the basophilia and radioactivity were removable with ribonuclease, clearly demonstrating the occurrence of RNA in these organelles. Examination under the electron microscope of similar plastids which had been fixed in formalin revealed a particulate component in the plastid measuring approximately 170 A in diameter. This particulate component was completely removable with ribonuclease. Thus,it was concluded that RNA occurs in a particulate form in plastids from etiolated leaves. Mature plastids, when stained with azure ...
A very small percentage of the remaining tissue will contain transformed plastids at this point. Worse yet, a surviving cell with a transformed plastid will still overwhelmingly contain untransformed plastids. The next steps are the lengthiest and most tedious part of the process, for now the bombarded tissue must be coaxed into regenerating into a wholly new plant while at the same time eliminating any untransformed plastids it may still harbor. Stringent antibiotic regimens are applied to emerging plantlets, and visual inspection of GFP expression reveals areas of transformed plastids. Those areas are then sliced away and grown on their own regenerative media. This process is repeated for about 20 cell divisions before a state of exclusively transformed plastids (homoplasmy) is achieved. Once reached, the plantlets are allowed to grow in the absence of antibiotic selection and set seed at maturity. If the progeny are shown to be homoplasmic, then the line is considered stably transformed ...
Plastids are plant cell organelles that each form an enclosed compartment containing ∼3000 different protein species, depending on the developmental stage and tissue-specific differentiation (Sun et al., 2004; Leister, 2016). While a small fraction of plastid proteins are encoded on the plastid genome, most are encoded on the nuclear genome as preproteins with an N-terminal transit peptide and imported posttranslationally through the translocons at the outer (TOC) and inner (TIC) chloroplast envelope membranes (Jarvis, 2008; Li and Chiu, 2010; Shi and Theg, 2013; Demarsy et al., 2014; Paila et al., 2015). Plastid targeting specificity is conferred by the Toc34 and Toc159 families of TOC receptors in the outer plastid membrane, which can specifically interact with the transit peptides of preproteins. Each preprotein is then threaded through adjacent TOC and TIC channels in the outer and inner envelope membranes. The transit peptide is cleaved off by the stromal processing peptidase when the ...
Plastid proteins that are encoded from the nuclear genome and synthesized in the cytosol undergo posttranslational targeting to plastids. and closely related CI cytosolic in protoplasts led to a reduced amount of OEP7:green fluorescent proteins focusing on to plastids. Predicated on these data we suggest that Hsp17.8 features as an AKR2A cofactor in targeting membrane protein to plastid external membranes under regular physiological circumstances. In living microorganisms high temperatures may damage different cellular processes. Specifically heat stress circumstances can lead to the denaturing of protein that form extremely cytotoxic non-specific aggregates (Sharma et al. 2009 Therefore all organisms possess evolved mechanisms to safeguard the cell under such tensions. One VX-702 well-known response to temperature stress VX-702 may be the creation of a lot of protein (Liberek et al. 2008 Among these is a combined band of protein ranging between 15 and 45 kD. These protein are seen as a an ...
Evaluation of a marker gene operon for plastid transformation and cloning of genes encoding cell wall degrading enzymes in plastid transformation vectors ...
A novel algorithm and original software were used to cluster all proteins encoded in plastids of 72 species of the rhodophytic branch. The results are publicly available at http://lab6.iitp.ru/ppc/redline72/ in a database that allows fast identification of clusters (protein families) both by a fragment of an amino acid sequence and by a phylogenetic profile of a protein. No such integral clustering with the corresponding functions can be found in the public domain. The putative regulons of the transcription factors Ycf28 and Ycf29 encoded in the plastids were identified using the clustering and the database. A regulation of translation initiation was proposed for the ycf24 gene in plastids of certain red algae and apicomplexans as well as a regulation of a putative gene in apicoplasts of Babesia spp. and Theileria parva. The conserved regulation of the ycf24 gene expression and specificity alternation of the transcription factor Ycf28 were shown in the plastids. A phylogenetic tree of plastids was
What is a plastid Cell | Process of Photosynthesis | Chloroplasts, chromoplast, leucoplasts & Other Plastids. Learn more about [email protected]
During the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, plastids and mitochondria arose from an endosymbiotic process, which determined the presence of three genetic compartments into the incipient plant cell. After that, these three genetic materials from host and symbiont suffered several rearrangements, bringing on a complex interaction between nuclear and organellar gene products. Nowadays, plastids harbor a small genome with ~130 genes in a 100-220 kb sequence in higher plants. Plastid genes are mostly highly conserved between plant species, being useful for phylogenetic analysis in higher taxa. However, intergenic spacers have a relatively higher mutation rate and are important markers to study genetic diversity and divergence within natural plant populations. The predominant uniparental inheritance of plastids is like a highly desirable feature for phylogeny studies. Moreover, the gene content and genome rearrangements are efficient tools to capture and understand evolutionary events between different plant
Ferredoxin-NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR) is a FAD-containg enzyme found both in the chloroplasts and non-photosynthetic plastids of higher plants. In chloroplasts, FNR has a well-defined role in linear electron flow, and in the root plastids, FNR is needed for nitrogen metabolism. In Arabidopsis thaliana, FNR is encoded by a gene family: At1g30510 and At4g05390 encode the root isozyme of FNR and At5g66190 and At1g20020 encode the leaf/chloroplast isozyme, which share a high degree of homology. Since FNR is a crucial determinant for the acclimation of the photosynthetic machinery, we have recently focused on resolving the specific physiological roles of the two distinct chloroplast-targeted FNR isoforms using the Arabidopsis fnr knock-out mutants (Lintala et al. 2007; 2009; 2012). We have also resolved the binding partner and the physiological significance of FNR shuttling within the chloroplast (Benz et al. 2009; 2010; Lintala et al.2014), and established differential drought stress -induced ...
Plastid stromules are stroma-filled tubules that extend from the surface of plastids in higher plants and allow the exchange of protein molecules between plastids. These structures are highly dynamic; stromules change both their shape and position in the cytoplasm very rapidly. Previous studies with microfilament inhibitors indicated that stromule shape and movement are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. To learn more about the nature of the interactions of stromules and the cytoskeleton, we imaged fluorescently-labeled microfilaments and plastids. We have used Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing green fluorescent protein fused to the human actin-binding protein talin to observe microfilaments and their relationship to stromules in vivo. Microfilaments were observed in close contact with stromules and plastid bodies of hypocotyl epidermis. Time-lapse confocal microscopy revealed that microfilament rearrangements were associated with changes in plastid and stromule morphology and position. We also
Plastids are in plants. The most common form are chloroplasts, which are green, but there are many types of plastids, most of them can pass from one form to another. They originated in procaryotic cells so they have DNA and ribosoms. The plastidial DNA contains many genes that the plant can not do without, like the gene for turning glucose into ...
The plastid encoded RNA polymerase subunit genes rpoA, B and C1 of tobacco were disrupted individually by PEG-mediated plastid transformation. The resulting off-white mutant phenotype is identical for inactivation of the different genes. The mutants pass through a normal ontogenetic cycle including …
Protein ARC5; Probable GTPase component of both plastid and peroxisme division machinery. Required for the last steps of plastid division specifically in mesophyll-cell, when the narrow isthmus breaks, facilitating the separation of the daughter plastids. Necessary for peroxisome activities. Seems to influence stromule (stroma-filled tubular extensions of the plastid envelope membrane) length and frequency (777 aa ...
Evolutionary Cell Biology. These parasites exhibit a remarkable diversity of subcellular organelles, in a stripped-down package facilitating analysis of both common eukaryotic features and novel attributes of interest as therapeutic targets. The former includes studies on Golgi biogenesis, vesicular trafficking, and cytoskeletal organization, while the latter includes the discovery, biochemical and cell biological characterization of the apicoplast - a nonphotosynthetic plastid acquired when an ancestral parasite ate a eukaryotic alga, and retained the algal plastid (secondary endosymbiosis). The apicoplast is essential for parasite survival, and widely viewed as a promising target for drug development. Current research focuses on the apical complex of specialized organelles that give this phylum its name, including micronemes and rhoptries essential for host cell invasion, modulation of host cell activities, and establishment of the unique intracellular niche in which parasites reside. ...
A global phylogeny of major eukaryotic lineages is a significant and ongoing challenge to molecular phylogenetics. Currently, there are five hypothesized major lineages or supergroups' of eukaryotes. One of these, the chromalveolates, represents a large fraction of protist and algal diversity. The chromalveolate hypothesis was originally based on similarities between the photosynthetic organelles (plastids) found in many of its members and has been supported by analyses of plastid-related genes. However, since plastids can move between eukaryotic lineages, it is important to provide additional support from data generated from the nuclear-cytosolic host lineage. Genes coding for six different cytosolic proteins from a variety of chromalveolates (yielding 68 new gene sequences) have been characterized so that multiple gene analyses, including all six major lineages of chromalveolates, could be compared and concatenated with data representing all five hypothesized supergroups. Overall support for
Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling coordinates nuclear gene expression with chloroplast function and is essential for the photoautotrophic life-style of plants. Three retrograde signals have been described, but little is known of their signaling pathways. We show here that GUN1, a chloroplast-localized pentatricopeptide-repeat protein, and ABI4, an Apetala 2 (AP2)-type transcription factor, are common to all three pathways. ABI4 binds the promoter of a retrograde-regulated gene through a conserved motif found in close proximity to a light-regulatory element. We propose a model in which multiple indicators of aberrant plastid function in Arabidopsis are integrated upstream of GUN1 within plastids, which leads to ABI4-mediated repression of nuclear-encoded genes. |P /|
Plastid transformation technology has been well established and widely utilized in plant transgenic research. In comparison with conventional nuclear gene transformation techniques, plastid engineering offers several potential advantages such as (i) more than 10-100 times greater expression levels than the conventional nuclear transformation system, (ii) a more convenient methodology for transferring multiple genes into plants via gene stacking methods, (iii) elimination of position effects in chloroplasts, which thereby reduces the chances for transgene silencing, (iv) minimal chance for transgene flow by pollen contamination due to maternal inheritance (Verma and Daniell, 2007).. One of the key aspects for the plastid transformation system is to employ a plastidic sequence to exchange exogenous genes into the chloroplast genome via homologous recombination. The usage of genetic markers, which enable the selective enrichment of ptDNA copies, is also a critical component for plastid ...
Plastids in plants and algae evolved from the endosymbiotic integration of a cyanobacterium by a heterotrophic eukaryote. New plastids can only emerge through fission; thus, the synchronization of bacterial division with the cell cycle of the eukaryotic host was vital to the origin of phototrophic eukaryotes. Most of the sampled algae house a single plastid per cell and basal-branching relatives of polyplastidic lineages are all monoplastidic, as are some non-vascular plants during certain stages of their life cycle. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular components necessary for plastid division, including those of the peptidoglycan wall (of which remnants were recently identified in moss), in a wide range of phototrophic eukaryotes. Our comparison of the phenotype of 131 species harbouring plastids of either primary or secondary origin uncovers that one prerequisite for an algae or plant to house multiple plastids per nucleus appears to be the loss of ...
Recent findings are summarized in support of the view that mitochondria (including hydrogenosomes) and plastids (including complex ones) descend from symbiotic associations of once free-living organisms. The reasoning behind endosymbiotic hypotheses stems from a comparison of biochemistry and physiology in organelles with that in free-living cells; their strength is shown to lie in the specific testable predictions they generate about expected similarity patterns among genes. Although disdained for many decades, endosymbiotic hypotheses have gradually become very popular. In the wake of that popularity, endosymbiotic hypotheses have been formulated to explain the origins of eukaryotic cell compartments and structures that have no biochemical similarity to free-living cells. In particular, it has become fashionable in recent years to entertain the century-old notion that the nucleus might also descend from an endosymbiotic bacterium. A critique of that hypothesis is formulated and a simple ...
Single-strand annealing mechanism for plastid DNA replication. This single-strand annealing (SSA), recombination-dependent replication model for ptDNA is based
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) plays an essential role in plant metabolism. In catabolic direction, it delivers ATP and pyruvate by the action of pyruvate kinase, which can be fed into mitochondrial respiration. PEP and pyruvate also represent essential precursors for anabolism i.e. PEP is the precursor for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids, secondary plant products and pyruvate is important for the production of fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids or isoprenoids via the mevalonate-independent way. These pathways are exclusively localized to the plastid stroma. PEP may be imported into the plastids via a PEP/phosphate translocator (PPT) of the inner envelope membrane or it may also be generated inside the stroma by complete plastid glycolysis starting from hexose phosphates. Glycolysis as the main route for PEP production involves the enzymatic sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate to PEP conversion catalyzed by phosphoglyceromutase (PGyM) and enolase (ENO). However, biochemical studies indicate ...
ABSTRACT: Marine photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs), representing organisms ,3 µm in size, are major contributors to global carbon cycling. However, the key members of the PPE community and hence the major routes of carbon fixation, particularly in the open ocean environment, are poorly described. Here, we have accessed PPE community structure using the plastid encoded 16S rRNA gene. Plastid 16S rRNA genes were sequenced from 65 algal cultures, about half being PPEs, representing 14 algal classes. These included sequences from 5 classes where previously no such sequences from cultured representatives had been available (Bolidophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Pelagophyceae and Pinguiophyceae). Sequences were also obtained for 6 of the 7 (according to 18S rRNA gene sequence) prasinophyte clades. Phylogenetic analysis revealed plastids from the same class as clustering together. Using all the obtained sequences, as well as plastid sequences currently in public databases, a ...
Palmitic acid (16:0) is the most common fatty acid (saturated) found in animals, plants and microorganisms. Coenzyme A (CoA) also presents in living organisms, is bound to Palmitic acid for synthesis and oxidates several fatty acids. These 2 elements reacts to form the first metabolite of our pathway 16:CoA, which is generated by the endoplastic reticulum (plastid membrane). AraGEM model is compounded by 1737 metabolites and 1601 reactions. These elements are organized in the stoichiometric matrix S[1737x1601] to use them in the FBA optimization take into account some constraints. Our efforts were aimed at the optimization of Palmitic Acid or Hexadecanoic32 Acid_acc (16:0), which is the precursor of our pathway. 16:0 is located in the cytosol and the reaction takes place using one influx V1 and two effluxes V2, V3. The efflux V2 was incorporated as an exchange reaction in order to generate branch in the original pathway of 16:0 metabolism. As our metabolic pathway is linear starting from 16:0, ...
The genomics and evolution of carbon fixation. We use the evolution of carbon fixation as a model for studying the origin and evolution and processes and pathways. Our work includes genomic studies of the reverse TCA cycle (e.g., [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/104/28/11784 here], [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/99/14/9509 here] and [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9595663?ordinalpos=4&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum here]), methylotrophy ([http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0020303 here]), Carboxydotrophs (e.g., [http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.0010065 here]), plastid evolution and/or the Calvin cycle (e.g., [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/102/20/7315 here], [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v419/n6906/abs/nature01097.html here], [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v415/n6872/abs/415630a.html here], ...
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Plastids have a tremendous importance in plants as they are the photosynthetic organelles. But their importance extends way beyond this physiological role, as they are also part of the regulatory network that controls the life cycle of the entire plant. Our research is focussed on the integration of the cell organelles (plastids as well as mitochondria) into cellular response regulation of plants with a particular focus on dually targeted proteins.
We analysed the size, relative age and chromosomal localization of nuclear sequences of plastid and mitochondrial origin (NUPTs-nuclear plastid DNA and NUMTs-nuclear mitochondrial DNA) in six completely sequenced plant species. We found that the largest insertions showed lower divergence from organelle DNA than shorter insertions in all species, indicating their recent origin. The largest NUPT and NUMT insertions were localized in the vicinity of the centromeres in the small genomes of Arabidopsis and rice. They were also present in other chromosomal regions in the large genomes of soybean and maize. Localization of NUPTs and NUMTs correlated positively with distribution of transposable elements (TEs) in Arabidopsis and sorghum, negatively in grapevine and soybean, and did not correlate in rice or maize. We propose a model where new plastid and mitochondrial DNA sequences are inserted close to centromeres and are later fragmented by TE insertions and reshuffled away from the centromere or ...
plastid: Any of several pigmented cytoplasmic organelles found in plant cells and other organisms, having various physiological functions, such as the synthesis and storage of food.
This volume provides a comprehensive look at the biology of plastids, the multifunctional biosynthetic factories that are unique to plants and algae. Fifty-six international experts have contributed 2
BioAssay record AID 504832 submitted by National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS): Primary qHTS for delayed death inhibitors of the malarial parasite plastid, 48 hour incubation.
The malaria parasite (Plasmodium sp.) contains a plastid-derived organelle called the apicoplast, which is essential for the growth of the parasite. In this organelle, a redox system comprising plant-type ferredoxin (Fd) and Fd:NADP(H) oxidoreductase (FNR) supplies reducing power for the crucial metabolic pathways. Electron transfer between P. falciparum Fd (PfFd) and FNR (PfFNR) is performed with higher affinity and specificity than those of plant Fd and FNR. We investigated the structural basis for such superior protein-protein interaction by focusing on the Plasumodium-specific regions of PfFd. ...
Jim Cummins wrote: , , In article ,53t6kq$h9j at bignews.shef.ac.uk,, T.S.Bibby at shef.ac.uk (T S , Bibby) wrote: , , , Hello, am doing a project entitled Chloroplasts and Gastarbeiter in , , eukaryotic cells. What is foregin about them and to what extent have , , they become integrated. Anything (references etc) envolving this , , subject would be useful. , , Check out Margulis and Sagan 1986 Origins of Sex Yale University Press Actually, there has been lots of molecular work done on this since the Margulis book. Look to the primary literature for authors such as: Mike Gray, Mike Reith, Richard Hallick. There are tons other references you can find by looking in the references of papers by these authors. Gray wrote a huge review paper in 1992 (Int. Rev. Cytol.) on mitochondria and chloroplasts. When you talk about integrated, I imagine you are thinking of things like transfer of plastid genes of the nucleus. Much plastid DNA has been transferred to the nucleus (one could safely say that ...
Principal Investigator:SAGISAKA Shonosuke, Project Period (FY):1990 - 1992, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:応用生物化学・栄養化学
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): The rice plastid genes psaA and psaB encoding the two apoproteins ofP700 chlorophyll a protein complex of photosystem I reac-tion center, and the putative rpsl4 gene for ribosomal protein Sl4, are organized into a transcription u it. Northern blot analyses revealed that the polycistronic mRNA is transcribed in leaves of illuminated and dark-grown rice seedlings. However Western im-munoblot analysis detected the accumulation f P700 chlorophyll a protein complex only at 3 h after illuminating the dark-grown seedlings. These observations suggest the expression fpsaA and psaB gene products during rice plastid evelopment is light-regulated primarily at translational or post-translational level. Sl-nuclease mapping and primer extension located the 5 end of the transcript predominantly at 175 bp upstream ofpsaA, and the 3 end at 116 bp downstream from rpsl4. The transcript is calculated tobe 5230 nucleotides long. A heterologous
This short slide set describes how many characteristics of mitochondria and plastids are explained by their endosymbiotic origins. Save the slide set to your computer to view the explanation and notes that go along with each slide.. Author/Source: ...
Sánchez-Ken, J. G. & L. G. Clark 2010. Phylogeny and a new tribal classification of the Panicoideae sl (Poaceae) based on plastid and nuclear sequence data and structural data. Amer. J. Bot. 97:1732-1748 ...
Plastids are sites for carotenoid deposition and biosynthesis, but detailed details on fruits plastid development and its relation to carotenoid accumulation remains largely unclear. or a different mechanisms remains to be resolved. Furthermore, some important details concerning the conversion of chloroplasts Topotecan HCl to chromoplasts, such as the changes in number and size, are lacking. Loquat (tomato mutant fruit [22]. Besides the above-described differences in the size of plastids between stages, differences were also observed between cell types and cultivars. Chromoplasts from LYQ peel cells are bigger by about one-fold in terms of Topotecan HCl area than those from flesh cells, and plastids from LYQ peel cells are bigger than those from BS, with the average area for a single plastid around 10 m2 and 6 m2, respectively (Physique 4D). 2.3. Plastid Differentiation and the Relationship between Carotenoid Accumulation and Plastid Development during Loquat Fruit Ripening Plastids are the main ...
BackgroundDiatoms are unicellular algae responsible for approximately 20% of global carbon fixation. Their evolution by secondary endocytobiosis resulted in a complex cellular structure and metabolism compared to algae with primary plastids.Methodology/Principal FindingsThe whole genome sequence of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has recently been completed. We identified and annotated genes for enzymes involved in carbohydrate pathways based on extensive EST support and comparison to the whole genome sequence of a second diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana. Protein localization to mitochondria was predicted based on identified similarities to mitochondrial localization motifs in other eukaryotes, whereas protein localization to plastids was based on the presence of signal peptide motifs in combination with plastid localization motifs previously shown to be required in diatoms. We identified genes potentially involved in a C4-like photosynthesis in P. tricornutum and, on the basis of sequence-based
A cDNA encoding the plastid ω-3 fatty acid desaturase was isolated from a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. SR1) leaf cDNA library. The amino terminal extension of the deduced amino acid sequence of this clone had a characteristic feature of the transit peptides of plastid-destined proteins. Northern analysis indicated that the mRNA corresponding to this cDNA was present in leaves, but was not detected in roots. Responses to wounding of the plastid and microsome ω-3 desaturase genes were investigated in tobacco leaves. The mRNA level of the plastid ω-3 desaturase gene increased to about 2-fold that of unwounded controls at 12 h after a wounding treatment. On the other hand, the mRNA level of the microsome ω-3 desaturase gene remained constant in the wounded leaves. Linolenic acid contents of major leaf polar lipids increased by wounding. These results indicate that wounding enhances the accumulation of the plastid ω-3 desaturase mRNA, and increases the conversion of linoleic acid to linolenic ...
Most apicomplexan parasites harbor a relict chloroplast, the apicoplast, that is critical for their survival. While the apicoplast maintains a small genome, the bulk of its proteins are nuclear-encoded and imported into the organelle. Several models have been proposed to explain how proteins might cross the four membranes that surround the apicoplast, however experimental data discriminating these models is largely missing. Here we present genetic evidence that apicoplast protein import depends on elements derived from the ER associated protein degradation (ERAD) system of the endosymbiont. We identify two sets of ERAD components in Toxoplasma gondii, one associated with the ER and cytoplasm and one localized to the membranes of the apicoplast. We engineer a conditional null mutant in apicoplast Der1, the putative pore of the apicoplast ERAD complex, and find that loss of Der1Ap results in loss of apicoplast protein import and subsequent death of the parasite ...
The new study at UFs Florida Museum of Natural History analyzed 86 complete plastid genome sequences from a wide range of plant species. Plastids are the plant cell component responsible for photosynthesis.. Previous genetic analyses of Pentapetalae failed to untangle the relationships among living species, suggesting that the plants diverged rapidly over 5 million years. Researchers selected genomes to sequence based on their best guess of genetic relationships from the previous sequencing work.. Genome sequencing is more time-consuming for plants than animals because plastid DNA is about 10 times larger than the mitochondrial DNA used in studying animal genomes. But continual improvements in DNA sequencing technology are now allowing researchers to analyze those larger amounts of data more quickly.. The study provides an important framework for further investigating evolutionary relationships by providing a much clearer picture of the deep divergence that led to the split within flowering ...
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This study reveals light-dependent associations of PEP and pTAC3 with chloroplast DNA in vivo using cpChIP assays. ChIP assays have been widely used to detect specific binding sites for transcription factors (29), distribution patterns of several modified histones (30), and trafficking of RNAP and its associated proteins on genomic DNA (31). In chloroplasts, a few studies have shown the association of endogenous (Whirly1) and recombinant (LacI) transcription factors with chloroplast promoters in vivo by using ChIP assays (32, 33). However, in vivo dynamics of chloroplast RNA polymerases and/or their associated proteins have not been directly characterized experimentally. Unlike cyanobacteria, the chloroplasts of higher plants have two types of RNA polymerase, PEP and NEP. Transcriptome analyses of PEP- or NEP-deficient mutants and in vitro transcription analyses using isolated PEP and NEP have shown that PEP and NEP preferentially initiate transcription from bacterial-type and phage-type ...
The origin of energy-conserving organelles, the mitochondria of all aerobic eukaryotes and the plastids of plants and algae, is commonly thought to be the result of endosymbiosis, where a primitive eukaryote engulfed a respiring α-proteobacterium or a phototrophic cyanobacterium, respectively. While present-day heterotrophic protists can serve as a model for the host in plastid endosymbiosis, the situation is more difficult with regard to (the preceding) mitochondrial origin: Two chapters describe these processes and theories and inherent controversies. However, the emphasis is placed on the evolution of phototrophic eukaryotes: Here, intermediate stages can be studied and the enormous diversity of algal species can be explained by multiple secondary and tertiary (eukaryote-eukaryote) endosymbioses superimposed to the single primary endosymbiotic event. Steps crucial for the establishment of a stable, mutualistic relationship between host and endosymbiont, as metabolic symbiosis, recruitment of ...
Abstract Background Starch is the main source of carbon storage in the Archaeplastida. The starch biosynthesis pathway (sbp) emerged from cytosolic glycogen metabolism shortly after plastid endosymbiosis and was redirected to the plastid stroma during the green lineage divergence. The SBP is a complex network of genes, most of which are members of large multigene families. While some gene duplications occurred in the Archaeplastida ancestor, most were generated during the sbp redirection process, and the remaining few paralogs were generated through compartmentalization or tissue specialization during the evolution of the land plants. In the present study, we tested models of duplicated gene evolution in order to understand the evolutionary forces that have led to the development of SBP in angiosperms. We combined phylogenetic analyses and tests on the rates of evolution along branches emerging from major duplication events in six gene families encoding sbp enzymes. Results We found evidence of ...
Plants possess acclimation responses in which structural reconfigurations adapt the photosynthetic apparatus to fluctuating illumination. Long-term acclimation involves changes in plastid and nuclear gene expression and is controlled by redox signals from photosynthesis. The kinetics of these signals and the adjustments of energetic and metabolic demands to the changes in the photosynthetic apparatus are currently poorly understood. Using a redox signaling system that preferentially excites either photosystem I or II, we measured the time-dependent impact of redox signals on the transcriptome and metabolome of Arabidopsis thaliana. We observed rapid and dynamic changes in nuclear transcript accumulation resulting in differential and specific expression patterns for genes associated with photosynthesis and metabolism. Metabolite pools also exhibited dynamic changes and indicate readjustments between distinct metabolic states depending on the respective illumination. These states reflect ...
Diatoms show a special organisation of their plastid membranes, such that their thylakoids span the entire plastid in bands of three. While in higher plants the interaction of the light harvesting complex II and photosystem II with divalent cations (especially Mg2+) was found to take part in the interplay of electrostatic attraction and repulsion in grana membrane appression, for diatoms the key p ...
Investigation of the chlorophyll synthesis in plastid membranes:. The initial enzyme to start the synthesis of chlorophyll in light is NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.1.33, POR). The group has studied the aggregation state of the POR, its localization in the lipid phase of the membranes and the enzyme conformational changes after irradiation, by energy transfer from tryptophan residues of membrane proteins to the fluorescence probes 1-aniline-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) and pyrene. The membranes investigated were those accumulated in dark-grown wheat leaves - prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids (PTs). Changes in protein - probe interactions of the PLBs after irradiation has shown that POR is localized close to the membrane surface, most probably on the level of lipid polar heads. This supports the idea that the enzyme is not an integral membrane protein and is most probably localized on the membrane surface.. Photodynamic effect of pigment precursor in plants:. Some ...
The term evolutionary tinkering refers to evolutionary innovation by recombination of functional units, and includes the creation of novel proteins from pre-existing modules. A novel instance of evolutionary tinkering was recently discovered in the flowering plant genus Nicotiana: the conversion of a nuclear transcription factor into the plastid-resident protein WIN4 (wound-induced clone 4) involved in environmental stress responses. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Kodama and Sano now show that two steps are necessary for the establishment of the novel plastid protein: the acquisition of an internal translation initiation site and the use of multiple transcription starts to produce short mRNA variants that encode the plastid-targeted protein form. ...
Chloroplasts contain 3000-4000 different proteins but only a small subset of them is encoded in the plastid genome while the majority is encoded in the nucleus. Expression of these genes therefore requires a high degree of co-ordination between nucleus and chloroplast. This is achieved by a bilateral information exchange between both compartments including nucleus-to-plastid (anterograde) and plastid-to-nucleus (retrograde) signals. The latter represent a functional feedback control which couples the expression of nuclear encoded plastid proteins to the actual functional state of the organelle. The efficiency of photosynthesis is a very important parameter in this context since it is influenced by many environmental conditions and therefore represents a sensor for the residing environment. Components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain exhibit significant changes in their reduction/oxidation (redox) state depending on the photosynthetic electron flow and therefore serve as signalling ...
Chloroplasts contain 3000-4000 different proteins but only a small subset of them is encoded in the plastid genome while the majority is encoded in the nucleus. Expression of these genes therefore requires a high degree of co-ordination between nucleus and chloroplast. This is achieved by a bilateral information exchange between both compartments including nucleus-to-plastid (anterograde) and plastid-to-nucleus (retrograde) signals. The latter represent a functional feedback control which couples the expression of nuclear encoded plastid proteins to the actual functional state of the organelle. The efficiency of photosynthesis is a very important parameter in this context since it is influenced by many environmental conditions and therefore represents a sensor for the residing environment. Components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain exhibit significant changes in their reduction/oxidation (redox) state depending on the photosynthetic electron flow and therefore serve as signalling ...
The results we have shown here and in a previous report (Sauret-Güeto et al., 2006) confirm a strong and specific influence of plastid cues in the regulation of the MEP pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Evidence provided in this work unveils a mechanism for such regulation involving the participation of the plastidic Clp protease complex. Impaired expression of the plastid genome in rif1, rif10, and CAP-treated Col seedlings unexpectedly resulted in increased levels of the plastome-encoded ClpP1 subunit of the catalytic ClpPR core of the complex (Figure 7). It is possible that ClpP1 levels are modulated not only by their biosynthetic rate but also by a regulatory feedback mechanism at the posttranslational level. As a result, a defective production of ClpP1 in the first stages of plastid development might result in an altered proportion of subunits within the ClpPR core and an insufficient Clp protease activity, which in turn might lead to the observed upregulation of ClpP1 levels as a ...
Most heterokonts are biflagellated at some stage of their life cycles, usually at least as gametes. The two flagella are structurally distinct, the leading-end flagella (tinsel) being branched, the lateral or subapical flagellum is smooth and shorter or even rudimentary. Their plastid envelops consist of 4 membrane layers. The innermost 2 layers are derived from the original cyanobacterial endosymbiont. The next layer is the relic of the cell membrane of the red alga from which the stramenopilie acquired the plastid by seconadry endosymbiosis. The outermost layer is actually the host endoplasmic reticulum, inside of which the plastids reside.. Diatoms are the most familiar members of this group, and are perhaps the most abundant and diverse as well. By some estimates, they may be responsible for up to half of marine primary production. Most are unicellular. Gametes are flagellated, but diploids are non-motile or motile by gliding, and are encased in a intricate 2-part silica (glass) shells. ...
Pathways of intracellular communication: tetrapyrroles and plastid-to-nucleus signaling. Checkpoint signaling: epigenetic events sound the DNA strand-breaks alarm to the ATM proein kinase
The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain. This section includes genomic Reference Sequences (RefSeqs) from all assemblies on which this gene is annotated, such as RefSeqs for chromosomes and scaffolds (contigs) from both reference and alternate assemblies. Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. ...
The sources of carbon and reducing power for fatty acid synthesis in the heterotrophic plastids of developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) embryos ...
Walczak M, Ganesan SM, Niles JC, Yeh E. (2017) ATG8 is essential specifically for an autophagy-independent function in apicoplast biogenesis in blood-stage malaria parasites. mBio (In press). Gisselberg JE, Herrera Z, Altenhofen L, Llinas M, Yeh E. (2017) Specific inhibition of the bifunctional farnesyl/geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase in malaria parasites via a new small molecule binding site. Cell Chemical Biology (In press) (Preprint) Amberg-Johnson K, Hari SB, Ganesan SM, Lorenzi HA, Sauer RT, Niles JC, Yeh E. (2017) Small molecule inhibition of apicomplexan FtsH1 disrupts plastid biogenesis in human pathogens. eLife. doi: 10.7554/eLife.29865 (PubMed) (PDF). Gisselberg JE, Zhang L, Elias JE, and Yeh E. The prenylated proteome of Plasmodium reveals pathogen-specific prenylation. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016 Dec. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M116.064550. (PubMed) (PDF). Wu W, Herrera Z, Ebert D, Baska K, DeRisi JL, Yeh E (2014) A chemical rescue screen identifies a Plasmodium falciparum apicoplast ...
Nuclear DNA is the DNA inside the cell nucleus of eukaryotic cells. This DNA is a double helix, with two strands wound around each other. This double helix structure was first described by Francis Crick and James D. Watson in 1953.[1]. This DNA is different from the DNA in bacteria, mitochondria and plastids such as chloroplasts. Nuclear DNA is very long, and is bound up in chromosomes which, apart from the DNA, are protein structures. The second difference is that each eukaryote cell has two sets of DNA, one set from each parent: it is diploid. Mitochondrial and plastid DNA is relatively short, is in a circle, and there is only one set (haploid), not two.[2] It is supposed that these organelles were once independent bacteria (see endosymbiosis). The consequence of nuclear DNA being double is highly important. The genes in mitochondria and plastids only change when a mutation happens. Nuclear DNA gets shuffled by the cell division known as meiosis, part of sexual reproduction. This leads to a ...
Related Articles Strategies for complete plastid genome sequencing. Mol Ecol Resour. 2017 Sep;17(5):858-868 Authors: Twyford AD, Ness RW Abstract Plastid sequencing is an essential tool in the study of plant evolution. This high-copy organelle is […]. ...
The aquatic plant genus Ruppia (Ruppiaceae) comprises eight species mainly in coastal brackish areas of the world. While the known taxa of Ruppia thus far generally had either four- or eight-carpelled flowers, our recent Ruppia collection from Western Cape, South Africa showed flowers with only two carpels. This characteristic morphological evidence, together with elongated coiled peduncles, implied either: i) extensive morphological variation of the cosmopolitan R. cirrhosa; or ii) the occurrence of a new species in the genus. We tested these alternative hypotheses of the bicarpellate Ruppia taxon in a phylogenetic framework. Sequence data from four plastid DNA regions and nuclear phyB were analyzed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. We obtained moderately to highly resolved phytogenies with both data sets. The collection from Western Cape showed unique DNA sequences which were, in both plastid and nuclear phylogenetic trees, placed as sister to the rest of the ...
Im trying to find out how to describe the structure of a chromoplast for a biochemistry lab. Ive found plenty of information on chloroplasts, and I would assume their structure would be similar to that of a chromoplast, just with different pigments. However, I havent been able to find any information to back that up. Most pages simply describe the function of a chromoplast, and though Ive asked a few tutors, none of them seem to know how a chromoplast is structured ...
Crosstalk, crosstalk- its a word that keeps coming up. Indeed, and perhaps not surprisingly, plant hormone signaling pathways all seem to affect each other to…
Motility Control of Symbionts and Organelles by the Eukaryotic Cell. Guglielmo Militello. Tuesday 29 at 11:30 (Centro Carlos Santamaria B14). Motility occupies a decisive role in an organisms ability to autonomously interact with its environment. However, collective biological organizations exhibit individual parts, which have temporally or definitively lost their motor capacities, but still able to autonomously interact with their host. Indeed, although the flagella of bacterial symbionts of eukaryotic cells are usually inhibited or lost, they autonomously modify the environment provided by their host. Furthermore, the eukaryotic organelles of endosymbiotic origin (i.e., mitochondria and plastids) are no longer able to move autonomously; nonetheless, they make a cytoskeletal-driven motion that allows them to communicate with other eukaryotic cells and to perform a considerable number of physiological functions. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to investigate how changes in the ...
Wong, S.Y., Boyce, P.C., Sofiman Othman, A. & Leaw, C. 2010: Molecular phylogeny of tribe Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) based on two plastid markers and recognition of a new tribe, Philonotieae, from the neotropics. Taxon 59(1): 117-124. doi: 10.1002/tax.614005 JSTOR ResearchGate Reference page ...
Wong, S.Y., Boyce, P.C., Sofiman Othman, A. & Leaw, C. 2010: Molecular phylogeny of tribe Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) based on two plastid markers and recognition of a new tribe, Philonotieae, from the neotropics. Taxon 59(1): 117-124. DOI: 10.1002/tax.614005 JSTOR ResearchGate ...
Mitochondria The Mitochondrion (singular form of mitochondria) is often described as the powerhouse of the cell. Mitochondria are organelles that are essential
T-cell therapies are not just for cancer. Researchers are also advancing immunotherapy methods to protect bone marrow transplant patients from viral infections. 0 Comments. ...
The cells of the mammalian immune system do more than just fight off pathogens; they are also important players in stem cell function and are thus crucial for maintaining homeostasis and recovering from injury.. 0 Comments. ...
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Pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) is a multi-functional molecule thats related to both renin-angiotensin program (RAS) and vacuolar H+-ATPase (v-ATPase), an ATP-dependent multi-subunit proton pump. hypothesize that hypoxia and following oxidative stress, in the brain perhaps, may be among the elements that elevate plasma s(P)RR amounts in OSAS. gene leads to loss-of-function of v-ATPase, impaired cell and […]. ...
Expression of most plastid genes involves multiple post-transcriptional processing events, such as splicing, editing, and intercistronic processing. The latter involves the formation of mono-, di-, an
Krech, K.; Fu, H.-Y.; Thiele, W.; Ruf, S.; Schöttler, M. A.; Bock, R.: Reverse genetics in complex multigene operons by co-transformation of the plastid genome and its application to the open reading frame previously designated psbN. The Plant Journal 75 (6), pp. 1062 - 1074 (2013 ...
Osorio, S.; Vallarino, J. G.; Szecowka, M.; Ufaz, S.; Tzin, V.; Angelovici, R.; Galili, G.; Fernie, A. R.: Alteration of the interconversion of pyruvate and malate in the plastid or cytosol of ripening tomato fruit invokes diverse consequences on sugar but similar effects on cellular organic Acid, metabolism, and transitory starch accumulation. Plant Physiology 161 (2), S. 628 - 643 (2013 ...
(figure) Table 10.3 Plants are unique in having genomes in three cellular com-partments: the nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Most DNA and hence most of the genes, an estimated 30 000 in higher plants, reside in the nucleus.
A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an organelle within a cell. An organelle is an organized structure of distinctive morphology and function. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, vesicles, ribosomes and the cytoskeleton. Excludes the plasma membrane. [GOC:mah]. ...
The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an organelle. An organelle is an organized structure of distinctive morphology and function. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, vesicles, ribosomes and the cytoskeleton. Excludes the plasma membrane. [GOC:mah]. ...
AYYUB Muhammad , ANWAR Masood , ALI Waqar , QAZI B. M. International journal of hematology 80(2), 197-198, 2004-08-15 医中誌Web 参考文献6件 ...
... and 4 subunits of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase complex that are involved in plastid gene expression.[25] The large ... RNA editing in plastids[edit]. RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript ... Wise RR, Hoober JK (2007). Structure and function of plastids. Berlin: Springer. pp. 53-74. ISBN 978-1-4020-6570-5. .. ... Tillich M, Krause K (July 2010). "The ins and outs of editing and splicing of plastid RNAs: lessons from parasitic plants". New ...
... is also encoded in the plastid genome and is required for translation initiation in both plastids and mitochondria. A plastid ... Non-photosynthetic plastid genomes[edit]. The majority of the genes in the mitochondria and plastids are related to the ... Having only one plastid severely limits gene transfer[26] as the lysis of the single plastid would likely result in cell death. ... The plastid is responsible for haem biosynthesis, which requires plastid encoded tRNA-Glu (from the gene trnE) as a precursor ...
Plastid Chloroplast and etioplast Chromoplast Leucoplast Amyloplast Proteinoplast Wise RR (2007). "The Diversity of Plastid ... van Wijk KJ, Kessler F (April 2017). "Plastoglobuli: Plastid Microcompartments with Integrated Functions in Metabolism, Plastid ... plastid genome) with all other plastids and are predominately inherited maternally in angiosperms. As its name implies, ... Like most plastids, elaioplasts reproduce through binary fission independent from the division of the parent cell, a feature ...
Other plastids contain storage products such as starch (amyloplasts) or lipids (elaioplasts). Uniquely, streptophyte cells and ... Kim, E.; Archibald, J.M. (2009). "Diversity and Evolution of Plastids and Their Genomes". In Sandelius, Anna Stina; Aronsson, ... "The Origin of Plastids". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1504): 2675-2685. doi: ... larger vacuoles than in animal cells and the presence of plastids with unique photosynthetic and biosynthetic functions as in ...
As the endosymbiotic plastids are endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, they share these features insofar as they have not lost them. ... Howe CJ, Barbrook AC, Nisbet RE, Lockhart PJ, Larkum AW (August 2008). "The origin of plastids". Philosophical Transactions of ... Archibald JM (August 2015). "Genomic perspectives on the birth and spread of plastids". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Phototrophic eukaryotes such as green plants perform photosynthesis in plastids that are thought to have their ancestry in ...
The plastids are discoid. At least one species, B. solitarium, exists as single cells. Bacteriastrum biconicum Bacteriastrum ...
Wise RR, Hoober JK (2006-01-01). "The Diversity of Plastid Form and Function". The structure and function of plastids. 23. pp. ... Amyloplasts are a type of plastid, double-enveloped organelles in plant cells that are involved in various biological pathways ... Starch synthesis and storage also takes place in chloroplasts, a type of pigmented plastid involved in photosynthesis. ... Neuhaus HE, Emes MJ (June 2000). "Nonphotosynthetic Metabolism in Plastids". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant ...
Next, the two plastid-dividing rings, or PD rings form. The inner plastid-dividing ring is located in the inner side of the ... These chloroplasts, which can be traced back directly to a cyanobacterial ancestor, are known as primary plastids ("plastid" in ... The plastid is the site of diverse and complex lipid synthesis in plants. The carbon used to form the majority of the lipid is ... Their plastids have four membranes, lack chlorophyll c and use the type II form of RuBisCO obtained from a horizontal transfer ...
Plants and various groups of algae also have plastids. Plastids also have their own DNA and are developed from endosymbionts, ... Although plastids probably had a single origin, not all plastid-containing groups are closely related. Instead, some eukaryotes ... Sato, N. (2006). "Origin and Evolution of Plastids: Genomic View on the Unification and Diversity of Plastids". In R.R. Wise; J ... Plastids, especially chloroplasts, organelles that contain chlorophyll, the pigment that gives plants their green color and ...
Bouchnak I, van Wijk KJ (October 2019). "N-Degron Pathways in Plastids". Trends in Plant Science. 24 (10): 917-926. doi:10.1016 ... Additionally, a 2013 study in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed the protein ClpS1, a possible plastid homolog of the bacterial ClpS ... November 2017). "PfClpC Is an Essential Clp Chaperone Required for Plastid Integrity and Clp Protease Stability in Plasmodium ... An apicoplast is a derived non-photosynthetic plastid found in most Apicomplexa, including Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium ...
Carotenoids involved in photosynthesis are formed in chloroplasts; Others are formed in plastids. Carotenoids formed in fungi ...
... is also encoded in the plastid genome and is required for translation initiation in both plastids and mitochondria. A plastid ... Having only one plastid severely limits gene transfer as the lysis of the single plastid would likely result in cell death. ... The plastid is responsible for haem biosynthesis, which requires plastid encoded tRNA-Glu (from the gene trnE) as a precursor ... Consistent with this hypothesis, organisms with multiple plastids show an 80-fold increase in plastid-to-nucleus gene transfer ...
The small plastid, only 0.15-1.5 μm in diameter, is surrounded by four membranes. The two inner membranes are derived from the ... The plastid, at least in the Plasmodium species, also contains "tubular whorls" of membrane that bear a striking resemblance to ... Maréchal E, Cesbron-Delauw MF (May 2001). "The apicoplast: a new member of the plastid family". Trends in Plant Science. 6 (5 ... During the reorganization of the plastid the apicoplast lost its ability to photosynthesize. These losses of function are ...
As an example, the vast majority of all known complex plastid preproteins (an 'unactivated' protein) encoded in the nucleus ... Gould, Sven; Waller, R; McFadden, G (June 2008). "Plastid Evolution". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 59: 491-517. doi:10.1146/ ...
This proposal was made on the basis of the analysis of the plastid genomes. Over 7,000 species are currently described for the ... They also have the most gene-rich plastid genomes known. Red algae do not have flagella and centrioles during their entire life ... Gould, S.B.; Waller, R.F.; McFadden, G.I. (2008). "Plastid Evolution". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 59: 491-517. doi:10.1146 ... McFadden, G.I. (2001). "Primary and Secondary Endosymbiosis and the Evolution of Plastids". Journal of Phycology. 37 (6): 951- ...
... and a Plastid Proteome Database". Plant Cell. 16 (2): 478-99. doi:10.1105/tpc.017814. PMC 341918. PMID 14729914.- The Plastid ... Plastid Protein Database Peltier J, Friso G, Kalume D, Roepstorff P, Nilsson F, Adamska I, van Wijk K (2000). "Proteomics of ... Benning C, Xu C, Awai K (2006). "Non-vesicular and vesicular lipid trafficking involving plastids". Curr Opin Plant Biol. 9 (3 ... These data have been summarized in several plastid protein databases that are available online. According to these studies, the ...
The origin of Plastid endosymbiosis signifies the beginning of photosynthesis in eukaryotes, and as such their evolutionary ... Gould, Sven B.; Waller, Ross F.; McFadden, Geoffrey I. (2008). "Plastid Evolution". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 59 (1): 491 ... Gloeomargarita lithophora is a cyanobacterium, and is the proposed sister of the endosymbiotic plastids in the Eukaryote ... "An Early-Branching Freshwater Cyanobacterium at the Origin of Plastids". Current Biology. 27 (3): 386-391. doi:10.1016/j.cub. ...
Krause K (September 2008). "From chloroplasts to "cryptic" plastids: evolution of plastid genomes in parasitic plants". Current ... Wise RR, Hoober JK (2007). Structure and function of plastids. Berlin: Springer. pp. 53-74. ISBN 978-1-4020-6570-5. .. ... RNA editing in plastidsEdit. RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior ... de Vries J, Archibald JM (April 2018). "Plastid genomes". Current Biology. 28 (8): R336-R337. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2018.01.027. ...
Wise, Robert (2007). "1". The Diversity of Plastid Form and Function (PDF). Springer.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font- ... Although all plastids contain high concentrations of protein, proteinoplasts were identified in the 1960s and 1970s as having ... Proteinoplasts belong to a broad category of organelles known as plastids. Because they lack pigment, proteinoplasts are more ...
Patrick J. Keeling (2004). "Diversity and evolutionary history of plastids and their hosts". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10 ... The structure and function of plastids. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 3-21. ISBN 978-1-4020-4061-0.CS1 maint: extra text: authors ... "The evolution of glycogen and starch metabolism in eukaryotes gives molecular clues to understand the establishment of plastid ... believed to be a relic of the endosymbiotic origin of plastids from cyanobacteria. Glaucophytes contain the photosynthetic ...
Plastid Chloroplast Chromoplast Leucoplast Amyloplast Elaioplast Proteinoplast Wise, Robert (2007). "The Diversity of Plastid ... Form and Function". The Structure and Function of Plastids. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration. 23. Springer. pp. 3-26 ...
The envelope of the plastid, however, remains intact. Wise, Robert (13 September 2007). The Structure and Function of Plastids ... The term gerontoplast was first introduced in 1977 to define the unique features of the plastid formed during leaf senescence. ... A gerontoplast is a plastid that develops from a chloroplast during the senescing of plant foliage. Gerontoplast development is ...
Biosynthesis takes place in the plastids. As to why plants synthesize tocochromanols, the major reason appears to be for ...
The Structure and Function of Plastids. Dordrecht, NL: Springer. (Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration Series: Volume 23 ... and other plastids. He was the first to name and describe the chlorophyll-containing structures in chloroplasts known as grana ...
Baur stated that plastids are carriers of hereditary factors which are able to mutate. in variegated plants, random sorting out ... Since the 1930s and the work of Otto Renner, plastid inheritance became a widely accepted genetic theory. In 1921 and 1932 Baur ... He discovered the inheritance of plastids. In 1908 Baur demonstrated a lethal gene in the Antirrhinum plant. In 1909 working on ... Erwin Baur or Carl Correns: who really created the theory of plastid inheritance? Archived 2005-03-16 at the Wayback Machine. ...
The Structure and Function of Plastids. Springer. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4020-6570-5. Zak, J. Allen (April 1994). Drop Size ...
"Protalveolata - Wikispecies". Muñoz-Gómez, Sergio A.; Slamovits, Claudio H. (2018). "Plastid Genomes in the Myzozoa". Plastid ... All Myzozoa appears to have evolved form an ancestor that possessed plastids, required through endosymbiosis. The branching ...
Smith, David R. (2018). "Lost in the Light: Plastid Genome Evolution in Nonphotosynthetic Algae". Plastid Genome Evolution. ... Photosynthetic organisms with plastids of different origin (such as brown algae) do not belong to the Archaeplastida. The ... All archaeplastidans have plastids (chloroplasts) that carry out photosynthesis and are believed to be derived from ... Another name applied to this node is Plastida, defined as the clade sharing "plastids of primary (direct prokaryote) origin [as ...
The sieve-tube plastids are P-type. The root xylem does not present vessels. These plants are hermaphroditic, with anemophilous ... Tanaka (2010) Hybridization and polyploidy of an aquatic plant, Ruppia (Ruppiaceae), inferred from plastid and nuclear DNA ...
... contain few plastids, to 100 or fewer in mature cells, where plastid divisions have given rise to a large number of plastids. ... The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded - plural plastids) is a membrane-bound organelle[1] found in the cells of ... whereas many gymnosperms inherit plastids from the male pollen. Algae also inherit plastids from only one parent. The plastid ... Each plastid creates multiple copies of a circular 10-250 kilobase plastome [6][7]. The number of genome copies per plastid is ...
... plastid (sr-el); Plastid (sh); plastid (sco); Plastîd (ku-latn); plastídeo (pt); دیسه (fa); Пластиды (ru); plastid (sv); ... Plastidė (lt); Plastid (sl); พลาสติด (th); színtest (hu); 色素体 (zh-cn); Plastid (id); plastyd (pl); പ്ലാസ്റ്റിഡ് (ml); plastide ... plastid (cs); Plastid (bs); Plastaid (gv); প্লাস্টিড (bn); plaste (fr); plastida (jv); Plastidi (hr); Lạp thể (vi); Пластид (sr ... plastid (en); صانعة (ar); Пластидалар (ky); plastidio (eu); plastidi (ca); Plastid (de); Пластыды (be); Պլաստիդներ (hy); 色素體 ( ...
plastid (plural plastids) *(biology) Any of various organelles found in the cells of plants and algae, often concerned with ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=plastid&oldid=50823547" ...
... and study primary and secondary plastids in plant and algal materials. ... This volume explores plastid evolution, structure, and function in algae, plants and protists. The methods described in this ... Plastids. Book Subtitle. Methods and Protocols Editors. * Eric Marechal Series Title. Methods in Molecular Biology. Series ... This volume explores plastid evolution, structure, and function in algae, plants and protists. The methods described in this ...
... plastid genomes and how proteins are imported into plastids; photosynthesis and core aspects of plastid biochemistry; plastid ... Plastid import; 6. The development of the chloroplast; 7. Plastid metabolism; 8. Plastids and cellular function; 9. Plastid ... Preface; 1. What are plastids and where did they come from?; 2. Different types of plastids and their structure; 3. The plastid ... A precise overview of different aspects of plastid biology and how the plastid interacts functionally with other parts of the ...
Plastids have an interesting transcription machinery that makes it possible to study the interplay of mono- and multisubunit ... Aberrations in plastid transcripts and deficiency of plastid DNA in striped and albino mutants in maize. Planta. 191, 552-563. ... Plastids of three Cuscuta species differing in plastid coding capacity have a common parasite-specific RNA composition. Planta ... Plastid genome structure and plastid-related transcript levels in albino barley plants derived from author culture. Curr. Genet ...
Buy Origins of Plastids by Ralph A. Lewin from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK ... Origins of Plastids: Symbiogenesis, Prochlorophytes and the Origins of Chloroplasts (Hardback). Ralph A. Lewin (author) Sign in ... Origins of Plastids represents the state-of-the-art in its field. It should find a place on the bookshelves of people ... Origins of Plastids looks at symbiosis and symbiogenesis as a mechanism of evolution. This theory of endosymbiotic evolution ...
Photosynthetic Metabolism in Plastids; (IV): Non-Photosynthetic Metabolism in Plastids; (V): Plastid Differentiation and ... The book is divided into five sections: (I): Plastid Origin and Development; (II): The Plastid Genome and Its Interaction with ... Each chapter includes an integrated view of plant biology from the standpoint of the plastid. The book is intended for a wide ... This volume provides a comprehensive look at the biology of plastids, the multifunctional biosynthetic factories that are ...
There are many types of plastids in plants alone, but all plastids can be separated based on the number of times they have ... A plastid is a membrane-bound organelle found in plants, algae and other eukaryotic organisms that contribute to the production ... However, most plastids rarely exceed 200 protein coding genes. A recent study sequenced the genome of a cyanobacterium that was ... The first plastid, is highly accepted within the scientific community, to be derived from the engulfment of cyanobacteria ...
For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and ... In some species, these plastids have been replaced through serial endosymbiosis with plastids derived from a different ... Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates. Richard G. Dorrell and Christopher J. Howe ...
Plastids are semiautonomous organelles found, in one form or another, in practically all plant and algal cells, several taxa of ... Waters MT, Fray RG and Pyke KA (2004) Stromule formation is dependent upon plastid size, plastid differentiation status and the ... all other plastid proteins are coded for by the nuclear genome and imported from the cytoplasm. Plastids divide via fission ... Pyke KA (1999) Plastid division and development. Plant Cell 11: 549-556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Each plastid has a relatively small genome. Each plastid creates multiple copies of the circular 75-250 kilo bases plastid ... Inheritance of plastids. Most plants inherit the plastids from only one parent. Angiosperms generally inherit plastids from the ... Plastids in plants. Plastids are responsible for photosynthesis, storage of products like starch, and the synthesis of many ... Plastids in algae. In algae, the term leucoplast (leukoplast) is used for all unpigmented plastids. Their function differs from ...
Make research projects and school reports about plastid easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... plastid An organelle within a plant cell, often occurring in large numbers. Apart from the nucleus, plastids are the largest ... plas·tid / ˈplastid/ • n. Bot. any of a class of small organelles, such as chloroplasts, in the cytoplasm of plant cells, ... plastid An organelle that is believed to have evolved from an autotrophic (see AUTOTROPH) endosymbiont early in plant evolution ...
... Jerry D. Cohen via arab-gen%40net.bio.net (by cohen047 At umn.edu). Fri Jan 19 15:39 ... PMID: 17093301 [PubMed - in process] At 01:05 PM 1/19/2007, Yu Xiaomin wrote: ,Dear all, , I am trying to isolate plastid ...
Plastid genomes (plastomes) across photosynthetically active species are characterized by a remarkable conservation of ... Plastid genome of a hot sulphur pond inhabitantPlastid genomes of several Cuscuta species have been sequenced in our lab. These ... Evolution of Plastid Genomes Plastid genomes (plastomes) across photosynthetically active species are characterized by a ... We are comparing the plastid genome coding capacity, organization and plastid gene mutation rates of Galdieria to those of ...
... giving rise to the plastid. Genetic remnants of the endosymbiont are still preserved in plastids as a highly reduced chromosome ... The men gene cluster in the plastid of Galdieria maxima was only partially sequenced. White boxes with numbers inside indicate ... Evidence of a chimeric genome in the cyanobacterial ancestor of plastids.. Gross J1, Meurer J, Bhattacharya D. ... In addition we show genes that originated via HGT in the cyanobacterial ancestor of the plastid made their way to the host ...
... were tested for the presence of plastid genes and a plastome. Using PCR, plastid 16S rDNA was successfully amplified and ... Do nonasterid holoparasitic flowering plants have plastid genomes?. Nickrent DL1, Ouyang Y, Duff RJ, dePamphilis CW. ... For Smal digests, all plastid gene probes hybridized to a common fragment ca. 20 kb in length in this species. Taken together, ... Probes constructed for 16S rDNA and for four plastid-encoded ribosomal protein genes (rps2, rps4, rps7 and rpl 16) were used in ...
Purification of Plastids from the Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium * * WANG Yunling * Department de Sciences Biologiques, ... Empty minicircles and petB/atpA and psbD/psbE (cytb559 alpha) genes in tandem in Amphidinium carterae plastid DNA HILLER RG ... Organisation and expression of the plastid genome of the dinoflagellate Amphidinium operculatum BARBROOK AC ... a possible common origin for sporozoan and dinoflagellate plastids ZHANG Z. ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
T-cell therapies are not just for cancer. Researchers are also advancing immunotherapy methods to protect bone marrow transplant patients from viral infections. 0 Comments. ...
In chloroplasts, FNR has a well-defined role in linear electron flow, and in the root plastids, FNR is needed for nitrogen ... Ferredoxin-NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR) is a FAD-containg enzyme found both in the chloroplasts and non-photosynthetic plastids ...
We estimated the phylogeny of Camassia using two noncoding plastid DNA regions: rpl16 intron and trnD-trnY-trnE-trnT spacers, ... Phylogeny of Camassia (Agavaceae) Inferred from Plastid rpl16 Intron and trnD-trnY-trnE-trnT Intergenic Spacer DNA Sequences: ... by sampling sympatric populations we detected only a single case of introgression of plastid haplotypes. This study provides ...
... Nature. 2000 Jan 13;403(6766):203-7. doi ... and are found in much smaller amounts in the plastids, although ppi2 does not affect either the expression or the import of ... less abundant non-photosynthetic plastid proteins. These findings indicate that atToc159 is required for the quantitative ...
plastid: Any of several pigmented cytoplasmic organelles found in plant cells and other organisms, having various physiological ... From Greek plastis, plastid-, feminine of plastēs, molder, from plastos, molded; see plastic. ... Having the character or quality of a plastid; plastic or plasmic.. *n. A general name for any permanent organ of the cell ... No matter what we may call this point of vital activity in a cell -- whether it be a bioplast, a plastid, a physiological unit ...
... no reports exist of stable transformation of undeveloped plastids or other specialized plastid types, such as proplastids, ... with plastid transformation frequency at least equal to that of leaf chloroplast transformation. Homoplasmic plastid ... no reports exist of stable transformation of undeveloped plastids or other specialized plastid types, such as proplastids, ... Our results indicate that the rate-limiting steps for nuclear and plastid transformation are different, and each must be ...
Plastids are in plants. The most common form are chloroplasts, which are green, but there are many types of plastids, most of ... Plastids have nothing to do with genetic material. It matters not how strait the gate How charged with punishment the scroll I ... Today I was just reading about the organelles of plant cells and came across a page on plastids. There are two questions that ... Questions on Plastids. Discussion of all aspects of cellular structure, physiology and communication. ...
This contribution is dedicated to pigments and lipids synthesized within or from plastids/photosynthetic membranes. It starts ... 2. Plastid Phylogeny. According to the fossil record cyanobacteria were already present over 2 billion years ago [22]. Based on ... Solymosi, K. Plastid structure, diversification and interconversions I. Algae. Curr. Chem. Biol. 2012, 6, 167-186. [Google ... Tartar, A.; Boucias, D.G.; Becnel, J.J.; Adams, B.J. Comparison of plastid 16S rRNA (rrn16) genes from Helicosporidium spp.: ...
... all types of plastids are found in the course of pollen development. They are located in the different cell layers of the ... The plastid is a semi-autonomous organelle. Plastid division in the anther is synchronous with cell division, except in the ... Ultrastructural studies on plastids of generative cells inLiliaceae, 3. Plastid distribution during pollen development in ... Deleted forms of plastid DNA in albino plants from cereal anther culture. Curr. Genet. 9: 671-676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
The discovery of the division apparatus of plastids and mitochondria * * Kuroiwa Tsuneyoshi KUROIWA Tsuneyoshi ... The mitochondria and plastids during microsporogenesis in Hyacinthoides non-scripta (L.) Chouard LUCK B. T. ... The nuclei of cellular organelles and the formation of daughter organelles by the "plastid-dividing ring." KUROIWA T. ... Division of plastids by a plastiddividing ring in Cyanidium caldarium. MITA T. ...
In many cases this regulation is mediated by nuclear-encoded proteins acting in concert with the endogenous plastid gene ... Expression of plastid genes is controlled at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in response to developmental ... The role of sigma factors in plastid transcription Biochimie. Jun-Jul 2000;82(6-7):537-48. doi: 10.1016/s0300-9084(00)00611-8. ... Expression of plastid genes is controlled at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in response to developmental ...
  • The number of genome copies per plastid is variable, ranging from more than 1000 in rapidly dividing cells , which, in general, contain few plastids, to 100 or fewer in mature cells, where plastid divisions have given rise to a large number of plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Function and evolution of a minimum plastid genome from a nonphotosynthetic parasitic plant. (springer.com)
  • all other plastid proteins are coded for by the nuclear genome and imported from the cytoplasm. (springer.com)
  • Plastids are believed to have arisen from an original symbiotic relationship between cyanobacteria and host cells, and thus plastids have their own genome and membranes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Each plastid has a relatively small genome . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Each plastid creates multiple copies of the circular 75-250 kilo bases plastid genome. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • We are comparing the plastid genome coding capacity, organization and plastid gene mutation rates of Galdieria to those of other red algae in order to find out how the special nice of this alga has influenced plastid genome evolution. (uit.no)
  • Evidence of a chimeric genome in the cyanobacterial ancestor of plastids. (nih.gov)
  • These genes are relics of an ancestral cluster related to homologs in Chlorobi/Gammaproteobacteria that we hypothesize was established by HGT in the progenitor of plastids, thus providing a 'footprint' of genome chimericism in ancient cyanobacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Men genes encoded as clusters in chromosomes of prokaryotes and in the plastid genome of Cyanidiales (black boxes), as well as the architecture of the PHYLLO gene (yellow boxes) in nuclear genomes of photosynthetic eukaryotes, are indicated for each taxon. (nih.gov)
  • Past work involving the plastid genome (plastome) of holoparasitic plants has been confined to Scrophulariaceae (or Orobanchaceae) which have truncated plastomes owing to loss of photosynthetic and other genes. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these data provide preliminary evidence suggestive of the retention of highly diverged and truncated plastid genome in Cytinus. (nih.gov)
  • By analyzing DNA sequences contained in the plastid of the thecate amoeba Paulinella, researchers have shown that it is a recent endosymbiont whose genome features are virtually unchanged from those of its cyanobacterial progenitor. (wordnik.com)
  • This trait reflects the relative independence of the plastid genome when compared with that of the nucleus. (springer.com)
  • One specific remnant of this prokaryotic ancestry is the presence of a fully active genetic system in plastids consisting of a highly polyploid genome, the so-called plastome, as well as a complete machinery to express the information coded on it. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the case of plastid and nuclear genome exchange, hybrid bleaching is frequently observed, which results from plastome-genome incompatibility (PGI) due to compartmental co-evolution. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • xi) A novel weighting strategy, combining classical genetic data on plastome-genome compatibility/incompatibility with molecular data and bioinformatic approaches, was applied to deduce potential plastid determinants for PGI. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Phylogenetic reconstruction of changes in plastid genome content revealed that an accelerated rate of gene loss also characterized the Chlamydomonas/Chlorella lineage, a phenomenon that might be independent of the proliferation of SDRs. (plantcell.org)
  • Together, our results reveal a dynamic and unusual plastid genome whose existence in a model organism will allow its features to be tested functionally. (plantcell.org)
  • These have greatly improved our understanding of endosymbiosis, the evolution of plastids and the reshaping of the eukaryotic host genome following massive horizontal gene transfer from the ancient cyanobacterial progenitor toward the host nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • J. C. Hagopian, M. Reis, J. P. Kitajima, D. Bhattacharya, and M. C. De Oliveira, "Comparative analysis of the complete plastid genome sequence of the red alga Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. (hindawi.com)
  • Complete sequence and analysis of the plastid genome of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae ," DNA Research , vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 67-77, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, plastids contain multiple copies of their genome ( plastome ) to the point where a single plant cell may contain 10,000 plastomes. (biofortified.org)
  • Background: Characterisation of plastid genome (or cpDNA) polymorphisms is commonly used for phylogeographic, population genetic and forensic analyses in plants, but detecting cpDNA variation is sometimes challenging, limiting the applications of such an approach. (ebscohost.com)
  • In the present study, we screened cpDNA polymorphism in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) by sequencing the complete plastid genome of trees with a distinct cpDNA lineage. (ebscohost.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the tufA gene encoded by the 35-kilobase genomes of coccidians T. gondii and Eimeria tenella and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum grouped this organellar genome with cyanobacteria and plastids, showing consistent clustering with green algal plastids. (sciencemag.org)
  • How do these algal plastids survive without support from the algal genome? (asmblog.org)
  • Subsequently, these researchers showed that the slug's nuclear genome contains genes for at least three plastid proteins that are encoded in the algae's nuclei. (asmblog.org)
  • Lateral gene transfer from the algal nucleus to the animal nucleus has been proposed as a mechanism to explain plastid longevity ( 7 - 11 ), but thorough analyses of sea slug transcriptomes and genome data have not found support for this hypothesis ( 12 , 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Since each plant cell contains up to 10,000 copies of identical plastid genome, plastid engineering should result in very high levels of transgene expression. (openthesis.org)
  • In addition, due to the prokaryotic feature of the plastids, engineering the plastid genome bears the advantages of expressing multiple genes as operons without the problem of positional and epigenetic effects affecting transgene activity. (openthesis.org)
  • Simultaneously, an alcohol-inducible alc gene expression system is established and integrated into the tobacco nuclear genome for controlling plastid expression of antigen genes. (openthesis.org)
  • Hypothesis: Gene-rich plastid genomes in red algae may be an outcome of nuclear genome reduction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The phylogeny of the plastid genome reveals that ArM0029B showed a close relationship of Chlorella to Parachlorella and Oocystis within Chlorellales. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The plastid genome of ArM0029B is similar to that of C. variabilis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In green algae, various plastid genome sizes have been reported: 37.7 kb in the non-photosynthetic alga Helicosporidium sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The researchers are now looking at the possibility of expressing the Bt (cry) genes in the eggplant plastid genome, providing an effective built-in control for the fruit and shoot borer. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The comparison of sequenced chloroplast DNA revealed presence of five long size indels in the plastid genome, which were most informative during the phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of different grape species. (ishs.org)
  • The presence of hG-CSF in plastome was confirmed by PCR using specific primers designed from the plastid genome. (ac.ir)
  • We use the phylogeny to interpret morphological and plastid genome evolution within the genus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous data indicated significant differences with respect to the plastid genome coding capacity in different Cuscuta species that could correlate with their photosynthetic activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together with the plastid genome of Epifagus virginiana , an achlorophyllous parasitic plant whose plastid genome has been sequenced, these species represent a series of progression towards total dependency on the host plant, ranging from reduced levels of photosynthesis in C. reflexa to a restricted photosynthetic activity and degenerated chloroplasts in C. gronovii to an achlorophyllous state in E. virginiana . (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, we observed a gradual adaptation of the plastid genome to the different degrees of parasitism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The changes are particularly evident in C. gronovii and include (a) the parallel losses of genes for the subunits of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase and the corresponding promoters from the plastid genome, (b) the first documented loss of the gene for a putative splicing factor, MatK, from the plastid genome and (c) a significant reduction of RNA editing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This includes (1) a loss of non-coding regions in photosynthetic Cuscuta species that has resulted in a condensation of the plastid genome, (2) the simplification of plastid gene expression in species with largely impaired photosynthetic capacity and (3) the deletion of a significant part of the genetic information, including the information for the photosynthetic apparatus, in non-photosynthetic parasitic plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Loss of photosynthesis may directly influence the gene content of the plastid genome in parasitic plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, little evidence has been found for HGT to the plastid genome, despite extensive sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further taxon sampling of clpP and ycf2 resulted in rejection of HGT due to long-branch attraction and a serious error in the published plastid genome sequence of Oenothera elata , respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome analyses suggest that nucleotide biosynthesis is, in contrast to higher plants, not located in the plastid, but in the cytosol. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • We determined the complete plastid genome of M. zenii and identified microsatellites. (myjournals.org)
  • Chloroplasts, like other types of plastid , contain a genome separate from that in the cell nucleus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Implications for phylogeny and plastid genome evolution of early land plant lineages. (genomeprojectsolutions.com)
  • Guisinger, M. M., T. W. Chumley, J. V. Kuehl, J. L. Boore and R. K. Jansen, 2010 Implications of the plastid genome sequence of Typha (Typhaceae, Poales) for understanding genome evolution in Poaceae. (genomeprojectsolutions.com)
  • Zhengqiu, C., H.-G. Kim, E. Ruck, M. Guisinger, V. McMurtry, J. V. Kuehl, J. L. Boore and R. K. Jansen, 2008 Extensive reorganization of the plastid genome of Trifolium subterraneum (Fabaceae) is associated with numerous repeated sequences and novel DNA insertions. (genomeprojectsolutions.com)
  • Guisinger, M. M., J. V. Kuehl, J. L. Boore and R. K. Jansen, 2008 Genome-wide analyses of Geraniaceae plastid DNA reveal unprecedented patterns of increased nucleotide substitutions. (genomeprojectsolutions.com)
  • McNeal, J. R., K. Arumugunathan, J. V. Kuehl, J. L. Boore and C. W. dePamphilis, 2007 Systematics and plastid genome evolution of the cryptically photosynthetic parasitic plant genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae). (genomeprojectsolutions.com)
  • McNeal, J. R., J. Kuehl, J. L. Boore and C. W. dePamphilis, 2007 Complete plastid genome sequences suggest strong selection for retention of photosynthetic genes in the parasitic plant genus Cuscuta. (genomeprojectsolutions.com)
  • Roper, J., S. K. Hansen, P. G. Wolf, K. G. Karol, D. F. Mandoli, K. Everett, J. Kuehl and J. L. Boore, 2007 The complete plastid genome sequence of Angiopteris evecta (G. Forst. (genomeprojectsolutions.com)
  • As far as we know, there is no published evidence on searching for the plastid promoters at the genome scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and pathways may evolve within the host to support the plastid. (pnas.org)
  • mitochondria , which also have double membranes and their own genomes , but are present in all eukaryote cells, are not plastids (Alberts et al. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Plastid genomes (plastomes) across photosynthetically active species are characterized by a remarkable conservation of structure, coding capacity, gene order and intron content. (uit.no)
  • Do nonasterid holoparasitic flowering plants have plastid genomes? (nih.gov)
  • The earliest angiosperms: Evidence from mitochondrial, plastid , and nuclear genomes. (wordnik.com)
  • The genus Oenothera was chosen for study, since it offers the unique possibility to exchange plastids, individual or more chromosomes and/or even entire haploid genomes (so-called Renner complexes) between species. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Interspecific exchange of plastids, nuclear genomes or chromosomes often leads to mis-development of the resulting hybrids. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In nature, the nuclear genomes are associated with five basic, genetically discernible plastid types (I - V) in distinct combinations. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies. (umassmed.edu)
  • Among other sequenced chlorophyte plastid genomes, only that of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris appears to share this feature. (plantcell.org)
  • And since most plastid genomes are already well characterized, we can know in advance where our inserted DNA will wind up. (biofortified.org)
  • Rates of sequence evolution in plastid genomes are generally low, but numerous angiosperm lineages exhibit accelerated evolutionary rates in similar subsets of plastid genes. (ebscohost.com)
  • Plastid genomes (plastomes) of nonphotosynthetic plants experience extensive gene losses and an acceleration of molecular evolutionary rates. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Chlorella cp genomes are highly rearranged except for a Chlorella -specific six-gene cluster, and the ArM0029B plastid resembles that of Chlorella variabilis except for a 15-kb gene cluster inversion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Typical plastid genomes contain a large inverted repeat (IR) region with genes for rRNA, several tRNAs, and proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genomes of all photosynthetic eukaryotes contain numerous sequences acquired via HGT from cyanbacterial ancestors of plastids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is especially true for mitochondrial and plastid genomes. (separationsnow.com)
  • Plant plastid and mitochondrial genomes are compact (generally approximately 100-500 kb in size), but they contain essential genes. (prolekare.cz)
  • The newly sequenced plastid genomes of C. reflexa and C. gronovii reveal that the chromosome structures are generally very similar to that of non-parasitic plants, although a number of species-specific insertions, deletions (indels) and sequence inversions were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A tentative assignment of the successive events in the adaptation of the plastid genomes to parasitism can be inferred from the current data set. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we analyzed all genes from sequenced plastid genomes to unearth any neglected cases of HGT and to obtain a measure of the overall extent of HGT to the plastid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to transfers of constituent genes, acquisition of new introns may be relatively common in plastids [ 17 - 25 ], based on their disparate phylogenetic distribution among plastid genomes, especially in green algae, and the fact that some introns are mobile elements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To quantify the overall extent of HGT in plastid genomes, we searched exhaustively for HGT among the 42 sequenced plastid genomes available when this study began. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Guisinger, M. M., J. V. Kuehl, J. L. Boore and R. K. Jansen, 2011 Extreme reconfiguration of plastid genomes in the angiosperm family Geraniaceae: Rearrangements, repeats, and codon usage. (genomeprojectsolutions.com)
  • Timme, R. E., J. V. Kuehl, J. L. Boore and R. K. Jansen, 2007 A comparative analysis of the Lactuca and Helianthus (Asteraceae) plastid genomes: Identification of divergent regions and categorization of shared repeats. (genomeprojectsolutions.com)
  • When the DNA is delivered to one chloroplast, integration of the transgene takes place, generating a heteroplasmic cell in which a small number of plastid genomes are transgenic (open circles). (informationpvt.com)
  • For the generation of a stable transplastomic plant, wild-type plastid genomes have to be winnowed. (informationpvt.com)
  • The plastome contains about 100 genes encoding ribosomal and transfer ribonucleic acids ( rRNAs and tRNAs ) as well as proteins involved in photosynthesis and plastid gene transcription and translation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant nuclear genes encode the vast majority of plastid proteins, and the expression of plastid genes and nuclear genes is tightly co-regulated to coordinate proper development of plastids in relation to cell differentiation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids have an interesting transcription machinery that makes it possible to study the interplay of mono- and multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) during intricate organelle biogenesis, requiring the concerted expression of genes located in different compartments of the cell. (springer.com)
  • RNA polymerase subunits encoded by the plastid rpo genes are not shared with the nucleus encoded plastid enzyme. (springer.com)
  • parallel loss of the rrn16 PEP-promoter and of the rpoA and rpoB genes coding for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase. (springer.com)
  • However, most plastids rarely exceed 200 protein coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic remnants of the endosymbiont are still preserved in plastids as a highly reduced chromosome encoding 54 - 264 genes. (nih.gov)
  • In addition we show genes that originated via HGT in the cyanobacterial ancestor of the plastid made their way to the host nucleus via endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT). (nih.gov)
  • Nonasterid holoparasites from Balanophoraceae (Corynaea), Hydnoraceae (Hydnora) and Cytinaceae (Cytinus) were tested for the presence of plastid genes and a plastome. (nih.gov)
  • Probes constructed for 16S rDNA and for four plastid-encoded ribosomal protein genes (rps2, rps4, rps7 and rpl 16) were used in Southern blots of digested genomic DNA from the three holoparasites. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of plastid genes is controlled at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in response to developmental and environmental signals. (nih.gov)
  • Based on examples of transcriptional regulation in bacteria, it is proposed that differential activation of sigma factors may provide the nucleus with a mechanism to control expression of groups of plastid genes. (nih.gov)
  • Zverkov OA, Seliverstov AV, Lyubetsky VA. Regulation of Expression and Evolution of Genes in Plastids of Rhodophytic Branch. (mdpi.com)
  • Bolle C, Kusnetsov VV, Herrmann RG and Oelmuller R (1996) The spinach AtpC and AtpD genes contain elements for light-regulated, plastid-dependent and organ-specific expression in the vicinity of the transcription start sites. (springer.com)
  • Elaborated in this thesis, due to its limited coding potential, conserved nature, and substantial knowledge about photosynthesis, plastid chromosomes provide relatively easy access to "speciation genes" and selection pressures causing speciation. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In the dark, the etioplast allocates the main proportion of total protein mass to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and a surprisingly high number of proteins to the regulation and expression of plastid genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Pujol G, Baskin TI, Casamayor A, Cortadellas N, Ferrer A, Ariño J. The Arabidopsis thaliana PPX/PP4 phosphatases: molecular cloning and structural organization of the genes and immunolocalization of the proteins to plastids. (umassmed.edu)
  • Identification and Characterization of Two Paralogous Plastid Terminal Oxidase Genes in Soybean. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Over history, most plastid genes have migrated into the nucleus, even though the protein produced might still accumulate in the plastid. (biofortified.org)
  • Quite a few genes have been lost from the original cyanbacterial ancestor, leaving only 50 to 200 of the original ~3,000 genes in most plastids today. (biofortified.org)
  • In these algae, more than 90% of the plastid proteins are encoded by nuclear genes. (asmblog.org)
  • These genes are present even in pre-hatched larvae that have never fed and do not contain plastids - strongly suggesting that the genes have been incorporated into the slug germline DNA and are vertically inherited. (asmblog.org)
  • Accordingly, plastid-derived signals coordinate a host of physiological and developmental processes, often by emitting signalling molecules that regulate the expression of nuclear genes. (portlandpress.com)
  • The genes encoding the early antigen of the Epstein-Barr virus and the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are introduced into tobacco plastids via biolistic bombardment techniques. (openthesis.org)
  • The expression of plastid-related genes also was suppressed, as anticipated from the white chlorotic appearance of infected leaves. (apsnet.org)
  • Are algal genes in nonphotosynthetic protists evidence of historical plastid endosymbioses? (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this context, discoveries of putatively algal genes in plastid-lacking protists have been cited as evidence of gene transfer from a photosynthetic endosymbiont that subsequently was lost completely. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Examination of genes unrelated to plastid function provide extraordinarily significant support for both of these predictions in diatoms, the control group where a red endosymbiosis is known to have occurred, but none of that support is present in genes specifically conserved between diatoms and oomycetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plastid genes are extremely variable with regards to evolutionary constraint, with rbcL exhibiting even higher levels of purifying selection in Cuscuta than photosynthetic relatives. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We demonstrate the scarcity of conserved bacterial-type promoters in plastids of Streptophyta and report widely conserved promoters only for genes psaA, psbA, psbB, psbE, rbcL . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plastid genes are believed to be evolutionarily conserved across large taxonomic lineages [[ 1 ], section 9.7c], although the authors are unaware of systematic studies on their promoters conservation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, these proteins only represent a small fraction of the total protein set-up necessary to build and maintain the structure and function of a particular type of plastid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an Arabidopsis mutant (ppi2) that lacks atToc159, photosynthetic proteins that are normally abundant are transcriptionally repressed, and are found in much smaller amounts in the plastids, although ppi2 does not affect either the expression or the import of less abundant non-photosynthetic plastid proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Nuclear-encoded proteins target to the plastid in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. (wordnik.com)
  • In many cases this regulation is mediated by nuclear-encoded proteins acting in concert with the endogenous plastid gene expression machinery. (nih.gov)
  • A novel algorithm and original software were used to cluster all proteins encoded in plastids of 72 species of the rhodophytic branch. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent years have uncovered numerous regulatory proteins controlling plastid gene expression in response to internal (developmental) and external (environmental) cues. (frontiersin.org)
  • Data from biochemical analyses, proteomics and functional genomics have improved our understanding of the structure, function and regulation of the proteins located in the nucleoids and contributed much to our understanding of plastid gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Quantitative information about all identified proteins and their regulation by light is available in plprot, the plastid proteome database ( http://www.plprot.ethz.ch ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Astonishingly, much less is known about the current structure and organization of plastid DNA and its association with different kinds of proteins that are involved in its stabilization, replication and expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • It summarizes the characteristics of known plastid nucleoid associated proteins (ptNAPs) proposed to be involved in shaping and organization of nucleoids in plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Those proteins are instead brought back to the plastid by a specific targeting sequence. (biofortified.org)
  • So, proteins normally present in prokaryotes are produced identically in plastids, whereas proteins of eukaryotic origin might be missing structural elements crucial to their function (or the protein might find it does just fine without those extra sugars, you never know). (biofortified.org)
  • The plastids showed similar arrays of labeled proteins. (asmblog.org)
  • Moreover, some of those plastid proteins synthesized in the slugs are synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes, not in the chloroplasts. (asmblog.org)
  • Analysis of the homologous intracompartmental transport of three Amphidinium carterae plastid proteins showed that differing transport routes exist for plastid proteins. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Long-term plastid retention is now thought to be the result of the robustness of the plastids themselves, the stability of their essential proteins, and physiological adaptations of the host ( 14 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Overall, light-induced regulation of the proteins shows that (1) the accumulation of different plastid proteins is subject to different controls, (2) the multiple controls, either overlapping or invoked at specific times, may regulate the synthesis of any one plastid protein during light-induced chloroplast development in Euglena. (illinois.edu)
  • The interaction of microfilaments and plastids is likely to be mediated by actin-binding proteins on the plastid envelope membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Co-expression of fluorescent proteins targeted to plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes revealed a close spatio-temporal relationship between stromules and other organelles. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Fusion proteins of Tic presequences or full length fusions to GFP show that the investigated Tics are plastid associated. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Fusion proteins consisting of bipartite plastid targeting presequences from various algal groups show that they are also functional when heterologously expressed as GFP fusion proteins in the diatom P. tricornutum. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • At the moment, several models for the import of proteins into the "complex" plastids of diatoms are discussed. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Furthermore from these results it can be concluded that nucleus-encoded plastid proteins from diatoms pass the four plastid envelope membranes via translocators and not via pores or vesicles which are also proposed. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • It contains the receptors and translocation channel of the TOC complex that is required for the canonical post-translational import of nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted proteins. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Moreover, dynamic non-covalent interactions between the OE and the endomembrane system are thought to play important roles in lipid and non-canonical protein trafficking between plastid and endoplasmic reticulum.While proteomics and bioinformatics has provided us with comprehensive but still incomplete information on proteins localized in the plastid IE, the stroma, and the thylakoids, our knowledge of the protein composition of the plastid OE is far from complete. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Plastids that contain chlorophyll can carry out photosynthesis and are called chloroplasts . (wikipedia.org)
  • During the development of proplastids to chloroplasts, and when plastids convert from one type to another, nucleoids change in morphology, size and location within the organelle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids occur in a variety of morphologies , including chloroplasts , chromoplasts , and leucoplasts , which are capable of being interchangeable. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In green species the plastid ultrastructure resembles that of chloroplasts of non-parasitic higher plants, whereas plastids of achlorophyllous species have an amoeboid proplastid shape and are filled with vesicular structures. (uit.no)
  • Ferredoxin-NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR) is a FAD-containg enzyme found both in the chloroplasts and non-photosynthetic plastids of higher plants. (utu.fi)
  • In chloroplasts, FNR has a well-defined role in linear electron flow, and in the root plastids, FNR is needed for nitrogen metabolism. (utu.fi)
  • Electron microscope analysis confirmed that the suspension cells carry plastids that are significantly smaller (approximately 50-fold less in volume) and have a very different subcellular localization and developmental state than leaf cell chloroplasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The most common form are chloroplasts, which are green, but there are many types of plastids, most of them can pass from one form to another. (biology-online.org)
  • Broken down in mitochondria during oxidation, to form ATP, while it is formed in chloroplasts (plastids) using ATP. (differencebetween.net)
  • Differentiation of chloroplasts from etioplasts in response to light requires coordination and integration of plastid and nuclear gene expression. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The -35 promoter element was important for transcription initiation at the psbA promoter in all types of plastids, including chloroplasts in mature leaves, leucoplasts in roots, etioplasts in etiolated cotyledons. (oup.com)
  • Chloroplasts are the most abundant type of plastid and are found in all green parts of the plants and algae . (differencebetween.com)
  • It is involved in the differentiation of plastids: chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and etioplasts. (agrisera.com)
  • There are three types of plastids Chloroplasts chromoplast and leucoplast. (botanystudies.com)
  • Although leaf chloroplast transformation technology was developed more than a decade ago, no reports exist of stable transformation of undeveloped plastids or other specialized plastid types, such as proplastids, etioplasts, or amyloplasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using antibiotic selection in the light, we demonstrated that both plastid and nuclear transformation of these cell suspensions is efficient and reproducible, with plastid transformation frequency at least equal to that of leaf chloroplast transformation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent results suggest that accumulation of individual sigma-like factors is controlled by light, by plastid type and/or by a particular stage of chloroplast development. (nih.gov)
  • Chromoplasts are often formed from the differentiation of another plastid such as a chloroplast. (differencebetween.net)
  • Baumgartner BJ, Rapp JC and Mullet J (1989) Plastid transcrip-tion activity and DNA copy number increase early in barley chloroplast development. (springer.com)
  • Phosphoprotein-specific staining at different time points during chloroplast development revealed light-induced phosphorylation of a nuclear-encoded plastid RNA-binding protein, consistent with changes in plastid RNA metabolism. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This difference in energy metabolism is often used to distinguish the autotrophic chloroplast from heterotrophic plastids. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Key to this process is the role of an N-terminal extension, known as the transit peptide ( TP ), which directs the precursor to the plastid membrane and through the translocons at the outer and inner chloroplast envelope membranes (TOC/TIC) ( Bruce, 2000 , 2001 ). (plantcell.org)
  • The names of these other plastids aren't important so long as you realize the chloroplast isn't the only game in town. (biofortified.org)
  • That's why the title of this post is "Plastid Engineering" and not "Chloroplast Engineering. (biofortified.org)
  • We will also examine the role of a plastid RNA helicase, ISE2, in chloroplast signalling, and scrutinize intriguing results investigating the potential role of stromules in conducting signals from the chloroplast to other cellular locations. (portlandpress.com)
  • It was found that chloroplast-derived antigen against EBV could be successfully produced in transplastomic tobacco using a constitutive plastid-derived promoter. (openthesis.org)
  • Results showed both nuclear and plastid gene expression are differentially regulated during chloroplast development. (illinois.edu)
  • In addition to controlling metabolic fluxes between plastid and cytosol, the OE is also crucial for protein import into the chloroplast. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • 2020). Dynamics of the localization of the plastid terminal oxidase PTOX inside the chloroplast. (agrisera.com)
  • The most important kind of plastid is the chloroplast. (blogspot.com)
  • Once the transgene DNA has been delivered to the chloroplast, stable integration via homologous recombination has to take place (see below) to generate a stable transgenic trait which will be passed on after plastid division to its descendants. (informationpvt.com)
  • There are many types of plastids in plants alone, but all plastids can be separated based on the number of times they have undergone endosymbiotic events. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the anther of angiosperms, all types of plastids are found in the course of pollen development. (springer.com)
  • To reveal which type of PEP functions in various types of plastids in tobacco, we analyzed the tobacco psbA promoter by means of a transplastomic approach. (oup.com)
  • The fact that stromules exist, has meanwhile been shown beyond doubt for numerous types of plastids and organisms. (paperity.org)
  • The bryophyte P . patens has two functional bacterial-type RecA homologs, RECA1 and RECA2, which localize to mitochondria and plastids, respectively [ 4 , 5 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Therefore, scientists believe that mitochondria and plastids were originated 1.5-1.6billions years ago via an event called endosymbiosis. (differencebetween.com)
  • The basic difference between mitochondria and plastids is that Mitochondria occur in most animal and plant cells, whereas plastids do not occur in any animal cell. (oxscience.com)
  • They often contain pigments used in photosynthesis , and the types of pigments in a plastid determine the cell's color. (wikipedia.org)
  • green plastids for photosynthesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Many plastids, particularly those responsible for photosynthesis, possess numerous internal membrane layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much about plastid morphology and development is well illustrated, with further colour images available as a zip-file online … well-written, easy to read and is of potential interest to a wide audience, particularly now that there is renewed interest in improving photosynthesis to assure food security. (cambridge.org)
  • The members of the plastid family play pivotal roles in photosynthesis, amino acid and lipid synthesis, starch and oil storage, fruit and flower coloration, gravity sensing, stomatal functioning, and environmental perception. (springer.com)
  • Plastids often contain pigments used in photosynthesis , and the types of pigments present can change or determine the cell's color. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Plastids are responsible for photosynthesis , storage of products like starch , and the synthesis of many classes of molecules , such as fatty acids and terpenes , which are needed as cellular building blocks and/or for the function of the plant. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Plastids can be involved in glucose production by photosynthesis while mitochondria are not involved in glucose production. (differencebetween.net)
  • This plastid differentiation process is paralleled by the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic energy metabolism, which involves massive reorganization of the etioplast proteome to support photosynthesis-dependent autotrophic growth. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Evolutionary rate shifts coincide with the genomic reduction process in broomrapes, suggesting that the shift of selectional constraints away from photosynthesis to other molecular processes alters the plastid rate equilibrium. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Over-expression of bacterial gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) in plastids affects photosynthesis, growth and sulphur metabolism in poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) dependent on the resulting gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutathione levels. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Beyond their major roles in primary metabolism, of which their role in photosynthesis is perhaps best known, plastids contribute to the biosynthesis of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites, store critical biomolecules, and sense a range of environmental stresses. (portlandpress.com)
  • Besides photosynthesis, plastids are responsible for starch storage, fatty acid biosynthesis and nitrate metabolism. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Plastids are involved in energy production by absorption of sunlight to their green color pigment chlorophyll and convert them into sugars , and the process is called photosynthesis . (differencebetween.com)
  • 38) What is the phenomenon of intake of plastids by dinoflgellates and seaslugs to carry out photosynthesis? (blogspot.com)
  • The plastids can participate in the production of glucose through photosynthesis, whereas the mitochondria do not participate in the production of glucose. (oxscience.com)
  • In this accessible text, Kevin Pyke expertly describes how the plastids are highly complex organelles at the very core of plant cellular function, providing final year undergraduate and graduate students with an overview of plastid biology and recent developments in the field. (cambridge.org)
  • In it, leading researchers in the field apply the theory of endosymbiotic evolution to plastid origins, producing an important new reference work for both professionals and graduates interested in the origins of life, the origins of the eukaryotic cell and its organelles, and the evolution of the higher plants in general. (waterstones.com)
  • Plastids are semiautonomous organelles found, in one form or another, in practically all plant and algal cells, several taxa of marine mollusks and at least one phylum of parasitic protists. (springer.com)
  • A Plastid is any member of a family of organelles found in the cells of all living plants and algae , but not in animals , and characterized by having their own copies of genetic material and by being enclosed in two membranes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Today I was just reading about the organelles of plant cells and came across a page on plastids. (biology-online.org)
  • Do all plastids organelles contain DNA and ribosomes? (biology-online.org)
  • The nuclei of cellular organelles and the formation of daughter organelles by the "plastid-dividing ring. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Plastids are cell organelles present in plants, green and red algae as well as in some non-photosynthetic organisms such as the apicomplexa. (frontiersin.org)
  • Depending on their specific biosynthetic activity and energy metabolism, plastids are broadly classified as photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic plant organelles. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Plastids in these sections appeared intensely basophilic when stained with azure B. Both the basophilia and radioactivity were removable with ribonuclease, clearly demonstrating the occurrence of RNA in these organelles. (rupress.org)
  • Plastids are critical organelles in plant cells that perform diverse functions and are central to many metabolic pathways. (portlandpress.com)
  • How photosynthetic organelles, or plastids, were acquired by diverse eukaryotes is among the most hotly debated topics in broad scale eukaryotic evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plants have two organelles, plastid and mitochondrion, that possess their own genomic DNA. (prolekare.cz)
  • This works concludes that root plastids are highly dynamic organelles, capable of adopting a wide range of morphologies and behaviours to adapt to changes in their cellular environment. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Mitochondria (singular - mitochondrion) and plastids are two important membrane bound organelles located inside the eukaryotic cells (cells that contain organized nucleus ). (differencebetween.com)
  • Plastids are the defining organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • All the pigmented organelles of the plant cells are called plastids. (blogspot.com)
  • 9) What kind of Plastids are present in storage organelles like cotyledons, endosperm, potato tubers, rice and wheat grains? (blogspot.com)
  • While the vast majority of genetic information is sheltered in the nucleus, small portions of DNA reside in organelles, namely the mitochondria and in the case of plants in the plastids. (informationpvt.com)
  • plastós: formed, molded - plural plastids ) is a membrane-bound organelle [1] found in the cells of plants , algae , and some other eukaryotic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • books.google.ca - This volume provides a comprehensive look at the biology of plastids, the multifunctional biosynthetic factories that are unique to plants and algae. (google.ca)
  • A plastid is a membrane-bound organelle found in plants, algae and other eukaryotic organisms that contribute to the production of pigment molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that the origin of the plastid-encoded gene cluster for menaquinone/phylloquinone biosynthesis in the extremophilic red algae Cyanidiales contradicts a cyanobacterial genealogy. (nih.gov)
  • A regulation of translation initiation was proposed for the ycf24 gene in plastids of certain red algae and apicomplexans as well as a regulation of a putative gene in apicoplasts of Babesia spp. (mdpi.com)
  • The hypothesis of the origin of apicoplasts from the common ancestor of all apicomplexans from plastids of red algae was confirmed. (mdpi.com)
  • Plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), a thylakoid membrane-located quinol oxidase, exists widely in photosynthetic species including higher plants and algae (McDonald et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Young slugs that have acquired their first plastids can complete their entire life cycle (~10 months) in aquaria without algae so long as they have light. (asmblog.org)
  • Researchers incubated algae and plastid-containing slugs with [ 35 S] methionine, then isolated their plastids. (asmblog.org)
  • More accomodating than E. chlorotica , it acquires plastids from four different species of algae - sometimes housing plastids from two or more species in the same cell. (asmblog.org)
  • they feed on algae, sequester only the algal plastids, store them in the cells that line their digestive systems, and digest the remainder of the prey ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The cyanobacterium-derived plastids of algae and plants have supported the diversification of much of extant eukaryotic life. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interpreting cases of endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) and endosymbiotic gene replacement ("EGR" - when the endosymbiont's gene replaces a previously existing homolog) can be relatively straightforward in organisms like green plants and red algae that harbor "primary plastids" (the endosymbiont was a cyanobacterium). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plastids occur only in plant and algae cells, but mitochondria are found in all eukaryotic cells. (differencebetween.com)
  • Diatoms are ecologically important algae that acquired their plastids by secondary endosymbiosis, resulting in a more complex cell structure and an altered distribution of metabolic pathways when compared with organisms with primary plastids. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Plastids are present only in plant cells and some algae. (botanystudies.com)
  • Green algae and plants are believed to be descendents of the original plastid-harboring eukaryote. (ecologycenter.us)
  • Subsequent refinement of the technique eventually enabled the transformation of smaller cell types as well as subcellular targets, like plastids in the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas (Boynton et al. (informationpvt.com)
  • Most plastids are photosynthetic, thus leading to color production and energy storage or production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids arose via an endosym biotic event in which a protoeukaryotic cell engulfed and retained a photosynthetic bacterium. (springer.com)
  • This contribution is dedicated to pigments and lipids synthesized within or from plastids/photosynthetic membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we present molecular and biochemical evidence demonstrating that GULO was functionally replaced with GLDH in photosynthetic eukaryote lineages following plastid acquisition. (elifesciences.org)
  • The process of electron partitioning via Fd to various enzymes within plastids is crucial for photosynthetic activity and elucidation of its molecular mechanism is the main aim of this study. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Alternatively, they can return to the plastid where their diacylglycerol backbone is incorporated into the glycerolipids of the photosynthetic membranes, the thylakoids. (semanticscholar.org)
  • All mitochondria have inner membranes while only some plastids have inner membranes. (differencebetween.net)
  • Two layers of biological membranes that are called the inner (IE) and the outer (OE) plastid envelope membranes bound the plastids of Archaeplastida. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • GFP-based localization studies revealed that both investigated NTTs are targeted to the plastid membranes, and that NTT1 most likely enters the innermost plastid envelope via the stroma. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Bellaoui M, Keddie JS and Gruissem W (2003) DCL is a plant-specific protein required for plastid ribosomal RNA processing and embryo development. (springer.com)
  • In particular, its protein subunit composition is highly variable depending on the developmental stage of the plastid and the tissue context in which it resides, as well as on the environmental condition of the organism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on the partial interchangeability of topogenic signals between an alveolate and a chromist but not between an alveolate and a plant - despite high homologies in mature protein sequences - it was deduced that plastid targeting signals evolve more expediently than the mature protein domains that they intracellularly target. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Plastid transformation offers several advantages compared to traditional transgenic technologies, including high protein expression levels, transgene containment and absence of transgene instability effects and gene silencing. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Identification of a plastid acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase in Arabidopsis and its role in the activation and elongation of exogenous fatty acids. (semanticscholar.org)
  • J-domain protein CDJ2 and HSP70B are a plastidic chaperone pair that interacts with vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Plastid stromules are stroma-filled tubules that extend from the surface of plastids in higher plants and allow the exchange of protein molecules between plastids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By targeting green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the plastid in transgenic plants, the visualisation of plastids has become routinely possible. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • This indicates that a conserved transport route is used for protein import into all secondary plastids, and that this route might be related to the signal peptide dependent route to plastids of higher plants. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • The outer plastid envelope protein OEP16-1 was previously identified as an amino acid-selective channel protein and translocation pore for NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA). (oup.com)
  • As in bacteria, the DNA in plant and algal plastids appears to be organized in nucleoids that can be easily visualized by fluorescence microscopy using DNA-specific dyes. (frontiersin.org)
  • To date, sea slugs have been considered the only animals known to sequester functional algal plastids into their own cells, via a process called "kleptoplasty. (sciencemag.org)
  • This is the ancient transfer of the rubisco operon ( rbcL and rbcS ) from a proteobacterium into the common ancestor of red algal plastids and their secondary derivatives [ 16 ], a case that is revisited in this study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is another type of plastids called chromoplasts which gives colors to various tissues. (differencebetween.com)
  • The colourful plastids are called chromoplasts. (blogspot.com)
  • In some species, these plastids have been replaced through serial endosymbiosis with plastids derived from a different phylogenetic derivation, of which some have become intimately connected with the biology of the host whereas others have not. (pnas.org)
  • Understanding the evolutionary establishment of plastids within eukaryotic cells and the principles that govern the process of endosymbiosis have been integral to research in plant sciences during the past three decades. (frontiersin.org)
  • Taken together, these observations indicate that the Apicomplexa acquired a plastid by secondary endosymbiosis, probably from a green alga. (sciencemag.org)
  • A plastid in the making: evidence for a second primary endosymbiosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genomic footprints of a cryptic plastid endosymbiosis in diatoms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For example, they could provide evidence of a transient endosymbiosis in taxa for which there is no current cytological indication of an active or vestigial plastid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The conserved regulation of the ycf24 gene expression and specificity alternation of the transcription factor Ycf28 were shown in the plastids. (mdpi.com)
  • A. Homann and G. Link, "DNA-binding and transcription characteristics of three cloned sigma factors from mustard ( Sinapis alba L.) suggest overlapping and distinct roles in plastid gene expression," European Journal of Biochemistry , vol. 270, no. 6, pp. 1288-1300, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • The objectives of this research are: 1) to examine if plastids can be used to produce edible vaccines suitable for uses against Epstein-Barr (EBV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and 2) if such a production can be regulated through a chemically inducible gene expression system. (openthesis.org)
  • By adapting the ethanol inducible (alc) gene expression system to control engineered plastid operons, it is possible to regulate a marker gene (uidA) expression and the production of antigen (HBsAg) in plastids upon ethanol administration. (openthesis.org)
  • Alves Ferreira M, de Almeida Engler J, Miguens FC, Van Montagu M, Engler G, De Oliveira D. Oleosin gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana tapetum coincides with accumulation of lipids in plastids and cytoplasmic bodies. (ugent.be)
  • Overall, the comparative genomic analysis of plastid DNA from parasitic plants indicates a bias towards a simplification of the plastid gene expression machinery as a consequence of an increasing dependency on the host plant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chapter 5 revealed that the Arabidopsis plastid rhomboid gene, At1g25290, also contains alternative splicing. (queensu.ca)
  • Working with Arabidopsis thaliana, this research aims to broaden our knowledge of the cell biology of root plastids in both the columella and the rest of the root. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Interestingly, also the modified signal peptide of a carbonic anhydrase from Arabidopsis thaliana, which apparently is targeted to A. thaliana plastids via the endoplasmic reticulum, is able to direct GFP into P. tricornutum plastids. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • V): Plastid Differentiation and Response to Environmental Factors. (google.ca)
  • The different pathways of plastid differentiation in neighboring anther cell layers require an accurate regulation of cell development that remains widely unknown in the anther. (springer.com)
  • Aluru MR, Bae H, Wu D and Rodermel SR (2001) The Ara-bidopsis immutans mutation affects plastid differentiation and the morphogenesis of white and green sectors in variegated plants. (springer.com)
  • Stromules become significantly more abundant upon chromoplast differentiation, but only in one cell type where plastids are large and sparsely distributed within the cell. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Together, these findings imply that stromule function is closely related to the differentiation status, and thus role, of the plastid in question. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • 2000). A Plastid Terminal Oxidase Associated with Carotenoid Desaturation during Chromoplast Differentiation. (agrisera.com)
  • No analogous case of plastid-to-plastid transfer has been reported, but these mitochondrial discoveries recommend a thorough assessment of plastid HGT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nonphotosynthetic plastid types import cytosolic sugar phosphates and ATP, which are necessary to sustain their anabolic metabolism. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It is therefore conceivable that the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic plastid metabolism involves most essential metabolic functions to support the availability of sufficient energy and reduction equivalents for different metabolic pathways. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The metabolism of plastids is heavily intertwined and connected with that of the surrounding cytosol, thus causing massive traffic of metabolic precursors, intermediates, and products. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Therefore, these transporters functionally resemble NTTs from obligate intracellular bacteria with an impaired nucleotide metabolism rather than ATP/ADP exchanging NTTs from primary plastids. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • A model for the evolution of the plastid sec apparatus inferred from secY gene phylogeny. (awi.de)
  • Vogel, H. , Fischer, S. and Valentin, K. U. (1996): A model for the evolution of the plastid sec apparatus inferred from secY gene phylogeny. (awi.de)
  • Here we present a well-supported phylogeny of Cuscuta using sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and plastid rps2 , rbcL and matK from representatives across most of the taxonomic diversity of the genus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When the cyanobacteria became engulfed, the bacterium avoided digestion and led to the double membrane found in primary plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the cyanobacterium had not been completely engulfed in the eukaryotic organism, the relationship is thought to demonstrate the precursor to endosymbiotic primary plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparable to the evolution of primary plastids, targeting mechanisms had to be developed to reimport preproteins into the plastid. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • [4] All plastids are derived from proplastids, which are present in the meristematic regions of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants , proplastids (undifferentiated plastids) may differentiate into several forms, depending upon which function they perform in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastids initially occur in the cells, in their undifferentiated form named as proplastids. (differencebetween.com)
  • Plastids of three Cuscuta species differing in plastid coding capacity have a common parasite-specific RNA composition. (springer.com)
  • Most dinoflagellate species possess plastids that contain the pigment peridinin and show extreme reduction and integration with the host biology. (pnas.org)
  • For Smal digests, all plastid gene probes hybridized to a common fragment ca. 20 kb in length in this species. (nih.gov)
  • Despite evidence that Camassia species hybridize, by sampling sympatric populations we detected only a single case of introgression of plastid haplotypes. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The suspension cell system will be useful as a model for understanding transformation in those plant species that utilize dark-grown embryogenic cultures and for characterizing the steps that lead to homoplasmic plastid transformation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They are also involved in plastid inheritance, but to different extents, according to the species. (springer.com)
  • However, the timing of plastid disappearance fluctuates in the different cell layers and also depending on species. (springer.com)
  • Four highly variable loci including psbD-trnM , ndhF - rpl32 , rpl32 - trnL and ycf1 among the three Alseodaphne species were identified as useful plastid candidate barcodes for Alseodaphne and Lauraceae species. (degruyter.com)
  • Today, only a few species have had their plastids successfully transformed. (biofortified.org)
  • Phylogenetic relationships among all of the 47 recognised species and 10 putative new taxa of Utricularia subgenus Polypompholyx , were assessed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses of DNA sequences representing the plastid rps 16 intron, trn L-F intron and spacer regions and the trn D-T intron. (bioone.org)
  • Transcriptomic analysis and rbcL amplicons confirm the absence of algal nuclear mRNA and reveal that the plastids originate from different species of diatoms. (sciencemag.org)
  • In order to shed light on the molecular changes accompanying the parasitic lifestyle, we sequenced the plastid chromosomes of the two species Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta gronovii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • While all species have in common that they contain neither leaves nor roots and obtain both organic and inorganic nutrients in addition to water from their host plant through haustoria, there is some variation with respect to the structure and function of the plastids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PTOX (plastid terminal oxidase) is a component of electron transfer chain responsible for desaturation of phytoene, which prevents the generation of reactive oxygen species. (agrisera.com)
  • The most successful and widely used method is the biolistic transfer of DNA, depicted by the successful transformation of the plastids of numerous plant species. (informationpvt.com)
  • file 1 describes the complete list of studied species with plastids, organized according to the NCBI Taxonomy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plastid and mitochondrion genomic sequences from Arctic Chlorella sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Radioautographs of leaf sections 2 µ thick showed silver grains over the regions of the cytoplasm containing plastids. (rupress.org)
  • The ability to observe plastids and MFs in vivo allowed us to document the relationship between MFs and stromules as they moved within the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using GFP, motile, tubular protrusions can be observed to emanate from the plastid envelope into the surrounding cytoplasm. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Also, there are colorless plastids in the cytoplasm . (differencebetween.com)
  • F.K.H. Breuers, A. Bräutigam, and A.P.M. Weber, "The plastid outer envelope - a highly dynamic interface between plastid and cytoplasm", Frontiers in Plant Science , vol. 2, 2011, : 97. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The plastids are transferred to next generation through cytoplasm of egg. (botanystudies.com)
  • These structures, called stromules, vary considerably in frequency and length between different plastid types, but their function is poorly understood. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • A phylogenetic tree of plastids was generated for the rhodophytic branch. (mdpi.com)
  • A phylogenetic scheme based on the consequent order of indels in grape plastid DNA is presented. (ishs.org)
  • The chapters in this book also look at various techniques to analyze plastids through means of combining biology strategies from genetics, genomics, proteomics, and lipidomics. (springer.com)
  • The modern era of molecular biology and molecular genetics has enabled much to be learnt about how plastids function, and how they relate to their evolutionary past. (cambridge.org)
  • Each chapter includes an integrated view of plant biology from the standpoint of the plastid. (google.ca)
  • After their endosymbiotic acquisition, plastids become intimately connected with the biology of their host. (pnas.org)
  • DeSantis-Maciossek G, Kofer W, Bock A, Schoch S, Maier RM, Wanner G, R üdiger W, Koop HU and Herrmann RG (1999) Targeted disruption of the plastid RNA polymerase gene rpoA, B and C1: molecular biology, biochemistry and ultrastructure. (springer.com)
  • Deletion of rpo B reveals a second distinct transcription system in plastids of higher plants. (springer.com)
  • The presence of plastids in all plant cells reflects the common lineage and connectedness of all plants. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In plants , plastids may differentiate into several forms, depending upon which function they need to play in the cell. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Homoplasmic plastid transformants are readily obtained in cell colonies, or in regenerated plants, providing a more consistent and versatile model than the leaf transformation system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Allison LA, Simon LD and Maliga P (1996) Deletion of rpoB reveals a second distinct transcription system in plastids of higher plants. (springer.com)
  • Plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) is a plastoquinol oxidase, which plays several important roles in plants. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In most flowering plants, only maternal plastids are passed on. (biofortified.org)
  • Plants, mammals, fungi, and insects all have different patterns of glycosylation, with plastids and prokaryotes not participating in the ritual at all. (biofortified.org)
  • The first success of plastid transformation in tobacco in 1990 has opened up the opportunities for genetically modifying plastids in higher plants for high level expression of biopharmaceuticals, such as antibodies and vaccines for oral administration. (openthesis.org)
  • Although successful plastid transformation has been reported in some plants, particularly in soybean, oilseed rape, sugarbeet, cotton and lettuce, it is routinely possible only in tobacco. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Recent studies showed that the 'plastid initial' occurs in meristem cells at the beginning of plant growth both in woody and herbaceous plants. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In plants, newly synthesized fatty acids are either directly incorporated into glycerolipids in the plastid or exported and assembled into lipids at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (semanticscholar.org)
  • 21) What are the plastids of ageing or senescence in plants? (blogspot.com)
  • Although plastid transformation with PEG requires some experience in the enzymatic digestion of the cell wall and the treatment of protoplasts as well as the regeneration of plants, it can be basically performed with standard laboratory equipment. (informationpvt.com)
  • In this review, we consider the different degrees of integration observed in dinoflagellates and their associated plastids, which have been acquired through multiple different endosymbiotic events. (pnas.org)
  • Despite their heterogeneous appearance all plastid types emerged from one and the same monophyletic endosymbiotic event in which a cyanobacteria-like ancestor was taken up by a heterotrophic, mitochondriated eukaryote. (frontiersin.org)
  • Amyloplasts are another type of plastids which store polymerized sugars ( starch ) as granules. (differencebetween.com)
  • Time-lapse confocal microscopy revealed that microfilament rearrangements were associated with changes in plastid and stromule morphology and position. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first plastid, is highly accepted within the scientific community, to be derived from the engulfment of cyanobacteria ancestor into a eukaryotic organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some protists contain plastids that are believed to be from other eukaryotes. (ecologycenter.us)
  • Some protists may even contain plastids from tertiary endocytosis. (ecologycenter.us)
  • A plastid of probably green algal origin in apicomplexan parasites. (wordnik.com)
  • Depending on their morphology and function, plastids have the ability to differentiate, or redifferentiate, between these and other forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • These show dramatic changes in root plastid morphology, with some mutants forming network-like plastid structures. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • As chlorophyll degrades and carotenoids accumulate, plastid and stromule morphology change dramatically. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • A plastid is an organelle with a double membrane that is found in some eukaryotic cells and usually contains pigments or stores food. (differencebetween.net)
  • Mitochondria are found in both plant and animal eukaryotic cells while plastids are not found in animal cells. (differencebetween.net)
  • Some algal groups, however, are products of secondary or higher-order endosymbioses, meaning they adopted a eukaryotic endosymbiont along with its pre-existing plastid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Large-scale impacts from EGT and EGR have important implications for understanding eukaryotic relationships and, in particular, whether and how plastids have moved among major lineages [ 7 - 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diatoms, like many other algal groups, evolved by secondary endocytobiosis, the uptake of a eukaryotic alga into a eukaryotic host cell and the subsequent reduction and specialisation to a "complex" plastid. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • The color is produced as a result of accumulation of different colored lipids inside the plastids. (differencebetween.com)
  • Main function of mitochondria is the cell respiration, but plastids involve in many functions such as production of sugar and temporarily store them as starch, storage of starch and lipids. (differencebetween.com)
  • Affinity purification of the tobacco plastid RNA polymerase and in vitro reconstitution of the holoenzyme. (springer.com)
  • Transcription in plastids is accomplished by two distinct RNA polymerase enzymes, one of which resembles eubacterial RNA polymerases in both subunit structure and promoter recognition properties. (nih.gov)
  • These and other results suggest that the loss of normal cpDNA replication elicits the mobilization of new replication origins around the rpoB (beta subunit of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase) transcription unit and imply that increased transcription at rpoB is associated with the initiation of cpDNA replication. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Most plastid promoters recognized by bacteria-like plastid RNA polymerase (PEP) are similar to E. coli σ 70 -type promoters comprising "-35" and "-10" elements. (oup.com)
  • In plant cells , long thin protuberances called stromules sometimes form and extend from the main plastid body into the cytosol and interconnect several plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • To learn more about the nature of the interactions of stromules and the cytoskeleton, we imaged fluorescently-labeled microfilaments and plastids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microfilaments were observed in close contact with stromules and plastid bodies of hypocotyl epidermis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results indicate a correlation between the rearrangement of microfilaments and changes in the shape and position of plastids and stromules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The apparent relationship between plastids and MFs suggests that actin might also have a role in regulating the formation of stromules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In tobacco seedlings, stromules in hypocotyl epidermal cells become longer as plastids become more widely distributed within the cell, implying a plastid density-dependent regulation of stromules. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • It is proposed that stromules act primarily to increase the plastid surface area in response to a number of developmental and environmental factors. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • This new concept is mainly based (and in turn has stimulated) a reinterpretation of classical reports on protrusions from the plastid surface, so called stromules, as bridges linking different plastids. (paperity.org)
  • However, although inspiring, the actual evidence for plastid interconnectedness has remained scarce and the interpretation of stromules as interconnecting bridges between individual plastids, despite being plausible at first sight, might turn out to be a case, where an admittedly charming interpretation has overwhelmed that what is actually seen under the microscope. (paperity.org)
  • After briefly introducing the historical context leading to the concept of the discrete plastid, the authors give a survey on the five decades of research on stromules that also left footprints in this journalthe most detailed and highquality description of stromule dynamics and behaviour is probably that given in Gunning (2005). (paperity.org)
  • In response to tissue-specific and environmental signals, they differentiate into specialized plastid types that can be distinguished by their structure, pigment composition (color), and function. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The review considers recent data on the organization, functions, and evolution of plastid RNAPs. (springer.com)
  • Origins of Plastids looks at symbiosis and symbiogenesis as a mechanism of evolution. (waterstones.com)
  • Based on a colloquium held at the Bodega Bay Marine Laboratory of the University of California at Davis, Origins of Plastids reviews recent data on this most basic problem in plant evolution. (waterstones.com)
  • We discuss in particular the evolution of the fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates, which have adapted pathways retained from the ancestral peridinin plastid symbiosis for transcript processing in their current, serially acquired plastids. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, we consider why such a diversity of different degrees of integration between host and plastid is observed in different dinoflagellates and how dinoflagellates may thus inform our broader understanding of plastid evolution and function. (pnas.org)
  • Behnke HD (1991) Distribution and evolution of forms and types of sieve-element plastids in the dicotyledons. (springer.com)
  • plastid An organelle that is believed to have evolved from an autotrophic (see AUTOTROPH ) endosymbiont early in plant evolution. (encyclopedia.com)
  • liui provides insights into the evolution of rhodoplasts and their relationship to other plastids," Journal of Molecular Evolution , vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 464-477, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Inferences about early events in plastid evolution must rely on reconstructing events that occurred over a billion years ago. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Each plastid creates multiple copies of a circular 10-250 kilobase plastome [6] [7] . (wikipedia.org)
  • The membranous bound and pigment containing bodies present in the cell are called plastids. (botanystudies.com)
  • The methods described in this book help scientists visualize, fractionate, purify, and study primary and secondary plastids in plant and algal materials. (springer.com)
  • The holoenzyme contains a catalytic core composed of plastid-encoded subunits, assembled with a nuclear-encoded promoter-specificity factor, sigma. (nih.gov)
  • These data mesh nicely with accumulating evidence that the core sigma-binding regions of plastid promoters mediate regulated transcription in response to light-regime and plastid type or developmental state. (nih.gov)
  • In both of these examples, the cytosol remains clear-- totally uncolored-- and the color is only within the plastids. (myshopify.com)
  • Nevertheless, when formalin-fixed tissues were examined with the electron microscope, the mature plastids were seen to contain particles in the stroma, identical in appearance with those visible in the plastids in etiolated leaves. (rupress.org)
  • McNeal, J. R., J. Kuehl, J. L. Boore, J. Leebens-Mack and C. W. dePamphilis, 2009 Parallel loss of plastid introns and their maturase in the genus Cuscuta. (genomeprojectsolutions.com)
  • Sucrose is able to restore the severely reduced starch and lipid contents as well as the deficient endodermal plastid size found in light-grown egy1 hypocotyls yet it fails to rescue the reduced plastid number and chlorophyll level in egy1 endodermal cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • It plays a direct role in controlling the light-induced chlorophyll production, grana formation and plastid replication in endodermal cell. (deepdyve.com)
  • The plastids containing colored pigments other than chlorophyll are called chromoplast. (botanystudies.com)
  • Plastids can also store products like starch and can synthesize fatty acids and terpenes , which can be used for producing energy and as raw material for the synthesis of other molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These plastids have no color, and function in storing different molecules. (differencebetween.net)
  • The decisive criterion for interconnectivity is, whether the observed bridges between plastids can transport molecules that otherwise should not be able to cross a membrane. (paperity.org)
  • An excellent candidate is the cyanobacterial endosymbiont that was harnessed over a billion years ago by a heterotrophic protist, giving rise to the plastid. (nih.gov)
  • The history of plastid endosymbioses commonly is interpreted under the "chromalveolate" hypothesis, which requires numerous plastid losses from certain heterotrophic groups that now are entirely aplastidic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, it was concluded that plastid transport into plant and diatom plastids also depended on sequence-specific patterns or motifs that are not present and/or not identical to those in dinoflagellate transit peptides. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Transmission electron micrograph of plastid from leaf cell of white/green variegated tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The occurrence of RNA in plastids from etiolated and green maize leaves was demonstrated cytochemically, with both the light and the electron microscope. (rupress.org)
  • Examination under the electron microscope of similar plastids which had been fixed in formalin revealed a particulate component in the plastid measuring approximately 170 A in diameter. (rupress.org)
  • Here, the structural characterization of two glutamine synthetase isoforms from the model legume Medicago truncatula is reported: the crystallographic structure of cytoplasmic GSII-1a and an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of plastid-located GSII-2a. (iucr.org)
  • While PsbO and Prk are transported by a Golgi-mediated route to the plastid, RbcL is transported directly from the ER to the plastids. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Now, efforts in the field are directed at understanding the roles in plastid transcription of each member of the rapidly expanding plant sigma factor gene family. (nih.gov)