The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.15.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 2.7.7.7.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

Optical mapping of Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 2. (1/7602)

Detailed restriction maps of microbial genomes are a valuable resource in genome sequencing studies but are toilsome to construct by contig construction of maps derived from cloned DNA. Analysis of genomic DNA enables large stretches of the genome to be mapped and circumvents library construction and associated cloning artifacts. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis purified Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 2 DNA as the starting material for optical mapping, a system for making ordered restriction maps from ensembles of individual DNA molecules. DNA molecules were bound to derivatized glass surfaces, cleaved with NheI or BamHI, and imaged by digital fluorescence microscopy. Large pieces of the chromosome containing ordered DNA restriction fragments were mapped. Maps were assembled from 50 molecules producing an average contig depth of 15 molecules and high-resolution restriction maps covering the entire chromosome. Chromosome 2 was found to be 976 kb by optical mapping with NheI, and 946 kb with BamHI, which compares closely to the published size of 947 kb from large-scale sequencing. The maps were used to further verify assemblies from the plasmid library used for sequencing. Maps generated in silico from the sequence data were compared to the optical mapping data, and good correspondence was found. Such high-resolution restriction maps may become an indispensable resource for large-scale genome sequencing projects.  (+info)

8-Aminoquinolines active against blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro inhibit hematin polymerization. (2/7602)

From the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) inventory, thirteen 8-aminoquinoline analogs of primaquine were selected for screening against a panel of seven Plasmodium falciparum clones and isolates. Six of the 13 8-aminoquinolines had average 50% inhibitory concentrations between 50 and 100 nM against these P. falciparum clones and were thus an order of magnitude more potent than primaquine. However, excluding chloroquine-resistant clones and isolates, these 8-aminoquinolines were all an order of magnitude less potent than chloroquine. None of the 8-aminoquinolines was cross resistant with either chloroquine or mefloquine. In contrast to the inactive primaquine prototype, 8 of the 13 8-aminoquinolines inhibited hematin polymerization more efficiently than did chloroquine. Although alkoxy or aryloxy substituents at position 5 uniquely endowed these 13 8-aminoquinolines with impressive schizontocidal activity, the structural specificity of inhibition of both parasite growth and hematin polymerization was low.  (+info)

Alternative oxidase inhibitors potentiate the activity of atovaquone against Plasmodium falciparum. (3/7602)

Recent evidence suggests that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum utilizes a branched respiratory pathway including both a cytochrome chain and an alternative oxidase. This branched respiratory pathway model has been used as a basis for examining the mechanism of action of two antimalarial agents, atovaquone and proguanil. In polarographic assays, atovaquone immediately reduced the parasite oxygen consumption rate in a concentration-dependent manner. This is consistent with its previously described role as an inhibitor of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Atovaquone maximally inhibited the rate of P. falciparum oxygen consumption by 73% +/- 10%. At all atovaquone concentrations tested, the addition of the alternative oxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid, resulted in a further decrease in the rate of parasite oxygen consumption. At the highest concentrations of atovaquone tested, the activities of salicylhydroxamic acid and atovaquone appear to overlap, suggesting that at these concentrations, atovaquone partially inhibits the alternative oxidase as well as the cytochrome chain. Drug interaction studies with atovaquone and salicylhydroxamic acid indicate atovaquone's activity against P. falciparum in vitro is potentiated by this alternative oxidase inhibitor, with a sum fractional inhibitory concentration of 0.6. Propyl gallate, another alternative oxidase inhibitor, also potentiated atovaquone's activity, with a sum fractional inhibitory concentration of 0.7. Proguanil, which potentiates atovaquone activity in vitro and in vivo, had a small effect on parasite oxygen consumption in polarographic assays when used alone or in the presence of atovaquone or salicylhydroxamic acid. This suggests that proguanil does not potentiate atovaquone by direct inhibition of either branch of the parasite respiratory chain.  (+info)

Comparison of in vivo and in vitro tests of resistance in patients treated with chloroquine in Yaounde, Cameroon. (4/7602)

The usefulness of an isotopic in vitro assay in the field was evaluated by comparing its results with the therapeutic response determined by the simplified WHO in vivo test in symptomatic Cameroonian patients treated with chloroquine. Of the 117 enrolled patients, 102 (87%) completed the 14-day follow-up, and 95 isolates obtained from these patients (46 children, 49 adults) yielded an interpretable in vitro test. A total of 57 of 95 patients (60%; 28 children and 29 adults) had an adequate clinical response with negative smears (n = 46) or with an asymptomatic parasitaemia (n = 11) on day 7 and/or day 14. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentration of the isolates obtained from these patients was 63.3 nmol/l. Late and early treatment failure was observed in 29 (30.5%) and 9 (9.5%) patients, respectively. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentrations of the corresponding isolates were 173 nmol/l and 302 nmol/l. Among the patients responding with late and early treatment failure, five isolates and one isolate, respectively, yielded a discordant result (in vivo resistance and in vitro sensitivity). The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the in vitro test to detect chloroquine-sensitive cases was 67%, 84% and 86%, respectively. There was moderate concordance between the in vitro and in vivo tests (kappa value = 0.48). The in vitro assay agrees relatively well with the therapeutic response and excludes several host factors that influence the results of the in vivo test. However, in view of some discordant results, the in vitro test cannot substitute for in vivo data on therapeutic efficacy. The only reliable definition of "resistance" in malaria parasites is based on clinical and parasitological response in symptomatic patients, and the in vivo test provides the standard method to determine drug sensitivity or resistance as well as to guide national drug policies.  (+info)

Intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum expresses a high affinity facilitative hexose transporter. (5/7602)

Asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum cause severe malaria and are dependent upon host glucose for energy. We have identified a glucose transporter of P. falciparum (PfHT1) and studied its function and expression during parasite development in vitro. PfHT1 is a saturable, sodium-independent, and stereospecific transporter, which is inhibited by cytochalasin B, and has a relatively high affinity for glucose (Km = 0.48 mM) when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Competition experiments with glucose analogues show that hydroxyl groups at positions C-3 and C-4 are important for ligand binding. mRNA levels for PfHT1, assessed by the quantitative technique of tandem competitive polymerase chain reaction, are highest during the small ring stages of infection and lowest in gametocytes. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy localizes PfHT1 to the region of the parasite plasma membrane and not to host structures. These findings have implications for development of new drug targets in malaria as well as for understanding of the pathophysiology of severe infection. When hypoglycemia complicates malaria, modeling studies suggest that the high affinity of PfHT1 is likely to increase the relative proportion of glucose taken up by parasites and thereby worsen the clinical condition.  (+info)

Complexity of Plasmodium falciparum infections is consistent over time and protects against clinical disease in Tanzanian children. (6/7602)

The complexity of Plasmodium falciparum populations in 21 children was studied in repetitive samples over 4 years in an area of Tanzania where the organism is holoendemic. Genotyping was done by a polymerase chain reaction method that targets three highly polymorphic regions of the merozoite surface protein (MSP) 1 block 2, MSP 2, and the glutamine-rich protein. Eight children were repeatedly parasitemic, 5 had scanty parasitemias, and 8 were consistently nonparasitemic. Varying numbers of genotypes were detected in the parasitemic children, but the multiplicity of infection was significantly constant within each child. The children with frequent parasitemias experienced fewer clinical episodes during the study period than those without parasitemias. There was also a tendency for children with more complex infections to experience fewer episodes. The children had consistent parasitologic profiles over the 4 years. Although few subjects were studied and the results will require confirmation, the results suggest that asymptomatic (especially polyclonal) P. falciparum infection protects against clinical disease from new infections.  (+info)

HLA class II factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen allele families. (7/7602)

In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, certain human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and the parasite's merozoite surface antigens 1 and 2 (MSA-1, MSA-2) have been shown to influence the course of the infection. This report is on associations of distinct HLA factors with the occurrence of particular MSA families in a group of patients with either severe or mild P. falciparum malaria in Gabon. Different distributions of HLA-DPB1 alleles were found in the 2 groups. DR *04 alleles were observed more frequently among patients with severe malaria. Several alleles of different loci were associated with distinct MSA allele families. In addition, carriers of the amino acid methionine at position 11 of the DPA1 allele were more often infected by MSA-1 K1 parasites and less frequently by MSA-1 RO33 parasites. Furthermore, associations of HLA factors with polyclonal infections were found.  (+info)

Comparison of a parasite lactate dehydrogenase-based immunochromatographic antigen detection assay (OptiMAL) with microscopy for the detection of malaria parasites in human blood samples. (8/7602)

Microscopic examination of blood smears remains the gold standard for malaria diagnosis, but is labor-intensive and requires skilled operators. Rapid dipstick technology provides a potential alternative. A study was conducted in The Gambia to compare the performance of OptiMAL, an immunochromatographic antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of malaria using parasite lactate dehydrogenase, against standard microscopy in patients with suspected malaria. For initial diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum, irrespective of stage, this assay had a sensitivity of 91.3%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 87.2%, and a negative predictive value of 94.7%. The sensitivity of the test decreased markedly at parasitemias < 0.01%. This assay can be used for the diagnosis of malaria in areas where microscopy is not available and for urgent malaria diagnosis at night and at weekends, when routine laboratories are closed and when relatively inexperienced microscopists may be on duty.  (+info)

Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a family of proteins present on the membrane surface of red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes) that are infected by the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfEMP1 is synthesized during the parasites blood stage (erythrocytic schizogony) inside the RBC, during which the clinical symptoms of falciparum malaria are manifested. Acting as both an antigen and adhesion protein, it is thought to play a key role in the high level of virulence associated with P. falciparum. It was discovered in 1984 when it was reported that infected RBCs had unusually large-sized cell membrane proteins, and these proteins had antibody-binding (antigenic) properties. An elusive protein, its chemical structure and molecular properties were revealed only after a decade, in 1995. It is now established that there is not one but a large family of PfEMP1 proteins, genetically regulated (encoded) by a group of about 60 genes called var. Each P. falciparum is ...
Covalently closed circular DNA molecules were isolated from Plasmodium falciparum total DNA by isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl gradients containing either ethidium bromide or 2,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The circular molecules had an average contour length of 11.1 +/- 0.5 micron, similar to the analogous molecules previously isolated from the simian malaria parasite P. knowlesi. Both circular molecules shared considerable sequence homology and conserved restriction sites. The nucleotide sequence of one 936 bp fragment of the P. falciparum molecule was determined and identified, by a data base homology search, as part of a mitochondrial small rRNA subunit, thus confirming the mitochondrial origin of the circular DNAs of both malarial species.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XVIII. Polymorphisms of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen-2 gene in isolates from symptomatic patients. AU - Basco, Leonardo K.. AU - Tahar, Rachida. AU - Escalante, Ananias. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - Merozoite surface antigen-2 (MSA-2) is a polymorphic genetic marker that is highly discriminatory for characterizing Plasmodium falciparum field isolates. Genetic diversity of isolates obtained from symptomatic patients residing in Yaounde, Cameroon was analyzed by an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of amplification products. Of 137 isolates, 25 (18%) had only FC27-type alleles, 40 (29%) had only 3D7-type alleles, and 72 (53%) had multiple parasite populations with both alleles. Of 295 fragments, 145 (49.2%) and 150 (50.8%) belonged to FC27 and 3D7 alleles, respectively. There were 23 different MSA-2 alleles (10 FC27-type and 13 3D7-type that yielded 44 different combinations in ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 12802682. Parasitol. Res. 2003 Aug;90(6):467-72. Plasmodium falciparum parasites remodel the surface of human erythrocytes on invasion by the insertion of parasite-derived proteins in knob-like protrusions. P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP-1), a variant surface antigen, has been shown to be anchored in these knobs and mediates adhesion to various host endothelial receptors. These proteins also undergo clonal antigenic variation as a means of immune evasion. Duffy binding-like-alpha(DBL-alpha) domain together with the cysteine-rich interdomain region form the head structure of the PfEMP1 molecule. In this report, we used ten different recombinant DBL-alpha fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli to generate antibodies in experimental animals. Five out of ten recombinant DBL-alpha fusion proteins were immunogenic and induced antibodies that reacted with conserved peptides derived from PfEMP1. Indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to localise ...
A clone of complementary DNA encoding the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has been isolated by screening an Escherichia coli complementary DNA library with a monoclonal antibody to the CS protein. The DNA sequence of the complementary DNA insert encodes a four-amino acid sequence: proline-asparagine-alanine-asparagine, tandemly repeated 23 times. The CS beta-lactamase fusion protein specifically binds monoclonal antibodies to the CS protein and inhibits the binding of these antibodies to native Plasmodium falciparum CS protein. These findings provide a basis for the development of a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan but not hyaluronic acid is the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in human placenta, and infected red blood cell adherence up-regulates the receptor expression. AU - Muthusamy, Arivalagan. AU - Achur, Rajeshwara N.. AU - Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar. AU - Botti, John J.. AU - Taylor, Diane W.. AU - Leke, Rose F.. AU - Gowda, D. Channe. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - A low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) has been shown to be the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in human placenta. Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) has been suggested as an additional receptor even though IRBC binding to HA and the presence of HA at locations where IRBCs adhere in the placenta have not been established. In this study, we investigated whether HA is also a receptor for IRBC binding. IRBCs from infected placentas as well as those from different laboratory strains could ...
The ability to undertake controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies for preliminary evaluation of malaria vaccine candidates and anti-malaria drug efficacy has been limited by the need for access to sporozoite infected mosquitoes, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved sporozoites or blood-stage malaria parasites derived ex vivo from malaria infected individuals. Three different strategies are described for the manufacture of clinical grade cultured malaria cell banks suitable for use in CHMI studies. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)-grade Plasmodium falciparum NF54, clinically isolated 3D7, and research-grade P. falciparum 7G8 blood-stage malaria parasites were cultured separately in GMP-compliant facilities using screened blood components and then cryopreserved to produce three P. falciparum blood-stage malaria cell banks. These cell banks were evaluated according to specific criteria (parasitaemia, identity, viability, sterility, presence of endotoxin, presence of mycoplasma or other viral agents
Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Infected Rbcs antibody [11B7] for ICC/IF. Anti-Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Infected Rbcs mAb (GTX39330) is tested in Plasmodium falciparum samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The ability of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (RBC) to form spontaneous erythrocyte rosettes was studied in 130 fresh isolates from Gambian children with cerebral or uncomplicated malaria from August to November 1990. All isolates (24 of 24) from patients with cerebral malaria formed rosettes, but only 61 of 106 isolates from children with uncomplicated malaria formed rosettes. The mean rate of rosette formation in isolates from children with cerebral malaria (28.3%) was significantly greater than that in isolates from children with uncomplicated malaria (8.5%). Giant rosettes were more frequently formed in isolates from patients with cerebral malaria than in those from patients with uncomplicated malaria. Sera of children with cerebral disease generally lacked anti-rosette activity, while many sera from children with uncomplicated malaria showed strong anti- rosette activity when tested against the patients ow parasites. Some sera that were devoid of autologous rosette-disrupting
Abstract We have investigated seroreactivity against Plasmodium falciparum crude parasite antigens, the P. falciparum ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf155/RESA), as well as against two synthetic peptides (EENV)6 and (EENVEHDA)3 that represent important epitopes of Pf155/RESA. The study population consisted of 421 children and adult Thais living in an area with moderate malaria transmission. We related these serologic findings to some important epidemiologic baseline data collected in the study area. The parasite rate in study subjects was 18.76%. Sixty-two percent were seropositive to crude P. falciparum antigens, 30.3% to the Pf155/RESA antigen, 23.05% to (EENV)6, and 20.17% to (EENVEHDA)3. Antibody responses to crude P. falciparum antigens and to Pf155/RESA were age dependent and increased with exposure. There was evidence that Pf155/RESA antibodies might play a role in protective immunity in this population. Since Pf155/RESA is a potential vaccine candidate antigen, the information
The variant antigen Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), which is expressed on the surface of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells, is a critical virulence factor for malaria. Each parasite has 60 antigenically distinct var genes that each code for a different PfEMP1 protein. During infection the clonal parasite population expresses only one gene at a time before switching to the expression of a new variant antigen as an immune-evasion mechanism to avoid the host antibody response. The mechanism by which 59 of the 60 var genes are silenced remains largely unknown. Here we show that knocking out the P. falciparum variant-silencing SET gene (here termed PfSETvs), which encodes an orthologue of Drosophila melanogaster ASH1 and controls histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) on var genes, results in the transcription of virtually all var genes in the single parasite nuclei and their expression as proteins on the surface of individual infected red blood cells. PfSETvs
Abstract Sporogonic development of cultured Plasmodium falciparum was compared in six species of Anopheles mosquitoes. A reference species, A. gambiae, was selected as the standard for comparison. Estimates of absolute densities were determined for each lifestage. From these data, four aspects of parasite population dynamics were analyzed quantitatively: 1) successive losses in abundance as parasites developed from gametocyte to ookinete to oocyst stages, 2) oocyst production of sporozoites, 3) correlation between various lifestage parameters, and 4) parasite distribution. Parasite populations in A. gambiae incurred a 316-fold loss in abundance during the transition from macrogametocyte to ookinete stage, a 100-fold loss from ookinete to oocyst stage, yielding a total loss of approximately 31,600-fold (i.e., losses are multiplicative). Comparative susceptibilities in order were A. freeborni ≫ A. gambiae, A. arabiensis, A. dirus > A. stephensi, A. albimanus. The key transition(s) determining overall
The PfEMP1 family of Plasmodium falciparum antigens play a key role in pathogenesis of severe malaria through their insertion into the surface of parasite infected erythrocytes, and adhesion to host cells. Previous studies have suggested that parasites expressing PfEMP1 subclasses group A and DC8, associated with severe malaria, may have a growth advantage in immunologically naïve individuals. However, this idea has not been tested in longitudinal studies. Here we assessed expression of the var genes encoding PfEMP1, in parasites sampled from volunteers with varying prior exposure to malaria, following experimental infection by sporozoites (PfSPZ). Using qPCR, we tested for associations between the expression of various var subgroups in surviving parasite populations from each volunteer and 1) the levels of participants antibodies to infected erythrocytes before challenge infection and 2) the apparent in vivo parasite multiplication rate. We show that 1) expression of var genes encoding for group A
Blood samples were collected from 12 residents of 4 villages in the Oksibil area of Irian Jaya. Eleven patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum infection as evidenced by successful amplification of the MSA-2 gene by the polymerase chain reaction. Two patients showed evidence of infection by 2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. All MSA-2 genes were completely sequenced and all could be assigned to one of the two major allelic families of MSA-2, however all MSA-2 gene sequences differed from previously described alleles. Five new allelic forms were identified, one of which was present in 8 of the 11 patients. Within small natural populations of P. falciparum, it appears that variation in MSA-2 approximates that seen world-wide. All samples were also analysed by hybridisation of amplified DNA to family specific probes and all samples hybridised to known probes. Our results demonstrate that there is a degree of microheterogeneity of MSA-2 that is undetectable by hybridisation studies alone ...
Abs that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes form an important component of human immunity against malaria, but key target Ags are largely unknown. Phenotypic variation by P. falciparum mediates the evasion of inhibitory Abs, contributing to the capacity of P. falciparum to cause repeat and chronic infections. However, Ags involved in mediating immune evasion have not been defined, and studies of the function of human Abs are limited. In this study, we used novel approaches to determine the importance of P. falciparum erythrocyte-binding Ags (EBAs), which are important invasion ligands, as targets of human invasion-inhibitory Abs and define their role in contributing to immune evasion through variation in function. We evaluated the invasion-inhibitory activity of acquired Abs from malaria-exposed children and adults from Kenya, using P. falciparum with disruption of genes encoding EBA140, EBA175, and EBA181, either individually or combined as EBA140/EBA175 or EBA175/EBA181 double
Placental malaria is typified by selective clustering of Plasmodium falciparum in the intervillous blood spaces of the placenta. Sequestration of malaria parasite in the human placenta is mediated by interactions between chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) on the syncytiotrophoblasts and proteins expressed on the surface of infected human erythrocytes. Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) encoded by the var2CSA gene is believed to be the main parasite ligand for CSA-mediated placental binding. Extensive sequence and structure comparisons of the various CSA-binding and non-binding DBL domains from the var2CSA gene from A4 and 3D7 strains of P. falciparum were performed. Three-dimensional structural models of various DBL domains were built and analysed with a view to assessing conservation of CSA interaction sites across various DBL domains. Each of the six DBL domains from var2CSA are likely to retain the disulfide linkages evident from previously published DBL domain crystal structures
Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a critical component of malaria vaccine and drug development and is an important element of any strategy for accelerating the development of new tools for malaria control, elimination and eradication. Until now, CHMI has been performed in malaria naïve subjects from countries not endemic for malaria using both infectious mosquitoes and recently, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ). Results from these studies report significant infection success in all study subjects and an excellent safety profile.. The conduct of CHMI studies in malaria endemic populations will allow early understanding of responses to new vaccines and drugs in endemic country populations and for direct comparisons between previously exposed and non-exposed individuals. Performing CHMI studies in malaria endemic countries will reduce associated costs, speed-up the process of testing and substantially contribute to the acceleration of the ...
New Plasmodium falciparum finding Genes parameters for FGENESH the program with parameters for major model organisms, viruses and bacteria is available for on line usage at: http://www.softberry.com/berry.phtml?topic=gfind Method description: A new parameter set for gene prediction Plasmodium falciparum is developed for FGENESH program. Accuracy of prediction of Plasmodium falciparum protein coding genes is about 98% on the nucleotide level. Exact exon prediction accuracy ~80%. The FGENESH algorithm is based on pattern recognition of different types of signals and Markov chain models of coding regions. Optimal combination of these features is then found by dynamic programming and a set of gene models is constructed along given sequence. FGENESH is the fastest and most accurate ab initio gene prediction program available. Fgenesh output: fgenesh Wed Oct 30 23:05:15 EST 2002 FGENESH 1.1 Prediction of potential genes in Plasmodium genomic DNA Time : Wed Oct 30 23:05:15 2002 Seq name: MAL7P1.27 chr7 ...
Rosa TF, Flammersfeld A, Ngwa CJ, Kiesow M, Fischer R, Zipfel PF, Skerka C, Pradel G (2016) The Plasmodium falciparum blood stages acquire factor H family proteins to evade destruction by human complement. Cell Microbiol 18(4), 573-590. PubMed ...
Chromosome 2 of Plasmodium falciparum was sequenced; this sequence contains 947,103 base pairs and encodes 210 predicted genes. In comparison with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, chromosome 2 has a lower gene density, introns are more frequent, and proteins are markedly enriched in nonglobular domains. A family of surface proteins, rifins, that may play a role in antigenic variation was identified. The complete sequencing of chromosome 2 has shown that sequencing of the A+T-rich P. falciparum genome is technically feasible.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A preliminary evaluation of a recombinant circumsporozoite protein vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. AU - Stoute, José A.. AU - Slaoui, Moncef. AU - Heppner, D. Gray. AU - Momin, Patricia. AU - Kester, Kent E.. AU - Desmons, Pierre. AU - Wellde, Bruce T.. AU - Garçon, Nathalie. AU - Krzych, Urszula. AU - Marchand, Martine. AU - Ballou, W. Ripley. AU - Cohen, Joe D.. PY - 1997/1/9. Y1 - 1997/1/9. N2 - Background: The candidate vaccines against malaria are poorly immunogenic and thus have been ineffective in preventing infection. We developed a vaccine based on the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum that incorporates adjuvants selected to enhance the immune response. Methods: The antigen consists of a hybrid in which the circumsporozoite protein fused to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is expressed together with unfused HBsAg. We evaluated three formulations of this antigen in an unblinded trial in 46 subjects who had never been exposed to malaria. ...
We have studied the human CD4 T cell response to a functionally conserved domain of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1, cysteine interdomain region-1alpha (CIDR-1alpha). Responses to CIDR-1alpha were striking in that both exposed and nonexposed donors responded. The IFN-gamma response to CIDR-1alpha in the nonexposed donors was partially independent of TCR engagement of MHC class II and peptide. Contrastingly, CD4 T cell and IFN-gamma responses in malaria-exposed donors were MHC class II restricted, suggesting that the CD4 T cell response to CIDR-1alpha in malaria semi-immune adults also has a TCR-mediated component, which may represent a memory response. Dendritic cells isolated from human peripheral blood were activated by CIDR-1alpha to produce IL-12, IL-10, and IL-18. IL-12 was detectable only between 6 and 12 h of culture, whereas the IL-10 continued to increase throughout the 24-h time course. These data strengthen previous observations that P. falciparum interacts directly with
Human malaria is a devastating disease and a major cause of poverty in resource-limited countries. To develop and adapt within hosts Plasmodium falciparum undergoes drastic switches in gene expression. To identify regulatory regions in the parasite genome, we performed genome-wide profiling of chromatin accessibility in two culture-adapted isogenic subclones at four developmental stages during the intraerythrocytic cycle by using the Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin by sequencing (ATAC-seq). Tn5 transposase hypersensitivity sites (THSSs) localize preferentially at transcriptional start sites (TSSs). Chromatin accessibility by ATAC-seq is predictive of active transcription and of the levels of histone marks H3K9ac and H3K4me3. Our assay allows the identification of novel regulatory regions including TSS and enhancer-like elements. We show that the dynamics in the accessible chromatin profile matches temporal transcription during development. Motif analysis of stage-specific ATAC-seq ...
In areas where Plasmodium falciparum is endemic, immunoglobulin G is acquired by the fetus in utero, mainly during the third trimester of pregnancy. The potential protective effect of transferred anti-P. falciparum maternal antibodies was examined in a longitudinal study of 100 infants from birth to 1 year of age. The probability of acquiring a P. falciparum infection and developing an episode of clinical malaria was determined in relation to the P. falciparum-specific antibody level of the infant at birth against P. falciparum schizont antigen or recombinant merozoite surface protein MSP1(19) antigen. The risk of acquiring an episode of clinical malaria increased from birth to 6 months of age, after which it decreased. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum parasitemia was highest (48.9%) in the 6-month-old infants. The age-specific hematocrit value showed the lowest mean value (30.2) from 6 to 9 months, and the spleen rate was the highest (69.8%) at the same age. There was a lower risk of ...
In the absence of an effective vaccine, malaria treatment and eradication is still a challenge in most endemic areas globally. This is especially the case with the current reported emergence of resistance to artemisinin agents in Southeast Asia. This study therefore explored the prevalence of K13-propeller gene polymorphisms among Plasmodium falciparum parasites in northern Uganda. Adult patients (≥18 years) presenting to out-patients department of Lira and Gulu regional referral hospitals in northern Uganda were randomly recruited. Laboratory investigation for presence of plasmodium infection among patients was done using Plasmodium falciparum exclusive rapid diagnostic test, histidine rich protein-2 (HRP2) (Pf). Finger prick capillary blood from patients with a positive malaria test was spotted on a filter paper Whatman no. 903. The parasite DNA was extracted using chelex resin method and sequenced for mutations in K13-propeller gene using Sanger sequencing. PCR DNA sequence products were analyzed
Many parasites use multicopy protein families to avoid their hosts immune system through a strategy called antigenic variation. RIFIN and STEVOR proteins are variable surface antigens uniquely found in the malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and P. reichenowi. Although these two protein families are different, they have more similarity to each other than to any other proteins described to date. As a result, they have been grouped together in one Pfam domain. However, a recent study has described the sub-division of the RIFIN protein family into several functionally distinct groups. These sub-groups require phylogenetic analysis to sort out, which is not practical for large-scale projects, such as the sequencing of patient isolates and meta-genomic analysis. We have manually curated the rif and stevor gene repertoires of two Plasmodium falciparum genomes, isolates DD2 and HB3. We have identified 25% of mis-annotated and ~30 missing rif and stevor genes. Using these data sets, as well as sequences
Genetic investigations of malaria require a genome-wide, high-resolution linkage map of Plasmodium falciparum. A genetic cross was used to construct such a map from 901 markers that fall into 14 inferred linkage groups corresponding to the 14 nuclear chromosomes. Meiotic crossover activity in the genome proved high (17 kilobases per centimorgan) and notably uniform over chromosome length. Gene conversion events and spontaneous microsatellite length changes were evident in the inheritance data. The markers, map, and recombination parameters are facilitating genome sequence assembly, localization of determinants for such traits as virulence and drug resistance, and genetic studies of parasite field populations. ...
Background. In humans it is unknown if the composition of the gut microbiota alters the risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection or the risk of developing febrile malaria once P. falciparum infection is established. Here we collected stool samples from a cohort composed of 195 Malian children and adults just prior to an intense P. falciparum transmission season. We assayed these samples using massively parallel sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene to identify the composition of the gut bacterial communities in these individuals. During the ensuing 6-month P. falciparum transmission season we examined the relationship between the stool microbiota composition of individuals in this cohort and their prospective risk of both P. falciparum infection and febrile malaria.. Results. Consistent with prior studies, stool microbial diversity in the present cohort increased with age, although the overall microbiota profile was distinct from cohorts in other regions of Africa, Asia and North America. ...
Genetic mapping is a powerful method to identify mutations that cause drug resistance and other phenotypic changes in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. For efficient mapping of a target gene, it is often necessary to genotype a large number of polymorphic markers. Currently, a community effort is underway to collect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from the parasite genome. Here we evaluate polymorphism detection accuracy of a high-density tiling microarray with 2.56 million probes by comparing single feature polymorphisms (SFP) calls from the microarray with known SNP among parasite isolates. We found that probe GC content, SNP position in a probe, probe coverage, and signal ratio cutoff values were important factors for accurate detection of SFP in the parasite genome. We established a set of SFP calling parameters that could predict mSFP (SFP called by multiple overlapping probes) with high accuracy (≥ 94%) and identified 121,087 mSFP genome-wide from five parasite isolates
Emerging evidence suggests that antibodies against merozoite proteins involved in Plasmodium falciparum invasion into the red blood cell (RBC) play an important role in clinical immunity to malaria. The protein family of parasite antigens known as P. falciparum reticulocyte binding protein like homolog (PfRh) is required for RBC invasion. PfRh5 is the only member within the PfRh family that cannot be genetically deleted, suggesting it plays an essential role in parasite survival. This antigen forms a complex with the cysteine-rich P. falciparum Rh5 interacting protein (PfRipr), on the merozoite surface during RBC invasion. The PfRh5 ectodomain sequence and a C-terminal fragment of PfRipr were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and baculovirus-infected cells, respectively. Immunization of rabbits with these recombinant proteins induced antibodies able to inhibit growth of various P. falciparum strains. Antibody responses to these proteins were investigated in a treatment re-infection study ...
In Plasmodium falciparum infections the parasite transmission stages, the gametocytes, mature in 10 days sequestered in internal organs. Recent studies suggest that cell mechanical properties rather than adhesive interactions play a role in sequestration during gametocyte maturation. It remains instead obscure how sequestration is established, and how the earliest sexual stages, morphologically similar to asexual trophozoites, modify the infected erythrocytes and their cytoadhesive properties at the onset of gametocytogenesis. Here, purified P. falciparum early gametocytes were used to ultrastructurally and biochemically analyse parasite-induced modifications on the red blood cell surface and to measure their functional consequences on adhesion to human endothelial cells. This work revealed that stage I gametocytes are able to deform the infected erythrocytes like asexual parasites, but do not modify its surface with adhesive knob structures and associated proteins. Reduced levels of the P. ...
BACKGROUND: Emergence of artemisinin resistance in southeast Asia poses a serious threat to the global control of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Discovery of the K13 marker has transformed approaches to the monitoring of artemisinin resistance, allowing introduction of molecular surveillance in remote areas through analysis of DNA. We aimed to assess the spread of artemisinin-resistant P falciparum in Myanmar by determining the relative prevalence of P falciparum parasites carrying K13-propeller mutations. METHODS: We did this cross-sectional survey at malaria treatment centres at 55 sites in ten administrative regions in Myanmar, and in relevant border regions in Thailand and Bangladesh, between January, 2013, and September, 2014. K13 sequences from P falciparum infections were obtained mainly by passive case detection. We entered data into two geostatistical models to produce predictive maps of the estimated prevalence of mutations of the K13 propeller region across Myanmar. FINDINGS: Overall, ...
Antibodies are known to play an important role in the control of malaria infection. Since the early studies demonstrating that antibodies transferred from immune individuals diminish P. falciparum parasitaemia [11] a lot of effort has been put forward to identify parasite epitopes and mechanisms of action of antibody-mediated immune response to malaria. Besides their role in infection control, antibodies can modulate parasite development in the sporogonic [3 - 5], exoerythrocytic [6] and erythrocytic [7] cycle. However, there is almost no information on the effect of antibodies on the expression of Plasmodium immunogenic molecules.. There are evidences that antibodies can interfere with parasite multiplication. An increase on sporozoite number recovered from the salivary glands when mosquitoes were fed on anti-Plasmodium antibodies was observed [3, 4] and IgG isolated from Kenyan immune adults enhanced parasite growth in culture while the serum from which they were isolated had an inhibitory ...
Molecular genetic studies of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been hampered in part due to difficulties in stably cloning and propagating parasite genomic DNA in bacteria. This is thought to be a result of the unusual A+T bias (|80%) in the parasites DNA. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic separation of P. falciparum chromosomes has shown that large chromosomal polymorphisms, resulting from the deletion of DNA from chromosome ends, frequently occur. Understanding the biological implications of this chromosomal polymorphism will require the analysis of large regions of genomic, and in particular telomeric, DNA. To overcome the limitations of cloning parasite DNA in bacteria, we have cloned genomic DNA from the P. falciparum strain FCR3 in yeast as artificial chromosomes. A pYAC4 library with an average insert size of approximately 100 kb was established and found to have a three to fourfold redundancy for single-copy genes. Unlike bacterial hosts, yeast stably maintain and propagate
The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the intracellular parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The African continent bears the greatest burden of malaria with 90% of all malaria deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa where the high risk populations include pregnant woman and children under the age of five. Fatal cases of malaria are often a result of the progression of the disease to a life threatening syndrome where intravenous quinine or artesunate are administered as an emergency treatment, however a 15-20% mortality rate is still observed among treated individuals. Pathogenesis of severe malaria is associated with the mature or late trophozoite stage of the parasite s intra-erythrocyte life cycle. At this stage the intracellular parasite expresses parasite derived proteins on the surface of the red blood cell (RBCs) that bind to host endothelial receptors. This cytoadhesion ultimately allows the parasite to multiply unhindered by the host resulting in high parasitaemia levels which ...
Malaria Consortium - One of the worlds leading non-profit organisations specialising in the prevention, control and treatment of malaria and other communicable diseases among vulnerable populations. - Containing artemisinin resistant plasmodium falciparum parasite and moving toward malaria pre elimination status in cambodia
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Plasmodium Falciparum Schizont Infected RBCs Antibody (11B7) [PerCP]. Validated: ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Protozoa. 100% Guaranteed.
Aotus lemurinus lemurinus monkeys were immunized four times with one of three DNA plasmids expressing important Plasmodium falciparum blood stage vaccine candidate proteins or with a mixture containing all three vaccines. The three vaccines encoded sequences from apical merozoite antigen-1 (AMA-1), …
Rosetting, i.e. the capacity of red blood cells (iRBCs) infected with mature parasite stages to bind two or more uninfected red blood cells (RBCs) is a virulence factor of Plasmodium falciparum. This protocol describes an in vitro assay to monitor rosette formation by P. falciparum-infected red blood cells, including procedures for rosette enrichment, maintenance of rosetting phenotype and assays for rosetting with RBC labeled using lipophilic fluorescent probes.
The Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1(Pf MSP1), a predominant antigen on the surface of the asexual blood stage of the parasite, plays a role in erythrocyte invasion. It elicits immune responses during exposure to natural P. falciparum infections, hence, it is a potential vaccine candidate. However, its extensive sequence diversity causes antigenic variability. Parasites that express variants other than that targeted by immune protection mounted as a result of a vaccine variant, evade the resultant host immune protection. This compromises the efficacy of allele-specific vaccines formulated to protect against a single variant. Due to this, Pf MSP1 has been extensively studied, including in Kenya. However, the extent of Pf MSP1 diversity in children with multiple infections are unknown in Kilifi which is a moderate to high malaria transmission zone. Parasite genomic DNA was extracted from 421 blood samples in 33 children aged below 5 years who had at least 9 multiple infections. ...
The roles of allelic and conserved epitopes in vaccine-induced immunity to the C-terminal 42-kDa fragment of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) were investigated. The C-terminal fragment of MSP1 was expressed as a baculovirus recombinant protein, BVp42. Rabbits were immunized with BVp42, and antibodies were tested for reactivity to MSP1s of the homologous and heterologous allelic forms, represented by the FUP, FVO, FC27, and Honduras parasite isolates, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. Despite the fact that allelic sequences accounted for approximately 50% of the BVp42 molecule, anti-BVp42 antibodies cross-reacted extensively with parasites carrying heterologous MSP1 alleles. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assays confirmed that an overwhelming majority of the anti-BVp42 antibodies were cross-reactive, suggesting that determinants within conserved block 17 are dominant B-cell epitopes in the anti-BVp42 response. ...
Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), particularly HLA-B and class II alleles have been differentially associated with disease outcomes in different populations following infection with the malaria Plasmodium falciparum. However, the effect of HLA-A on malaria infection and/or disease is not fully understood. Recently, HLA-A alleles have been suggested to play a role in the outcome of P. falciparum malaria infection in a Malian study. Herein, we investigated the association between HLA-A alleles and the outcome of malaria infection in children in Ibadan southwest Nigeria. HLA-A genotyping was performed on 393 children samples (DNA) using the sequence-based method. We compared genotype and allele frequencies data obtained from these Nigerian children; 176 with asymptomatic malaria infection (controls), 124 with uncomplicated malaria and 93 children with severe malaria (51 severe malarial anaemia and 42 cerebral malaria). We found a high frequency of HLA-A*36:01 (13.5%) in the entire studied population ...
Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a global public health threat. Leading malaria vaccine candidates confer only partial short-lived protection at best. An understanding of the mechanisms by which humans acquire malaria immunity through repeated P. falciparum infections may aid the development of a malaria vaccine. This pilor study is designed to initiate the epidemiological groundwork for a future prospective cohort study of acquired malaria immunity in Kalifabougou, Mali, a rural village of approximately 5 000 individuals who are exposed to seasonal P. falciparum transmission each year from July through December. This study will estimate the age-stratified point prevalence of P. falciparum infection before the malaria season and at the peak of the 6-month malaria season, and it will estimate the age-stratified incidence of symptomatic p. falciparum infection during the 6-month malaria season. The spatial distribution of asymptomatic P. falciparum infections and incident malaria cases within ...
The malaria genome encodes over 5,000 proteins and many of these have also been proposed to be potential vaccine candidates, although few of these have been tested clinically. RH5 is one of the leading blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine antigens and Phase I/II clinical trials of vaccines containing this antigen are currently underway. Its likely mechanism of action is to elicit antibodies that can neutralize merozoites by blocking their invasion of red blood cells (RBC). However, many other antigens could also elicit neutralizing antibodies against the merozoite, and most of these have never been compared directly to RH5. The objective of this study was to compare a range of blood-stage antigens to RH5, to identify any antigens that outperform or synergize with anti-RH5 antibodies. We selected 55 gene products, covering 15 candidate antigens that have been described in the literature and 40 genes selected on the basis of bioinformatics functional prediction. We were able to make 20
Pyronaridine, a Mannich base antimalarial, has demonstrated high in vivo and in vitro efficacy against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Although this drug has the potential to become a prominent artemisinin combination therapy, little is known about its efficacy against drug-resistant Plasmodium vivax. The in vitro antimalarial susceptibility of pyronaridine was assessed in multidrug-resistant P. vivax (n = 99) and P. falciparum (n = 90) isolates from Papua, Indonesia, using a schizont maturation assay. The median 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of pyronaridine was 1.92 nM (range, 0.24 to 13.8 nM) against P. falciparum and 2.58 nM (range, 0.13 to 43.6 nM) against P. vivax, with in vitro susceptibility correlating significantly with chloroquine, amodiaquine, and piperaquine (r(s) [Spearmans rank correlation coefficient] = 0.45 to 0.62; P | 0.001). P. falciparum parasites initially at trophozoite stage had higher IC(50)s of pyronaridine than those exposed at the ring stage (8.9 nM
Substantial evidence indicates that antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens play a role in protection from malaria, although the precise targets and mechanisms mediating immunity remain unclear. Different malaria antigens induce distinct immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass responses, but the importance of different responses in protective immunity from malaria is not known and the factors determining subclass responses in vivo are poorly understood. We examined IgG and IgG subclass responses to the merozoite antigens MSP1-19 (the 19-kDa C-terminal region of merozoite surface protein 1), MSP2 (merozoite surface protein 2), and AMA-1 (apical membrane antigen 1), including different polymorphic variants of these antigens, in a longitudinal cohort of children in Papua New Guinea. IgG1 and IgG3 were the predominant subclasses of antibodies to each antigen, and all antibody responses increased in association with age and exposure without evidence of increasing polarization toward one ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a Plasmodium falciparum vaccine comprising a circumsporozoite protein repeat region peptide conjugated to Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin A. AU - Fries, L. F.. AU - Gordon, D. M.. AU - Schneider, I.. AU - Beier, J. C.. AU - Long, G. W.. AU - Gross, M.. AU - Que, J. U.. AU - Cryz, S. J.. AU - Sadoff, J. C.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Twenty-one malaria-naive volunteers were immunized with a vaccine consisting of a 22-kDa recombinant peptide (R32LR), derived from the repeat region of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) protein, covalently coupled to detoxified Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin A. Nineteen volunteers received a second dose of vaccine at 8 weeks, and eighteen received a third dose at 8 to 12 months. The vaccine was well tolerated, with only one volunteer developing local discomfort and induration at the site of injection which limited function for 48 h. The ...
Thesis (Ph.D.)--Georgetown University, 2009.; Includes bibliographical references.; Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format. Malaria caused by the Apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum is an alarming health problem due to increasing incidence of deaths and growing resistance to antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine. Chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum is primarily determined by PfCRT (P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter), a transmembrane protein localized to the digestive vacuolar membrane of the parasite. Bioinformatic studies by Fidock et al. (2000) and Martin & Kirk (2004) suggested that PfCRT belongs to the drug/metabolite transporter superfamily but its mode of action has not yet been fully established. In order to elucidate the role of PfCRT in chloroquine resistance, chloroquine binding and transport were analyzed using membrane preparations from yeast Pichia pastoris expressing PfCRT, as well as proteoliposomes harboring purified protein.; Chloroquine binding was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Murine model for assessment of Plasmodium falciparum transmission-blocking vaccine using transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites expressing the target antigen Pfs25. AU - Mlambo, Godfree. AU - Maciel, Jorge. AU - Kumar, Nirbhay. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - Currently, there is no animal model for Plasmodium falciparum challenge to evaluate malaria transmission-blocking vaccines based on the well-established Pfs25 target antigen. The biological activity of transmission-blocking antibodies is typically assessed using an assay known as the membrane feeding assay (MFA). It is an in vitro method that involves mixing antibodies with cultured P. falciparum gametocytes and feeding them to mosquitoes through an artificial membrane followed by assessment of infection in the mosquitoes. We genetically modified Plasmodium berghei to express Pfs25 and demonstrated that the transgenic parasites (TrPfs25Pb) are susceptible to anti-Pfs25 antibodies during mosquito-stage development. The ...
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Malaria causes a worldwide annual mortality of about a million people.Rapidly evolving drug-resistant species of the parasite have created a pressing need for the identification of new drug targets and vaccine candidates. By developing fractionation protocols to enrich parasites from low-parasitemia patient samples, we have carried out the first ever proteomics analysis of clinical isolates of early stages of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and P. vivax. Patient-derived malarial parasites were directly processed and analyzed using shotgun proteomics approach using high-sensitivity MS for protein identification. Our study revealed about 100 parasite-coded gene products that included many known drug targets such as Pf hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase, Pf L-lactate dehydrogenase, and Plasmepsins. In addition,our study reports the expression of several parasite proteins in clinical ring stages that have never been reported in the ring stages of the laboratory-cultivated parasite strain. ...
Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum at the Tanganyika Planting Company sugar estate, Moshi, Tanzania / by T. K. Mutabingwa, V. A. E. G. Kilimali and W. L. ...
Chronic Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections in a Sudanese village, in an area of seasonal and unstable malaria transmission, were monitored and genetically characterized to study the in¯uence of persistent infection on the immunology and epidemiology of low endemicity malaria. During the October±December malaria season of 1996, 51 individuals out of a population of 420 had con®rmed and treated P. falciparum malaria in the village of Daraweesh in eastern Sudan. In a cross-sectional survey carried out in December 1996, an additional 6 individuals were found to harbour a microscopically negative but polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive P. falciparum infection. On 1 January 1997, a cohort of 43 individuals aged from 9 to 53, recruited from this group of recently malaria-infected individuals agreed to donate fortnightly blood samples for the next 9 months, the ®rst 6 of which constitute the long Sudanese dry season when transmission falls to undetectable levels. Each blood sample was ...
Resistance-conferring PfCRT isoforms (which harbor mutation K76T and are distinguished by 3-8 additional mutations) are believed to confer resistance to the 4-amino quinoline drug chloroquine (CQ) by transporting CQ away from the drugs digestive vacuole (DV) - localized heme target. One theory then is that variable CQ transport catalyzed by different mutant PfCRTs are responsible for the range of CQ sensitivities now found for P. falciparum around the globe. Alternatively, additional mutations in drug- selected parasites may complement PfCRT in conferring a range of resistance phenotypes. In this thesis, I further optimize a convenient method for screening for CQ transport mediated by PfCRT, involving heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I use this method and other techniques to quantify activity for all currently known naturally occurring PfCRT isoforms. My results show that chlorquine resistance (CQR) in isolates expressing certain PfCRT isoforms likely depends upon additional ...
BioAssay record AID 723630 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiplasmodial activity against erythrocyte form of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 by parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay.
Studies were conducted to determine how malaria parasites are cleared from the blood after antimalarial treatment. Neither artesunate nor quinine decreased parasitized red cell deformability or increased antibody binding. In acute falciparum malaria, ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) was observed in erythrocytes without malaria parasites (RESA-red blood cell [RBC]), indicating prior parasitization. In uncomplicated malaria, RESA-RBC numbers increased significantly (P=.002) within 24 h of starting artesunate but rose much more slowly (7 days) after quinine treatment. In severe malaria, RESA-RBC increased significantly (P=. 001) within hours of starting artesunate but not with quinine treatment (P=.43). RESA-RBCs were not produced after drug treatment of malaria parasite cultures in vitro. Rapid malaria parasite clearance after treatment with artemisinin derivatives results mainly from the extraction of drug-affected parasites from host erythrocytes-presumably by the spleen. This explains
Plasmodium falciparum malaria merozoites require erythrocyte sialic acid for optimal invasion of human erythrocytes. Since mouse erythrocytes have the form of sialic acid found on human erythrocytes (N-acetyl neuraminic acid), mouse erythrocytes were tested for invasion in vitro. The Camp and 7G8 strains of P. falciparum invaded mouse erythrocytes at 17-45% of the invasion rate of human erythrocytes. Newly invaded mouse erythrocytes morphologically resembled parasitized human erythrocytes as shown on Giemsa-stained blood films and by electron microscopy. The rim of parasitized mouse erythrocytes contained the P. falciparum 155-kD protein, which is on the rim of ring-infected human erythrocytes. Camp but not 7G8 invaded rat erythrocytes, indicating receptor heterogeneity. These data suggest that it may be possible to adapt the asexual erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum to rodents. The development of a rodent model of P. falciparum malaria could facilitate vaccine development. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo transcriptional profiling of Plasmodium falciparum. AU - Daily, Johanna P.. AU - Le Roch, Karine G.. AU - Sarr, Ousmane. AU - Fang, Xuemin. AU - Zhou, Yingyao. AU - Ndir, Omar. AU - Mboup, Soulyemane. AU - Sultan, Ali. AU - Winzeler, Elizabeth A.. AU - Wirth, Dyann F.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2004/8/5. Y1 - 2004/8/5. N2 - Background: Both host and pathogen factors contribute to disease outcome in Plasmodium falciparum infection. The feasibility of studying the P. falciparum in vivo transcriptome to understand parasite transcriptional response while it resides in the human host is presented. Methods: A custom made oligonucleotide array with probes based on the P. falciparum 3D7 laboratory strain chromosome 2 sequence was used to detect in vivo P. falciparum transcripts. This study analyzed transcripts from total RNA derived from small blood samples of P. falciparum infected patients and compared the in vivo expression ...
Background: The circumsporozoite surface protein is the primary target of human antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, these antibodies are predominantly directed to the major repetitive epitope (Asn-Pro-Asn-Ala)n, (NPNA)n. In individuals immunized by the bites of. irradiated Anopheles mosquitoes carrying P. falciparum sporozoites in their salivary glands, the antirepeat. response dominates and is thought by many to play a role in protective immunity.. Methods: The antibody repertoire from a protected individual immunized by the bites of irradiated P. falciparum infected Anopheles stephensi was recapitulated in a phage display library. Following affinity based selection against (NPNA)3 antibody fragments that recognized the PfCSP repeat epitope were rescued.. Results: Analysis of selected antibody fragments implied the response was restricted to a single antibody fragment consisting of VH3 and VkI families for heavy and light chain respectively with moderate affinity for the ...
Differences between Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Differences. Plasmodium vivax vs falciparum.
BioAssay record AID 157870 submitted by ChEMBL: Growth inhibition of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum K1 by [3H]hypoxanthine uptake.
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 25522250. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Dec;10(12):e1004520. All pathogenesis and death associated with Plasmodium falciparum malaria is due to parasite-infected erythrocytes. Invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum merozoites requires specific interactions between host receptors and parasite ligands that are localized in apical organelles called micronemes. Here, we identify cAMP as a key regulator that triggers the timely secretion of microneme proteins enabling receptor-engagement and invasion. We demonstrate that exposure of merozoites to a low K+ environment, typical of blood plasma, activates a bicarbonate-sensitive cytoplasmic adenylyl cyclase to raise cytosolic cAMP levels and activate protein kinase A, which regulates microneme secretion. We also show that cAMP regulates merozoite cytosolic Ca2+ levels via induction of an Epac pathway and demonstrate that increases in both cAMP and Ca2+ are essential to trigger microneme secretion. Our identification of the different ...
Isolation of Non-Parenchymal Cells from the Mouse Liver -- Measurement of the T Cell Response to Pre-Erythrocytic Vaccination in Mice -- Characterization of Liver CD8 T cell Subsets that are Associated with Protection against Pre-Erythrocytic Plasmodium Parasites -- Flow Cytometry-Based Assessment of Antibody Function against Malaria Pre-Erythrocytic Infection -- Assessment of Parasite Liver Stage Burden in Human-Liver Chimeric Mice -- Measurement of Antibody-Mediated Reduction of Plasmodium Yoelii Liver Burden by Bioluminescent Imaging -- Detection of Plasmodium Berghei and Plasmodium Yoelii Liver-Stage Parasite Burden by Quantitative Real Time PCR -- Membrane Feeding Assay to Determine the Infectiousness of Plasmodium Vivax Gametocytes -- The Standard Membrane Feeding Assay: Advances Using Bioluminescence -- Agglutination Assays of the Plasmodium Falciparum Infected Erythrocyte -- Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Inhibition (ADCI) of Plasmodium Falciparum: One and Two-Step ADCI Assays -- A ...
Fetal hemoglobin modifies the disease manifestation of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in adult patients with sickle cell anemia.
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies are the recommended first-line treatments of falciparum malaria in all countries with endemic disease. There are recent concerns that the efficacy of such therapies has declined on the Thai-Cambodian border, historically a site of emerging antimalarial-drug resistance. METHODS: In two open-label, randomized trials, we compared the efficacies of two treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Pailin, western Cambodia, and Wang Pha, northwestern Thailand: oral artesunate given at a dose of 2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day, for 7 days, and artesunate given at a dose of 4 mg per kilogram per day, for 3 days, followed by mefloquine at two doses totaling 25 mg per kilogram. We assessed in vitro and in vivo Plasmodium falciparum susceptibility, artesunate pharmacokinetics, and molecular markers of resistance. RESULTS: We studied 40 patients in each of the two locations. The overall median parasite clearance times were 84 hours (interquartile
A dose escalating, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial was conducted to test the safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine containing recombinant Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) formulated in Montanide ISA720. Three groups of volunteers were vaccinated intramuscularly with 5 microg, 20 microg or 80 microg of AMA1, respectively, in 0.5 mL of formulation at 0, 3 and 6 months. Anti-AMA1 antibody levels and T cell stimulation indices were measured before and after each vaccination. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. Most subjects generated a mild to moderate, transient local reaction after the first vaccination. Three subjects developed a local reaction approximately 10 days following vaccination. Six of the 29 subjects seroconverted. Only one of these developed a high antibody titre. However, the interpretation of this trial was compromised by a loss of potency of the formulated vaccine during the course of the study ...
Many studies on the role of merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) in immunity against malaria have focused on a conserved section of MSP3. New evidence suggests that polymorphic sequences within MSP3 are under immune selection. We report a detailed analysis of naturally-acquired antibodies to allele-specific and conserved parts of MSP3 in a Kenyan cohort. Indirect and competition ELISA to heterologous recombinant MSP3 proteins were used for antibody assays, and parasites were genotyped for msp3 alleles. Antibody reactivity to allele-specific and conserved epitopes of MSP3 was heterogeneous between individuals. Overall, the prevalence of allele-specific antibody reactivity was significantly higher (3D7-specific 54%, K1-specific 41%) than that to a recombinant protein representing a conserved portion of C-terminal MSP3 (24%, P | 0.01). The most abundant IgG subclass was IgG3, followed by IgG1. Allele-specific reactivity to the K1-type of MSP3 was associated with a lower risk of clinical malaria episodes
Genotyping of the chloroquine-resistance biomarker pfcrt (Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene) suggests that, in the absence of chloroquine pressure, Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Malawi have reverted to chloroquine sensitivity. However, malaria infections in Africa are commonly polyclonal, and standard PCRs cannot detect minority genotypes if present in &lt;20% of the parasites in an individual host. We have developed a multiple site-specific heteroduplex tracking assay (MSS-HTA) that can detect pfcrt 76T mutant parasites consisting of as little as 1% of the parasite population. In clinical samples, no pfcrt 76T was detected in 87 pregnant Malawian women by standard PCR. However, 22 (25%) contained minority-variant resistant genotypes detected by the MSS-HTA. These results were confirmed by subcloning and sequencing. This finding suggests that the chloroquine-resistant genotype remains common in Malawians and that PCR-undetectable drug-resistant genotypes may be
No vaccine has yet proven effective against the blood-stages of Plasmodium falciparum, which cause the symptoms and severe manifestations of malaria. We recently found that PfRH5, a P. falciparum-specific protein expressed in merozoites, is efficiently targeted by broadly-neutralizing, vaccine-induced antibodies. Here we show that antibodies against PfRH5 efficiently inhibit the in vitro growth of short-term-adapted parasite isolates from Cambodia, and that the EC(50) values of antigen-specific antibodies against PfRH5 are lower than those against PfAMA1. Since antibody responses elicited by multiple antigens are speculated to improve the efficacy of blood-stage vaccines, we conducted detailed assessments of parasite growth inhibition by antibodies against PfRH5 in combination with antibodies against seven other merozoite antigens. We found that antibodies against PfRH5 act synergistically with antibodies against certain other merozoite antigens, most notably with antibodies against other erythrocyte
There is growing epidemiological and molecular evidence that ABO blood group affects host susceptibility to severe Plasmodium falciparum infection. The high frequency of common ABO alleles means that even modest differences in susceptibility could have a significant impact on the health of people living in malaria endemic regions. We performed an association study, the first to utilize key molecular genetic variation underlying the ABO system, genotyping |9000 individuals across three African populations. Using population- and family-based tests, we demonstrated that alleles producing functional ABO enzymes are associated with greater risk of severe malaria phenotypes (particularly malarial anemia) in comparison with the frameshift deletion underlying blood group O: case-control allelic odds ratio (OR), 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.32; P = 0.0003; family-studies allelic OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08-1.32; P = 0.001; pooled across all studies allelic OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.26; P = 2 x 10(-7). We
BACKGROUND: The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control and the optimal distribution of appropriate interventions require accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk and of the human populations it affects. Low population densities in rural areas and high population densities in urban areas can influence malaria transmission substantially. Here, the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) global database of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys, medical intelligence and contemporary population surfaces are utilized to explore these relationships and other issues involved in combining malaria risk maps with those of human population distribution in order to define populations at risk more accurately. METHODS: First, an existing population surface was examined to determine if it was sufficiently detailed to be used reliably as a mask to identify areas of very low and very high population density as malaria free regions. Second, the potential of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phylogenetic Analysis and Protein Modeling of Plasmodium falciparum Aspartate Transcarbamoylase (ATCase). AU - Depamede, Sulaiman. AU - Menz, Ian. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Unlike most mammalian cells, Plasmodium sp., are unable to utilize preformed pyrimidine bases and nucleosides hence they are reliant solely on de novo pathway. Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase, EC 2.1.3.2) catalyzes the first committed step in de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, is a potential target for novel anti-parasitic including antimalarial drugs. P. falciparum ATCase has not been studied extensively. To reveal whether it has a regulatory subunit or no and how its evolution, phylogenetic analysis and protein modeling of ATCase P. falciparum were studied. The structural model can be used to identify the possible differences between active sites of mammalian and Plasmodium enzyme. This is important in a relation with antimalarial drug development. Analogous sequences from P. falciparum were ...
Background Sickle cell trait (HbAS) confers partial protection against malaria by reducing the adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to host receptors, but little is known about its potential protection against placental malaria. Methods Using flow cytometry, we assessed the recognition of HbAA and HbAS VAR2CSA-expressing infected erythrocytes, by plasma from 159 Beninese pregnant women with either HbAA (normal) or HbAS. Using multivariate linear models adjusted for gravidity, parasite infection at delivery, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and α-thalassemia carriage, we observed significantly reduced cell surface antibody binding of HbAS-infected erythrocytes by plasma from HbAS compared with HbAA women (P , 10-3). Results The difference in cell surface antibody binding was only observed when infected erythrocytes and plasma were associated according to the same hemoglobin genotype. Similar levels of VAR2CSA-specific antibody were measured by enzyme-linked ...
Fishes, amphibia and reptiles, the ectothermic vertebrates, are hosts for a variety of intraerythrocytic parasites including protists, prokaryotes, viruses and structures of uncertain status. These parasites may experience host temperature fluctuations, host reproductive strategies, population genetics, host habitat and migratory behaviour quite unlike those of endothermic hosts. Few blood infections of fishes, amphibia and reptiles have proven pathogenicity, in contrast to the many intraerythrocytic parasites of mammals and some birds which harm their hosts. Although not given the attention afforded to intraerythrocytic parasites of endotherms, those of ectotherms have been studied for more than a century. This review reports on the diversity, general biology and phylogeny of intraerythrocytic parasites of ectotherms. The existence of taxonomic confusion is emphasized and the main taxonomic features of most of the 23 better characterized genera, particularly the kinetoplastid and apicomplexan ...
Background. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) account for more than two-thirds of malaria diagnoses in Africa. Deletions of the Plasmodium falciparum hrp2 (pfhrp2) gene cause false-negative RDT results and have never been investigated on a national level. Spread of pfhrp2-deleted P. falciparum mutants, resistant to detection by HRP2-based RDTs, would represent a serious threat to malaria elimination efforts. Methods. Using a nationally representative cross-sectional study of 7,137 children under five years of age from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we tested 783 subjects with RDT-/PCR+ results using PCR assays to detect and confirm deletions of the pfhrp2 gene. Spatial and population genetic analyses were employed to examine the distribution and evolution of these parasites. Results. We identified 149 pfhrp2-deleted parasites, representing 6.4% of all P. falciparum infections country-wide (95% confidence interval 5.1-8.0%). Bayesian spatial analyses identified statistically significant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigation of a potential mechanism for the inhibition of SmTGR by Auranofin and its implications for Plasmodium falciparum inhibition. AU - Caroli, Antonia. AU - Simeoni, Silvia. AU - Lepore, Rosalba. AU - Tramontano, Anna. AU - Via, Allegra. N1 - KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01 Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): KUK-I1-012-43 Acknowledgements: We thank the members of the Fondazione Roma Research Unit led by Prof. Maurizio Brunori for useful discussions and Prof. Arthur Lesk for critically reading the manuscript. This work was partially supported by Award number KUK-I1-012-43 made by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), FIRB Proteomica, Ministery of Health Grant Contract No. Onc_Ord 25/07, Fondazione Roma and the IIT SEED project. This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.. PY - 2012/1. Y1 - 2012/1. N2 - Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium falciparum are pathogen parasites that spend part of their ...
We conducted a population-based survey to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection among persons older than 1 month in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti during the high malaria transmission season in 2006. Results from PCR for 714 persons showed a prevalence of 3.1% for P. falciparum infection.
Plasmodium falciparum[edit]. Plasmodium falciparum, the major etiologic agent of human malaria, has a very complex life cycle ... In the case of Plasmodium, this is accomplished via the dual purpose Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 ( ... Kyes S, Christodoulou Z, Pinches R, Kriek N, Horrocks P, Newbold C (2007). "Plasmodium falciparum var gene expression is ... Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum are some of the best studied examples. ...
Humans may have originally caught Plasmodium falciparum from gorillas. P. vivax, another malarial Plasmodium species among the ... Shortt HE, Fairley NH, Covell G, Shute PG, Garnham PC (1948). "Pre-erythrocytic Stage of Plasmodium Falciparum". Br Med J. 2 ( ... Nerlich AG, Schraut B, Dittrich S, Jelinek T, Zink AR (2008). "Plasmodium falciparum in Ancient Egypt". Emerg Infect Dis. 14 (8 ... doi:10.1016/0305-7488(80)90145-0. Fornaciari G, Giuffra V, Ferroglio E, Gino S, Bianucci R (2010). "Plasmodium falciparum ...
Rubio, J P; Thompson, J K; Cowman, A F (1 August 1996). "The var genes of Plasmodium falciparum are located in the subtelomeric ... The advantages of subtelomeres have been studied in different species such as Plasmodium falciparum, Drosophila melanogaster, ... Scherf, Artur; Lopez-Rubio, Jose Juan; Riviere, Loïc (October 2008). "Antigenic Variation in Plasmodium falciparum". Annual ... The subtelomeres of such diverse species as humans, Plasmodium falciparum, Drosophila melanogaster, and Saccharomyces ...
Dalexandri, F.; Kimura, E.; Peres, V.; Katzin, A. (2006). "Protein dolichylation in Plasmodium falciparum". FEBS Letters. 580 ( ... including the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Hjertman, M.; Wejde, J.; Dricu, A.; Carlberg, M.; Griffiths, W. J.; ...
Glycophorin B acts as a receptor for erythrocyte binding Ligand (EBl-1) of Plasmodium falciparum involved in malaria. Both the ... Field SP, Hempelmann E, Mendelow BV, Fleming AF (February 1994). "Glycophorin variants and Plasmodium falciparum: protective ... Facer CA (1983). "Erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins and Plasmodium falciparum invasion". Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77 (4): ... "Glycophorin B as an EBA-175 independent Plasmodium falciparum receptor of human erythrocytes". Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 64 (1 ...
"Plasmodium falciparum (ID 33) - Genome - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-12-30. "Index of /genomes/refseq/protozoa/ ... "Index of /genomes/refseq/protozoa/Plasmodium_falciparum/latest_assembly_versions/GCF_000002765.5_GCA_000002765". ftp.ncbi.nih. ...
Some species, for example Plasmodium falciparum, have extremely complex life cycles that involve multiple forms of the organism ... Talman AM, Domarle O, McKenzie FE, Ariey F, Robert V (July 2004). "Gametocytogenesis: the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum". ... Some protists are significant parasites of animals (e.g.; five species of the parasitic genus Plasmodium cause malaria in ... However, it is unclear how frequently sexual reproduction causes genetic exchange between different strains of Plasmodium in ...
TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM MALARIA. World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2017-09-10. ... Artemether is an antimalarial drug for uncomplicated malaria caused by P. falciparum (and chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum) ... "Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine compared with quinine in pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum ... The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum with artemisinin-based combination ...
Dongare, H. C.; Khatib, K. I. (2016). "JCDR - Exchange blood transfusion, Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum". Journal of Clinical ...
August 2018). "Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoite Vaccine in Tanzanian Adults". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and ... Sanaria has developed the technology to grow and harvest aseptic, purified Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) SPZ and formulate them ... May 2017). "Safety and efficacy of PfSPZ Vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum via direct venous inoculation in healthy malaria ... infection by Plasmodium falciparum. Sanaria received FDA Fast Track Designation in 2016. Nineteen clinical trials of PfSPZ ...
1912). "The Cultivation of Malarial Plasmodia (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium Falciparum) in vitro". J. Exp. Med. 16 (4): 567- ... Trager W, Jensen JB (1997). "Continuous culture of Plasmodium falciparum: its impact on malaria research". Int. J. Parasitol. ... Allen RJ, Kirk K (2010). "Plasmodium falciparum culture: The benefits of shaking". Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 169 (1): 63-5. doi: ... Coronado LM, Tayler NM, Correa R, Giovani RM, Spadafora C (2013). "Separation of Plasmodium falciparum Late Stage-infected ...
Tilley L, Straimer J, Gnädig NF, Ralph SA, Fidock DA (2016). "Artemisinin Action and Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum". ... Ouji M, Augereau JM, Paloque L, Benoit-Vical F (2018). "Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination ... 2014). "Spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria". The New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (5): 411- ... 2009). "Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria". The New England Journal of Medicine. 361 (5): 455-67. doi: ...
... s are membranous structures seen in the red blood cell during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The function ... Mundwiler-Pachlatko E, Beck HP (December 2013). "Maurer's clefts, the enigma of Plasmodium falciparum". Proceedings of the ... they appear to play a role in trafficking of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) and other adhesins ... Maurer's clefts appear in the cytosol of red blood cells 2 to 4 hours after invasion by P. falciparum. They originally appear ...
Arnou, B; Montigny, C; Morth, JP; Nissen, P; Jaxel, C; Møller, JV; Maire, Ml (June 2011). "The Plasmodium falciparum Ca(2+)- ... PfATP6, also known as PfSERCA or PfATPase6, is a calcium ATPase gene encoded by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The ... Kimura, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Takada, S.; Tanabe, K. (1993). "Cloning of a Ca(2+)-ATPase gene of Plasmodium falciparum and ... August 2003). "Artemisinins target the SERCA of Plasmodium falciparum". Nature. 424 (6951): 957-61. doi:10.1038/nature01813. ...
During its intraerythrocytic asexual reproduction cycle Plasmodium falciparum consumes up to 80% of the host cell hemoglobin. ... Hempelmann E, Marques HM (September 1994). "Analysis of malaria pigment from Plasmodium falciparum". J Pharmacol Toxicol ... Hempelmann E (2007). "Hemozoin biocrystallization in Plasmodium falciparum and the antimalarial activity of crystallization ... "Protein complex directs hemoglobin-to-hemozoin formation in Plasmodium falciparum". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110 (14): 5392-7 ...
Plasmodium falciparum causes the majority of infections. Of the 20 countries with the highest incidence of maternal mortality, ...
Eight months after the MDA, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence had decreased from 14% to 1%. The only reported project with an ... Eyles DE, Hoo CC, Warren M, Sandosham AA (November 1963). "Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine in Cambodia". Am. J. ... Payne D (April 1988). "Did medicated salt hasten the spread of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum?". Parasitol. ... Kondrashin AV, Sanyal MC (December 1985). "Mass drug administration in Andhra Pradesh in areas under Plasmodium falciparum ...
2009). Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. New England Journal Of Medicine, 361, 455-467. Doliwa C, ... and as of 2012 artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in western Cambodia and western Thailand.Toxoplasma ... Plasmodium vivax has become chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistant a few decades ago, ...
Malaria is caused by apicomplexans, primarily Plasmodium falciparum, which largely reside in red blood cells and itself ... "Artemisinin Action and Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum". Trends in Parasitology. 32 (9): 682-696. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2016.05. ... "Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria" (PDF). The Cochrane Database of ... 2009). "Artemether‐Lumefantrine versus Dihydroartemisinin‐Piperaquine for Falciparum Malaria: A Longitudinal, Randomized Trial ...
"Analysis of malaria pigment from Plasmodium falciparum". J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 32 (1): 25-30. doi:10.1016/1056-8719(94) ... Heme biocrystallization has been found in blood feeding organisms of great medical importance including Plasmodium, Rhodnius ...
Subsequent human studies in the 1970s showed that humans could be immunized against Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum ... PfEMP1, one of the proteins known as variant surface antigens (VSAs) produced by Plasmodium falciparum, was found to be a key ... Report of a new candidate of vaccine capable to neutralize all tested strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly form of ... "Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Vaccine Candidates: Current Status". ibid. The Jordan Report "Case studies: Potential malaria ...
Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is a major selective factor in human evolution. It has influenced mutations in HBB in ... Verra F, Mangano VD, Modiano D (2009). "Genetics of susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum: from classical malaria resistance ... HbC provides near full protection against Plasmodium falciparum in homozygous (CC) individuals and intermediate protection in ... "Haemoglobin C and S in natural selection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a plethora or a single shared adaptive ...
Botté, Cyrille Y.; Dubar, Faustine; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Maréchal, Eric; Biot, Christophe (2012). "Plasmodium falciparum ... "Chemical Rescue of Malaria Parasites Lacking an Apicoplast Defines Organelle Function in Blood-Stage Plasmodium falciparum". ... Parasites in the apicomplexan genus Plasmodium are the causative agents of malaria. Studies of C. velia and V. brassicaformis ... Silico Search for Target Similarity Identifies Several Approved Drugs with Potential Activity against the Plasmodium falciparum ...
Plasmodium falciparum was probably not able to gain a foothold among African populations until larger sedentary communities ... Cortés A, Mellombo M, Mgone CS, Beck HP, Reeder JC, Cooke BM (2005). "Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood ... Rihet P, Flori L, Tall F, Traore AS, Fumoux F (2004). "Hemoglobin C is associated with reduced Plasmodium falciparum ... Brenda AkinyiI Webala, "Prevalence of Fetal Hemoglobin and Antibody Responses to Plasmodium falciparum Antigens in Sickle Cell ...
Plasmodium falciparum is the major cause of infection. Senegal has made significant progress against malaria and remains a ...
Plasmodium falciparum is the main cause of infection. The entire population of Mali is at risk for malaria, although ...
Maier AG, Duraisingh MT, Reeder JC, Patel SS, Kazura JW, Zimmerman PA, Cowman AF (January 2003). "Plasmodium falciparum ... Glycophorin C is the receptor for the protein erythrocyte binding antigen 140 (EBA140) of Plasmodium falciparum. This ... to invasion by Plasmodium falciparum. Such individuals have a subtype of a condition called hereditary elliptocytosis. The ... It is also an integral membrane protein of the erythrocyte and acts as the receptor for the Plasmodium falciparum protein PfEBP ...
Irwin Sherman (2008). "9: The Road to the Plasmodium falciparum Genome". Reflections on a century of malaria biochemistry. doi: ... "PF3D7_1133400 apical membrane antigen 1 [Plasmodium falciparum 3D7] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Center for ... The research focus was on protozoan infections, especially the cause of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), which kill over ...
Rabies vaccine Foot-and-mouth disease Plasmodium falciparum Catabolite repression India portal Medicine portal Long link - ... "Characterization of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase in Plasmodium falciparum cytosol". Parasitology International. 59 (2): 121- ... "Mitochondrial localization of functional ferrochelatase from Plasmodium falciparum". Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. ...
Miller, R. L. (1994). "Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infections in mummies using the rapid manual ParaSight™-F test". ... A new diagnostic tool for Plasmodium falciparum infection". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene ...
"Modeling of human M1 aminopeptidases for in silico screening of potential Plasmodium falciparum alanine aminopeptidase (PfA-M1 ...
"Identification of Plasmodium falciparum antigens by antigenic analysis of genomic and proteomic data". Proceedings of the ... infection with the malaria pathogen Plasmodium spp.) it is dispersed over a relatively large number of parasite antigens.[8] ...
Plasmodium eylesi. *Plasmodium fabesia. *Plasmodium fairchildi. *Plasmodium falciparum. *Plasmodium falconi. *Plasmodium fallax ... Plasmodium nucleophilium adalah parasit dari genus Plasmodium. Seperti semua spesies Plasmodium, P. nucleophilium menyerang ... Diperoleh dari "https://id.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plasmodium_nucleophilium&oldid=11942960" ...
Plasmodium falciparum menyebabkan malaria pada manusia dan Phytophthora infestans menyebabkan hawar daun pada kentang. ... the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum". Malar. J. 3: 24. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-3-24. PMC 497046 . PMID 15253774.. Parameter , ... Plasmodium falciparum, memiliki siklus hidup biologis super kompleks yang meliputi berbagai macam makhluk hidup, sebagian ... Contoh: Plasmodium sp. Algae, protista yang menyerupai tumbuhanSunting. Algae mencakup semua organisme bersel tunggal maupun ...
Sjukdomen er i mange tilfelle knytt til både Epstein-Barr-viruset og malariaparasitten Plasmodium falciparum og er særskilt ...
Plasmodium_falciparum_nephrosis_edema. *dropsy, n. నంజు; ఒళ్లు వాచడం; ఉబ్బుసంకటం; నీరుకట్టు; [note] edema is the modern name ...
IgE is utilized during immune defense against certain protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum.[6] ... "Total and functional parasite specific IgE responses in Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients exhibiting different clinical ...
The overall post mortem picture was very similar to that found in cases of Plasmodium falciparum. There were important ... Plasmodium knowlesi genome data[edit]. *GeneDB Plasmodium knowlesi. References[edit]. *^ Perkins, Susan L.; Jos. J. Schall ( ... Scholia has a topic profile for Plasmodium knowlesi.. *. Collins, W. E. (2012). "Plasmodium knowlesi: A Malaria Parasite of ... The morphology of Plasmodium knowlesi is similar to that of Plasmodium malariae. P. malariae is characterized by a compact ...
... is theorized to be toxic to the malarial pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum, by interfering with the parasite's ability to ... This includes the treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum that is resistant to chloroquine when artesunate is not ... "Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of a new intrarectal quinine formulation in children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria". British ... "Treatment with quinidine gluconate of persons with severe Plasmodium falciparum infection: discontinuation of parenteral ...
B50.) Plasmodium falciparum malaria. *(B51.) Plasmodium vivax malaria. *(B52.) Plasmodium malariae malaria ...
Modifications in erythrocyte membrane zeta potential by Plasmodium falciparum infection. Exp Parasitol ...
Some species, for example Plasmodium falciparum, have extremely complex life cycles that involve multiple forms of the organism ... the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum". Malaria Journal. 3: 24. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-3-24. PMC 497046. PMID 15253774.. ... Some protists are significant parasites of animals (e.g.; five species of the parasitic genus Plasmodium cause malaria in ... Plasmodium (which causes malaria); oomycetes (including Phytophthora, the cause of the Great Famine of Ireland); and slime ...
An accurate diagnosis is becoming more and more important, in view of the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and ... The antigen is expressed only by P. falciparum trophozoites.[9][10] HRP II from P. falciparum has been implicated in the ... Knapp B, Hundt E, Küpper HA (1990). "Plasmodium falciparum aldolase: gene structure and localization". Mol Biochem Parasitol. ... falciparum.[15] Plasmodium LDH (pLDH) from P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale) exhibit 90-92% identity to PfLDH from P. ...
Unlike the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria, Babesia species lack an exoerythrocytic phase, so the liver is usually not ... where Babesia can easily be misdiagnosed as Plasmodium. Human patients with repeat babesiosis infection may exhibit premunity.[ ...
Pikemalt artiklis Plasmodium falciparum-malaaria. Arvatakse, et Plasmodium falciparum põhjustab ligi 75% malaariajuhtumitest ja ... Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Strain K1[muuda , muuda lähteteksti]. Mitme ravimi suhtes resistentsele Plasmodium ... ühelt inimeselt teisele kanduda ja Plasmodium falciparum-malaariat põhjustada. Enne ülekannet asub Plasmodium falciparum ... P. falciparum võib mitmel pool ravimile klorokiin resistentne olla.[14] Plasmodium falciparum-malaaria ravi võib piirkonniti ...
... është një sëmundje infektive, e shkaktuar nga parazitë (Gjinia Plasmodium) që i përkasin Phylum-it Apicomplexa, Klasa ... vivax, Pl malarie, Pl falciparum. Sindromat klinike[redakto , redakto tekstin burimor]. Kuadri klinik mund të ndryshojë në ...
"Discovery of a new family of carbonic anhydrases in the malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum-the η-carbonic anhydrases". ... The eta family of CAs was recently found in organisms of the genus Plasmodium. These are a group of enzymes previously thought ...
Plasmodium falciparum. Malarijski parazit, faza trofozoita[3]. 1-2 Massisteria voersi. Slobodnoplivajuća Cercozoa, ameboid[4]. ... Plasmodium falciparum. Malarijski parazit, faza gametocita[6]. 7-14 Trypanosoma cruzi. Parazitski kinetoplastid, bolest čagas[7 ... Primjeri protozojske mejotske seksualnosti opisani su u člancima Amoebozoa, Giardia lamblia, Leishmania, Plasmodium falciparum ... Plasmodium spp. (Apicomplexa) Kpmarac (Anopheles) Toksoplasmoza Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa) Nedokuhano meso, mačji izmet, ...
... of Plasmodium falciparum are mainly mediated through the recognition of TLR2/TLR1". Experimental Parasitology. 128 (3): 205-11 ... TLR2 interactions with malarial glycophosphatidylinositols of Plasmodium falciparum was shown[16] and a detailed structure of ... dynamic behavior of Toll-like receptor 2 subfamily triggered by malarial glycosylphosphatidylinositols of Plasmodium falciparum ...
The most common forms of human malaria are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium ... P. falciparum malaria, common in sub-Saharan Africa, is especially dangerous. References[change , change source]. *↑ Garnham P. ... Plasmodium, commonly known as the malaria parasite, is a large genus of parasitic protozoa. There are about 200 species.[1] ... The genus Plasmodium was first described in 1885. At least ten species infect humans. Other species infect other animals, ...
Plasmodium eylesi. *Plasmodium fabesia. *Plasmodium fairchildi. *Plasmodium falciparum. *Plasmodium falconi. *Plasmodium fallax ... Plasmodium tenue adalah parasit dari genus Plasmodium. Seperti semua spesies Plasmodium, P. tenue menyerang vertebrata dan ... Diperoleh dari "https://id.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plasmodium_tenue&oldid=11943010" ...
Innym przykładem nietypowego wykorzystania kompleksu II jest pasożytniczy pierwotniak wywołujący malarię Plasmodium falciparum ... Specific role of mitochondrial electron transport in blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum. „Nature". 446 (7131), s. 88-91, 2007. ... Role of complex II in anaerobic respiration of the parasite mitochondria from Ascaris suum and Plasmodium falciparum. „Biochim ...
... and plasmodium falciparum.[14] Plasma proteins including fibrinogen, FXII and HK have been demonstrated to interact with C1QBP ... "Cytoadhesion to gC1qR through Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 in Severe Malaria". PLoS Pathog. 12 (11): ...
Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria; sleeping sickness is also caused by a protist. ...
... used in Chinese medicine since 200BC is one drug used as part of combination therapy for multiresistant Plasmodium falciparum. ...
... no que a cepa wAlbB de Wolbachia perturba o ciclo vital do Plasmodium falciparum causante da malaria.[37] ... 2009). "A Wolbachia symbiont in Aedes aegypti limits infection with dengue, Chikungunya, and Plasmodium". Cell 139 (7): 1268-78 ... "Wolbachia Invades Anopheles stephensi Populations and Induces Refractoriness to Plasmodium Infection". Science 340 (6133): 748- ...
Talman A, Domarle O, McKenzie F, Ariey F, Robert V (2004). "Gametocytogenesis: the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum". Malar J. ... 2003). "Early origin and recent expansion of Plasmodium falciparum". Science. 300 (5617): 318-21. doi:10.1126/science.1081449. ... 2002). "Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum". Nature. 370 (6906): 1543. doi:10.1038/nature01097 ... 1986). "Antibodies to the glutamate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum". Parasitology. 92, : 313-24. doi:10.1017/ ...
Plasmodium falciparum (malaria), and Cryptosporidium parvum, and has been considered an antimicrobial agent in mammals.[101] ...
Malignant tertian malaria (malaria caused specifically by Plasmodium falciparum). *Neuroleptic malignant syndrome ...
Examples of eukaryotic pathogens capable of sex include the protozoan parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
The Plasmodium Genome Resource GeneDB Plasmodium falciparum gene info Genome UCSC Plasmodium Falciparum Browser Gene info at ... Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular protozoan parasite of humans, and the deadliest species of Plasmodium that causes ... In 1897, William H. Welch created the name Plasmodium falciparum, which ICZN formally adopted in 1954. P. falciparum assumes ... Bousema, T.; Drakeley, C. (2011). "Epidemiology and Infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax Gametocytes in ...
A new paper published in Nature indicates that scientists now know more about Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest species of ... Scientists Find Possible Key for Plasmodium Falciparum Control. Feb 3, 2012 , Robyn Correll Carlyle. Scientists at Washington ... Africans who were thought to be protected against malaria infection by the Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) parasite now seem to be ...
... Jasmin Lindner,1 Kamila Anna Meissner,1 Isolmar Schettert,2 and ...
Murata, C. E., & Goldberg, D. E. (2003). Plasmodium falciparum falcilysin: an unprocessed food vacuole enzyme. Molecular and ...
... which later became known as Plasmodium falciparum (Garnham, 1966). Today, Plasmodium falciparum is place in the kingdom ... Plasmodium falciparum has proven itself to be extremely resilient and highly resistant to any form of immunization. By means of ... Corcoran, L. et al.; 1986,Chromosome Size Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum can Involve Deletions and are frequent in ... Plasmodium falciparum consists of a sexual and asexual form, which have hindered genetic analyses, but with conventional ...
Selection of drug resistant mutants from random library of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase in Plasmodium berghei ... Novel alleles of Plasmodium falciparum dhfr that confer resistance to chlorcycloguanil. Sonia Y. Hunt, Brian B. Rezvani, Carol ... Indigenous evolution of Plasmodium falciparum pyrimethamine resistance multiple times in Africa. T. Mita, K. Tanabe, N. ... Antifolate-resistant mutants of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase. Worachart Sirawaraporn, Tanajit Sathitkul, ...
Targeting the redox metabolism of Plasmodium falciparum to create a fatal overload of oxidative stress is a route to explore ... Targeting the redox metabolism of Plasmodium falciparum.. Nepveu F1, Turrini F. ... There are three main possibilities to target the redox metabolism of P. falciparum at the erythrocytic stage: selective ... falciparum possesses major NADPH-dependent redox systems, such as glutathione and thioredoxin ones; and the protein-NADPH- ...
Kaul DK, Roth EF, Nagel RL, Howard RJ, Handunnetti SM (1991) Rosetting of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells with ... Lin CS, Uboldi AD, Epp C, Bujard H, Tsuboi T, Czabotar PE, Cowman AF (2016) Multiple plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface ... Lobo C-A, Rodriguez M, Reid M, Lustigman S (2003) Glycophorin C is the receptor for the plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte ... Schmidt CQ, Kennedy AT, Tham W-H (2015) More than just immune evasion: hijacking complement by plasmodium falciparum. Mol ...
Synchronization of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic stages in culture.. Lambros C, Vanderberg JP. ... Synchronous development of the erythrocytic stages of a human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in culture was ...
Variant antigens and endothelial receptor adhesion in Plasmodium falciparum. J P Gardner, R A Pinches, D J Roberts, C I Newbold ... Variant antigens and endothelial receptor adhesion in Plasmodium falciparum. J P Gardner, R A Pinches, D J Roberts, C I Newbold ... Variant antigens and endothelial receptor adhesion in Plasmodium falciparum. J P Gardner, R A Pinches, D J Roberts, and C I ... Variant antigens and endothelial receptor adhesion in Plasmodium falciparum Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
... Amit Roy,1 Ilda DAnnessa,2,3 Christine J. F. Nielsen,1 ... T. Mita, K. Tanabe, and K. Kita, "Spread and evolution of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance," Parasitology International, ... inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum triosephosphate isomerase by interface peptides," FEBS Letters, vol. 501, no. 1, pp. 19-23 ...
Plasmodium falciparum Trusted • Plasmodium malariae Trusted • Plasmodium ovale Trusted ... more taxon associations ... Plasmodium falciparum - Overview Falciparum Malaria Parasite learn more about names for this taxon ... Plasmodium +*Plasmodium (Laverania) + * Plasmodium falciparum * Plasmodium falciparum 303.1 * Plasmodium falciparum 309.1 * ... Plasmodium falciparum is one of the two protozoan parasites responsible for most of the worlds cases of human malaria (the ...
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a disease that is responsible for 880,000 deaths per year worldwide. Vaccine ... Chemical genetics of Plasmodium falciparum Nature. 2010 May 20;465(7296):311-5. doi: 10.1038/nature09099. ... Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a disease that is responsible for 880,000 deaths per year worldwide. Vaccine ... falciparum and related protozoans. One exemplar compound displayed efficacy in a murine model. Our findings provide the ...
Plasmodium falciparum. See also: Malaria. Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria, lives in human red blood cells ... To prevent this from happening, P. falciparum exhibits adhesive proteins (PfEMP1- Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane ... The Plasmodium falciparum Genome Database at TIGR *↑ Chitta Suresh Kumar, C. M. Anuradha, K. Venkateswara Swamy: Genomic ... Plasmodium falciparum is present throughout the world. It is most abundant in tropical/subtropical areas where it is warm and ...
... and efficacy when used to treat or reduce the symptoms of plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-prevention ... Looking for medication to treat plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-prevention? Find a list of current medications, their possible ... Considering taking medication to treat plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-prevention? Below is a list of common medications used to ... treat or reduce the symptoms of plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-prevention. Follow the links to read common uses, side effects, ...
Plasmodium falciparum 3D7. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: PFE0730c, PF3D7_0514600. EC: 5.3.1.6. ... Structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Plasmodium falciparum.. Holmes, M.A., Buckner, F.S., Van Voorhis, W.C., Verlinde ... The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Plasmodium falciparum, PFE0730c, has been determined by molecular ... The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Plasmodium falciparum, PFE0730c, has been determined by molecular ...
Pikemalt artiklis Plasmodium falciparum-malaaria. Arvatakse, et Plasmodium falciparum põhjustab ligi 75% malaariajuhtumitest ja ... Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Strain K1[muuda , muuda lähteteksti]. Mitme ravimi suhtes resistentsele Plasmodium ... ühelt inimeselt teisele kanduda ja Plasmodium falciparum-malaariat põhjustada. Enne ülekannet asub Plasmodium falciparum ... P. falciparum võib mitmel pool ravimile klorokiin resistentne olla.[14] Plasmodium falciparum-malaaria ravi võib piirkonniti ...
Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite that causes an infectious disease known as malaria. P. falciparum is the most ... 3] There are four common species of Malaria of which P. falciparum is the most severe. Plasmodium falciparum continues to ... Each Plasmodium falciparum has multiple versions of PfEMP1 with which it can alter its appearance by changing to another PfEMP1 ... Plasmodium falciparum. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. Revision as of 16:33, 11 February 2016 by ...
Plasmodium falciparum. In cultures in vitro growth is inhibited by 50% at a VLB level of about 28 nM, and totally abolished at ... Mitotic inhibitors arrest the growth of Plasmodium falciparum FEBS Lett. 1986 Dec 1;209(1):23-7. doi: 10.1016/0014-5793(86) ... We report that the mitotic inhibitor, vinblastine (VLB), is highly toxic to the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. In ... These data suggest a critical role of microtubules in the asexual schizogonic cycle of P. falciparum. ...
... Victor victor at softberry.com Thu Oct 31 04:43:09 EST 2002 * ... New Plasmodium falciparum finding Genes parameters for FGENESH the program with parameters for major model organisms, viruses ... Accuracy of prediction of Plasmodium falciparum protein coding genes is about 98% on the nucleotide level. Exact exon ... A new parameter set for gene prediction Plasmodium falciparum is developed for FGENESH program. ...
It is known that point mutations in Plasmodium falciparum crt, dhfr and dhps genes contribute to resistance to CQ, ... Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates were collected from patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria from five sites in ... It is known that point mutations in Plasmodium falciparum crt, dhfr and dhps genes contribute to resistance to CQ, ... 1. Eyles DE, Hoo CC, Warren M, Sandosham AA (1963) Plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine in Cambodia. Am J Trop Med ...
Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans. It is ... P. falciparum is the most dangerous of these infections as P. falciparum (or malignant) malaria has the highest rates of ... There are about 200 species in the genus Plasmodium, divided into 15 sub-genera. The parasites are partners in a complex co- ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plasmodium_falciparum&oldid=5776257" ...
Separation of Plasmodium falciparum Late Stage-infected Erythrocytes by Magnetic Means, Protocol for Plasmodium falciparum ... plasmodium falciparum include Methods to Investigate the Regulatory Role of Small RNAs and Ribosomal Occupancy of Plasmodium ... falciparum, High Yield Purification of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoites For Use in Opsonizing Antibody Assays, An In vitro ... Selection of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites for Cytoadhesion to Human Brain Endothelial Cells, HeLa Based Cell Free ...
Phagosome - Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , User ...
Plasmodium falciparum 3D7. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: PF11_0282, PF3D7_1127100. EC: 3.6.1.23. ... Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 5-diphenyl nucleoside analogues as inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum dUTPase.. ... 5-Diphenyl Nucleoside Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum dUTPase. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3T60/pdb ... as selective inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum dUTPase. Modelling studies indicated that it might be possible to replace ...
DNA replication - Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description ...
In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the var multigene family encoding for the major blood-stage antigen PfEMP1 has evolved ... Plasmodium has evolved high genetic diversity in var genes, which encode for the major blood-stage antigen. Here, He et al. ... Detection of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in vivo by real-time quantitative PCR. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 118, 247- ... In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the var multigene family encoding for the major blood-stage antigen PfEMP1 has evolved ...
  • Through restriction fragment length polymorphisms of genes for a histidine rich protein, it has been determined that Mendelian inheritance is exhibited in P. falciparum (Arnot, 1988). (ubc.ca)
  • Baum J, Chen L, Healer J, Lopaticki S, Boyle M, Triglia T, Ehlgen F, Ralph SA, Beeson JG, Cowman AF (2009) Reticulocyte-binding protein homologue 5-an essential adhesin involved in invasion of human erythrocytes by plasmodium falciparum. (springer.com)
  • Cao J, Kaneko O, Thongkukiatkul A, Tachibana M, Otsuki H, Gao Q, Tsuboi T, Torii M (2009) Rhoptry neck protein RON2 forms a complex with microneme protein AMA1 in plasmodium falciparum merozoites. (springer.com)
  • PfEMP1, P. falciparum erythrocye membrane protein 1, is an adhesive ligand protein which is created inside of a P. falciparum infected erythrocyte and presented on the surface. (kenyon.edu)
  • Accuracy of prediction of Plasmodium falciparum protein coding genes is about 98% on the nucleotide level. (bio.net)
  • Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is an important malaria virulence factor. (asm.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PfCelTOS) is an advanced vaccine candidate that has a crucial role in the traversal of the malaria parasite in both mosquito and mammalian hosts. (asm.org)
  • Dr Khalid Beshir will deliver this talk entitled 'Plasmodium falciparum parasites with hisitidine-rich protein deletions:implications for disgosis and case management' . (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Plasmodium falciparum var genes code for PfEMP1, a protein expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes, and which mediates cytoadherence and rosetting. (usp.br)
  • The rim of parasitized mouse erythrocytes contained the P. falciparum 155-kD protein, which is on the rim of ring-infected human erythrocytes. (rupress.org)
  • We first investigated red blood cell remodeling and sequestration during blood stage development, focusing specifically on the Plasmodium helical interspersed sub-telomeric c (PHISTc) protein family. (harvard.edu)
  • A Plasmodium Falciparum Bromodomain Protein Regulates Invasion Gene Expression. (edu.au)
  • Jesuíno BS, Casimiro C, do Rosário VE, Silveira H. Effect of antibodies on the expression of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein gene. (medsci.org)
  • The effect of anti- Plasmodium antibodies on the expression of circumsporozoite protein gene ( csp ) was investigated. (medsci.org)
  • When infected mosquitoes were membrane-fed, at day 5 post-infection (p.i.), with antibodies anti- P. falciparum sporozoite or anti- circumsporozoite protein (CSP) the absolute number of sporozoites recovered from the mosquito salivary glands at day 14 p.i. was significantly higher [ 3 , 4 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Serum antibodies were measured by ELISA to blood-stage parasite antigens, extracted from P. falciparum schizonts, and to recombinant merozoite surface protein 1 (42 kDa C-terminal fragment, MSP1-42). (edu.au)
  • Red blood cell invasion by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum relies on a complex protein network that uses low and high affinity receptor-ligand interactions. (biochemj.org)
  • In the present study we report on the phosphorylation of the CPD (cytoplasmic domain) of P. falciparum Rh2b (reticulocyte homologue protein 2b). (biochemj.org)
  • The binding is mediated by members of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family. (jimmunol.org)
  • P. falciparum erythrocytes membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) 3 is a parasite encoded protein expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 conserved Plasmodium membrane protein, unknown function (PF3D7_0618000), partial mRNA. (genscript.com)
  • Characterization of a human reference standard for antibody to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1(42). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Secretion of Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry protein into the plasma membrane of host erythrocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Synchronous development of the erythrocytic stages of a human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in culture was accomplished by suspending cultured parasites in 5% D-sorbitol and subsequent reintroduction into culture. (nih.gov)
  • Chromosome 2 sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (jcvi.org)
  • Invasion of mouse erythrocytes by the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. (rupress.org)
  • Contradictory effects of antibodies on parasite development have also been described in the asexual stages of human malaria parasite P. falciparum . (medsci.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular protozoan parasite of humans, and the deadliest species of Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Sub-Saharan Africa, over 75% of cases were due to P. falciparum, whereas in most other malarial countries, other, less virulent plasmodial species predominate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new paper published in Nature indicates that scientists now know more about Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest species of malaria, than ever. (healthmap.org)
  • P. falciparum is the most severe strain of the malaria species correlated with almost every malarial death. (kenyon.edu)
  • [3] There are four common species of Malaria of which P. falciparum is the most severe. (kenyon.edu)
  • Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite , one of the species of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are about 200 species in the genus Plasmodium , divided into 15 sub-genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • rivulorum to be active early in the evening, the presence of P. falciparum in the species, and the potential for the development of pyrethroid resistance, we strongly advocate reconsideration of the latent ability of this species as an epidemiologically important malaria vector. (malariaworld.org)
  • I have also added that there are other Plasmodium species in the introduction (since this is discussed later in the article) and that 70% of death occur in children. (wikiversity.org)
  • The most virulent Plasmodium species, Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) , accounts for the vast majority of the 445,000 deaths which occurred in 2016 due to malaria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum is the deadliest of the 5 different species of Plasmodium that can cause human malaria, and transmissible sexual stages or gametocytes of this species comprise five distinct morphological stages which mature slowly over a period of 8-10 days. (nature.com)
  • Of the two species of Plasmodium parasites commonly infecting humans, P. vivax grows exclusively in immature red blood cells called reticulocytes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • As opposed to the murine malaria species P. berghei we show here that P. falciparum relies on a functional GSH biosynthesis during blood stage development with γGCS and GS being critical for parasite survival. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The authors report only the second case in literature with coinfection of plasmodium species presenting with haemoperitoneum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As susceptibility to P. falciparum of Anopheles species in Tuscany is very low, and other risk factors for acquiring malaria could not be completely excluded, the case remains cryptic, similar to other P. falciparum malaria cases previously reported in African individuals living in Apulia in 2017. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Five species are known to infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae. (intechopen.com)
  • Among these species, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax account for more than 95% of all human malaria infections and thus pose a serious public health challenge. (intechopen.com)
  • Thus, this chapter tries to review available data about the origin of these two Plasmodium species. (intechopen.com)
  • Among five Plasmodium species which infect human, two species Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax pose the greatest threat for human health. (intechopen.com)
  • Resistance of Plasmodium to anti-malaria drugs, as well as resistance of mosquitos to insecticides and the discovery of zoonotic species of the parasite have complicated control measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • P. vivax, another malarial Plasmodium species among the six that infect humans, also likely originated in African gorillas and chimpanzees. (wikipedia.org)
  • P. falciparum do not undergo a stage of chromosome condensation but in general, malarial parasites have 14 chromosomes ranging in size from 0.7 to 3.5 Mbps numbered in ascending order of size with approximately 6000 to 7000 genes in their genome (World Health Organization webpage). (ubc.ca)
  • Plasmodium falciparum is one of the two protozoan parasites responsible for most of the world's cases of human malaria (the other being P. vivax ). (eol.org)
  • The superficial alterations of the parasitized cells appear to be sites of attachment to venous endothelium and to other parasitized erythrocytes, thus explaining the paucity of circulating cells with maturing parasites in falciparum malaria. (ajtmh.org)
  • Although the preva- malaria and pregnant women are more like- lence and density of P. falciparum parasites ly to develop clinical attacks of malaria and are higher in pregnant women than in non- serious complications than non-pregnant pregnant women, most infections remain women of the same age. (who.int)
  • In the progression of the life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum , a small proportion of asexual parasites differentiate into male or female sexual forms called gametocytes. (asm.org)
  • The talk will focus on the emergence of P. falciparum parasites with pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletions in Africa and the impact of such deletions on RDT performance, clinical case management and malaria control. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • This work provides a facile field-deployable genotyping tool that can be used without special skills with standard lab equipment, and at reasonable cost that will unambiguously identify and track P. falciparum parasites both from patient samples and in the laboratory. (broadinstitute.org)
  • P. falciparum parasitaemia of more than 1000 and less than 150 000 parasites/µL at the time of pre-screening (i.e. (novartis.com)
  • This intracellular part of the asexual life cycle takes 48 h for P. falciparum parasites to complete. (biochemj.org)
  • It is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes to its vertebrate hosts. (intechopen.com)
  • Resistance to artemisinin of malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) infecting alpha-thalassemic erythrocytes in vitro. (jci.org)
  • Since pLDH is produced only by live Plasmodium parasites, this test has the ability to differentiate live from dead organisms. (asm.org)
  • Thus, OptiMAL correctly identified P. falciparum malaria parasites in patient blood samples more often than did the other two commercially available diagnostic tests and showed an excellent correlation with traditional blood films in the identification of both P. vivax malaria and P. falciparum malaria. (asm.org)
  • Since the discovery of the Plasmodium parasites which cause it, research attention has focused on their biology, as well as that of the mosquitoes which transmit the parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of the described P. falciparum -specific CD8+ T cells were directed against the antigens CSP, TRAP, AMA1, and LSA1. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite multiple datasets for the Plasmodium sexual-stage transcriptome and proteome, there have been no rational screens to identify candidate antigens for transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) development. (mcponline.org)
  • We have identified strain-specific antigens with Camp and St. Lucia strains of P. falciparum of Mr approximately 285,000 and approximately 260,000, respectively. (rupress.org)
  • Parasite-derived proteins expressed on the surface of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum are important virulence factors, since they mediate binding of infected cells to diverse receptors on vascular endothelium and are targets of a protective immune response. (pnas.org)
  • During pregnancy, Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes (IE) accumulate in the intervillous spaces of the placenta by binding to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and elicit inflammatory responses that are associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. (asm.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum malaria merozoites require erythrocyte sialic acid for optimal invasion of human erythrocytes. (rupress.org)
  • The Camp and 7G8 strains of P. falciparum invaded mouse erythrocytes at 17-45% of the invasion rate of human erythrocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Studies of detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) rafts in mature erythrocytes have facilitated identification of proteins that regulate formation of endovacuolar structures such as the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) induced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum . (bloodjournal.org)
  • When human erythrocytes are invaded by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum , selected DRM proteins (major proteins flotillin-1 and flotillin-2, and at least 13 additional proteins) are exclusively internalized into the newly formed PVM. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum infecting hemoglobin (Hb)H and/or Hb Constant Spring erythrocytes has higher resistance to artemisinin in vitro than when infecting normal erythrocytes. (jci.org)
  • Previous studies with radiolabeled artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin have measured uptake in Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we characterized mechanisms by which [ 14 C]artemisone is taken up into uninfected and P. falciparum -infected human erythrocytes in vitro . (asm.org)
  • In Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes, the uptake of artemisinins is much greater than that in uninfected erythrocytes and occurs via a concentrative mechanism that is saturable, temperature sensitive, and largely irreversible ( 1 , 9 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Identification of a strain-specific malarial antigen exposed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum consists of a sexual and asexual form, which have hindered genetic analyses, but with conventional methods, such as micro-manipulation in which cells containing a single parasite can be identified, cloning and studying of the genome has been performed (Walliker, 1983) and information in regards to the genome of P. falciparum has been collected. (ubc.ca)
  • The cell cycle in Plasmodium falciparum , as in any malarial parasite takes place in two stages or cycles as mentioned earlier, the sexual and asexual cycle. (ubc.ca)
  • Bannister LH, Hopkins JM, Fowler RE, Krishna S, Mitchell GH (2000) A brief illustrated guide to the ultrastructure of plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stages. (springer.com)
  • These data suggest a critical role of microtubules in the asexual schizogonic cycle of P. falciparum. (nih.gov)
  • Parasitology, vol. 95, pp. 229-240, 1987, J.L. Li and Y.J. Ki, "Inhibitory, Opsonic and Cytotoxic Activities of Homoclonal Antibodies Against Asexual Erythrocytic Stages of Plsmodium Falciparum. (patentgenius.com)
  • These data suggest that it may be possible to adapt the asexual erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum to rodents. (rupress.org)
  • After discovering the parasite , P. falciparum , researchers have attempted over the years to sequence its genome. (citizendium.org)
  • The Plasmodium falciparum genome is a difficult one to sequence because it is very complicated. (citizendium.org)
  • The Plasmodium falciparum genome is approximately 23 mega base pairs long. (citizendium.org)
  • Conclusions: Whole genome transcription analysis of P. falciparum can be carried out successfully and further studies in selected patient cohorts may provide insight into parasite in vivo biology and defense against host immunity. (harvard.edu)
  • The complete sequencing of chromosome 2 has shown that sequencing of the A+T-rich P. falciparum genome is technically feasible. (jcvi.org)
  • Despite In the past few decades Plasmodium research was significantly forwarded by the availability of new genetic tools, genome, microarray and proteomic data. (europa.eu)
  • Gene copy number variants (CNVs), which consist of gene deletions and amplifications contribute to the great diversity in the Plasmodium falciparum genome. (open.ac.uk)
  • Trafficked Proteins-Druggable in Plasmodium falciparum? (hindawi.com)
  • Further detailed immunological mappings of P. falciparum -specific epitopes of a broader range of P . falciparum proteins in different settings and with different disease status are needed to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the role of CD8+ T cell responses for protection, and to better guide vaccine design and to study their efficacy. (frontiersin.org)
  • The parasite Plasmodium falciparum modifies its host cell during the erythrocytic development via export of proteins, which secure its survival within the erythrocyte. (uni-marburg.de)
  • This study characterizes 12 proteins from across the P. falciparum sexual-stages as possible TBV targets. (mcponline.org)
  • The findings support the use of rational screens and comparative functional assessments in identifying proteins of the P. falciparum transmission pathway and establishing a robust pre-clinical TBV pipeline. (mcponline.org)
  • Mitochondrial proteins of Plasmodium falciparum (MPPF) are an important target for anti-malarial drugs, but their identification through manual experimentation is costly, and in turn, their related drugs production by pharmaceutical institutions involves a prolonged time duration. (mdpi.com)
  • In this paper, we proposed a sequence-based framework to extract deep and representative features that are trust-worthy for Plasmodium mitochondrial proteins identification. (mdpi.com)
  • Each Plasmodium falciparum has multiple versions of PfEMP1 with which it can alter its appearance by changing to another PfEMP1 when the immune system begins to create antibodies for the original PfEMP1 in a process known as antigenic variation. (kenyon.edu)
  • Depending upon time of infection, anti- P. falciparum sporozoite antibodies can influence sporogonic development. (medsci.org)
  • This study sets to understand the role of anti- Plasmodium antibodies on the erythrocytic development of Plasmodium falciparum and their effect on the expression of csp gene. (medsci.org)
  • Acquisition of growth-inhibitory antibodies against blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum. (edu.au)
  • BACKGROUND: Antibodies that inhibit the growth of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum may play an important role in acquired and vaccine-induced immunity in humans. (edu.au)
  • Here we disclose structures and biological activity of the entire library-many of which showed potent in vitro activity against drug-resistant P. falciparum strains-and detailed profiling of 172 representative candidates. (nih.gov)
  • This study analyzed transcripts from total RNA derived from small blood samples of P. falciparum infected patients and compared the in vivo expression profile to the in vitro cultivated 3D7 strain transcriptome. (harvard.edu)
  • Antigènes excrétés-sécrétés par Plasmodium falciparum en cultures in vitro. (who.int)
  • METHODS: We tested dialysed serum and purified immunoglobulins from Kenyan children and adults for inhibition of P. falciparum blood-stage growth in vitro using different parasite lines. (edu.au)
  • In view of the above findings to get a clear picture of artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum a thorough study is required involving in vivo, in vitro and molecular procedures in this vulnerable area. (omicsonline.org)
  • P. falciparum is therefore regarded as the deadliest parasite in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around the same time, Grassi demonstrated that P. falciparum was transmitted in humans only by female anopheline mosquito (in his case Anopheles claviger). (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopic eukaryotic organisms P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malaria , and P. falciparum cause malaria in humans. (ubc.ca)
  • Transmission of P. falciparum occurs between humans and Anopheles mosquitoes. (kenyon.edu)
  • In this review, we summarize and discuss all of the P. falciparum -specific CD8+ T cell epitopes in humans that have been identified so far, their potential significance as well as potential knowledge gaps. (frontiersin.org)
  • Malaria, the deadly infectious disease caused by the apicomplexan Plasmodium parasite and transmitted to humans by the Anopheline mosquito vector, has resulted in an estimated 216 million cases and 445,000 deaths globally in 2016, affecting the poorest of countries, mostly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions and the most vulnerable people (pregnant women, infants and children under the age of five years) 1 . (nature.com)
  • Infection by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of malaria in humans. (rti.org)
  • Humans may have originally caught Plasmodium falciparum from gorillas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The valid genus Plasmodium was created by two Italian physicians Ettore Marchiafava and Angelo Celli in 1885. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malaria is a protozoan disease caused by a parasite belonging to Plasmodium genus. (intechopen.com)
  • An understanding of the antigenic diversity of the parasite in such reservoirs, including whether and how this diversity is structured into strains, is fundamental to understanding immunity patterns and developing intervention strategies in the transmission dynamics of P. falciparum malaria. (nature.com)
  • In Africa each year around 24 million wom- women have acquired substantial protec- en become pregnant in malaria-endemic ar- tive immunity to malaria through repeated eas. (who.int)
  • We conclude with our views on some important future directions of research into P. falciparum sexual stage immunity relevant to the search for the most appropriate transmission-blocking vaccine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is thought to be nonsterile and sustained by persistence of low-level parasitemia. (asm.org)
  • Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria: Evidence for an Isotype Imbalance which may be responsible for delayed acquisition of protective immunity. (patentgenius.com)
  • In areas of stable Plasmodium falciparum transmission, individuals develop immunity to malaria ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Spontaneous splenic rupture presenting as haemoperitoneum: coinfection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • to detect Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria during an outbreak in Honduras. (asm.org)
  • Pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum: what next? (pnas.org)
  • We sequenced 234 Cambodian Plasmodium falciparum isolates for the dhps codons S436A/F, A437G, K540E, A581G and A613S/T implicated in sulfadoxine resistance. (plos.org)
  • It is known that point mutations in Plasmodium falciparum crt , dhfr and dhps genes contribute to resistance to CQ, pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine, respectively. (plos.org)
  • This progress is threatened by emergence of re- resistance in Cambodia and in the Greater Mekong Region sistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin deriva- ( 3-6,14,15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • P. falciparum resis- ciparum artemisinin resistance in the field. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic variation in antigenic, drug resistance, and pathogenesis determinants is abundant, consistent with an ancient origin of P. falciparum , whereas DNA variation at silent (synonymous) sites in coding sequences appears virtually absent, consistent with a recent origin of the parasite. (sciencemag.org)
  • Additionally, the emergence and spread of resistance of Plasmodium to anti-malarial drugs is a major impediment towards global eradication efforts, and there is an urgent need to develop novel medicines that not only treat symptomatic malaria and cure the patient but which can interfere with transmission by the mosquito vector. (nature.com)
  • Genetic, physiological and pharmacological studies are gradually revealing the molecular basis of chloroquine resistance (CQR) in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. (bepress.com)
  • pfcrt is more than the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance gene: a functional and evolutionary perspective" Acta Tropica Vol. 94 Iss. (bepress.com)
  • For Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Kisumu District Hospital, Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter gene ( Pfcrt -K76T) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 ( PfMDR1 -N86Y), were analyzed for polymorphisms and parasitemia changes in the 53 months from March 2008 to August 2012. (dovepress.com)
  • Nearly all malarial deaths are caused by P. falciparum, and 94% of such cases occur in Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • P. falciparum was first seen by Alfonse Laveran who examined the bodies of those who succumbed to malignant malaria in North Africa in the late 1800's. (ubc.ca)
  • Though now eliminated from developed countries, P.falciparum and therefore malaria tropica, the type of malaria caused by P. falciparum (Hausmann, 1996), run unchecked over most parts of Africa and elsewhere in the tropics and in turn this parasite is the greatest killer in these regions. (ubc.ca)
  • 60% of the estimated world falciparum malaria burden falls in Africa and nearly a quarter on Nigeria and DRC alone. (eol.org)
  • The main areas of P. falciparum are South America, Africa, India, and few parts of Indonesia. (kenyon.edu)
  • A vast reservoir of P. falciparum exists in local human populations in Africa in the form of asymptomatic infections, hosts that carry the parasite without manifestation of the disease 8 . (nature.com)
  • Malaria from Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy is a serious public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. (scielo.br)
  • Plasmodium falciparum is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, while Plasmodium vivax is rare in sub-Saharan Africa but endemic in many parts of Asia. (intechopen.com)
  • In malaria-endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, pregnant women and their newborns are at a high risk of developing the severe effects of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum . (jimmunol.org)
  • These data establish the recent origin of P. falciparum and further provide an explanation for the abundant diversity observed in antigen and other selected genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Crowley, V. M., Rovira-Graells, N., de Pouplana, L. R. and Cortés, A. (2011), Heterochromatin formation in bistable chromatin domains controls the epigenetic repression of clonally variant Plasmodium falciparum genes linked to erythrocyte invasion. (wiley.com)
  • 1993, pp. 395-399, Claud Ceuvray, et al, "Characterization of a Plasmodium Falciparum Herozolte Surface Antigen Targeted by Defense Mechanisms Developed in Immune Individuals. (patentgenius.com)
  • This study assessed the association between baseline microscopic and submicroscopic asymptomatic P. falciparum infections and antimalarial antibody levels. (asm.org)
  • There are no publications for Plasmodium Falciparum Schizont Infected RBCs Antibody (NB100-64491PCP). (novusbio.com)
  • Be the first to review our Plasmodium Falciparum Schizont Infected RBCs Antibody (11B7) [PerCP] and receive a gift card or discount. (novusbio.com)
  • Nudelman and colleagues [ 6 ] also reported a similar effect of lower anti- Plasmodium antibody concentration. (medsci.org)
  • The parasite is transmitted through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito and causes the disease's most dangerous form, falciparum malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most severe form of human malaria and causes a tremendous economic burden [ 1 ], leading to at least one million deaths per year, particularly in developing countries where failure to eradicate the anopheline mosquito vector leads to occasional epidemics [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • CDC has recently reviewed data on the reported incidence in the United States of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and has evaluated information on the effective management of severe life-threatening infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Severe malaria is mostly caused by Plasmodium falciparum, resulting in considerable, systemic inflammation and pronounced endothelial activation. (asm.org)
  • Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is a severe form of the disease caused by sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) in the developing placenta. (diva-portal.org)
  • KIRCHGATTER, Karin, and DEL PORTILLO, Hernando A. Association of severe noncerebral Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Brazil with expressed PfEMP1 DBL1 alpha sequences lacking cysteine residues. (usp.br)
  • If one looks at a blood smear or blood film of a person infected with the malarial parasite, P. falciparum , they would probably see the immature trophozoites and gametophytes . (citizendium.org)
  • We report that the mitotic inhibitor, vinblastine (VLB), is highly toxic to the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. (nih.gov)
  • By Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The world's deadliest malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, sneaks past the human immune system with the help of a wardrobe of invisibility cloaks. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Instead, the gametocytes of P. falciparum can survive in the blood for months. (eol.org)
  • Primaquine (PQ), a drug with antimalarial properties, does not cure P. falciparum infection but does kill P. falciparum gametocytes. (www.gov.uk)
  • On investigating he was found to have anaemia, thrombocytopaenia with gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum on peripheral blood smear. (bmj.com)
  • Boyle MJ, Wilson DW, Richards JS, Riglar DT, Tetteh KKA, Conway DJ, Ralph SA, Baum J, Beeson JG (2010) Isolation of viable plasmodium falciparum merozoites to define erythrocyte invasion events and advance vaccine and drug development. (springer.com)
  • Erythrocyte polymorphisms associated with a survival advantage to Plasmodium falciparum infection have undergone positive selection. (malariaworld.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum plasmodial schizont, or segmenter, in an erythrocyte (red blood cell) after completion of division, coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Plasmodium falciparum plasmodial young schizont infecting an erythrocyte (red blood cell), coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). (sciencephoto.com)
  • malignant tertian malaria was caused by Laverania malariae (now P. falciparum), benign tertian malaria by Haemamoeba vivax (now P. vivax), and quartan malaria by Haemamoeba malariae (now P. malariae). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, the first clinical trial assessing Sanaria® PfSPZ Vaccine (radiation attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (SPZ)) [1] demonstrated that when PfSPZ Vaccine was injected subcutaneously (SC) or intradermally (ID), it was safe and well tolerated, but induced minimal immune responses and minimal protection against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). (malariaworld.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy can lead to the transplacental passage of malarial Ags that are capable of inducing acquired immune responses in the fetus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum populations as an ensemble of diverse strains in regions of high malaria transmission. (nature.com)
  • The red blood cell membrane has small distinct knobs (orange) that are characteristic of the infection by certain strains of Plasmodium falciparum. (sciencephoto.com)
  • This is mainly seen in P.vivax and P. ovale , rather then P. falciparum . (kenyon.edu)
  • [1] Once the mosquito becomes infected with Plasmodium falciparum it transfers the disease to each new host it penetrates. (kenyon.edu)
  • Plasmodium falciparum Standard Membrane Feeding Assay ( Pf SMFA) is the current gold standard mosquito based confirmatory transmission blocking (TrB) assay for human malaria. (nature.com)
  • Plasmodium falciparum malaria continues to evade control efforts, utilizing highly specialized sexual-stages to transmit infection between the human host and mosquito vector. (mcponline.org)
  • In Work Package 2 (WP2) the investigators will determine whether the transmission of the sexual forms of P. falciparum from the human host to mosquito is increased in S. haematobium infected subjects compared to uninfected controls. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Moreover the investigators will study whether the immunological changes induced in S. haematobium infected subjects lead to a decrease of the transmission reducing activity of IgG specific to Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 (both capable of blocking/impairing further development of P. falciparum in the mosquito gut). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Finally in Work Package 3 (WP3) the investigators will assess whether S. haematobium infection affects the transmission of P. falciparum from the mosquito to the human host. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Plasmodium falciparum causes the most virulent form of human malaria, resulting in 200 million to 300 million infections and 1 million to 3 million deaths annually ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Up to one million people, mainly pregnant woman and young children, are killed each year by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, which causes the most devastating form of human malaria. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Release of mature Plasmodium merozoites results in further infection and produces bouts of shivering fever (paroxysms) and sweating that may be fatal. (sciencephoto.com)
  • He then called the organism that he saw after himself, Laverania falcipara, which later became known as Plasmodium falciparum (Garnham, 1966). (ubc.ca)
  • KIRCHGATTER, K. Plasmodium falciparum : DBL-1 Var Sequence Analysis in Field Isolates from Central Brazil [doi:10.1006/expr.2000.4520] . (usp.br)
  • Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite that causes an infectious disease known as malaria. (kenyon.edu)
  • P. falciparum is the most dangerous of these infections as P. falciparum (or malignant) malaria has the highest rates of complications and mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of this review, CDC has concluded that the drug of choice in the United States for treatment of complicated P. falciparum infections is parenteral quinidine gluconate. (cdc.gov)
  • Mixed Plasmodium infections. (novartis.com)
  • Prescription practices by physicians and the availability of oral artemisinin monotherapies with pharmacists directly affect the pattern of their use as a result the first clinical case report of only artesunate resistant P. falciparum malaria has been found from Kolkata. (omicsonline.org)
  • Targeting the redox metabolism of Plasmodium falciparum to create a fatal overload of oxidative stress is a route to explore the discovery of new antimalarial drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Plasmodium falciparum continues to increase in drug-resistant populations and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes leading to the prediction that the disease will only worsen over time. (kenyon.edu)
  • http://www.softberry.com/berry.phtml?topic=gfind Method description: A new parameter set for gene prediction Plasmodium falciparum is developed for FGENESH program. (bio.net)
  • Interestingly, "immune selection," a form of balancing selection, is already recognized as an important evolutionary force promoting the diversification and persistence of the var gene family, whose ancient origin predates the speciation of P. falciparum 13 , 14 . (nature.com)
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) international research scholars in Australia have determined how P. falciparum can turn on one cloaking gene and keep dozens of others silent until each is needed in turn. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The associations between age, parity, gestational age, residence, schooling, malaria during gravity, anemia and treatment with incidence of Plasmodium falciparum infection were analyzed through logistic regression. (scielo.br)
  • In Work Package 1 (WP1) the investigators will assess whether S. haematobium infection increases the human reservoir of P. falciparum by increasing the carriage rate and incidence of P. falciparum gametocytaemia as well as by increasing the proportion and incidence of subject with sub-microscopic P. falciparum infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although Plasmodium falciparum constituted only about 5% of total malaria cases, reduction of its incidence was slower than that of Plasmodium vivax . (biomedcentral.com)
  • To prevent increase in P. falciparum malaria both in terms of incidence and territory, a P. falciparum elimination programme in the Republic was launched in 200, jointly supported by the Government and the Global Fund for control of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Elimination of P. falciparum also contributed towards speedy reduction of P. vivax incidence in Tajikistan. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Synchronization of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic stages in culture. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic variability of Plasmodium falciparum underlies its transmission success and thwarts efforts to control disease caused by this parasite. (sciencemag.org)
  • Together, these studies reveal both conserved and stage-specific mechanisms involved in the successful sequestration and transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. (harvard.edu)
  • Primaquine for reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission. (www.gov.uk)
  • Drugs that cure malaria caused by P. falciparum infection do not necessarily directly affect the gametocyte, which is the stage of the parasite that infects mosquitoes to complete the transmission cycle. (www.gov.uk)
  • Garner, P. Primaquine for reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission. (www.gov.uk)
  • 2010) estimated that in 2010 there were around 450 million clinical cases of P. falciparum malaria in the world. (eol.org)
  • 2010), around half the world's estimated P. falciparum clinical cases (and nearly half the statistical uncertainty in estimates) derive from just four countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Myanmar (Burma). (eol.org)
  • In particular, detailed knowledge of the P. falciparum -specific CD8+ T cell epitope repertoire is needed to further optimize vaccine design and to improve immune monitoring of future clinical malaria vaccine trials. (frontiersin.org)
  • Snow RW, Guerra CA, Noor AM, Myint HY, Hay SI (2005) The global distribution of clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (springer.com)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping provides the means to develop a practical, rapid, inexpensive assay that will uniquely identify any Plasmodium falciparum parasite using a small amount of DNA. (broadinstitute.org)
  • In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the var multigene family encoding for the major blood-stage antigen Pf EMP1 has evolved enormous genetic diversity through ectopic recombination and mutation. (nature.com)
  • In 1897, William H. Welch created the name Plasmodium falciparum, which ICZN formally adopted in 1954. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yan Wong marked " File:5942 lores.jpg " as trusted on the " Plasmodium falciparum Welch, 1897 " page. (eol.org)
  • During red-blood-cell-stage infection of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite undergoes repeated rounds of replication, egress, and invasion. (edu.au)
  • Trophozoites of P. falciparum in thin blood smears. (kenyon.edu)
  • In Aotus trivirgatus , the night monkey, schizonts and mature trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum are concentrated in myocardium, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle where parasitized red cells line the veins and block some capillaries. (ajtmh.org)