A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.
A protozoan parasite from Southeast Asia that causes monkey malaria. It is naturally acquired by man in Malaysia and can also be transmitted experimentally to humans.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles stephensi.
A species of protozoan parasite causing MALARIA. It is the rarest of the four species of PLASMODIUM infecting humans, but is common in West African countries and neighboring areas.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
A protozoan parasite that occurs naturally in the macaque. It is similar to PLASMODIUM VIVAX and produces a type of malaria similar to vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species has been found to give rise to both natural and experimental human infections.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A protozoan parasite that causes avian malaria (MALARIA, AVIAN), primarily in chickens, and is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.
Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.
An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.
Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.
A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Characteristics include the presence of violet to brown spores.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.
A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
A protozoan, previously also considered a fungus. Characteristics include sporangia that are stalked and multilobed. It is widely used in biomedical research.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).
A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.
Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.
The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
Infections that do not exhibit symptoms.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
A republic in the north of South America, east of VENEZUELA and west of SURINAME. Its capital is Georgetown.
The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
A division of organisms that exist vegetatively as complex mobile plasmodia, reproduce by means of spores, and have complex life cycles. They are now classed as protozoa but formerly were considered fungi.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
A group of Indian Ocean Islands, the islands of Great Comoro, Anjouan, Mayotte, and Moheli, lying between northeast Mozambique and northwest Madagascar. The capital is Moroni. In 1914 they became a colony attached to Madagascar administratively and were made a French overseas territory in 1947. Except for Mayotte which remained French, Comoros became an independent republic in 1975. Comoros represents the Arabic qamar, moon, said by some scholars to be linked with the mystical Mountains of the Moon said to be somewhere in equatorial Africa. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p283 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p122)
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.

Detection and species determination of malaria parasites by PCR: comparison with microscopy and with ParaSight-F and ICT malaria Pf tests in a clinical environment. (1/1293)

A rapid procedure for the diagnosis of malaria infections directly from dried blood spots by PCR amplification was evaluated with samples from 52 patients. Plasmodium infections were identified with a genus-specific primer set, and species differentiation between Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax was analyzed by multiplex PCR. The PCR test with any of the three primer sets was able to detect as few as four parasites per microliter by gel electrophoresis or by nonisotopic paper hybridization chromatography. The diagnoses obtained by PCR correlated closely with those obtained by Giemsa staining except for two samples observed to have mixed P. falciparum-P. vivax infections. These were initially missed by microscopic analysis. In comparison with antigen-capture assays for P. falciparum, the PCR assays were able to detect three infections that were missed by the ParaSight-F test. The PCR test was negative for nine ParaSight-F-positive samples and one ICT Malaria Pf-positive sample, and these were confirmed to be false-positive results. The PCR thus gave no false-negative or false-positive results. Patients undergoing antimalarial therapy were also monitored by the PCR assay. Four of seven patients who were PCR positive for P. vivax at the time of discharge were later readmitted to the hospital with a recurrence of P. vivax infection. We would like to propose that PCR is a sensitive and easy method that can serve as a useful addition to microscopy for the diagnosis and the clinical monitoring of treatment of malaria.  (+info)

Multispecies Plasmodium infections of humans. (2/1293)

We analyzed point-prevalence data from 19 recent studies of human populations in which either Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium vivax co-occur with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae. Although the only statistical interactions among, sympatric congeners are pairwise, the frequencies of mixed-species infections relative to standard hypotheses of species sampling independence show no strong relation to overall malaria prevalence. The striking difference between the P. falciparum-P. malariae-P. ovale and the P. falciparum-P. malariae-P. vivax data is that the first typically shows a statistical surplus of mixed-species infections and the second a deficit. This suggests that the number of Plasmodium species present in a human population may be less important in determining the frequencies of mixed-species infections than is the identity of those species.  (+info)

Malaria immunization in Rhesus monkeys. A vaccine effective against both the sexual and asexual stages of Plasmodium knowlesi. (3/1293)

Rhesus monkeys were immunized with a preparation of Plasmodium knowlesi parasites containing principally microgametes with lesser numbers of macrogametes and asexual trophozoites. The antigen mixture was emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and administered intramuscularly. After one or two inoculations of from 10(5) to 10(7) microgametes in FCA, monkeys showed high levels of circulating anti-gamete antibodies as demonstrated by various in vitro microgamete immobilization or transmission blocking tests. After challenge with P. knowlesi, immunized monkeys developed low level asexual parasitemias and were not infectious to feeding mosquitoes as measured by growth of the parasite on the mosquito gut. Control monkeys developed rapidly rising, usually fatal infections and were highly infectious to mosquitoes. Anti-gamete antibodies appear to neutralize the sexual parasites and prevent mosquito infection within the gut of the recently fed mosquito vector. Suppression of asexual parasitemia in immunized monkeys may be due to the presence of asexual trophozoites in the antigen mixture or to antigens common to both sexual and asexual stages of the parasite. A vaccine effective as a single injection capable of interrupting malaria transmission from man to man whereas reducing the severity of the disease in infected individuals offers a new approach to the control of one of the major diseases affecting man.  (+info)

Biased amino acid composition in repeat regions of Plasmodium antigens. (4/1293)

Many malarial antigens contain extensive arrays of tandemly repeated short amino acid sequences, and much of the antibody response induced by malaria infections is directed against these repeats. Indeed, it has been hypothesized that these repeats function to elicit a relatively ineffective T-cell-independent antibody response by the host. In order to test this hypothesis, tandem repeats of Plasmodium species were examined for a bias in composition favoring amino acids likely to form epitopes for the antibody. The genome of Plasmodium is very A+T-rich, and nucleotide compositional bias will, in itself, lead to a high proportion of hydrophilic amino acids. When this bias was controlled for, Plasmodium antigens did not show a higher proportion of hydrophilic amino acids than expected, but there was a significant reduction in the proportion of hydrophobic amino acids in the repeats of the antigens. The amino acid composition of the repeats was thus strikingly different from those seen both in the remainder of the antigens and in a sample of Plasmodium falciparum housekeeping genes.  (+info)

Guanylyl cyclases with the topology of mammalian adenylyl cyclases and an N-terminal P-type ATPase-like domain in Paramecium, Tetrahymena and Plasmodium. (5/1293)

We cloned a guanylyl cyclase of 280 kDa from the ciliate Paramecium which has an N-terminus similar to that of a P-type ATPase and a C-terminus with a topology identical to mammalian adenylyl cyclases. Respective signature sequence motifs are conserved in both domains. The cytosolic catalytic C1a and C2a segments of the cyclase are inverted. Genes coding for topologically identical proteins with substantial sequence similarities have been cloned from Tetrahymena and were detected in sequences from Plasmodium deposited by the Malaria Genome Project. After 99 point mutations to convert the Paramecium TAA/TAG-Gln triplets to CAA/CAG, together with partial gene synthesis, the gene from Paramecium was heterologously expressed. In Sf9 cells, the holoenzyme is proteolytically processed into the two domains. Immunocytochemistry demonstrates expression of the protein in Paramecium and localizes it to cell surface membranes. The data provide a novel structural link between class III adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases and imply that the protozoan guanylyl cyclases evolved from an ancestral adenylyl cyclase independently of the mammalian guanylyl cyclase isoforms. Further, signal transmission in Ciliophora (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and in the most important endoparasitic phylum Apicomplexa (Plasmodium) is, quite unexpectedly, closely related.  (+info)

Cytokine production in rhesus monkeys infected with Plasmodium coatneyi. (6/1293)

Plasmodium coatneyi infection in rhesus monkeys has been used as a model for studying human malaria. Cytokine production in this model, however, has so far not been examined. In this study, four rhesus monkeys were infected with P. coatneyi, with another four animals serving as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken for the determination of daily parasitemia, and cytokine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels at days 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10. All inoculated animals became infected, with synchronized appearance of ring-stage parasites. Infected monkeys had increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) during the late stage of the infection. They also had increased production of ciliary neurotrophic factor. In conjunction with the production of proinflammatory cytokines, infected monkeys also had gradual increases in the production of PGE2. A continued definition of the P. coatneyi/rhesus monkey animal model should be useful for the elucidation of the immunopathogenesis of human malaria.  (+info)

High rate of mixed and subpatent malarial infections in southwest Nigeria. (7/1293)

The rate of malarial parasitemia in children and adults was assessed by microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction in a holoendemic area in Nigeria. A high rate of subpatent Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia (19.6%) was found. Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale infections were common in a rural area (26.1% and 14.8%) but were observed sporadically in individuals from an urban area. Simultaneous infections with P. falciparum, P. malariae, and P. ovale were frequent in the rural area (11.7% triple infections). The rate of triple infections was higher than expected from the prevalences of each species (P < 0.00001). Spleen enlargement was associated with mixed infections of P. falciparum and P. malariae (odds ratio [OR] = 5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-11.7) and less frequently observed in individuals without detectable parasitemia (OR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.01-0.3). Spleen enlargement and titers of antibodies to schizonts were positively correlated with parasite densities. The results also suggest that in some individuals a long-lasting subpatent parasitemia might occur.  (+info)

Interaction between cytochalasin B-treated malarial parasites and erythrocytes. Attachment and junction formation. (8/1293)

We have previously demonstrated that invasion of erythrocytes (RBCs) by malaria merozoites follows a sequence: recognition and attachment in an apical orientation associated with widespread deformation of the RBC, junction formation, movement of the junction around the merozoite that brings the merozoite into the invaginated RBC membrane, and sealing of the membrane. In the present paper, we describe a method for blocking invasion at an early stage in the sequence. Cytochalasin-treated merozoites attach specifically to host RBCs, most frequently by the apical region that contains specialized organelles (rhoptries) associated with invasion. The parasite then forms a junction between the apical region and the RBC. Cytochalasin blocks movement of this junction, a later step in invasion. Cytochalasin-treated (Plasmodium knowlesi) merozoites attach to Duffy-negative human RBCs, although these RBCs are resistant to invasion by the parasite. The attachment with these RBCs, however, differs from susceptible RBCs in that there is no junction formation. Therefore the Duffy associated antigen appears to be involved in junction formation, not initial attachment.  (+info)

BioAssay record AID 285476 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimalarial activity against Plasmodium vinckei petteri infected subcutaneously dosed Swiss Albino mice (Mus musculus).
Plasmepsins are a class of at least 10 enzymes (EC and EC produced by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. There are ten different isoforms of these proteins and ten genes coding them respectively in Plasmodium (Plm I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, IX, X and HAP). It has been suggested that the plasmpesin family is smaller in other human Plasmodium species. Expression of Plm I, II, IV, V, IX, X and HAP occurs in the erythrocytic cycle, and expression of Plm VI, VII, VIII, occurs in the exoerythrocytic cycle. Through their haemoglobin-degrading activity, they are an important cause of symptoms in malaria sufferers. Consequently, this family of enzymes is a potential target for antimalarial drugs. Plasmepsins are aspartic acid proteases, meaning their active site contains two aspartic acid residues. These two aspartic acid residue act respectively as proton donor and proton acceptor, catalysing the hydrolysis of peptide bond in proteins. There are four types of plasmepsins, closely ...
Evolutionary relationships of species within the genus Plasmodium have been controversial.[6] Plasmodium species were originally divided by morphology, life-cycle characteristics, and host species. However, modern molecular approaches for determining evolutionary relationships have given results which conflict with older classification methods.[6] Many attempts to clarify Plasmodium taxonomy with molecular methods have also run into technical challenges. Ribosomal RNA sequencing, which is often used in other organisms to determine evolutionary relationships, is challenging to interpret from Plasmodium species as they maintain several different copies of ribosomal RNA which are expressed at different stages of the life cycle and which may be able to recombine with one another.[6] Another commonly used marker for evolutionary studies has been the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) which is present in all Plasmodium species.[6] However, analyses of CSP sequences are complicated by the fact that the ...
To prevent this, studies have shown there to be increased ingestion, digestion and detoxification rates of the hemoglobin in order to maintain osmotic stability. In general each species of Plasmodium infects one to a few species of birds. paramecium. What is vegetative propagation? When fission results in many daughter cells, it is called multiple fission (e.g. From there they enter liver parenchyma cells, where they divide and form merozoites. In Plasmodium nucleus divides to produce many nuclei. [22] While many species can infect more than one vertebrate host, they are generally specific to one of these classes (such as birds). [16] There has been particular interest in dating the divergence of the human parasite P. falciparum from other Plasmodium lineages due to its medical importance. [38], In 1966, Cyril Garnham proposed separating Plasmodium into nine subgenera based on host specificity and parasite morphology. The infected red blood cell eventually bursts, allowing the new merozoites to ...
In preparation of major molecular epidemiological field studies in PNG essential parasite detection techniques were compared under conditions of a laboratory close to the field site and located in a malaria endemic country. The diagnostic requirements were: (i) good performance in the detection of mixed species infections, as all four species concurrently occur in PNG, (ii) recognition of P. malariae and P. ovale variants present in the study area, (iii) high through put capacity and robustness of assay, (iv) quantitative results and (v) reasonable costs. The qPCR assay described here was implemented and validated at the PNG-IMR site in Madang, demonstrating the feasibility of applying state of the art techniques in this context. In the meantime the qPCR assay is routinely implemented for molecular diagnosis in large scale epidemiologic studies at IMR.. As part of test validation in the field, the performance of this qPCR assay for Plasmodium species discrimination was compared to two other ...
A low (1-2x) coverage draft genome sequence was previously produced by Sanger sequencing from the only known source of P. reichenowi genomic DNA (CDC strain) provided by Alan Thomas (BPRC, Netherlands). Following the discovery of an additional aliquot of the same DNA source, a full genome sequence has been produced using Illumina Sequence-by-Synthesis. The complete and annotated genome, compared with that of P. falciparum has been published (PMID:25203297). ...
Plasmid PF3D7_0910300-COMP-blac-flag-his from Dr. Gavin Wrights lab contains the insert conserved Plasmodium protein, unknown function. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
While it is generally accepted that acute blood stage malarial infections are resolved through the actions of protective antibodies, we observed that resistance to acute infection with Plasmodium chabaudi adami was mediated by T cell-dependent cellular immune mechanisms independent of antibody. We now report that acute blood stage infections caused by three additional murine hemoprotozoan parasites, Plasmodium vinckei petteri, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, and Babesia microti, appear to be controlled by similar T cell-dependent mechanisms of immunity. Mice rendered B cell deficient by lifelong treatment with goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin M (IgM) had IgM levels in serum of less than 0.6 micrograms/ml and contained precipitating amounts of goat anti-mouse IgM. When these B cell-deficient mice were infected with blood stage P. vinckei petteri, P. chabaudi chabaudi, or B. microti, they resolved their infections with kinetics similar to those seen in immunologically intact mice. Infected B ...
Sequestration, the adherence of infected erythrocytes containing late developmental stages of the parasite (trophozoites and schizonts) to the endothelium of capillaries and venules, is characteristic of Plasmodium falciparum infections. We have studied two host factors, the spleen and antibody, that influence sequestration of P. falciparum in the squirrel monkey. Sequestration of trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes that occurs in intact animals is reduced in splenectomized animals; in vitro, when infected blood is incubated with monolayers of human melanoma cells, trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes from intact animals but not from splenectomized animals bind to the melanoma cells. The switch in cytoadherence characteristics of the infected erythrocytes from nonbinding to binding occurs with a cloned parasite. Immune serum can inhibit and reverse in vitro binding to melanoma cells of infected erythrocytes from intact animals. Similarly, antibody can reverse in vivo sequestration ...
A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the performance of 107 malaria microscopists working at 23 malaria rechecking laboratories in Ethiopia. A set of 12 blood film slides was distributed to each microscopist. Data was collected and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Chi-square, sensitivity, specificity, percent agreement, and kappa scores were calculated to assess performance in detecting and identification of Plasmodium species. The mean age of the participants was 30 ± 5 yrs and most of them (54; 50.5%) were working at regional reference laboratories. Overall, the sensitivity of participants in detecting and identifying malaria parasite species was 96.8% and 56.7%, respectively. The overall agreement on detection and identification of malaria species was 96.8% (Kappa = 0.9) and 64.8% (Kappa = 0.33), respectively. The least accurately identified malaria parasite species was P. malariae (3/107; 2.8%) followed by P. ovale (35/107; 32.7%). Participants working at hospital ...
Plasmodium vivax uses multiple ligand-receptor interactions for preferential invasion of human reticulocytes. Several of these ligands have been identified by in silico approaches based on the role displayed by their orthologs in other Plasmodium species during initial adhesion or invasion. However, the cell adhesion role of proteins that are exclusive to species that specifically invade reticulocytes (as P. vivax and P. cynomolgi) has not been evaluated to date. This study aimed to characterise an antigen shared between Plasmodium species that preferentially infect reticulocytes with a focus on assessing its binding activity to target cells. An in silico analysis was performed using P. vivax proteome data to identify and characterise one antigen shared between P. vivax and P. cynomolgi. This led to identification of the pvrbsa gene present in the P. vivax VCG-I strain genome. This gene is transcribed in mature schizonts and encodes a protein located on the parasite surface.
The genomic diversity of Plasmodium malariae malaria parasites is understudied, partly because infected individuals tend to present with low parasite densities, leading to difficulties in obtaining sufficient parasite DNA for genome analysis. Selective whole genome amplification (SWGA) increases the relative levels of pathogen DNA in a clinical sample, but has not been adapted for P. malariae parasites. Here we design customized SWGA primers which successfully amplify P. malariae DNA extracted directly from unprocessed clinical blood samples obtained from patients with P. malariae-mono-infections from six countries, and further test the efficacy of SWGA on mixed infections with other Plasmodium spp. SWGA enables the successful whole genome sequencing of samples with low parasite density (i.e. one sample with a parasitaemia of 0.0064% resulted in 44% of the genome covered by ≥ 5 reads), leading to an average 14-fold increase in genome coverage when compared to unamplified samples. We identify a total
The number of available Plasmodium genomes has increased considerably during recent years. This wealth of genomic information creates an unprecedented opportunity to study the unique genomic qualities of this genus using comparative genomics. There have been tremendous achievements in malaria treatment and control strategies. Thanks to worldwide efforts, there has been a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases and malaria-related deaths between 2000 and 2015. By 2015, it was estimated that the number of malaria cases decreased from 262 million to 214 million, and the number of malaria-related deaths from 839,000 to 438,000 [12]. However, there are still numerous aspects of malaria research that need to be further addressed. The intricacies of parasite-host relations in Plasmodium infection might be more complex than previously considered [13]. Humans have recently been infected by Plasmodium species classically considered specific to non-human primates (e.g. a single infection with ...
The primary event in the pathogenesis of severe malaria in Plasmodium falciparum infection is thought to be adherence of trophozoite- and schizont-infected erythrocytes to capillary endothelium, a process called sequestration. Identifying the endothelial molecules used as receptors is an essential step in understanding this disease process. Recent work implicates the membrane glycoprotein CD36 (platelet glycoprotein IV; refs 2-5) and the multi-functional glycoprotein thrombospondin as receptors. Although CD36 has a widespread distribution on microvascular endothelium, it may not be expressed on all capillary beds where sequestration occurs, especially in the brain. The role of thrombospondin in cell adhesion, in vitro or in vivo, is less certain. We have noticed that some parasites bind to human umbilical-vein endothelial cells independently of CD36 or thrombospondin. To screen for alternative receptors, we have developed a novel cell-adhesion assay using transfected COS cells, which confirms that CD36
Plasmodium knowlesi has risen in importance as a zoonotic parasite that has been causing regular episodes of malaria throughout South East Asia. The P. knowlesi genome sequence generated in 2008 highlighted and confirmed many similarities and differences in Plasmodium species, including a global view of several multigene families, such as the large SICAvar multigene family encoding the variant antigens known as the schizont-infected cell agglutination proteins. However, repetitive DNA sequences are the bane of any genome project, and this and other Plasmodium genome projects have not been immune to the gaps, rearrangements and other pitfalls created by these genomic features. Today, long-read PacBio and chromatin conformation technologies are overcoming such obstacles. Here, based on the use of these technologies, we present a highly refined de novo P. knowlesi genome sequence of the Pk1(A+) clone. This sequence and annotation, referred to as the MaHPIC Pk genome sequence, includes manual ...
THE CLINICAL DISEASE Malaria is caused by infection of red blood cells with protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. The parasites are inoculated into the human host by a feeding female anopheline mosquito. The four Plasmodium species that infect humans are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. Occasional infections with monkey malaria…
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Demonstration of a persisting exo-erythrocytic cycle in plasmodium cynomolgi and its bearing on the reproduction of relapses / H. E. Shortt and P. C. C. ...
Members of the genus Plasmodium must colonize both a mosquito and a vertebrate to complete their life cycle. In vertebrates, the parasite develops in liver cells and goes on to infect red blood cells, bursting from and destroying the blood cells with each asexual replication cycle ([link]). Of the four Plasmodium species known to infect humans, P. falciparum accounts for 50 percent of all malaria cases and is the primary cause of disease-related fatalities in tropical regions of the world. In 2010, it was estimated that malaria caused between one-half and one million deaths, mostly in African children. During the course of malaria, P. falciparum can infect and destroy more than one-half of a humans circulating blood cells, leading to severe anemia. In response to waste products released as the parasites burst from infected blood cells, the host immune system mounts a massive inflammatory response with episodes of delirium-inducing fever as parasites lyse red blood cells, spilling parasite waste ...
Trigg, P. I., Hirst, S. I., Shakespeare, P. G. & Tappenden, L. (‎1977)‎. Labelling of membrane glycoprotein in erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium knowlesi*. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 55 (‎2-3)‎, 205 - 209. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/261160 ...
The well-known and invidious pathology caused by malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) stems from the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC), which is the progressive invasion of erythrocytes by the merozoite form of the parasite followed by parasite growth, asexual replication, and lysis of the host cell liberating logarithmically greater numbers of infectious merozoites. ...
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The diagnosis of Plasmodium sp. has traditionally been performed by microscope. It is our intent to modify the procedure to allow diagnosis of the malaria parasite by the detection of metabolic products of the parasite by enzyme techniques. Thus the diagnostic assay for Plasmodium sp. will be dependent on an alteration of the metabolism of the parasite rather than a visual measurement of parasite .... ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Ahmed, A. M., Monsanto Pinheiro, M., Divis, P. C., Siner, A., Zainudin, R., Wong, I. T., Lu, C. W., Singh-Khaira, S. K., Millar, S. B., Lynch, S., Willmann, M., Singh, B., Krishna, S. & Cox Singh, J. 14 Aug 2014 In : PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 8, 8, 14 p., e3086. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Ahmed, A. M., Monsanto Pinheiro, M., Divis, P. C., Siner, A., Zainudin, R., Wong, I. T., Lu, C. W., Singh-Khaira, S. K., Millar, S. B., Lynch, S., Willmann, M., Singh, B., Krishna, S. & Cox Singh, J. 14 Aug 2014 In : PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 8, 8, 14 p., e3086. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Plasmodium, commonly known as malaria parasites, may be described as a genus of intracellular parasitic protozoa. Read more here.
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The research team used selective amplification to sequence whole genomes of the parasites, revealing new information about how they evolved to infect human hosts.
The suspicion that malaria was caused by a living contagium has been entertained from the most ancient times and repeatedly expressed by even the oldest writers (Vitruvius, Varro, Columella). Lanc...
Avian malaria parasites are prevalent around the world, and infect a wide diversity of bird species. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of high quality draft genome sequences for two avian malaria species, Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium gallinaceum. We identify 50 genes that are specific to avian malaria, located in an otherwise conserved core of the genome that shares gene synteny with all other sequenced malaria genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the avian malaria species form an outgroup to the mammalian Plasmodium species. Consistent with their phylogenetic position, we identify orthologs of genes that had previously appeared to be restricted to the clades of parasites containing P. falciparum and P. vivax - the species with the greatest impact on human health. The subtelomeres of P. relictum and P. gallinaceum contain several novel gene families, including an expanded surf multigene family. We also identify an expansion of reticulocyte binding protein homologs in P. relictum
Avian malaria parasites are a highly diverse group that commonly infect birds and have deleterious effects on their hosts. Some parasite lineages are geographically widespread and infect many host species in many regions. Bird migration, natural dispersal, invasive species and human-mediated introductions into areas where competent insect vectors are present, are probably the main drivers of the current distribution of avian malaria parasites. A total of 412 and 2588 wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus) were captured in 2012 and 2013 in two areas of the Iberian Peninsula (central and southern Spain, respectively). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples; parasite lineages were sequenced and identified by comparing with GenBank and/or MalAvi databases. Thirteen Plasmodium lineages were identified in house sparrows corresponding to three major clades. Five individuals were infected by the African Plasmodium lineage PAGRI02, which has been proposed to actively circulate only in Africa. Despite the
Looking for online definition of Plasmodium malariae in the Medical Dictionary? Plasmodium malariae explanation free. What is Plasmodium malariae? Meaning of Plasmodium malariae medical term. What does Plasmodium malariae mean?
Biotin-deficient chickens and ducks developed much more severe infections with Plasmodium lophurae than did non-deficient control animals. While a very mild degree of biotin deficiency sufficed to increase susceptibility, even an extreme degree of pantothenic acid deficiency had no effect. Biotin deficiency also increased the susceptibility of ducks to P. cathemerium. In animals infected with P. lophurae, the concentration of biotin in the plasma as well as in the red cells rose during the course of the infection, reached a peak at about the same time as the parasite number reached its peak, and then returned to normal as the infection subsided. While the administration of additional biotin to animals partially deficient in biotin could be considered a specific measure tending to lessen the severity of infection with P. lophurae, the injection of biotin into animals fed a diet adequate in this vitamin had no antimalarial effects, perhaps because the excess biotin was rapidly removed from the ...
The purpose of this study was to show that individual malaria rapid diagnosis tests (MRDTs) could also be used to isolate Plasmodium DNA for genetic studies. We extracted and amplified Plasmodium DNA using two commercial MRDT kits. Phenol/chloroform extraction followed by a nested polymerse chain reaction (PCR) can be used to identify Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax from MRDTs. The PCR on MRDT-isolated DNA was more sensitive than antigen capture by MRDT. Satisfactory results were also obtained if older MRDT tests were used, even after long periods of storage at ambient temperature, with no special preservation.
Bird malaria parasites have never been described from the Malay Peninsula, as far as the author is aware, although some were reported from the East Indies by Uegaki (1930) and others. The observations on avian plasmodia which are reported here, were made by the author while working in the Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Federated Malay States, in 1945. Avian plasmodia were obtained from seven kinds of wild birds which were captured in the vicinity of the city of Kuala Lumpur. The species of plasmodia and their hosts are listed below. Three species of parasites, Plasmodium relictum, P. circumflexum and P. lophurae, were found in 198 hosts belonging to seven species. The infection rate averaged 19.2 per cent. The highest rate was estimated as 69.6 per cent, and was found in the case of P. circumflexum and Munia striata. Most of the hosts were very heavily infected.
Gametocyte infectivity and oocyst development of the avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium gallinaceum, can be reduced or eliminated in mosquitoes by immunizing the chickens on which the mosquitoes feed with infected red blood cells that have been treated with formalin or x-rays. Protection of the mosquito appears to be related to the immobilization of the microgametes in its gut and is associated with the immunoglobulin G fraction of serum.. ...
The writer (Becker, 1952) has recently reported on the varied responses among both chicks and ducklings to blood-induced infection with Plasmodium lophurae. The present paper is concerned with hemagglutination reactions involving the plasmas of individual chickens and duck erythrocytes, on the one hand, and the plasmas of individual ducks and chicken erythrocytes, on the other. The agglutinations observed were the result of exposing the erythrocytes to diluted plasmas containing natural or innate agglutinins; i.e., agglutinins not formed as the result of active immunization through exposure to the antigens of the erythrocytes.
Malaria - Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in humans. It is one of several species of Plasmodium parasit
Malaria is a protozoal disease transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito, caused by minute parasitic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium, which infect human and insect hosts alternatively. There are four species of the genus plasmodium responsible for the malaria parasite infections that commonly infect man, P.falciparum, P.vivax, P.malariae and P.ovale. The most important of these is P.falciparum because it can be rapidly fatal and is responsible for the majority of malaria related deaths. Malaria effects mainly poor, underserved and marginalized populations in remote rural areas which are characterized by inadequate control measures and limited access to health care. Higher malaria prevalence has been reported among ethnic and tribal groups living in remote forested and border areas. Treatment for Malaria is primarily aimed at personal protective measures that prevent mosquitoes from biting and transmitting malaria, chemo-prophylaxis, anti-malarial drug of choice and blood schizonticides are the ...
Carriage and density of gametocytes, the transmission stages of malaria parasites, are determined for predicting the infectiousness of humans to mosquitoes. This measure is used for evaluating interventions that aim at reducing malaria transmission. Gametocytes need to be detected by amplification of stage-specific transcripts, which requires RNA-preserving blood sampling. For simultaneous, highly sensitive quantification of both, blood stages and gametocytes, we have compared and optimized different strategies for field and laboratory procedures in a cross sectional survey in 315 5-9 yr old children from Papua New Guinea. qRT-PCR was performed for gametocyte markers pfs25 and pvs25, Plasmodium species prevalence was determined by targeting both, 18S rRNA genes and transcripts. RNA-based parasite detection resulted in a P. falciparum positivity of 24.1%; of these 40.8% carried gametocytes. P. vivax positivity was 38.4%, with 38.0% of these carrying gametocytes. Sensitivity of DNA-based parasite
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
All dried blood samples at 2,000 parasites/μl retained reactivity (100% sensitivity) at all three temperatures and time points for all nine RDT brands that detect histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2). The dried blood samples with 200 parasites/μl were detected by six of the nine HRP2-based RDTs at all storage temperatures and time points. The sensitivity for two of the three remaining HRP2-based RDTs was 100% up to four weeks of storage at all temperatures but dropped to 87.5% at week 12. Of the four RDTs that detect plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in a pan-specific manner, alone or in combination with HRP2, the detection of pLDH in samples with 2,000 parasites/μL was 100% for two RDTs and 80% for the other two RDTs. The mean level for detection of pLDH at 200 parasites/μl was low (29%), with a range of 0% to100%, which was partly attributable to weak initial baseline reactivity. Reactivity of dried 3D7 at 1,000 and 2,000 parasites/μl stored at 4°C was retained at 100% for up to 52 ...
Malaria must be considered in any person who has traveled to the tropics and presents with an unexplained febrile illness. Five species of the protozoan Plasmodium infect humans: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, P malariae, and P knowlesi. The organism is transmitted by the anopheline mosquito bite and travels hematogenously first to the liver, where asexual reproduction occurs (exoerythrocytic stage). The liver cell ruptures, releasing merozoites that invade erythrocytes, multiply, and cause hemolysis (erythrocytic stage). Malaria also may be transmitted by blood transfusion or passed transplacentally from mother to fetus. ...
Background: Given the central importance of anti-malarial drugs in the treatment of malaria, there is a need to understand the effect of Plasmodium infection on the broad spectrum of drug metabolizing enzymes. Previous studies have shown reduced clearance of quinine, a treatment for Plasmodium infection, in individuals with malaria. Methods: The hepatic expression of a large panel of drug metabolizing enzymes was studied in the livers of mice infected with the AS strain of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, a nonlethal parasite in most strains of mice with several features that model human Plasmodium infections. C57BL/6J mice were infected with P. chabaudi by intraperitoneal injection of infected erythrocytes and sacrificed at different times after infection. Relative hepatic mRNA levels of various drug metabolizing enzymes, cytokines and acute phase proteins were measured by reverse transcriptase-real time PCR. Relative levels of cytochrome P450 proteins were measured by Western blotting with IR-dye ...
LMALP : Detection of Plasmodium DNA and identification of the infecting species, with reflex percent parasitemia calculated using thin blood films for positive cases   An adjunct to conventional microscopy of Giemsa-stained films   Detection and confirmatory identification of Plasmodium species: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, P malariae, and P knowlesi
The parasite that causes malignant malaria in humans is Plasmodium falciparum. The sporozoites of Plasmodium enter the human body, when a female Anopheles mosquito bites a healthy person. Life cycle of Plasmodium in hum…
University of California - Riverside. Findings by UC Riverside researchers could help build a new drug to kill the deadly parasite that is becoming resistant to existing drugs. Say malaria and most people think mosquito, but the buzzing, biting insect is merely the messenger, delivering the Plasmodium parasites that sickened more than 200 million people globally in 2010 and killed about 660,000. Worse, the parasite is showing resistance to artemisinin, the most effective drug for treating infected people.. Now University of California, Riverside researchers who are trying to understand the biology of the parasite have discovered a potential weakness-low levels of DNA methylation in Plasmodiums genome that may be critical to the survival of the parasite, said Karine Le Roch, an associate professor of cell biology, who led the research.. DNA methylation is a biochemical process involving the modification of DNA that plays an important role in development and disease.. A paper about the ...
Comparison of diagnostic methods for Plasmodium spp. in humans from Uganda and the Central African Republic showed that parasites can be efficiently detected by PCR in fecal samples. These results, which rely solely on PCR-based examination of feces, validate numerous estimates of the prevalence of malaria in great apes.
Comparison of diagnostic methods for Plasmodium spp. in humans from Uganda and the Central African Republic showed that parasites can be efficiently detected by PCR in fecal samples. These results, which rely solely on PCR-based examination of feces, validate numerous estimates of the prevalence of malaria in great apes ...
Sporozoite of Plasmodium gets into human blood through the bite of female Anopheles mosquito,sporozoites reproduce asexually in liver cells,then they get into red blood cells, there they reproduce asexually and infect mo…
Author summary Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like post-translational modifications are evolutionarily conserved and involved in fundamental cellular processes essential to all eukaryotes. As such, enzymatic components of these pathways present attractive targets for therapeutic intervention for both chronic and communicable diseases. Nedd8 modification of cullin ubiquitin E3 ligases is critical to the viability of eukaryotic organisms and mediates cell cycle progression and DNA damage repair. Given the complex lifecycle and unusual replication mechanisms of the malaria parasite, one would expect neddylation to be of central importance to its survival, yet little is known about this pathway in Plasmodium. Here we present our findings on how Nedd8 removal is controlled in Plasmodium falciparum and how this pathway differs to that of its human host.
The global community must scale up malaria control efforts in order to meet the World Health Organisations target of reducing global malaria incidence and mortality 90 percent by 2030.
Get information, facts, and pictures about plasmodium at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about plasmodium easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Dept. of Infectious Diseases - Virology. Malaria remains one of the most devastating infectious diseases in humans, for two reasons. One is that Plasmodium(the causative malaria agent) has evolved efficient means to exploit cellular host mechanisms in order to proliferate. The second are the persisting gaps in our understanding of these pathogen-host interactions, especially in the clinically silent liver stage. Our two labs have recently performed a collaborative project with the aim to dissect this particular step, using a physiologically relevant in vivo mouse model of Plasmodium infection. We specifically focused on the identification of mi(cro)RNAs (small regulatory RNAs that control gene expression in many species) that are dysregulated in livers of infected mice. Interestingly, we found that Plasmodium infection triggers a significant, up to ten-fold increase of a particular miRNAknown to be a key player in innate and adaptive immunity in mammals, miR-155 (Hammerschmidt-Kamper et al., ...
An invasive bird species is carrying, and potentially spreading, a high prevalence of avian malaria throughout its range in eastern Australia, a Griffith University PhD candidate has uncovered ...
Malaria definition is - a human disease that is caused by sporozoan parasites (genus Plasmodium) in the red blood cells, is transmitted by the bite of anopheline mosquitoes, and is characterized by periodic attacks of chills and fever. How to use malaria in a sentence.
Infection with a parasite from the genus Plasmodium -- not a malaria virus -- causes malaria. This eMedTV article provides a definition of the term parasite and discusses the four species of Plasmodium that cause malaria among humans.
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites and it is the female Anopheles mosquito that acts as a vector for these malarial parasites in to the human body.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteome analysis of separated male and female gametocytes reveals novel sex-specific Plasmodium biology. AU - Khan, Shahid M.. AU - Franke-Fayard, Blandine. AU - Mair, Gunnar R.. AU - Lasonder, Edwin. AU - Janse, Chris J.. AU - Mann, Matthias. AU - Waters, Andrew P.. N1 - Funding information: The authors wish to thank G. McFadden and G. van Dooren for annotated lists of Plasmodium mitochondrial and apicoplast proteins. M. van Dijk is thanked for providing parasite clones in advance of publication. We would also like to thank R. van der Linden and M. van der Keur for all their help and expertise in using the flow cytometry equipment and the CEBI group for all their assistance and helpful discussions. In particular, we would like to gratefully acknowledge J. Ramesar for all his technical support. This work was supported by the Dutch Science Foundation (NWO/Genomics grant number 050-10-053), the Wellcome Trust Functional Genomics Initiative, Leiden University Medical Centre, ...
The Plasmodium falciparum Database contains consensus sequences generated from aligning the Plasmodium falciparum sequences contained in dbEST as of February 5, 1998 ...
BioAssay record AID 504832 submitted by National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS): Primary qHTS for delayed death inhibitors of the malarial parasite plastid, 48 hour incubation.
Plasmodium genomic DNA is extracted from 200 µl whole blood using the QIAamp Blood Kit (Cat. No. 29106; Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, CA) or a similar product that can yield the comparable concentration of genomic DNA from the same volume of blood. Detection and identification of Plasmodium is done with a real-time PCR assay as described by Rougemont et al 2004. This is a dual duplex assay that detects P. falciparum and P. vivax in one reaction, and P. malariae and P. ovale in a parallel reaction, using species-specific TaqMan probes. In cases where infection by more than one Plasmodium species is suspected, there is an option to use a conventional nested PCR assay (Snounou el al, 1993) that has an improved resolution of mixed infection compared to the real-time PCR assay.. ...
As explained in this eMedTV article, infection with a parasite from the genus Plasmodium is what causes malaria. Transmission of the disease most commonly involves bites from Anopheles mosquitoes, which may carry the parasite.
It is important to remember that this is the best annotated protein database out there. These are manually verified. Databases that are annotated via automated processes (like TREMBL?) are probably going to be a whole lot more dynamic than this one, so all these thoughts go out the window. For example, the PlasmoDB (malaria) database is the complete other side of the spectrum. It changes constantly. (It has to, the global Plasmodium genome has probably went through millions of changes since I started writing this entry ...
I heard of the research itself some three years ago, when the research group published an interesting paper in Nature. Now, for those of you unfamiliar with malaria, the disease is caused by a parasitic protozoan called plasmodium. The disease is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, which have simplistically described as the insect vector for the parasite. In reality, the plasmodium is a parasite of both humans and mosquitoes (and the mosquito is a parasite of humans), and needs both in order to go through its full developmental cycle. In mosquitoes, the parasite (in a specific life cycle stage) needs to go through two epithelial regions of the salivary gland and the midgut, and only then can it complete its development. Now, researchers had identified a small peptide, called SM1 that bound these two epithelial regions, and inhibited the crossing of this region by the malarial parasite. After doing some rather challenging experiments, they were able to now genetically engineer mosquitoes that ...
Plasmodium är ett släkte protister som sprids med myggor till olika värddjur. Här återfinns bland annat de arter som hos människan ger upphov till malaria.. Plasmodierna sprids genom blodsugande myggor.. ...
Demonstration of a persisting exo-erythrocytic cycle in Plasmodium cynomolgi and its bearing on the production of relapses Public Health Classics ...
Examine the interplay of color reflected from the surface of a thin soap film in Featured Microscopist Karl E. Deckarts gallery of soap bubbles. This page contains the image of soap bubble number seven in small format.
Examine the interplay of color reflected from the surface of a thin soap film in Featured Microscopist Karl E. Deckarts gallery of soap bubbles. This page contains the image of soap bubble number nine in small format.
A research team from ANU and The University of Queensland has designed and made a molecule derived from a human protein that kills the parasite which causes malaria.
Phylogenetic tree constructed according to the neighbor-joining method based on A-type small subunit RNA sequences of several Plasmodium species (GenBank access
Professor Petteri Kaski, ADA programme. We perform basic research at the intersection of core computer science (algorithm design and analysis) and discrete mathematics, with an emphasis towards novel techniques and less studied models of computation. We invest substantial effort to high-risk, high-yield research problems of relatively broad theoretical interest, selected on both problem and method driven basis. However, we also aim at rapid publication of more specific, smaller observations. We particularly seek and value solid results with mathematical elegance and simplicity.. ...
Natalia Díaz Rodríguez, Stefan Grönroos, Franck Wickström, Petteri Karvinen, Anders Berg, Shohreh Hosseinzadeh, Marion Karppi, Johan Lilius ...
Hovi, Petteri; Vohr, Betty; Ment, Laura R.; Doyle, Lex W.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Morrison, Katherine M.; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; van der Pal, Sylvia; Grunau, Ruth E.; , ; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Andersson, Sture; Saigal, Saroj; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G. ...
Its exciting as usual on the project. Weve submitted the three compounds for in-vivo oral evaluation in a mouse model. The original hits TCMDC-123812 and -123794 were submitted along with one of Zoes near neighbours, ZYH 3-1. Its not the most active of our compounds with an IC50 of 26 nM, but its logP comes in at just under 5 or there abouts (see: http://www.thesynapticleap.org/node/384#comment-798). Its still pretty high so well see how it goes. ...
... molecular tools List of Plasmodium species Haematozoa The plural of Plasmodium is not Plasmodia. Instead multiple ... Plasmodium is a member of the phylum Apicomplexa, a large group of parasitic eukaryotes. Within Apicomplexa, Plasmodium is in ... The Plasmodium genome is separated into 14 chromosomes contained in the nucleus. Plasmodium parasites maintain a single copy of ... Plasmodium species are distributed globally. All Plasmodium species are parasitic and must pass between a vertebrate host and ...
... is a species of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Novyella. As in all species of this genus, it has both ... Plasmodium, Parasites of birds, All stub articles, Plasmodium stubs). ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Lacertamoeba. Like all Plasmodium species P. gologoense ... 1988) Studies on African saurian malarias: five Plasmodium species from chamaeleons of the Uzungwe Mountains, Tanzania. Int. J ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Novyella. As in all Plasmodium species, P. unalis has both ... Description and molecular characterization of Plasmodium (Novyella) unalis sp. nov. from the Great Thrush (Turdus fuscater) in ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. Like all Plasmodium species P. cnemaspi has both ... Telford, Jr S.R. (1984) Studies on African saurian malarias: Three Plasmodium species from gekkonid hosts J. Parasitol. 70 (3) ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Like all Plasmodium species P. japonicum has both vertebrate and ... Manwell, R. D. (1966). "Plasmodium japonicum, P. juxtanucleare and P. nucleophilum in the Far East". The Journal of ...
This species is a member of the subgenus Vinckeia of the genus Plasmodium. The genus Plasmodium is most closely related to ... Plasmodium, Parasites of mammals, All stub articles, Plasmodium stubs). ... Plasmodium odocoilei is a species of parasites, that causes malaria in white-tailed deer. This species was discovered in 1967 ... From this study it seems that Plasmodium odocoilei belongs to a clade that is most closely related to Polychromophilus. This ...
... is a species of apicomplexan parasite in the family Plasmodiidae. Like all Plasmodium species P. draconis ... 1995) Plasmodium spp. (Apicomplexa: Plasmodiidae) of the flying lizard Draco volans (Agamidae) Sys. Parasitol. 31 (1) 53-60 v t ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. Like all Plasmodium species P. lemuris has both ... Huff C.G.,Hoogstraal H. J. (1963) Plasmodium lemuris N. Sp., from Lemur collaris E. Geoffroy. J. Infect Dis. 112:233-236 v t e ... This species may belong to the genus Haemoproteus rather than to Plasmodium. Clarification of this point awaits examination of ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. As in all Plasmodium species, P. booliati has both ... Sandosham A.A., Yap L.F., Omar I. (1965) A malaria parasite, Plasmodium (Vinckeia) booliati sp.nov., from a Malayan giant ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Like all Plasmodium species P. gracilis has both vertebrate and ... Telford Jr., Sam R.; Wellehan Jr., James F. X. (2005). "Two Plasmodium species of the crocodile skink Tribolonotus gracilis ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Novyella. As in all Plasmodium species, P. lucens has both ... Plasmodium, Parasites of birds, All stub articles, Plasmodium stubs). ...
... and subgenus Plasmodium. It is most closely related to the human parasite Plasmodium vivax as well as other Plasmodium species ... Like other Plasmodium species, P. knowlesi has a life cycle that requires infection of both a mosquito and a warm-blooded host ... Like other Plasmodium parasites, P. knowlesi has a life cycle that requires it be passed back and forth between mammalian hosts ... Plasmodium knowlesi is a parasite that causes malaria in humans and other primates. It is found throughout Southeast Asia, and ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Like all Plasmodium species P. vacuolatum has both vertebrate and ... 1979) A taxonomic reconsideration of some Plasmodium species from iguanid lizards. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp. 54(2):129-144 v t e ... This species was previously regarded as Plasmodium tropiduri. This species is found in Brazil, South America. This species ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. As in all Plasmodium species, P. inopinatum has ... Resseler R. (1956) A new rat Plasmodium in Belgium: Plasmodium inopinatum n. sp. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 36(3):259-263 v t e ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Sauramoeba. Like all Plasmodium species P. michikoa has both ... 1988) Studies on African saurian malarias: five Plasmodium species from chamaeleons of the Uzungwe Mountains, Tanzania. Int. J ... "Clarification of the taxonomic status of a host of two new Plasmodium species". International Journal for Parasitology. 20 (5 ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Like all Plasmodium species P. bigueti has both vertebrate and insect ... Plasmodium, Taxa named by Alain Chabaud, All stub articles, Plasmodium stubs). ... Taxonomic status and re-description of Plasmodium relictum (Grassi et Feletti, 1891), Plasmodium maior Raffaele, 1931, and ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Like all Plasmodium species P. maculilabre has both vertebrate ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Lacertamoeba. Like all Plasmodium species P. loveridgei ... Telford, Jr S.R. (1984) Studies on African saurian malarias: Three Plasmodium species from gekkonid hosts J. Parasitol. 70 (3) ...
... is a species of parasite in the family Plasmodiidae. The vertebrate hosts for this parasite are birds ... Plasmodium juxtanucleare is the sole species in this subgenus. The characteristic features are: Schizonts contain scant ... Grim K.C., Van der Merwe E., Sullivan M., Parsons N., McCutchan T.F. and Cranfield M. (2003) Plasmodium juxtanucleare ... The gametocytes resemble those of Plasmodium relictum and may displace the nucleus. They are of variable shape:oval, round, ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. Like all Plasmodium species P. hydrochaeri has ... "Detection of Plasmodium sp. In capybara". Veterinary Parasitology. 163 (1-2): 148-51. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.03.042. PMID ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium (subgenus Vinckeia) which causes malaria in buffalo in India. Like ... Sundar N, Balachandran C, Senthilvelan A (2004). "Plasmodium bubalis infection in a buffalo: a case report". J. Vet. Parasitol ... "Some observations on bovine malaria associated with developing phases of Plasmodium bubalis in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra ... other Plasmodium species, P. bubalis infects the red blood cells of its mammalian host. In the red blood cells, the parasite ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Like all Plasmodium species P. audaciosum has both vertebrate and ...
... is a malarial parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Currently its only known host is the Eurasian skylark, ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Giovannolaia. Like all Plasmodium species P. gabaldoni has ... Plasmodium, Parasites of birds, All stub articles, Plasmodium stubs). ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Like all Plasmodium species, P. saurocaudatum has both ... 1983). "Plasmodium saurocaudatum sp.n., a parasite of Mabuya multifasciata in southeast Asia". J. Parasitol. 69 (6): 1150-1155 ...
... is a species in the genus Plasmodium, subgenus Haemamoeba. It is a parasite, and the most common cause of ... Plasmodium, Poultry diseases, All stub articles, Plasmodium stubs). ... Like all Plasmodium species, P. relictum has both vertebrate and insect hosts. The vertebrate hosts for this parasite are birds ... "Plasmodium relictum". Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International). 2019-12-02 ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium. As in all Plasmodium species, P. tyrio has both vertebrate and insect ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Novyella Like all Plasmodium species P. ... Plasmodium, Parasites of birds, All stub articles, Plasmodium stubs). ...
... is a parasite of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Vinckeia. As in Plasmodium species, P. joyeuxi has both ... Marcel Leger (1928). "Plasmodium of West African Cercopithecus callitrichus". Annales de l'Institut Pasteur. 42 (7): 770-781. ...
... The first confirmed cases of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium ... Plasmodium malaria resistant to chloroquine in a Zambian living in Zambia. Br Med J 1983;286:1315-6. ... Possible sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria from Kenya (letter). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ...
World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (‎WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2002)‎ ...
Plasmodium sporozoites suppress the respiratory burst and antigen presentation of Kupffer cells, which are regarded as the ... Plasmodium yoelii: influence of immune modulators on the development of the liver stage Exp Parasitol. 2010 Oct;126(2):254-8. ... Plasmodium sporozoites suppress the respiratory burst and antigen presentation of Kupffer cells, which are regarded as the ...
Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodium falciparum is the deadliest of five human malaria species and responsible for the majority of ... Sequence of Plasmodium falciparum chromosomes 1, 3-9 and 13.. Hall N, Pain A, Berriman M, Churcher C, Harris B, Harris D, ... Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.. Gardner MJ, Hall N, Fung E, White O, Berriman M, Hyman RW ... The complete nucleotide sequence of chromosome 3 of Plasmodium falciparum.. Bowman S, Lawson D, Basham D, Brown D, ...
Complementary to "Control and elimination of plasmodium vivax malaria: a technical brief", ISBN 9789241509244 ... 2015)‎. Confronting plasmodium vivax malaria. World Health Organization. https://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/ ...
... Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1992 Aug;54(1):113-5. doi: 10.1016/0166-6851( ...
Malaria, a disease caused mainly by the parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, (P. vivax) is associated with ... Severe forms of malaria such as Plasmodium falciparum may be deadly even after treatment with current parasite-killing drugs. ... New data provide the first clinical evidence that drug-resistant mutations in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum may be ... Sanaria PfSPZ-CVac" is a live vaccine consisting of infectious Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria parasites that are injected ...
The spread of resistance to artemisinin in isolates of the malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum in southeast Asia threatens ... A molecular marker is required to monitor artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites in southeast Asia; here ... Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination ... Efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in ...
... with Quinidine Gluconate: Discontinuation of Parenteral ... CDC has recently reviewed data on the reported incidence in the United States of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and has ... Notices to Readers Treatment of Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria with Quinidine Gluconate: Discontinuation of Parenteral ...
Calcium-dependent protein kinase 4
Plasmodium basilisci adalah parasit dari genus Plasmodium. Seperti semua spesies Plasmodium, P. basilisci menyerang vertebrata ... Diperoleh dari "https://id.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plasmodium_basilisci&oldid=18648506" ...
Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.. Nature. 2002; 419: 498-511. View in Article *Scopus (3404 ... Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum phenylalanine tRNA synthetase provides opportunity for antimalarial drug development. *. ... Previous ArticleBasis for drug selectivity of plasmepsin IX and X inhibition in Plasmodium falciparum and vivax ... Extra terminal residues have a profound effect on the folding and solubility of a Plasmodium falciparum sexual stage-specific ...
Increased circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum underlies persistent asymptomatic infection in the dry season Author(s): ... Plasmodium falciparum transcription in different clinical presentations of malaria associates with circulation time of infected ...
... providing an opportunity to develop targeted covalent inhibitors of Plasmodium FKBP35. Here, we synthesize inhibitors of FKBP35 ...
Malaria is caused by multiple parasitic species of the genus Plasmodium. Although P. falciparum accounts for the highest ... Plasmodium falciparum. , Plasmodium vivax. and Plasmodium knowlesi. Malar J. 2013;. 12. :8.. ... Plasmodium vivax. . Acta Trop. 2016;. 160. :35-38.. *163. Imwong M, Snounou G, Pukrittayakamee S, et al. Relapses of Plasmodium ... Plasmodium vivax. infection. MBio. 2018;. 9. .. *43. Markus MB. Biological concepts in recurrent Plasmodium vivax. malaria. ...
Four species of plasmodia causing human malaria are Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ... Plasmodium knowlesi: usually causes malaria in monkeys (Lancet 2004;363:1017, Trends Parasitol 2008;24:406, Emerg Infect Dis ... 35 year old man with first case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller (Malar J 2013;12:128) *39 year old ... Causes a chronic infection that can last a lifetime (Wikipedia: Plasmodium malariae [Accessed 9 January 2018]) *Usually ...
Supports the classification of Plasmodium species antigen detection assays into class II (special controls). ... In cases of presumptive negative results for Plasmodium species antigens, infection due to Plasmodium species cannot be ruled ... Plasmodium antigen in the sample may be below the detection limit of the test. Negative results must be confirmed by thick and ... Plasmodium Species Antigen Detection Assays - Class II Special Controls Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff. * Share ...
Plasmodium vivax malaria remains a major public health burden in Myanmar. Global extent of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium ... Chloroquine Resistant Plasmodium Vivax Treatment. Drug Resistance: Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine is ... Therefore, chloroquine remains efficacious for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the study area. Plasmodium vivax ... Plasmodium malariae, and susceptible strains of P. To the Editor: Plasmodium vivax is the protozoan that causes the second most ...
C57BL/6 mice received 10,sup,5,/sup, red blood cells infected with ,i,Plasmodium berghei,/i, ANKA intraperitoneally. ... a) Aldehyde; (b) TNFα and (c) IFNγ levels in plasma samples obtained from uninfected and Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected mice ... F. M. S. de Leoratti, S. C. Trevelin, F. Q. Cunha et al., "Neutrophil paralysis in Plasmodium vivax malaria," PLoS Neglected ... Malaria was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 105 red blood cells (RBCs) infected with Plasmodium berghei ...
Ancient Origins articles related to plasmodium in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ...
Revision history of "File:Plasmodium life cycle.jpg". From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource ... Retrieved from "https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/File:Plasmodium_life_cycle.jpg" ...
Timeline for Species Malarial parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) [TaxId:5833] from a.45.1.1 Pf GST: *Species Malarial parasite ( ... Plasmodium falciparum) [TaxId:5833] from a.45.1.1 Pf GST first appeared in SCOP 1.67. *Species Malarial parasite (Plasmodium ... PDB entries in Species: Malarial parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) [TaxId: 5833]:. *Domain(s) for 1okt: *. Domain d1okta1: 1okt ... Species Malarial parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) [TaxId:5833] from a.45.1.1 Pf GST appears in SCOP 1.75. *Species Malarial ...
Genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration. , I have not failed, Ive just found 10,000 ways that wont work.. These two quotes by Thomas Edison highlight the difficulties in making a good idea work. A good idea comes to fruition only after much hard work, but conceiving a good idea is not trivial. As one source of design ideas, biological organisms continue to provide inspiration for technological advancements that often exceed the ideas humans could conceive on their own. A recent bio-inspired design may lead to better transport networks.. Typically, transport networks refer to streets and roads designed to move commodities around, but they also include aqueducts, power lines, and Internet systems. Well-designed transport networks route the appropriate commodity (vehicles, water, electricity, information, etc.) between different nodes with high efficiency and minimal cost. Additionally, robust networks ensure accurate transfers and accommodate breakdowns along the ...
Andrade BB, Reis-Filho A, Souza-Neto SM, Clarencio J, Camargo LM, Barral A, Severe Plasmodium vivax malaria exhibits marked ... de Santana Filho FS, Arcanjo AR, Chehuan YM, Costa MR, Martinez-Espinosa FE, Vieira JL, Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax ... Tjitra E, Anstey NM, Sugiarto P, Warikar N, Kenangalem E, Karyana M, Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium vivax associated with ... Siqueira AM, Alexandre MA, Mourão MP, Santos VS, Nagahashi-Marie SK, Alecrim MG, Severe rhabdomyolysis caused by Plasmodium ...
Plasmodium falciparum 3D7). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ...
Hematologic parameters in pediatric uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. ...
... including Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium berghei, and Plasmodium yoelii. ... Plasmodium Is the Subject Area "Plasmodium" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
... infected with multiple Plasmodium species (Plasmodium berghei, P. falciparum and P. vivax (hypnozoites and schizonts)), and ... Plasmodium exoerythrocytic parasites redirect trafficking of human proteins to the parasitophorous vacuole. View ORCID Profile ... Plasmodium exoerythrocytic parasites redirect trafficking of human proteins to the parasitophorous vacuole ... Plasmodium exoerythrocytic parasites redirect trafficking of human proteins to the parasitophorous vacuole ...
  • Fadel H. Plasmodium malariae. (pathologyoutlines.com)
  • P.falciparum , P. vivax , P. ovale , and P. malariae , and aids in the differential diagnosis of P. falciparum infections from other less virulent Plasmodium species. (fda.gov)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Plasmodium malariae. (who.int)
  • Sutanto I, Pohan HT, Suwondo P. Plasmodium malariae. (who.int)
  • Treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale , and Plasmodium vivax in adult and pediatric patients. (nih.gov)
  • Hay cuatro especies que infectan a los seres humanos (aunque también pueden producirse infecciones esporádicas por malaria de primates), a saber: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM, PLASMODIUM MALARIAE, PLASMODIUM OVALE, y PLASMODIUM VIVAX. (bvsalud.org)
  • Malaria, a disease caused mainly by the parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, (P. vivax) is associated with over 400,000 deaths each year. (news-medical.net)
  • Sanaria PfSPZ-CVac" is a live vaccine consisting of infectious Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria parasites that are injected into the subject at the same time as they receive an antimalarial drug. (news-medical.net)
  • Here we study the VIT homologue from the malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum (PfVIT) and Plasmodium berghei (PbVIT). (sb-roscoff.fr)
  • Our data are consistent with Plasmodium VITs playing a major role in iron detoxification and, thus, normal development of malaria parasites in their mammalian host. (sb-roscoff.fr)
  • Malaria parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum have exerted formidable selective pressures on the human genome. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Anopheles obscurus was the most abundant Anopheles mosquito, with a generalistic host preference observed from the olfactory response and the detection of various Plasmodium parasites. (wur.nl)
  • Human Plasmodium parasites were observed in both human and chimpanzee blood, although not in the Anopheles mosquitoes that were collected. (wur.nl)
  • Ribosome heterogeneity and specialization of Plasmodium parasites. (bvsalud.org)
  • Five human cases of infection with the simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi from Palawan, the Philippines, were confirmed by nested PCR. (cdc.gov)
  • The merozoite of the zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi invades human erythrocytes via the binding of its Duffy binding protein (PkDBPαII) to the Duffy antigen on the eythrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hitherto, more than 4000 cases of human knowlesi malaria have been reported in Malaysia and P. knowlesi has overtaken Plasmodium vivax (a human malaria parasite) as the main cause of malaria in the country. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium knowlesi efficiently incorporated radioactive serine into phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). (unipr.it)
  • C57BL/6 mice received 10 5 red blood cells infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA intraperitoneally. (hindawi.com)
  • We used the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, to assess whether TRPV1 is able to modulate the innate immune response to malaria in animals infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. (hindawi.com)
  • Subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries were constructed that are enriched for Plasmodium berghei and Anopheles stephensi genes expressed during oocyst differentiation on the midgut. (elsevier.com)
  • Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine compared with quinine in pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial. (druglib.com)
  • McElroy, Budhi Leksana, Thomas L. Nov 15, 2018 · The treatment regimens for chloroquine-resistant P. Oct 29, 2008 · Plasmodium vivax accounts for about 40% of all malaria infection in Ethiopia. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • vivax and P. Firstly, P. In several endemic areas, including the Brazilian Amazon basin, anti-malarial drugs are dispensed in small plastic bags at a dosing regimen based on age Plasmodium vivax accounts for about 44 % of all malaria infection in Ethiopia. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • We describe a case series of 17 patients hospitalized in Manaus (western Brazilian Amazon) with PCR-confirmed Plasmodium vivax infection who were treated with chloroquine and primaquine. (cdc.gov)
  • infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction Plasmodium spp. (scielo.br)
  • In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus , has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. (scielo.br)
  • Analysis of erythrocyte signalling pathways during Plasmodium falciparum infection identifies targets for host-directed antimalarial intervention. (edu.au)
  • Here, we fill this knowledge gap through a comprehensive and dynamic assessment of host erythrocyte signaling during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. (edu.au)
  • We report a Plasmodium ovale infection in a traveler with recent return from a long land trip across West Africa. (unl.pt)
  • The traveler was then diagnosed at our hospital with a malaria infection by Plasmodium ovale. (unl.pt)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Haemolytic jaundice in Plasmodium vivax infection. (who.int)
  • Singh H, Chaturvedi S. Haemolytic jaundice in Plasmodium vivax infection. (who.int)
  • Malaria is a potentially life-threatening parasitic disease caused by infection with Plasmodium protozoa transmitted by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. (medscape.com)
  • Plasmodium falciparum infection carries a poor prognosis with a high mortality if untreated, but it has an excellent prognosis if diagnosed early and treated appropriately. (medscape.com)
  • Assessment of Mixed Plasmodium falciparum sera5 Infection in Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: A Case-Control Study in Malawi. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasmodium falciparum is the deadliest of five human malaria species and responsible for the majority of malaria related deaths. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Malaria is caused by multiple parasitic species of the genus Plasmodium. (intechopen.com)
  • This special controls guidance document was developed to support the classification of Plasmodium species antigen detection assays into class II (special controls). (fda.gov)
  • A Plasmodium species antigen detection assay is a device that employs antibodies for the detection of specific malaria parasite antigens, including histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2) specific antigens, and pan malarial antigens in human whole blood. (fda.gov)
  • This guidance provides recommendations to manufacturers regarding preparation of premarket notifications and labeling for a Plasmodium species antigen detection assay. (fda.gov)
  • It is issued in conjunction with a Federal Register notice announcing the classification of Plasmodium species antigen detection assays 1 . (fda.gov)
  • Any firm submitting a 510(k) premarket notification for a Plasmodium species antigen detection assay will need to address the issues covered in the special controls guidance document. (fda.gov)
  • FDA believes that special controls, when combined with the general controls, will be sufficient to provide reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. (fda.gov)
  • Treatment of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium species. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of malaria acquired in geographic areas where chloroquine resistance occurs or when the Plasmodium species has not been identified. (nih.gov)
  • Acidosis in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with high mortality, yet the pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. (elsevier.com)
  • Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. (datacite.org)
  • Plasmodium basilisci adalah parasit dari genus Plasmodium . (wikipedia.org)
  • Malaria is an infectious disease caused by intracellular protozoans of the genus Plasmodium and transmitted from person to person through bites of infected mosquitoes. (hindawi.com)
  • Possible sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria from Kenya (letter). (cdc.gov)
  • Progressive increase in point mutations associated with chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from India. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. (nature.com)
  • Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (nature.com)
  • Drug Resistance: Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine is widespread and cases of Plasmodium vivax resistance have been reported. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • The development and rapid spread of chloroquine resistance (CQR) in Plasmodium Basri H, Masbar S, Leksana B, Tjitra E, Dewi RM, Khairani M, Wignall FS 1996. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • Studies on resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium falciparum with potential application to the development of a modified in vitro susceptibility test / by Michael Davis Rogers. (who.int)
  • Resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite is threatening to reverse recent gains in reducing global deaths from malaria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Plasmodium sporozoites suppress the respiratory burst and antigen presentation of Kupffer cells, which are regarded as the portal of invasion into hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • 2014. DNA secondary structures are associated with recombination in major Plasmodium falciparum variable surface antigen gene families. . (cornell.edu)
  • Oxidative killing of the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii by activated macrophages. (aai.org)
  • The capacity of macrophages activated in vivo and in vitro to kill Plasmodium yoelii was investigated. (aai.org)
  • Of the 608 expressed sequence tags with data base hits, 320 (53%) had significant matches to the non-redundant protein data base, whereas 288 (47%) with matches only to genomic data bases represent novel Plasmodium and Anopheles genes. (elsevier.com)
  • it can be misidentified as Plasmodium falciparum , which causes malaria. (cdc.gov)
  • ANSWER Plasmodium, the single-celled parasite which causes malaria, has been infecting humans since ancient times. (malaria.com)
  • In Ethiopia, unlike in many parts of Africa, Plasmodium vivax accounts for 30-40 percent of the confirmed malaria cases reported annually (8;14;17). (bvsalud.org)
  • The first confirmed cases of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum acquired in Africa were reported in 1978 (1) and occurred in non-immune travelers who had been in East Africa for relatively short periods of time. (cdc.gov)
  • New data provide the first clinical evidence that drug-resistant mutations in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum may be gaining a foothold in Africa. (news-medical.net)
  • In Africa each year around 24 million wom- women have acquired substantial protec- en become pregnant in malaria-endemic ar- tive immunity to malaria through repeated eas. (who.int)
  • A first generation vaccine known as RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S) acts against Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly malaria parasite globally and the most prevalent in Africa. (technet-21.org)
  • Forty-four splenectomized Aotus nancymaae monkeys were infected with 6 different strains of Plasmodium cynomolgi , 11 via trophozoites and 33 via sporozoites. (allenpress.com)
  • Burkitt lymphoma risk shows geographic and temporal associations with Plasmodium falciparum infections in Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya. (cdc.gov)
  • To measure the intensity of exposure to the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, among child ren in these regions, we used high-resolution spatial data from the Malaria Atlas Project to estimate the annual number of P. falciparum infections from 2000 through 2016 for each of 49 districts within the study region. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods The aim of this study was to determine the relative contributions to red cell loss of malaria and primaquine in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • BACKGROUND: Primaquine is essential for malaria control and elimination since it is the only available drug preventing multiple clinical attacks by relapses of Plasmodium vivax. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Plasmodium falciparum in G6PD normal and G6PD-deficient erythrocytes : the parasite cycle and adaptive phenomena / by Esien Archibong Usanga. (who.int)
  • Severe forms of malaria such as Plasmodium falciparum may be deadly even after treatment with current parasite-killing drugs. (news-medical.net)
  • CDC has recently reviewed data on the reported incidence in the United States of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and has evaluated information on the effective management of severe life-threatening infections. (cdc.gov)
  • We assessed potential effects of local meteorological and environmental conditions, indoor residual spraying with insecticides, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) use at individual and community levels, and individual factors on Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence in a village in south Ethiopia. (uib.no)
  • Molecular surveillance of mutations in dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genes of Plasmodium falciparum in Ethiopia. (cdc.gov)
  • Association of mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum Kelch13 gene (Pf3D7_1343700) with parasite clearance rates after artemisinin-based treatments-a WWARN individual patient data meta-analysis. (wwarn.org)
  • Earlier work on NMT from the sleeping sickness parasite, Trypanosoma brucei and the malarial protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum , also showed that the organisms died when the enzyme was inhibited or knocked-down. (iucr.org)
  • The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. (scielo.br)
  • A parasitemia média determinada pela contagem microscópica de formas evolutivas de Plasmodium spp. (scielo.br)
  • This work was conducted to explore the influence of the degree of parasitemia in Plasmodium falciparum malaria on the male sex hormone testosterone, plasma. (academicjournals.org)
  • Evaluamos la prevalencia y parasitemia de hemosporidios en aves silvestres de la Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra de Huautla, Morelos, al sur de México. (inecol.mx)
  • Nos últimos anos infecção por protozoários hemosporídeos dos gêneros Plasmodium e Haemoproteus , tem sido considerada um dos fatores mais importantes relacionados com a extinção e / ou declínio da população de várias espécies de aves em todo o mundo. (scielo.br)
  • 279, 5573-5580) provide the foundation for studies seeking to understand at the molecular level Plasmodium development and its interactions with the mosquito. (elsevier.com)
  • It is also the only therapy against the sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum infectious to mosquitoes, and is thus useful in preventing malaria transmission. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Her work deals with themes such as Ecology, Microevolution and Evolutionary ecology, which intersect with Plasmodium. (research.com)
  • Quantitative assessment of the interactions and activity of combinations of antimalarial agents in continuous in vitro culture of Plasmodium falciparum / by Wilbur K. Milhous. (who.int)
  • A PvCelTOS (Plasmodium vivax Cell-Traversal Protein for Ookinetes and Sporozoites) desempenha um papel importante na travessia de células hospedeiras. (fiocruz.br)
  • Bicyclic azetidine compounds possess antimalarial activity via targeting of the cytoplasmic Plasmodium falciparum ( Pf ) protein translation enzyme phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase (cFRS). (cell.com)
  • Reportamos por primera vez la infección de hemoparásitos en 12 especies de aves y 16 nuevas asociaciones parásito-hospedero. (inecol.mx)
  • Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Pursat province, western Cambodia: a parasite clearance rate study. (nature.com)
  • Reduced Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to short-course artemisinin (ART) monotherapy manifests as a long parasite clearance half-life. (pasteur.fr)
  • Reduced susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate in southern Myanmar. (nature.com)
  • In vivo susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate in Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam. (nature.com)
  • The ability of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to form spontaneous rosettes with uninfected red cells is a parasite adhesion property which has been associated with severe malaria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Phospholipid metabolism of serine in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes involves phosphatidylserine and direct serine decarboxylation. (unipr.it)
  • Finally, these results also indicate compartmentalization of phospholipid metabolism in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes. (unipr.it)