Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.
An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of hexanol (C6H11OH).
Material applied to the tissue side of a denture to provide a soft lining to the parts of a denture coming in contact with soft tissue. It cushions contact of the denture with the tissues.
Acrylic resins, also known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), are a type of synthetic resin formed from polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers, used in various medical applications such as dental restorations, orthopedic implants, and ophthalmic lenses due to their biocompatibility, durability, and transparency.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
"Citrates, in a medical context, are compounds containing citric acid, often used in medical solutions for their chelating properties and as a part of certain types of nutritional support."
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
Acrylates are a group of synthetic compounds based on acrylic acid, commonly used in various industrial and medical applications such as adhesives, coatings, and dental materials, known to cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals.
Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The series of changes to the shape, size, components, and functions of an individual organism that occur over time as the organism progresses from its initial form to full size and maturity.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
"Esters are organic compounds that result from the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, playing significant roles in various biological processes and often used in pharmaceutical synthesis."
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Dicarboxylic acids are organic compounds containing two carboxyl (-COOH) groups in their structure, making them capable of forming salts and esters by losing two hydrogen ions.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Recent progress in safety evaluation studies on plasticizers and plastics and their controlled use in Japan. (1/178)

Recent experimental studies in Japan on the evaluation of potential health hazards from phthalate esters used in manufacturing poly (vinyl chloride) as well as several plastics for medical devices and for food containers and packages were introduced. Development of pulmonary granuloma formation after intravenous injection of diethylhexyl phthalate was assumed to be dependent on the particle size of the phthalate in vehicle used. Dietary administration of large amount of diethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate produced renal cysts in mothers and in descendants in reproduction studies in mice. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the phthalates and several plastics and resins were also examined by in vivo and in vitro studies. Hematological parameters examined in rabbits after repeated intravenous injection of diethylhexyl phthalate and after implantation of plastics in aorta for 3--6 months did not show any significant change. A slow decrease of radioactivity was observed in adipose tissue of rats following oral administration of 14C-labeled diethylhexyl phthalate. tthe administrative action on phthalates by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare is briefly reviewed.  (+info)

Quantitative evaluation of alternative mechanisms of blood and testes disposition of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in rats. (2/178)

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a commercially important plasticizer, induces testicular toxicity in laboratory animals at high doses. After oral exposure, most of the DEHP is rapidly metabolized in the gut to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), which is the active metabolite for induction of testicular toxicity. To quantify the testes dose of MEHP with various routes of exposure and dose levels, we developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for DEHP and MEHP in rats. Tissue:blood partition coefficients for DEHP were estimated from the n-octanol: water partition coefficient, while partition coefficients for MEHP were determined experimentally using a vial equilibration technique. All other parameters were either found in the literature or estimated from blood or tissue levels following oral or intravenous exposure to DEHP or MEHP. A flow-limited model failed to adequately simulate the available data. Alternative plausible mechanisms were explored, including diffusion-limited membrane transport, enterohepatic circulation, and MEHP ionization (pH-trapping model). In the pH-trapping model, only nonionized MEHP is free to become partitioned into the tissues, where it is equilibrated and trapped as ionized MEHP until it is deionized and released. All three alternative models significantly improved predictions of DEHP and MEHP blood concentrations over the flow-limited model predictions. The pH-trapping model gave the best predictions with the largest value of the log likelihood function. Predicted MEHP blood and testes concentrations were compared to measured concentrations in juvenile rats to validate the pH-trapping model. Thus, MEHP ionization may be an important mechanism of MEHP blood and testes disposition in rats.  (+info)

Plasticizers increase adhesion of the deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to polyvinyl chloride. (3/178)

Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing the plasticizers dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and dioctyl adipate (DOA). A quantitative adhesion assay using image analysis identified fundamental differences in the mechanism of adhesion of A. pullulans blastospores to these substrata. Adhesion to pPVC was greater than that to uPVC by a maximum of 280% after a 4-h incubation with 10(8) blastospores ml(-1). That plasticizers enhance adhesion to PVC was confirmed by incorporating a dispersion of both DOA and DOP into the blastospore suspension. Adhesion to uPVC was increased by up to 308% in the presence of the dispersed plasticizers. Hydrophobic interactions were found to dominate adhesion to uPVC because (i) a strong positive correlation was observed between substratum hydrophobicity (measured by using a dynamic contact angle analyzer) and adhesion to a range of unplasticized polymers including uPVC, and (ii) neither the pH nor the electrolyte concentration of the suspension buffer, both of which influence electrostatic interactions, affected adhesion to uPVC. In contrast, adhesion to pPVC is principally controlled by electrostatic interactions. Enhanced adhesion to pPVC occurred despite a relative reduction of 13 degrees in the water contact angle of pPVC compared to that of uPVC. Furthermore, adhesion to pPVC was strongly dependent on both the pH and electrolyte concentration of the suspension medium, reaching maximum levels at pH 8 and with an electrolyte concentration of 10 mM NaCl. Plasticization with DOP and DOA therefore increases adhesion of A. pullulans blastospores to pPVC through an interaction mediated by electrostatic forces.  (+info)

Retrospective evaluation of alpha 2u-globulin accumulation in male rat kidneys following high doses of diisononyl phthalate. (4/178)

Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), a widely used plasticizer, has been evaluated in two chronic studies in rats and one in mice. In the early 1980s, Exxon found no carcinogenic potential at the estimated maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 0.6% (307 mg/kg/ day for male rats) administered in the diet of rats for 2 years. A recent study conducted at dietary levels up to 1.2% DINP (733 mg/kg/d for male rats) reported kidney tumors in male rats at the high treatment level, but not in female rats nor mice of either sex. Because these tumors occurred only in male rats, and only at high doses, the male rat-specific alpha 2u-globulin (alpha2UG) mechanism of action was investigated. Technological advances in immunohistochemical staining and computerized image analysis techniques permitted measuring the accumulation of alpha2UG in archived kidneys from the earlier Exxon study. Using archived tissue obtained at the 12-month interim sacrifice, we identified a dose-dependent accumulation of alpha2UG in specific regions of male rat kidneys only. An increase in cell proliferation was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and was confined to the areas of alpha2UG accumulation. H and E-stained sections revealed tubular epithelial hypertrophy and regeneration, consistent with the immunohistopathology findings. These findings are consistent with the alpha2UG mechanism of tumorigenesis, which is not regarded as relevant for humans. Thus, exposure to DINP produced a dose-dependent alpha2UG accumulation in male rat kidneys, significant at a dietary level of 0.6% and a likely mechanism for the kidney tumors seen only in male rats administered higher dietary levels of DINP.  (+info)

Influence of plasticizer-free CAPD bags and tubings on serum, urine, and dialysate levels of phthalic acid esters in CAPD patients. (5/178)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a plasticizer-free device on exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its major metabolites in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). DEHP is the most commonly used plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products; it is added to CAPD bags in order to improve the flexibility of the material. Since DEHP leaches out of the plastic matrix, patients on CAPD are exposed to considerable amounts of DEHP and its metabolites. DESIGN: A prospective cross-over study. SETTING: Department of nephrology in a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Six patients (4 female, 2 male) stable on peritoneal dialysis (PD) for at least 6 months. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were switched from a plasticizer-containing PVC CAPD system (A.N.D.Y. Plus, Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany) to a polyolefine-made plasticizer-free system (stay-safe, Fresenius). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prior to and 42 days after the switch, 24-hour effluent dialysate and urine collections were performed and 10 mL blood was drawn. Concentrations of DEHP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), phthalic acid (PA), and 2-ethylhexanol (2-EH) in urine, dialysate, and serum were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Complete data were obtained from 5 patients. Serum levels of PA decreased significantly during the study period (0.137 +/- 0.078 mg/L vs 0.124 +/- 0.049 mg/L, p = 0.04), and the respective levels of DEHP decreased insignificantly (0.097 +/- 0.076 mg/L vs 0.069 +/- 0.046 mg/L, p = 0.07), whereas the concentrations of MEHP and 2-EH remained unchanged. Urine concentrations of PA were high (0.81 +/- 0.69 mg/L) but did not change substantially (0.70 +/- 0.50 mg/L). Effluent dialysate concentrations of MEHP and PA decreased significantly (0.0176 +/- 0.004 mg/L vs 0.0040 +/- 0.0007 mg/L, p = 0.043 and 0.158 +/- 0.056 mg/L vs 0.111 +/- 0.051 mg/L, p = 0.043, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although PD patients seem to be exposed to other sources of phthalates in addition to dialysis, use of plasticizer-free devices may help to reduce potentially immunosuppressive exposure to phthalate esters.  (+info)

Identification of phthalate esters in the serum of young Puerto Rican girls with premature breast development. (6/178)

Premature breast development (thelarche) is the growth of mammary tissue in girls younger than 8 years of age without other manifestations of puberty. Puerto Rico has the highest known incidence of premature thelarche ever reported. In the last two decades since this serious public health anomaly has been observed, no explanation for this phenomenon has been found. Some organic pollutants, including pesticides and some plasticizers, can disrupt normal sexual development in wildlife, and many of these have been widely used in Puerto Rico. This investigation was designed to identify pollutants in the serum of Puerto Rican girls with premature thelarche. A method for blood serum analysis was optimized and validated using pesticides and phthalate esters as model compounds of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Recovery was > 80% for all compounds. We performed final detection by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We analyzed 41 serum samples from thelarche patients and 35 control samples. No pesticides or their metabolite residues were detected in the serum of the study or control subjects. Significantly high levels of phthalates [dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, and di-(2-ethylhexyl)] and its major metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were identified in 28 (68%) samples from thelarche patients. Of the control samples analyzed, only one showed significant levels of di-isooctyl phthalate. The phthalates that we identified have been classified as endocrine disruptors. This study suggests a possible association between plasticizers with known estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity and the cause of premature breast development in a human female population.  (+info)

The plasticizer diethylhexyl phthalate induces malformations by decreasing fetal testosterone synthesis during sexual differentiation in the male rat. (7/178)

Phthalate esters (PE) such as DEHP are high production volume plasticizers used in vinyl floors, food wraps, cosmetics, medical products, and toys. In spite of their widespread and long-term use, most PE have not been adequately tested for transgenerational reproductive toxicity. This is cause for concern, because several recent investigations have shown that DEHP, BBP, DBP, and DINP disrupt reproductive tract development of the male rat in an antiandrogenic manner. The present study explored whether the antiandrogenic action of DEHP occurs by (1) inhibiting testosterone (T) production, or by (2) inhibiting androgen action by binding to the androgen receptor (AR). Maternal DEHP treatment at 750 mg/kg/day from gestational day (GD) 14 to postnatal day (PND) 3 caused a reduction in T production, and reduced testicular and whole-body T levels in fetal and neonatal male rats from GD 17 to PND 2. As a consequence, anogenital distance (AGD) on PND 2 was reduced by 36% in exposed male, but not female, offspring. By GD 20, DEHP treatment also reduced testis weight. Histopathological evaluations revealed that testes in the DEHP treatment group displayed enhanced 3ss-HSD staining and increased numbers of multifocal areas of Leydig cell hyperplasia as well as multinucleated gonocytes as compared to controls at GD 20 and PND 3. In contrast to the effects of DEHP on T levels in vivo, neither DEHP nor its metabolite MEHP displayed affinity for the human androgen receptor at concentrations up to 10 microM in vitro. These data indicate that DEHP disrupts male rat sexual differentiation by reducing T to female levels in the fetal male rat during a critical stage of reproductive tract differentiation.  (+info)

Application of sintered titanium alloys to metal denture bases: a study of titanium powder sheets for complete denture base. (8/178)

The purpose of this study was the fabrication of titanium powder sheets to enable the application of sintered titanium alloys as metal denture bases. The effects of titanium particle shape and size, binder content, and plasticizer content on the surface smoothness, tensile strength and elongation of titanium powder sheets was investigated. To select a suitable ratio of powdered metal contents for application as a metal denture base, the effects of aluminum content in Ti sheets and various other powder metal contents in Ti-Al sheets on the density, sintering shrinkage, and bending strength were evaluated. Based on the results of the above experiments, we developed a mixed powder sheet composed of 83Ti-7Al-10Cr with TA45 titanium powder (atomized, -45 microm), and 8 mass% binder content. This titanium alloy sheet had good formability and ductility. Its sintered titanium alloy had a density of 3.2 g/cm3, sintering shrinkage of 3.8%, and bending strength of 403 MPa. The titanium alloy sheet is clinically acceptable for fabricating denture bases.  (+info)

Plasticizers are substances added to polymers or plastics to increase their flexibility, workability, and durability. They achieve this by reducing the intermolecular forces between polymer chains, thereby lowering the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the material. This allows the plastic to remain flexible even at lower temperatures. Common plasticizers include phthalates, adipates, and epoxy compounds. It is important to note that some plasticizers can have potential health concerns, and their use may be regulated in certain applications.

Diethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP) is a type of phthalate compound that is commonly used as a plasticizer, a substance added to plastics to make them more flexible and durable. DEHP is a colorless, oily liquid with an odor similar to oil or benzene. It is soluble in organic solvents but not in water.

DEHP is used primarily in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, such as flexible tubing, hoses, and medical devices like blood bags and intravenous (IV) lines. DEHP can leach out of these products over time, particularly when they are subjected to heat or other stressors, leading to potential human exposure.

Exposure to DEHP has been linked to a variety of health effects, including reproductive toxicity, developmental and neurological problems, and an increased risk of cancer. As a result, the use of DEHP in certain applications has been restricted or banned in some countries. The medical community is also moving towards using alternative plasticizers that are considered safer for human health.

Phthalic acids are organic compounds with the formula C6H4(COOH)2. They are white crystalline solids that are slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. Phthalic acids are carboxylic acids, meaning they contain a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH).

Phthalic acids are important intermediates in the chemical industry and are used to produce a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, and personal care products. They are also used as solvents and as starting materials for the synthesis of other chemicals.

Phthalic acids can be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. They can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects. Some phthalates, which are compounds that contain phthalic acid, have been linked to reproductive and developmental problems in animals and are considered to be endocrine disruptors. As a result, the use of certain phthalates has been restricted in some countries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyl Chloride" (PVC) is not a medical term. It is a type of synthetic plastic polymer material. PVC is commonly used in various industrial, commercial, and consumer products, such as pipes, cable insulation, clothing, and inflatable items.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, please provide them, and I would be happy to help you find a relevant answer.

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a synthetic chemical compound that belongs to a class of chemicals called phthalates. It is a colorless, oily liquid with a mild odor and is widely used as a plasticizer to make plastics more flexible and durable. DBP is commonly added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products such as vinyl flooring, wall coverings, shower curtains, and consumer products like cosmetics, personal care products, and cleaning solutions.

In medical terms, DBP has been identified as a reproductive toxicant and endocrine disruptor, which means it can interfere with the body's hormonal system and potentially affect reproductive health. Studies have shown that exposure to DBP during pregnancy may be associated with adverse outcomes such as reduced fetal growth, abnormalities in male reproductive development, and behavioral problems in children.

Therefore, it is important to limit exposure to DBP and other phthalates, especially for pregnant women and young children. Some steps you can take to reduce your exposure include avoiding plastic containers with the recycling codes 3 or 7 (which may contain phthalates), choosing personal care products that are labeled "phthalate-free," and using natural cleaning products whenever possible.

Hexanols are a class of organic compounds that contain a hexanol functional group, which is a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a linear or branched carbon chain containing six carbon atoms. They can be either primary, secondary, or tertiary alcohols depending on the position of the hydroxyl group in relation to the carbon chain. Hexanols are used in various applications such as in the production of flavors, fragrances, and industrial chemicals.

Denture liners are soft, flexible materials that are used to reline or temporarily repair the fitting surface of a denture. They are intended to improve the comfort and fit of the denture by filling in any spaces or irregularities between the denture and the gum tissue. Denture liners are typically made from materials such as silicone, polyphosphazine, or acrylic and can be added to the denture by a dental professional in the dental office. They may need to be replaced or re-adjusted periodically to maintain a proper fit.

Acrylic resins are a type of synthetic polymer made from methacrylate monomers. They are widely used in various industrial, commercial, and medical applications due to their unique properties such as transparency, durability, resistance to breakage, and ease of coloring or molding. In the medical field, acrylic resins are often used to make dental restorations like false teeth and fillings, medical devices like intraocular lenses, and surgical instruments. They can also be found in orthopedic implants, bone cement, and other medical-grade plastics. Acrylic resins are biocompatible, meaning they do not typically cause adverse reactions when in contact with living tissue. However, they may release small amounts of potentially toxic chemicals over time, so their long-term safety in certain applications is still a subject of ongoing research.

Polymethacrylic acids are not typically referred to as a medical term, but rather as a chemical one. They are a type of synthetic polymer made up of repeating units of methacrylic acid (MAA). These polymers have various applications in different industries, including the medical field.

In medicine, polymethacrylates are often used in the formulation of controlled-release drug delivery systems, such as beads or microspheres, due to their ability to swell and shrink in response to changes in pH or temperature. This property allows for the gradual release of drugs encapsulated within these polymers over an extended period.

Polymethacrylates are also used in dental applications, such as in the production of artificial teeth and dentures, due to their durability and resistance to wear. Additionally, they can be found in some surgical sealants and adhesives.

While polymethacrylic acids themselves may not have a specific medical definition, their various forms and applications in medical devices and drug delivery systems contribute significantly to the field of medicine.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. It allows for a controlled release of medication over a certain period, typically lasting for 1-3 days. This method of administration can offer advantages such as avoiding gastrointestinal side effects, enabling self-administration, and providing consistent therapeutic drug levels. Common examples of transdermal patches include those used to deliver medications like nicotine, fentanyl, estradiol, and various pain-relieving agents.

Adipates are a group of chemical compounds that are esters of adipic acid. Adipic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the formula (CH₂)₄(COOH)₂. Adipates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products, such as pipes, cables, and flooring. They can also be found in cosmetics, personal care products, and some food additives.

Adipates are generally considered to be safe for use in consumer products, but like all chemicals, they should be used with caution and in accordance with recommended guidelines. Some adipates have been shown to have potential health effects, such as endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity, at high levels of exposure. Therefore, it is important to follow proper handling and disposal procedures to minimize exposure.

Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine medication used to relieve symptoms of allergies, such as sneezing, runny nose, and itchy or watery eyes. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic reactions. Diphenhydramine can also be used to treat motion sickness, insomnia, and symptoms of the common cold.

In addition to its antihistamine effects, diphenhydramine also has anticholinergic properties, which means it can help to reduce secretions in the nose and throat, and may have a drying effect on the mouth and eyes. It is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, liquid, and topical creams or ointments.

It's important to note that diphenhydramine can cause drowsiness, so it should be used with caution when operating heavy machinery or driving a vehicle. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to speak with a healthcare provider before taking this medication.

Endocrine disruptors are defined as exogenous (external) substances or mixtures that interfere with the way hormones work in the body, leading to negative health effects. They can mimic, block, or alter the normal synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body responsible for maintaining homeostasis, reproduction, development, and/or behavior.

Endocrine disruptors can be found in various sources, including industrial chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. They have been linked to a range of health problems, such as cancer, reproductive issues, developmental disorders, neurological impairments, and immune system dysfunction.

Examples of endocrine disruptors include bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and certain pesticides like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and vinclozolin.

It is important to note that endocrine disruptors can have effects at very low doses, and their impact may depend on the timing of exposure, particularly during critical windows of development such as fetal growth and early childhood.

Methyl Methacrylates (MMA) are a family of synthetic materials that are commonly used in the medical field, particularly in orthopedic and dental applications. Medically, MMA is often used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic implants, such as artificial hips or knees, into place during surgeries.

Methyl methacrylates consist of a type of acrylic resin that hardens when mixed with a liquid catalyst. This property allows it to be easily molded and shaped before it sets, making it ideal for use in surgical procedures where precise positioning is required. Once hardened, MMA forms a strong, stable bond with the bone, helping to secure the implant in place.

It's important to note that while MMA is widely used in medical applications, there have been concerns about its safety in certain situations. For example, some studies have suggested that high levels of methyl methacrylate fumes released during the setting process may be harmful to both patients and surgical staff. Therefore, appropriate precautions should be taken when using MMA-based products in medical settings.

Citrates are the salts or esters of citric acid, a weak organic acid that is naturally found in many fruits and vegetables. In a medical context, citrates are often used as a buffering agent in intravenous fluids to help maintain the pH balance of blood and other bodily fluids. They are also used in various medical tests and treatments, such as in urine alkalinization and as an anticoagulant in kidney dialysis solutions. Additionally, citrate is a component of some dietary supplements and medications.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

Adhesives are substances that are used to bind two surfaces together. They can be composed of a variety of materials, including natural substances like tree sap or animal glue, or synthetic substances like cyanoacrylates (super glues) or epoxies. Adhesives can be classified based on their chemical composition, how they cure (set), and their properties such as strength, flexibility, and resistance to environmental factors. In a medical context, adhesives may be used in a variety of applications, such as wound closure, securing medical devices, or attaching bandages or dressings. It's important to choose the right type of adhesive for each application to ensure proper adhesion, safety, and effectiveness.

Benzhydryl compounds are organic chemical compounds that contain the benzhydryl group, which is a functional group consisting of a diphenylmethane moiety. The benzhydryl group can be represented by the formula Ph2CH, where Ph represents the phenyl group (C6H5).

Benzhydryl compounds are characterized by their unique structure, which consists of two aromatic rings attached to a central carbon atom. This structure gives benzhydryl compounds unique chemical and physical properties, such as stability, rigidity, and high lipophilicity.

Benzhydryl compounds have various applications in organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals, and materials science. For example, they are used as building blocks in the synthesis of complex natural products, drugs, and functional materials. They also serve as useful intermediates in the preparation of other chemical compounds.

Some examples of benzhydryl compounds include diphenylmethane, benzphetamine, and diphenhydramine. These compounds have been widely used in medicine as stimulants, appetite suppressants, and antihistamines. However, some benzhydryl compounds have also been associated with potential health risks, such as liver toxicity and carcinogenicity, and their use should be carefully monitored and regulated.

Acrylates are a group of chemical compounds that are derived from acrylic acid. They are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications, including the production of plastics, resins, paints, and adhesives. In the medical field, acrylates are sometimes used in the formation of dental restorations, such as fillings and dentures, due to their strong bonding properties and durability.

However, it is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions or sensitivities to acrylates, which can cause skin irritation, allergic contact dermatitis, or other adverse effects. Therefore, medical professionals must use caution when working with these materials and ensure that patients are informed of any potential risks associated with their use.

Enteric-coated tablets are a pharmaceutical formulation in which a tablet is coated with a polymeric material that is resistant to stomach acid. This coating allows the tablet to pass through the stomach intact and dissolve in the small intestine, where the pH is more neutral.

The enteric coating serves two main purposes:

1. It protects the active ingredient(s) from degradation by stomach acid, which can be particularly important for drugs that are unstable in acidic environments or that irritate the stomach lining.
2. It controls the release of the drug into the body, ensuring that it is absorbed in the small intestine rather than the stomach. This can help to improve the bioavailability of the drug and reduce side effects.

Enteric-coated tablets are commonly used for drugs that treat conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, such as ulcers or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). They may also be used for drugs that have a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose is small. By controlling the release of these drugs into the body, enteric coating can help to ensure that they are absorbed at a consistent rate and reduce the risk of adverse effects.

In medical terms, "immersion" is not a term with a specific clinical definition. However, in general terms, immersion refers to the act of placing something or someone into a liquid or environment completely. In some contexts, it may be used to describe a type of wound care where the wound is covered completely with a medicated dressing or solution. It can also be used to describe certain medical procedures or therapies that involve submerging a part of the body in a liquid, such as hydrotherapy.

"Plastics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader context, plastics can refer to a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic materials that are used in various medical applications due to their durability, flexibility, and ability to be molded into different shapes. Some examples include:

1. Medical devices such as catheters, implants, and surgical instruments.
2. Packaging for medical supplies and pharmaceuticals.
3. Protective barriers like gloves and gowns used in medical settings.
4. Intraocular lenses and other ophthalmic applications.

It's important to note that the term "plastics" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general category of materials with diverse uses across different industries, including healthcare.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

Environmental pollutants are defined as any substances or energy (such as noise, heat, or light) that are present in the environment and can cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the natural ecosystems. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, agriculture, and household activities. They can be in the form of gases, liquids, solids, or radioactive materials, and can contaminate air, water, and soil. Examples include heavy metals, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter, and greenhouse gases.

It is important to note that the impact of environmental pollutants on human health and the environment can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) and it depends on the type, concentration, duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of environmental pollutants include respiratory problems, cancer, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and developmental delays in children.

It is important to monitor, control and reduce the emissions of these pollutants through regulations, technology advancements, and sustainable practices to protect human health and the environment.

In the context of medical terminology, "powders" do not have a specific technical definition. However, in a general sense, powders refer to dry, finely ground or pulverized solid substances that can be dispersed in air or liquid mediums. In medicine, powders may include various forms of medications, such as crushed tablets or capsules, which are intended to be taken orally, mixed with liquids, or applied topically. Additionally, certain medical treatments and therapies may involve the use of medicated powders for various purposes, such as drying agents, abrasives, or delivery systems for active ingredients.

Potentiometry is a method used in analytical chemistry to measure the potential (or voltage) difference between two electrodes, which reflects the concentration of an ion or a particular molecule in a solution. It involves setting up an electrochemical cell with two electrodes: a working electrode and a reference electrode. The working electrode is immersed in the test solution and its potential is measured against the stable potential of the reference electrode.

The Nernst equation can be used to relate the potential difference to the concentration of the analyte, allowing for quantitative analysis. Potentiometry is often used to measure the activity or concentration of ions such as H+, Na+, K+, and Cl-, as well as other redox-active species.

In medical testing, potentiometry can be used to measure the concentration of certain ions in biological fluids such as blood, urine, or sweat. For example, it can be used to measure the pH of a solution (the concentration of H+ ions) or the concentration of glucose in blood using a glucometer.

'Growth' and 'development' are two interrelated concepts that are often used together to describe the changes an individual undergoes from conception until death. However, they refer to distinct yet complementary processes. Here are their medical definitions:

1. Growth: In a medical context, growth refers to the quantitative increase in size (e.g., height, weight, or organ dimensions) of an individual or an organ over time. It is typically measured using various anthropometric parameters and is influenced by genetic, environmental, and nutritional factors. Growth can be assessed at different stages of life, such as intrauterine growth, postnatal growth (infancy, childhood, adolescence), and adult growth.
2. Development: Development is a more complex and qualitative concept that encompasses the progressive series of changes in an individual's physical, cognitive, emotional, and social capabilities over time. These changes involve the acquisition, organization, and integration of new skills, abilities, and functions, which are essential for adapting to the environment and interacting with others. Development can be categorized into various domains, such as:
* Physical development (e.g., neuromotor, sensory-perceptual, and sexual maturation)
* Cognitive development (e.g., language acquisition, memory, problem-solving, and abstract thinking)
* Emotional development (e.g., self-regulation, attachment, empathy, and emotional expression)
* Social development (e.g., interpersonal relationships, social roles, and cultural understanding)

In summary, growth refers to the quantitative increase in size, while development involves the qualitative progression of various skills, abilities, and functions across different domains. Both processes are interconnected and contribute to an individual's overall maturation and well-being.

Medical technology, also known as health technology, refers to the use of medical devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures, and systems for the purpose of preventing, diagnosing, or treating disease and disability. This can include a wide range of products and services, from simple devices like tongue depressors and bandages, to complex technologies like MRI machines and artificial organs.

Pharmaceutical technology, on the other hand, specifically refers to the application of engineering and scientific principles to the development, production, and control of pharmaceutical drugs and medical devices. This can include the design and construction of manufacturing facilities, the development of new drug delivery systems, and the implementation of quality control measures to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products.

Both medical technology and pharmaceutical technology play crucial roles in modern healthcare, helping to improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance the overall quality of life for individuals around the world.

Esters are organic compounds that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. They are widely found in nature and are used in various industries, including the production of perfumes, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. In the context of medical definitions, esters may be mentioned in relation to their use as excipients in medications or in discussions of organic chemistry and biochemistry. Esters can also be found in various natural substances such as fats and oils, which are triesters of glycerol and fatty acids.

Copepoda is a subclass of small crustaceans found in various aquatic environments, including marine and freshwater. They are typically characterized by a segmented body with a distinct head and thorax, and they have a pair of antennae, mandibles, and maxillules used for feeding. Copepods are important members of the zooplankton community and serve as a significant food source for many larger aquatic organisms, such as fish and whales. Some copepod species can also be parasitic, infecting various marine animals, including fish, crustaceans, and mammals.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Dicarboxylic acids are organic compounds containing two carboxyl groups (-COOH) in their molecular structure. The general formula for dicarboxylic acids is HOOC-R-COOH, where R represents a hydrocarbon chain or a functional group.

The presence of two carboxyl groups makes dicarboxylic acids stronger acids than monocarboxylic acids (compounds containing only one -COOH group). This is because the second carboxyl group contributes to the acidity of the molecule, allowing it to donate two protons in solution.

Examples of dicarboxylic acids include oxalic acid (HOOC-COOH), malonic acid (CH2(COOH)2), succinic acid (HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH), glutaric acid (HOOC-(CH2)3-COOH), and adipic acid (HOOC-(CH2)4-COOH). These acids have various industrial applications, such as in the production of polymers, dyes, and pharmaceuticals.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

... plasticizer) TOTM as plasticizer DEHS (plasticizer) Cadogan DF, Howick CJ (2000). "Plasticizers". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ... A plasticizer (UK: plasticiser) is a substance that is added to a material to make it softer and more flexible, to increase its ... Adding 1-2% plasticizer per unit weight of cement is usually sufficient. Adding an excessive amount of plasticizer will result ... For these applications, plasticizers largely overlap with dispersants. Plasticizers for polymers are either liquids with low ...
Plasticizers can also be other energetic materials (common in smokeless powders), e.g. nitroglycerine, butanetriol trinitrate, ... Camphor can be used as a plasticizer. Binders are used in manufacture of compact compositions, e.g. pyrotechnic stars. Polymers ... Plasticizers. Improve the mechanical properties of the propellant particles. For composite rocket propellants, dioctyl adipate ...
Due to its suitable properties and the low cost, DEHP is widely used as a plasticizer in manufacturing of articles made of PVC ... In May 2011, the illegal use of the plasticizer DEHP in clouding agents for use in food and beverages has been reported in ... 2019). "Plasticizer Interaction with the Heart: Chemicals Used in Plastic Medical Devices Can Interfere with Cardiac ... DEHP is the most common phthalate plasticizer in medical devices such as intravenous tubing and bags, IV catheters, nasogastric ...
It is not a plasticizer, although it is often wrongly labelled as such. The health effects of BPA have been the subject of ... BPA is sometimes used as an antioxidant in phthalates, which are extensively used as plasticizers for PVC. BPA has also been ... Cadogan DF, Howick CJ (2000). "Plasticizers". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a20_439. ... "A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: ...
Phthalates, which are incorporated into plastics as plasticizers, comprise approximately 70% of the US plasticizer market; ... polymeric plasticizers and epoxidized vegetable oils. The most common class of plasticizers used in PVC is phthalates, which ... Adding plasticizers makes PVC softer and more flexible. It is used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, flooring, signage ... Among the common plastics, PVC is unique in its acceptance of large amounts of plasticizer with gradual changes in physical ...
Plasticizers (acrylates, maleates, etc.), Pesticides: Dinocap Lubricants: Zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) Fragrances (salicylate) ...
... as plasticizers, as lubricating oils, and as flame retardants. Their production and use has been largely phased out due to ...
Mart, L. (ed.). (2013). Handbook of Plasticizers, 2nd Edition. Elsevier. Staudinger, H., & Zechmeister, L. (1931). Über ... Mart, L. (ed.). (2013). Handbook of Plasticizers, 2nd Edition. Elsevier. JP4197298B2 - Polyisobuteneamine - Google Patents ...
"Green plasticizer". Коммерсантъ. 2020-09-15. Retrieved 2021-09-03. "MUCTR invented a method for the safe processing of sulfur ...
Energetic plasticizers can be also used. The addition of a plasticizer lowers the sensitivity of the explosive and improves its ... as RDX embedded in polystyrene with dioctyl phthalate plasticizer. HMX compositions with teflon-based binders were developed in ...
Doolittle, Arthur K. (1954). The Technology of Solvents and Plasticizers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 628. The Merck ...
Condensates derived from formaldehyde are plasticizers. It is widely used in the production of polyurethane fibers. The PAMAM ...
Non-phthalate plasticizers are also being increasingly used. Almost 90% of all plasticizers are used in PVC, giving this ... as well as alternative plasticizers not based on phthalic anhydride. The legacy use of phthalate plasticizers has prevented ... PETE does not use phthalates as plasticizers. The terephthalate polymer PETE and the phthalate ester plasticizers are ... phthalate esters are nearly ideal plasticizers. Among the numerous alternative plasticizers are dioctyl terephthalate (DEHT) (a ...
Organic dispersants and plasticizers are used so that the slurry will flow during manufacture and to reduce the water and hence ... The plaster is mixed with fiber (typically paper, glass wool, or a combination of these materials); plasticizer, foaming agent ... plasticizer, foaming agent, finely ground gypsum crystal as an accelerator, EDTA, starch or other chelate as a retarder, and ...
ISBN 978-0-471-38929-3. Chemical Fabrics and Film Association [CFFA] (n.d.). "Plasticizer migration" (PDF). CFFA Performance ... plasticizer) reduces the temperature of glass transition, the yield temperature, and the viscosity of a melt. An understanding ...
His innovation eliminated plasticizers containing harmful phthalates. 1980 - Gold medal, Utkal University, Orissa being 1st ... Effect of Eco-Friendly Triethyl Citrate Plasticizer". Biomacromolecules. 5 (6): 2281-2288. doi:10.1021/bm049690f. PMID 15530043 ...
"Ranking Plasticizers for Polymers with Atomistic Simulations; PVT, Mechanical Properties and the Role of Hydrogen Bonding in ...
Most of these plasticizers affect hormone systems. Some phthalates have even larger pathways of disruption. Phthalates and BPA ... Given that certain biological effects occur due to chemical concentrations found in plasticizers used in the laboratory ... "A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. ...
Unlike traditional plasticizers, comonomers are not leachable. In other cases, comonomers are used to introduce crosslinking. ...
2H2O DEHT is a general purpose plasticizer that is considered safer than ortho-phthalate plasticizers due to its reduced ... Several plasticizers offer similar technical properties to DEHT. These alternatives include phthalates such as DINP, DOP, DPHP ... It is a non-phthalate plasticizer, being the diester of terephthalic acid and the branched-chain 2-ethylhexanol, which is often ... and population exposure of alternative plasticizers (e.g. DEHT/DOTP) and their metabolites. The French government report ...
Plasticizers and superplasticizers also retard the setting and hardening of concrete. According to their dispersing ... Plasticizers are chemical compounds enabling the production of concrete with approximately 15% less water content. ... Traditional plasticizers are lignosulphonates as their sodium salts. Superplasticizers are synthetic polymers. Compounds used ... The polymers used as plasticizers exhibit surfactant properties. They are often ionomers bearing negatively charged groups ( ...
Water acts as a plasticizer. Three main processes happen to the starch granule: granule swelling, crystallite and double- ...
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AMS is a precursor to plasticizers, resins, and polymers. AMS and acetophenone are byproducts formed in a variation of the ...
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While all starches are biodegradable, not all plasticizers are. Thus, the biodegradability of the plasticizer determines the ... Because starch polymers on their own are brittle at room temperature, plasticizers are added in a process called starch ... Starch blends are thermoplastic polymers produced by blending starch with plasticizers. ...
Pelley, Janet (12 November 2008). "Plasticizer may make boys less masculine". Environmental Science & Technology. doi:10.1021/ ...
Feigal DW (12 July 2002). "PVC Devices Containing the Plasticizer DEHP". US FDA/CDRH: FDA Public Health Notification. Food and ...
as a plasticizer in synthetic resins. as an antienzyme in toothpastes. as a precursor for dimethyl-4-pyridones. The compounds ...
... plasticizer) TOTM as plasticizer DEHS (plasticizer) Cadogan DF, Howick CJ (2000). "Plasticizers". Ullmanns Encyclopedia of ... A plasticizer (UK: plasticiser) is a substance that is added to a material to make it softer and more flexible, to increase its ... Adding 1-2% plasticizer per unit weight of cement is usually sufficient. Adding an excessive amount of plasticizer will result ... For these applications, plasticizers largely overlap with dispersants. Plasticizers for polymers are either liquids with low ...
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Phthalates & Plasticizers Metabolites - Urine (PHTHTE_G) Data File: PHTHTE_G.xpt First Published: November 2013. Last Revised: ... Urinary phthalates and plasticizers metabolites were measured in a one third subsample of persons 6 years and older. Special ... They are often called plasticizers. Some phthalates are used as solvents (dissolving agents) for other materials. They are used ...
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  • Levulinic acid metal plasticizers are highly used in phthalate plasticizers because they work perfectly with hydrophilic biopolymers like polylactic acid. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Ortho-phthalate esters have traditionally been the most dominant plasticizers, but regulatory concerns have led to the move away from classified substances to non-classified which includes high molecular weight ortho-phthalates and other plasticisers, especially in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study employed various analytical methods, including X-ray fluorescence for elemental analysis, targeted and suspect gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ortho-phthalates and alternative plasticizers, and bioassay tests to evaluate cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, endocrine, mutagenic, and genotoxic activities for selected samples. (chemycal.com)
  • Plasticizers are commonly added to polymers such as plastics and rubber, either to facilitate the handling of the raw material during fabrication, or to meet the demands of the end product's application. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasticizers for polymers are either liquids with low volatility or solids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other polymers which can contain high loadings of plasticizers include acrylates and cellulose-type plastics, such as cellulose acetate, nitrocellulose and cellulose acetate butyrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was commonly thought that plasticizers work by embedding themselves between the chains of polymers, spacing them apart (increasing the "free volume"), or swelling them and thus significantly lowering the glass transition temperature for the plastic and making it softer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This database is an excellent reference of commonly utilized polymers and polymer additives including plasticizers, catalysts, antioxidants, additives, UV absorbers, stabilizers, and other chemicals related to the production of polymer-based materials. (acdlabs.com)
  • Affinisol® HPMC HME polymers were developed by Dow Chemicals to cater the need of Formulation Scientist for a low Tg HPMC for HME applications since the traditionally available grades have HPMC have much higher Tg and require the addition of plasticizer. (rutgers.edu)
  • This synthetic leather does not require additional plasticizers as it is made by using soft polymers. (marketresearch.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Organophosphate esters (OPEs), used as flame retardants and plasticizers, are chemicals of concern for maternal and infant health. (cdc.gov)
  • Almost 90% of polymer plasticizers, most commonly phthalate esters, are used in PVC, giving this material improved flexibility and durability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mobility of a polymer chain is more complex in the presence of plasticizer than what the Flory-Fox equation predicts for a simple polymer chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecules of plasticizer take control over mobility of the chain - a polymer chain does not show an increase of the free volume around polymer ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • If plasticizer/water creates hydrogen bonds with hydrophilic parts of the polymer, the associated free volume can be decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the last 60 years more than 30,000 different substances have been evaluated for their suitability as polymer plasticizers. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study shows the non-traditional role of API as a plasticizer for a polymer (EC). (rutgers.edu)
  • An in vivo and in vitro study of the loss of plasticizer from soft polymer-gel materials. (bvsalud.org)
  • Then the plasticizer (DOP, DOTP, DOA, OD, ODL, A-ODL) was respectively added to the beaker, the mixture was continued to stir for 4 h (there was no thermal stabilizers used in this process). (abtinternational.org)
  • Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (bvsalud.org)
  • Ester plasticizers are selected based upon cost-performance evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rubber compounder must evaluate ester plasticizers for compatibility, processibility, permanence and other performance properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dioctyl Phthalate (DOP) Plasticizer - Fengbai Group,Dioctyl phthalate DOP, an organic ester compound, is one of the most commonly used plasticizers. (abtinternational.org)
  • These "plasticizers" can pose serious threats to human health, and yet the FDA currently allows "low" levels of these chemicals in food. (pirg.org)
  • So-called endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment (eg, insecticides, petrochemicals, industrial solvents, plasticizers) can affect endocrine systems and alter hormone levels, causing alterations in sex organs, immune function, nervous system function, growth and development, and certain cancers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Urinary levels of parabens, phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A and plasticizer alternatives in a Belgian population: Time trend or impact of an awareness campaign? (bvsalud.org)
  • Plasticizers used in PVC and other plastics are often based on esters of polycarboxylic acids with linear or branched aliphatic alcohols of moderate chain length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phthalate esters of straight-chain and branched-chain alkyl alcohols meet these specifications and are common plasticizers. (wikipedia.org)
  • DOP plasticizer is a transparent oily liquid with no visible impurities in appearance, which is insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents such as ethanol, ether, mineral oil, etc. (abtinternational.org)
  • To express his speechlessness at the use of plasticizer in food additives. (mymodernmet.com)
  • DINP (diisononyl phthalate) is a commonly used plasticizer derived from the esterification of phthalic anhydride and isononyl alcohol. (abtinternational.org)
  • Landscape Analysis of Drivers, Enablers, and Barriers to Plasticizer,Early LVT products were developed with DOP (DEHP) and DINP as the primary plasticizers, with DOP being dominant in products manufactured in Asia, since it was significantly cheaper and is a more efficient plasticizer (less DOP is required to provide the same performance. (abtinternational.org)
  • Plasticizers in PVC objects that contained DBP, DEHP, DPHP, or DOTP were quantitatively determined using GC-FID (Supplementary Fig. S2). (abtinternational.org)
  • clarification needed] The effect of plasticizers on elastic modulus is dependent on both temperature and plasticizer concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a transparent and elastic film that consists of no plasticizers. (bccresearch.com)
  • Abnormalities of sexual development in male rats with in utero and lactational exposure to the antiandrogenic plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. (bvsalud.org)
  • A plasticizer (UK: plasticiser) is a substance that is added to a material to make it softer and more flexible, to increase its plasticity, to decrease its viscosity, and/or to decrease friction during its handling in manufacture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasticizer is a type of substance that increases plasticity while not affecting the properties of plastics. (abtinternational.org)
  • Plasticizer-elastomer interaction is governed by many factors such as solubility parameter, molecular weight, and chemical structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other industrial uses include plasticizers, detergent bases and aerosol sprays. (hiseachem.com)
  • Alternative plasticizers Several plasticizers offer similar technical properties to DEHT. (abtinternational.org)
  • Phthalate and novel plasticizer concentrations in food items,Results. (abtinternational.org)
  • No plasticizers should be allowed in food-contact material. (pirg.org)
  • As a reliable supplier, we can supply DOTP Dioctyl Terephthalate plasticizer with high quality. (abtinternational.org)
  • This product is a general-purpose main plasticizer with excellent performance. (abtinternational.org)
  • Study on compatibility mechanism of plasticizer and,To achieve better miscibility of plasticizers with asphalt, when the four plasticizers, i.e. (abtinternational.org)
  • Dioctyl Terephthalate DOTP Plasticizer - Factory Price - Chemate Group,Dioctyl Terephthalate DOTP Plasticizer. (abtinternational.org)
  • Inquiry us for the best DOTP plasticizer price in Chemate now. (abtinternational.org)
  • In Plasticizer , Bolin paints himself, with the help of others, so that he seamlessly blends into rows of soft drinks. (mymodernmet.com)
  • According to 2017 data, the total global market for plasticizers was 7.5 million metric tonnes. (wikipedia.org)