A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.
A protozoan parasite from Southeast Asia that causes monkey malaria. It is naturally acquired by man in Malaysia and can also be transmitted experimentally to humans.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles stephensi.
A species of protozoan parasite causing MALARIA. It is the rarest of the four species of PLASMODIUM infecting humans, but is common in West African countries and neighboring areas.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.
The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
A protozoan parasite that occurs naturally in the macaque. It is similar to PLASMODIUM VIVAX and produces a type of malaria similar to vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species has been found to give rise to both natural and experimental human infections.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A protozoan parasite that causes avian malaria (MALARIA, AVIAN), primarily in chickens, and is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
Multinucleate cells or a stage in the development of sporozoan protozoa. It is exemplified by the life cycle of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM in the MALARIA infection cycle.
Uninuclear cells or a stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. Merozoites, released from ruptured multinucleate SCHIZONTS, enter the blood stream and infect the ERYTHROCYTES.
An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.
Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.
A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Characteristics include the presence of violet to brown spores.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.
A species in the family AOTIDAE, inhabiting the forested regions of Central and South America (from Panama to the Amazon). Vocalizations occur primarily at night when they are active, thus they are also known as Northern night monkeys.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
A protozoan, previously also considered a fungus. Characteristics include sporangia that are stalked and multilobed. It is widely used in biomedical research.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).
A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.
Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.
The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
Infections that do not exhibit symptoms.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
A republic in the north of South America, east of VENEZUELA and west of SURINAME. Its capital is Georgetown.
The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
A division of organisms that exist vegetatively as complex mobile plasmodia, reproduce by means of spores, and have complex life cycles. They are now classed as protozoa but formerly were considered fungi.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
A group of Indian Ocean Islands, the islands of Great Comoro, Anjouan, Mayotte, and Moheli, lying between northeast Mozambique and northwest Madagascar. The capital is Moroni. In 1914 they became a colony attached to Madagascar administratively and were made a French overseas territory in 1947. Except for Mayotte which remained French, Comoros became an independent republic in 1975. Comoros represents the Arabic qamar, moon, said by some scholars to be linked with the mystical Mountains of the Moon said to be somewhere in equatorial Africa. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p283 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p122)
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.

Detection and species determination of malaria parasites by PCR: comparison with microscopy and with ParaSight-F and ICT malaria Pf tests in a clinical environment. (1/1293)

A rapid procedure for the diagnosis of malaria infections directly from dried blood spots by PCR amplification was evaluated with samples from 52 patients. Plasmodium infections were identified with a genus-specific primer set, and species differentiation between Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax was analyzed by multiplex PCR. The PCR test with any of the three primer sets was able to detect as few as four parasites per microliter by gel electrophoresis or by nonisotopic paper hybridization chromatography. The diagnoses obtained by PCR correlated closely with those obtained by Giemsa staining except for two samples observed to have mixed P. falciparum-P. vivax infections. These were initially missed by microscopic analysis. In comparison with antigen-capture assays for P. falciparum, the PCR assays were able to detect three infections that were missed by the ParaSight-F test. The PCR test was negative for nine ParaSight-F-positive samples and one ICT Malaria Pf-positive sample, and these were confirmed to be false-positive results. The PCR thus gave no false-negative or false-positive results. Patients undergoing antimalarial therapy were also monitored by the PCR assay. Four of seven patients who were PCR positive for P. vivax at the time of discharge were later readmitted to the hospital with a recurrence of P. vivax infection. We would like to propose that PCR is a sensitive and easy method that can serve as a useful addition to microscopy for the diagnosis and the clinical monitoring of treatment of malaria.  (+info)

Multispecies Plasmodium infections of humans. (2/1293)

We analyzed point-prevalence data from 19 recent studies of human populations in which either Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium vivax co-occur with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae. Although the only statistical interactions among, sympatric congeners are pairwise, the frequencies of mixed-species infections relative to standard hypotheses of species sampling independence show no strong relation to overall malaria prevalence. The striking difference between the P. falciparum-P. malariae-P. ovale and the P. falciparum-P. malariae-P. vivax data is that the first typically shows a statistical surplus of mixed-species infections and the second a deficit. This suggests that the number of Plasmodium species present in a human population may be less important in determining the frequencies of mixed-species infections than is the identity of those species.  (+info)

Malaria immunization in Rhesus monkeys. A vaccine effective against both the sexual and asexual stages of Plasmodium knowlesi. (3/1293)

Rhesus monkeys were immunized with a preparation of Plasmodium knowlesi parasites containing principally microgametes with lesser numbers of macrogametes and asexual trophozoites. The antigen mixture was emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and administered intramuscularly. After one or two inoculations of from 10(5) to 10(7) microgametes in FCA, monkeys showed high levels of circulating anti-gamete antibodies as demonstrated by various in vitro microgamete immobilization or transmission blocking tests. After challenge with P. knowlesi, immunized monkeys developed low level asexual parasitemias and were not infectious to feeding mosquitoes as measured by growth of the parasite on the mosquito gut. Control monkeys developed rapidly rising, usually fatal infections and were highly infectious to mosquitoes. Anti-gamete antibodies appear to neutralize the sexual parasites and prevent mosquito infection within the gut of the recently fed mosquito vector. Suppression of asexual parasitemia in immunized monkeys may be due to the presence of asexual trophozoites in the antigen mixture or to antigens common to both sexual and asexual stages of the parasite. A vaccine effective as a single injection capable of interrupting malaria transmission from man to man whereas reducing the severity of the disease in infected individuals offers a new approach to the control of one of the major diseases affecting man.  (+info)

Biased amino acid composition in repeat regions of Plasmodium antigens. (4/1293)

Many malarial antigens contain extensive arrays of tandemly repeated short amino acid sequences, and much of the antibody response induced by malaria infections is directed against these repeats. Indeed, it has been hypothesized that these repeats function to elicit a relatively ineffective T-cell-independent antibody response by the host. In order to test this hypothesis, tandem repeats of Plasmodium species were examined for a bias in composition favoring amino acids likely to form epitopes for the antibody. The genome of Plasmodium is very A+T-rich, and nucleotide compositional bias will, in itself, lead to a high proportion of hydrophilic amino acids. When this bias was controlled for, Plasmodium antigens did not show a higher proportion of hydrophilic amino acids than expected, but there was a significant reduction in the proportion of hydrophobic amino acids in the repeats of the antigens. The amino acid composition of the repeats was thus strikingly different from those seen both in the remainder of the antigens and in a sample of Plasmodium falciparum housekeeping genes.  (+info)

Guanylyl cyclases with the topology of mammalian adenylyl cyclases and an N-terminal P-type ATPase-like domain in Paramecium, Tetrahymena and Plasmodium. (5/1293)

We cloned a guanylyl cyclase of 280 kDa from the ciliate Paramecium which has an N-terminus similar to that of a P-type ATPase and a C-terminus with a topology identical to mammalian adenylyl cyclases. Respective signature sequence motifs are conserved in both domains. The cytosolic catalytic C1a and C2a segments of the cyclase are inverted. Genes coding for topologically identical proteins with substantial sequence similarities have been cloned from Tetrahymena and were detected in sequences from Plasmodium deposited by the Malaria Genome Project. After 99 point mutations to convert the Paramecium TAA/TAG-Gln triplets to CAA/CAG, together with partial gene synthesis, the gene from Paramecium was heterologously expressed. In Sf9 cells, the holoenzyme is proteolytically processed into the two domains. Immunocytochemistry demonstrates expression of the protein in Paramecium and localizes it to cell surface membranes. The data provide a novel structural link between class III adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases and imply that the protozoan guanylyl cyclases evolved from an ancestral adenylyl cyclase independently of the mammalian guanylyl cyclase isoforms. Further, signal transmission in Ciliophora (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and in the most important endoparasitic phylum Apicomplexa (Plasmodium) is, quite unexpectedly, closely related.  (+info)

Cytokine production in rhesus monkeys infected with Plasmodium coatneyi. (6/1293)

Plasmodium coatneyi infection in rhesus monkeys has been used as a model for studying human malaria. Cytokine production in this model, however, has so far not been examined. In this study, four rhesus monkeys were infected with P. coatneyi, with another four animals serving as uninfected controls. Blood samples were taken for the determination of daily parasitemia, and cytokine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels at days 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10. All inoculated animals became infected, with synchronized appearance of ring-stage parasites. Infected monkeys had increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) during the late stage of the infection. They also had increased production of ciliary neurotrophic factor. In conjunction with the production of proinflammatory cytokines, infected monkeys also had gradual increases in the production of PGE2. A continued definition of the P. coatneyi/rhesus monkey animal model should be useful for the elucidation of the immunopathogenesis of human malaria.  (+info)

High rate of mixed and subpatent malarial infections in southwest Nigeria. (7/1293)

The rate of malarial parasitemia in children and adults was assessed by microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction in a holoendemic area in Nigeria. A high rate of subpatent Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia (19.6%) was found. Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale infections were common in a rural area (26.1% and 14.8%) but were observed sporadically in individuals from an urban area. Simultaneous infections with P. falciparum, P. malariae, and P. ovale were frequent in the rural area (11.7% triple infections). The rate of triple infections was higher than expected from the prevalences of each species (P < 0.00001). Spleen enlargement was associated with mixed infections of P. falciparum and P. malariae (odds ratio [OR] = 5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-11.7) and less frequently observed in individuals without detectable parasitemia (OR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.01-0.3). Spleen enlargement and titers of antibodies to schizonts were positively correlated with parasite densities. The results also suggest that in some individuals a long-lasting subpatent parasitemia might occur.  (+info)

Interaction between cytochalasin B-treated malarial parasites and erythrocytes. Attachment and junction formation. (8/1293)

We have previously demonstrated that invasion of erythrocytes (RBCs) by malaria merozoites follows a sequence: recognition and attachment in an apical orientation associated with widespread deformation of the RBC, junction formation, movement of the junction around the merozoite that brings the merozoite into the invaginated RBC membrane, and sealing of the membrane. In the present paper, we describe a method for blocking invasion at an early stage in the sequence. Cytochalasin-treated merozoites attach specifically to host RBCs, most frequently by the apical region that contains specialized organelles (rhoptries) associated with invasion. The parasite then forms a junction between the apical region and the RBC. Cytochalasin blocks movement of this junction, a later step in invasion. Cytochalasin-treated (Plasmodium knowlesi) merozoites attach to Duffy-negative human RBCs, although these RBCs are resistant to invasion by the parasite. The attachment with these RBCs, however, differs from susceptible RBCs in that there is no junction formation. Therefore the Duffy associated antigen appears to be involved in junction formation, not initial attachment.  (+info)

BioAssay record AID 285476 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimalarial activity against Plasmodium vinckei petteri infected subcutaneously dosed Swiss Albino mice (Mus musculus).
Plasmepsins are a class of at least 10 enzymes (EC and EC produced by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. There are ten different isoforms of these proteins and ten genes coding them respectively in Plasmodium (Plm I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, IX, X and HAP). It has been suggested that the plasmpesin family is smaller in other human Plasmodium species. Expression of Plm I, II, IV, V, IX, X and HAP occurs in the erythrocytic cycle, and expression of Plm VI, VII, VIII, occurs in the exoerythrocytic cycle. Through their haemoglobin-degrading activity, they are an important cause of symptoms in malaria sufferers. Consequently, this family of enzymes is a potential target for antimalarial drugs. Plasmepsins are aspartic acid proteases, meaning their active site contains two aspartic acid residues. These two aspartic acid residue act respectively as proton donor and proton acceptor, catalysing the hydrolysis of peptide bond in proteins. There are four types of plasmepsins, closely ...
Evolutionary relationships of species within the genus Plasmodium have been controversial.[6] Plasmodium species were originally divided by morphology, life-cycle characteristics, and host species. However, modern molecular approaches for determining evolutionary relationships have given results which conflict with older classification methods.[6] Many attempts to clarify Plasmodium taxonomy with molecular methods have also run into technical challenges. Ribosomal RNA sequencing, which is often used in other organisms to determine evolutionary relationships, is challenging to interpret from Plasmodium species as they maintain several different copies of ribosomal RNA which are expressed at different stages of the life cycle and which may be able to recombine with one another.[6] Another commonly used marker for evolutionary studies has been the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) which is present in all Plasmodium species.[6] However, analyses of CSP sequences are complicated by the fact that the ...
To prevent this, studies have shown there to be increased ingestion, digestion and detoxification rates of the hemoglobin in order to maintain osmotic stability. In general each species of Plasmodium infects one to a few species of birds. paramecium. What is vegetative propagation? When fission results in many daughter cells, it is called multiple fission (e.g. From there they enter liver parenchyma cells, where they divide and form merozoites. In Plasmodium nucleus divides to produce many nuclei. [22] While many species can infect more than one vertebrate host, they are generally specific to one of these classes (such as birds). [16] There has been particular interest in dating the divergence of the human parasite P. falciparum from other Plasmodium lineages due to its medical importance. [38], In 1966, Cyril Garnham proposed separating Plasmodium into nine subgenera based on host specificity and parasite morphology. The infected red blood cell eventually bursts, allowing the new merozoites to ...
In preparation of major molecular epidemiological field studies in PNG essential parasite detection techniques were compared under conditions of a laboratory close to the field site and located in a malaria endemic country. The diagnostic requirements were: (i) good performance in the detection of mixed species infections, as all four species concurrently occur in PNG, (ii) recognition of P. malariae and P. ovale variants present in the study area, (iii) high through put capacity and robustness of assay, (iv) quantitative results and (v) reasonable costs. The qPCR assay described here was implemented and validated at the PNG-IMR site in Madang, demonstrating the feasibility of applying state of the art techniques in this context. In the meantime the qPCR assay is routinely implemented for molecular diagnosis in large scale epidemiologic studies at IMR.. As part of test validation in the field, the performance of this qPCR assay for Plasmodium species discrimination was compared to two other ...
A low (1-2x) coverage draft genome sequence was previously produced by Sanger sequencing from the only known source of P. reichenowi genomic DNA (CDC strain) provided by Alan Thomas (BPRC, Netherlands). Following the discovery of an additional aliquot of the same DNA source, a full genome sequence has been produced using Illumina Sequence-by-Synthesis. The complete and annotated genome, compared with that of P. falciparum has been published (PMID:25203297). ...
Plasmid PF3D7_0910300-COMP-blac-flag-his from Dr. Gavin Wrights lab contains the insert conserved Plasmodium protein, unknown function. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
While it is generally accepted that acute blood stage malarial infections are resolved through the actions of protective antibodies, we observed that resistance to acute infection with Plasmodium chabaudi adami was mediated by T cell-dependent cellular immune mechanisms independent of antibody. We now report that acute blood stage infections caused by three additional murine hemoprotozoan parasites, Plasmodium vinckei petteri, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, and Babesia microti, appear to be controlled by similar T cell-dependent mechanisms of immunity. Mice rendered B cell deficient by lifelong treatment with goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin M (IgM) had IgM levels in serum of less than 0.6 micrograms/ml and contained precipitating amounts of goat anti-mouse IgM. When these B cell-deficient mice were infected with blood stage P. vinckei petteri, P. chabaudi chabaudi, or B. microti, they resolved their infections with kinetics similar to those seen in immunologically intact mice. Infected B ...
Sequestration, the adherence of infected erythrocytes containing late developmental stages of the parasite (trophozoites and schizonts) to the endothelium of capillaries and venules, is characteristic of Plasmodium falciparum infections. We have studied two host factors, the spleen and antibody, that influence sequestration of P. falciparum in the squirrel monkey. Sequestration of trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes that occurs in intact animals is reduced in splenectomized animals; in vitro, when infected blood is incubated with monolayers of human melanoma cells, trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes from intact animals but not from splenectomized animals bind to the melanoma cells. The switch in cytoadherence characteristics of the infected erythrocytes from nonbinding to binding occurs with a cloned parasite. Immune serum can inhibit and reverse in vitro binding to melanoma cells of infected erythrocytes from intact animals. Similarly, antibody can reverse in vivo sequestration ...
A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the performance of 107 malaria microscopists working at 23 malaria rechecking laboratories in Ethiopia. A set of 12 blood film slides was distributed to each microscopist. Data was collected and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Chi-square, sensitivity, specificity, percent agreement, and kappa scores were calculated to assess performance in detecting and identification of Plasmodium species. The mean age of the participants was 30 ± 5 yrs and most of them (54; 50.5%) were working at regional reference laboratories. Overall, the sensitivity of participants in detecting and identifying malaria parasite species was 96.8% and 56.7%, respectively. The overall agreement on detection and identification of malaria species was 96.8% (Kappa = 0.9) and 64.8% (Kappa = 0.33), respectively. The least accurately identified malaria parasite species was P. malariae (3/107; 2.8%) followed by P. ovale (35/107; 32.7%). Participants working at hospital ...
Plasmodium vivax uses multiple ligand-receptor interactions for preferential invasion of human reticulocytes. Several of these ligands have been identified by in silico approaches based on the role displayed by their orthologs in other Plasmodium species during initial adhesion or invasion. However, the cell adhesion role of proteins that are exclusive to species that specifically invade reticulocytes (as P. vivax and P. cynomolgi) has not been evaluated to date. This study aimed to characterise an antigen shared between Plasmodium species that preferentially infect reticulocytes with a focus on assessing its binding activity to target cells. An in silico analysis was performed using P. vivax proteome data to identify and characterise one antigen shared between P. vivax and P. cynomolgi. This led to identification of the pvrbsa gene present in the P. vivax VCG-I strain genome. This gene is transcribed in mature schizonts and encodes a protein located on the parasite surface.
The genomic diversity of Plasmodium malariae malaria parasites is understudied, partly because infected individuals tend to present with low parasite densities, leading to difficulties in obtaining sufficient parasite DNA for genome analysis. Selective whole genome amplification (SWGA) increases the relative levels of pathogen DNA in a clinical sample, but has not been adapted for P. malariae parasites. Here we design customized SWGA primers which successfully amplify P. malariae DNA extracted directly from unprocessed clinical blood samples obtained from patients with P. malariae-mono-infections from six countries, and further test the efficacy of SWGA on mixed infections with other Plasmodium spp. SWGA enables the successful whole genome sequencing of samples with low parasite density (i.e. one sample with a parasitaemia of 0.0064% resulted in 44% of the genome covered by ≥ 5 reads), leading to an average 14-fold increase in genome coverage when compared to unamplified samples. We identify a total
The number of available Plasmodium genomes has increased considerably during recent years. This wealth of genomic information creates an unprecedented opportunity to study the unique genomic qualities of this genus using comparative genomics. There have been tremendous achievements in malaria treatment and control strategies. Thanks to worldwide efforts, there has been a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases and malaria-related deaths between 2000 and 2015. By 2015, it was estimated that the number of malaria cases decreased from 262 million to 214 million, and the number of malaria-related deaths from 839,000 to 438,000 [12]. However, there are still numerous aspects of malaria research that need to be further addressed. The intricacies of parasite-host relations in Plasmodium infection might be more complex than previously considered [13]. Humans have recently been infected by Plasmodium species classically considered specific to non-human primates (e.g. a single infection with ...
The primary event in the pathogenesis of severe malaria in Plasmodium falciparum infection is thought to be adherence of trophozoite- and schizont-infected erythrocytes to capillary endothelium, a process called sequestration. Identifying the endothelial molecules used as receptors is an essential step in understanding this disease process. Recent work implicates the membrane glycoprotein CD36 (platelet glycoprotein IV; refs 2-5) and the multi-functional glycoprotein thrombospondin as receptors. Although CD36 has a widespread distribution on microvascular endothelium, it may not be expressed on all capillary beds where sequestration occurs, especially in the brain. The role of thrombospondin in cell adhesion, in vitro or in vivo, is less certain. We have noticed that some parasites bind to human umbilical-vein endothelial cells independently of CD36 or thrombospondin. To screen for alternative receptors, we have developed a novel cell-adhesion assay using transfected COS cells, which confirms that CD36
Plasmodium knowlesi has risen in importance as a zoonotic parasite that has been causing regular episodes of malaria throughout South East Asia. The P. knowlesi genome sequence generated in 2008 highlighted and confirmed many similarities and differences in Plasmodium species, including a global view of several multigene families, such as the large SICAvar multigene family encoding the variant antigens known as the schizont-infected cell agglutination proteins. However, repetitive DNA sequences are the bane of any genome project, and this and other Plasmodium genome projects have not been immune to the gaps, rearrangements and other pitfalls created by these genomic features. Today, long-read PacBio and chromatin conformation technologies are overcoming such obstacles. Here, based on the use of these technologies, we present a highly refined de novo P. knowlesi genome sequence of the Pk1(A+) clone. This sequence and annotation, referred to as the MaHPIC Pk genome sequence, includes manual ...
THE CLINICAL DISEASE Malaria is caused by infection of red blood cells with protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. The parasites are inoculated into the human host by a feeding female anopheline mosquito. The four Plasmodium species that infect humans are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. Occasional infections with monkey malaria…
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Demonstration of a persisting exo-erythrocytic cycle in plasmodium cynomolgi and its bearing on the reproduction of relapses / H. E. Shortt and P. C. C. ...
Members of the genus Plasmodium must colonize both a mosquito and a vertebrate to complete their life cycle. In vertebrates, the parasite develops in liver cells and goes on to infect red blood cells, bursting from and destroying the blood cells with each asexual replication cycle ([link]). Of the four Plasmodium species known to infect humans, P. falciparum accounts for 50 percent of all malaria cases and is the primary cause of disease-related fatalities in tropical regions of the world. In 2010, it was estimated that malaria caused between one-half and one million deaths, mostly in African children. During the course of malaria, P. falciparum can infect and destroy more than one-half of a humans circulating blood cells, leading to severe anemia. In response to waste products released as the parasites burst from infected blood cells, the host immune system mounts a massive inflammatory response with episodes of delirium-inducing fever as parasites lyse red blood cells, spilling parasite waste ...
Trigg, P. I., Hirst, S. I., Shakespeare, P. G. & Tappenden, L. (‎1977)‎. Labelling of membrane glycoprotein in erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium knowlesi*. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 55 (‎2-3)‎, 205 - 209. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/261160 ...
The well-known and invidious pathology caused by malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) stems from the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC), which is the progressive invasion of erythrocytes by the merozoite form of the parasite followed by parasite growth, asexual replication, and lysis of the host cell liberating logarithmically greater numbers of infectious merozoites. ...
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The diagnosis of Plasmodium sp. has traditionally been performed by microscope. It is our intent to modify the procedure to allow diagnosis of the malaria parasite by the detection of metabolic products of the parasite by enzyme techniques. Thus the diagnostic assay for Plasmodium sp. will be dependent on an alteration of the metabolism of the parasite rather than a visual measurement of parasite .... ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Ahmed, A. M., Monsanto Pinheiro, M., Divis, P. C., Siner, A., Zainudin, R., Wong, I. T., Lu, C. W., Singh-Khaira, S. K., Millar, S. B., Lynch, S., Willmann, M., Singh, B., Krishna, S. & Cox Singh, J. 14 Aug 2014 In : PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 8, 8, 14 p., e3086. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Ahmed, A. M., Monsanto Pinheiro, M., Divis, P. C., Siner, A., Zainudin, R., Wong, I. T., Lu, C. W., Singh-Khaira, S. K., Millar, S. B., Lynch, S., Willmann, M., Singh, B., Krishna, S. & Cox Singh, J. 14 Aug 2014 In : PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 8, 8, 14 p., e3086. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Plasmodium, commonly known as malaria parasites, may be described as a genus of intracellular parasitic protozoa. Read more here.
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The research team used selective amplification to sequence whole genomes of the parasites, revealing new information about how they evolved to infect human hosts.
The suspicion that malaria was caused by a living contagium has been entertained from the most ancient times and repeatedly expressed by even the oldest writers (Vitruvius, Varro, Columella). Lanc...
Avian malaria parasites are prevalent around the world, and infect a wide diversity of bird species. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of high quality draft genome sequences for two avian malaria species, Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium gallinaceum. We identify 50 genes that are specific to avian malaria, located in an otherwise conserved core of the genome that shares gene synteny with all other sequenced malaria genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the avian malaria species form an outgroup to the mammalian Plasmodium species. Consistent with their phylogenetic position, we identify orthologs of genes that had previously appeared to be restricted to the clades of parasites containing P. falciparum and P. vivax - the species with the greatest impact on human health. The subtelomeres of P. relictum and P. gallinaceum contain several novel gene families, including an expanded surf multigene family. We also identify an expansion of reticulocyte binding protein homologs in P. relictum
Avian malaria parasites are a highly diverse group that commonly infect birds and have deleterious effects on their hosts. Some parasite lineages are geographically widespread and infect many host species in many regions. Bird migration, natural dispersal, invasive species and human-mediated introductions into areas where competent insect vectors are present, are probably the main drivers of the current distribution of avian malaria parasites. A total of 412 and 2588 wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus) were captured in 2012 and 2013 in two areas of the Iberian Peninsula (central and southern Spain, respectively). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples; parasite lineages were sequenced and identified by comparing with GenBank and/or MalAvi databases. Thirteen Plasmodium lineages were identified in house sparrows corresponding to three major clades. Five individuals were infected by the African Plasmodium lineage PAGRI02, which has been proposed to actively circulate only in Africa. Despite the
Looking for online definition of Plasmodium malariae in the Medical Dictionary? Plasmodium malariae explanation free. What is Plasmodium malariae? Meaning of Plasmodium malariae medical term. What does Plasmodium malariae mean?
Biotin-deficient chickens and ducks developed much more severe infections with Plasmodium lophurae than did non-deficient control animals. While a very mild degree of biotin deficiency sufficed to increase susceptibility, even an extreme degree of pantothenic acid deficiency had no effect. Biotin deficiency also increased the susceptibility of ducks to P. cathemerium. In animals infected with P. lophurae, the concentration of biotin in the plasma as well as in the red cells rose during the course of the infection, reached a peak at about the same time as the parasite number reached its peak, and then returned to normal as the infection subsided. While the administration of additional biotin to animals partially deficient in biotin could be considered a specific measure tending to lessen the severity of infection with P. lophurae, the injection of biotin into animals fed a diet adequate in this vitamin had no antimalarial effects, perhaps because the excess biotin was rapidly removed from the ...
The purpose of this study was to show that individual malaria rapid diagnosis tests (MRDTs) could also be used to isolate Plasmodium DNA for genetic studies. We extracted and amplified Plasmodium DNA using two commercial MRDT kits. Phenol/chloroform extraction followed by a nested polymerse chain reaction (PCR) can be used to identify Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax from MRDTs. The PCR on MRDT-isolated DNA was more sensitive than antigen capture by MRDT. Satisfactory results were also obtained if older MRDT tests were used, even after long periods of storage at ambient temperature, with no special preservation.
Bird malaria parasites have never been described from the Malay Peninsula, as far as the author is aware, although some were reported from the East Indies by Uegaki (1930) and others. The observations on avian plasmodia which are reported here, were made by the author while working in the Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Federated Malay States, in 1945. Avian plasmodia were obtained from seven kinds of wild birds which were captured in the vicinity of the city of Kuala Lumpur. The species of plasmodia and their hosts are listed below. Three species of parasites, Plasmodium relictum, P. circumflexum and P. lophurae, were found in 198 hosts belonging to seven species. The infection rate averaged 19.2 per cent. The highest rate was estimated as 69.6 per cent, and was found in the case of P. circumflexum and Munia striata. Most of the hosts were very heavily infected.
Gametocyte infectivity and oocyst development of the avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium gallinaceum, can be reduced or eliminated in mosquitoes by immunizing the chickens on which the mosquitoes feed with infected red blood cells that have been treated with formalin or x-rays. Protection of the mosquito appears to be related to the immobilization of the microgametes in its gut and is associated with the immunoglobulin G fraction of serum.. ...
The writer (Becker, 1952) has recently reported on the varied responses among both chicks and ducklings to blood-induced infection with Plasmodium lophurae. The present paper is concerned with hemagglutination reactions involving the plasmas of individual chickens and duck erythrocytes, on the one hand, and the plasmas of individual ducks and chicken erythrocytes, on the other. The agglutinations observed were the result of exposing the erythrocytes to diluted plasmas containing natural or innate agglutinins; i.e., agglutinins not formed as the result of active immunization through exposure to the antigens of the erythrocytes.
Malaria - Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in humans. It is one of several species of Plasmodium parasit
Malaria is a protozoal disease transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito, caused by minute parasitic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium, which infect human and insect hosts alternatively. There are four species of the genus plasmodium responsible for the malaria parasite infections that commonly infect man, P.falciparum, P.vivax, P.malariae and P.ovale. The most important of these is P.falciparum because it can be rapidly fatal and is responsible for the majority of malaria related deaths. Malaria effects mainly poor, underserved and marginalized populations in remote rural areas which are characterized by inadequate control measures and limited access to health care. Higher malaria prevalence has been reported among ethnic and tribal groups living in remote forested and border areas. Treatment for Malaria is primarily aimed at personal protective measures that prevent mosquitoes from biting and transmitting malaria, chemo-prophylaxis, anti-malarial drug of choice and blood schizonticides are the ...
Carriage and density of gametocytes, the transmission stages of malaria parasites, are determined for predicting the infectiousness of humans to mosquitoes. This measure is used for evaluating interventions that aim at reducing malaria transmission. Gametocytes need to be detected by amplification of stage-specific transcripts, which requires RNA-preserving blood sampling. For simultaneous, highly sensitive quantification of both, blood stages and gametocytes, we have compared and optimized different strategies for field and laboratory procedures in a cross sectional survey in 315 5-9 yr old children from Papua New Guinea. qRT-PCR was performed for gametocyte markers pfs25 and pvs25, Plasmodium species prevalence was determined by targeting both, 18S rRNA genes and transcripts. RNA-based parasite detection resulted in a P. falciparum positivity of 24.1%; of these 40.8% carried gametocytes. P. vivax positivity was 38.4%, with 38.0% of these carrying gametocytes. Sensitivity of DNA-based parasite
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
All dried blood samples at 2,000 parasites/μl retained reactivity (100% sensitivity) at all three temperatures and time points for all nine RDT brands that detect histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP2). The dried blood samples with 200 parasites/μl were detected by six of the nine HRP2-based RDTs at all storage temperatures and time points. The sensitivity for two of the three remaining HRP2-based RDTs was 100% up to four weeks of storage at all temperatures but dropped to 87.5% at week 12. Of the four RDTs that detect plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in a pan-specific manner, alone or in combination with HRP2, the detection of pLDH in samples with 2,000 parasites/μL was 100% for two RDTs and 80% for the other two RDTs. The mean level for detection of pLDH at 200 parasites/μl was low (29%), with a range of 0% to100%, which was partly attributable to weak initial baseline reactivity. Reactivity of dried 3D7 at 1,000 and 2,000 parasites/μl stored at 4°C was retained at 100% for up to 52 ...
Malaria must be considered in any person who has traveled to the tropics and presents with an unexplained febrile illness. Five species of the protozoan Plasmodium infect humans: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, P malariae, and P knowlesi. The organism is transmitted by the anopheline mosquito bite and travels hematogenously first to the liver, where asexual reproduction occurs (exoerythrocytic stage). The liver cell ruptures, releasing merozoites that invade erythrocytes, multiply, and cause hemolysis (erythrocytic stage). Malaria also may be transmitted by blood transfusion or passed transplacentally from mother to fetus. ...
Background: Given the central importance of anti-malarial drugs in the treatment of malaria, there is a need to understand the effect of Plasmodium infection on the broad spectrum of drug metabolizing enzymes. Previous studies have shown reduced clearance of quinine, a treatment for Plasmodium infection, in individuals with malaria. Methods: The hepatic expression of a large panel of drug metabolizing enzymes was studied in the livers of mice infected with the AS strain of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, a nonlethal parasite in most strains of mice with several features that model human Plasmodium infections. C57BL/6J mice were infected with P. chabaudi by intraperitoneal injection of infected erythrocytes and sacrificed at different times after infection. Relative hepatic mRNA levels of various drug metabolizing enzymes, cytokines and acute phase proteins were measured by reverse transcriptase-real time PCR. Relative levels of cytochrome P450 proteins were measured by Western blotting with IR-dye ...
LMALP : Detection of Plasmodium DNA and identification of the infecting species, with reflex percent parasitemia calculated using thin blood films for positive cases   An adjunct to conventional microscopy of Giemsa-stained films   Detection and confirmatory identification of Plasmodium species: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, P malariae, and P knowlesi
The parasite that causes malignant malaria in humans is Plasmodium falciparum. The sporozoites of Plasmodium enter the human body, when a female Anopheles mosquito bites a healthy person. Life cycle of Plasmodium in hum…
University of California - Riverside. Findings by UC Riverside researchers could help build a new drug to kill the deadly parasite that is becoming resistant to existing drugs. Say malaria and most people think mosquito, but the buzzing, biting insect is merely the messenger, delivering the Plasmodium parasites that sickened more than 200 million people globally in 2010 and killed about 660,000. Worse, the parasite is showing resistance to artemisinin, the most effective drug for treating infected people.. Now University of California, Riverside researchers who are trying to understand the biology of the parasite have discovered a potential weakness-low levels of DNA methylation in Plasmodiums genome that may be critical to the survival of the parasite, said Karine Le Roch, an associate professor of cell biology, who led the research.. DNA methylation is a biochemical process involving the modification of DNA that plays an important role in development and disease.. A paper about the ...
Comparison of diagnostic methods for Plasmodium spp. in humans from Uganda and the Central African Republic showed that parasites can be efficiently detected by PCR in fecal samples. These results, which rely solely on PCR-based examination of feces, validate numerous estimates of the prevalence of malaria in great apes.
Comparison of diagnostic methods for Plasmodium spp. in humans from Uganda and the Central African Republic showed that parasites can be efficiently detected by PCR in fecal samples. These results, which rely solely on PCR-based examination of feces, validate numerous estimates of the prevalence of malaria in great apes ...
Sporozoite of Plasmodium gets into human blood through the bite of female Anopheles mosquito,sporozoites reproduce asexually in liver cells,then they get into red blood cells, there they reproduce asexually and infect mo…
Author summary Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like post-translational modifications are evolutionarily conserved and involved in fundamental cellular processes essential to all eukaryotes. As such, enzymatic components of these pathways present attractive targets for therapeutic intervention for both chronic and communicable diseases. Nedd8 modification of cullin ubiquitin E3 ligases is critical to the viability of eukaryotic organisms and mediates cell cycle progression and DNA damage repair. Given the complex lifecycle and unusual replication mechanisms of the malaria parasite, one would expect neddylation to be of central importance to its survival, yet little is known about this pathway in Plasmodium. Here we present our findings on how Nedd8 removal is controlled in Plasmodium falciparum and how this pathway differs to that of its human host.
The global community must scale up malaria control efforts in order to meet the World Health Organisations target of reducing global malaria incidence and mortality 90 percent by 2030.
Get information, facts, and pictures about plasmodium at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about plasmodium easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Dept. of Infectious Diseases - Virology. Malaria remains one of the most devastating infectious diseases in humans, for two reasons. One is that Plasmodium(the causative malaria agent) has evolved efficient means to exploit cellular host mechanisms in order to proliferate. The second are the persisting gaps in our understanding of these pathogen-host interactions, especially in the clinically silent liver stage. Our two labs have recently performed a collaborative project with the aim to dissect this particular step, using a physiologically relevant in vivo mouse model of Plasmodium infection. We specifically focused on the identification of mi(cro)RNAs (small regulatory RNAs that control gene expression in many species) that are dysregulated in livers of infected mice. Interestingly, we found that Plasmodium infection triggers a significant, up to ten-fold increase of a particular miRNAknown to be a key player in innate and adaptive immunity in mammals, miR-155 (Hammerschmidt-Kamper et al., ...
An invasive bird species is carrying, and potentially spreading, a high prevalence of avian malaria throughout its range in eastern Australia, a Griffith University PhD candidate has uncovered ...
Malaria definition is - a human disease that is caused by sporozoan parasites (genus Plasmodium) in the red blood cells, is transmitted by the bite of anopheline mosquitoes, and is characterized by periodic attacks of chills and fever. How to use malaria in a sentence.
Infection with a parasite from the genus Plasmodium -- not a malaria virus -- causes malaria. This eMedTV article provides a definition of the term parasite and discusses the four species of Plasmodium that cause malaria among humans.
Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites and it is the female Anopheles mosquito that acts as a vector for these malarial parasites in to the human body.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteome analysis of separated male and female gametocytes reveals novel sex-specific Plasmodium biology. AU - Khan, Shahid M.. AU - Franke-Fayard, Blandine. AU - Mair, Gunnar R.. AU - Lasonder, Edwin. AU - Janse, Chris J.. AU - Mann, Matthias. AU - Waters, Andrew P.. N1 - Funding information: The authors wish to thank G. McFadden and G. van Dooren for annotated lists of Plasmodium mitochondrial and apicoplast proteins. M. van Dijk is thanked for providing parasite clones in advance of publication. We would also like to thank R. van der Linden and M. van der Keur for all their help and expertise in using the flow cytometry equipment and the CEBI group for all their assistance and helpful discussions. In particular, we would like to gratefully acknowledge J. Ramesar for all his technical support. This work was supported by the Dutch Science Foundation (NWO/Genomics grant number 050-10-053), the Wellcome Trust Functional Genomics Initiative, Leiden University Medical Centre, ...
The Plasmodium falciparum Database contains consensus sequences generated from aligning the Plasmodium falciparum sequences contained in dbEST as of February 5, 1998 ...
BioAssay record AID 504832 submitted by National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS): Primary qHTS for delayed death inhibitors of the malarial parasite plastid, 48 hour incubation.
Plasmodium genomic DNA is extracted from 200 µl whole blood using the QIAamp Blood Kit (Cat. No. 29106; Qiagen Inc., Chatsworth, CA) or a similar product that can yield the comparable concentration of genomic DNA from the same volume of blood. Detection and identification of Plasmodium is done with a real-time PCR assay as described by Rougemont et al 2004. This is a dual duplex assay that detects P. falciparum and P. vivax in one reaction, and P. malariae and P. ovale in a parallel reaction, using species-specific TaqMan probes. In cases where infection by more than one Plasmodium species is suspected, there is an option to use a conventional nested PCR assay (Snounou el al, 1993) that has an improved resolution of mixed infection compared to the real-time PCR assay.. ...
As explained in this eMedTV article, infection with a parasite from the genus Plasmodium is what causes malaria. Transmission of the disease most commonly involves bites from Anopheles mosquitoes, which may carry the parasite.
It is important to remember that this is the best annotated protein database out there. These are manually verified. Databases that are annotated via automated processes (like TREMBL?) are probably going to be a whole lot more dynamic than this one, so all these thoughts go out the window. For example, the PlasmoDB (malaria) database is the complete other side of the spectrum. It changes constantly. (It has to, the global Plasmodium genome has probably went through millions of changes since I started writing this entry ...
I heard of the research itself some three years ago, when the research group published an interesting paper in Nature. Now, for those of you unfamiliar with malaria, the disease is caused by a parasitic protozoan called plasmodium. The disease is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, which have simplistically described as the insect vector for the parasite. In reality, the plasmodium is a parasite of both humans and mosquitoes (and the mosquito is a parasite of humans), and needs both in order to go through its full developmental cycle. In mosquitoes, the parasite (in a specific life cycle stage) needs to go through two epithelial regions of the salivary gland and the midgut, and only then can it complete its development. Now, researchers had identified a small peptide, called SM1 that bound these two epithelial regions, and inhibited the crossing of this region by the malarial parasite. After doing some rather challenging experiments, they were able to now genetically engineer mosquitoes that ...
Plasmodium är ett släkte protister som sprids med myggor till olika värddjur. Här återfinns bland annat de arter som hos människan ger upphov till malaria.. Plasmodierna sprids genom blodsugande myggor.. ...
Demonstration of a persisting exo-erythrocytic cycle in Plasmodium cynomolgi and its bearing on the production of relapses Public Health Classics ...
Examine the interplay of color reflected from the surface of a thin soap film in Featured Microscopist Karl E. Deckarts gallery of soap bubbles. This page contains the image of soap bubble number nineteen in large format.
Examine the interplay of color reflected from the surface of a thin soap film in Featured Microscopist Karl E. Deckarts gallery of soap bubbles. This page contains the image of soap bubble number seven in small format.
A research team from ANU and The University of Queensland has designed and made a molecule derived from a human protein that kills the parasite which causes malaria.
Phylogenetic tree constructed according to the neighbor-joining method based on A-type small subunit RNA sequences of several Plasmodium species (GenBank access
Professor Petteri Kaski, ADA programme. We perform basic research at the intersection of core computer science (algorithm design and analysis) and discrete mathematics, with an emphasis towards novel techniques and less studied models of computation. We invest substantial effort to high-risk, high-yield research problems of relatively broad theoretical interest, selected on both problem and method driven basis. However, we also aim at rapid publication of more specific, smaller observations. We particularly seek and value solid results with mathematical elegance and simplicity.. ...
Natalia Díaz Rodríguez, Stefan Grönroos, Franck Wickström, Petteri Karvinen, Anders Berg, Shohreh Hosseinzadeh, Marion Karppi, Johan Lilius ...
Hovi, Petteri; Vohr, Betty; Ment, Laura R.; Doyle, Lex W.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Morrison, Katherine M.; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; van der Pal, Sylvia; Grunau, Ruth E.; , ; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Andersson, Sture; Saigal, Saroj; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G. ...
Its exciting as usual on the project. Weve submitted the three compounds for in-vivo oral evaluation in a mouse model. The original hits TCMDC-123812 and -123794 were submitted along with one of Zoes near neighbours, ZYH 3-1. Its not the most active of our compounds with an IC50 of 26 nM, but its logP comes in at just under 5 or there abouts (see: http://www.thesynapticleap.org/node/384#comment-798). Its still pretty high so well see how it goes. ...
Plasmodium falciparum[edit]. Plasmodium falciparum, the major etiologic agent of human malaria, has a very complex life cycle ... In the case of Plasmodium, this is accomplished via the dual purpose Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 ( ... Kyes S, Christodoulou Z, Pinches R, Kriek N, Horrocks P, Newbold C (2007). "Plasmodium falciparum var gene expression is ... Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum are some of the best studied examples. ...
... inui, Plasmodium rhodiani, Plasmodium schweitzi, Plasmodium semiovale, and Plasmodium simium. ... Plasmodium vivax (the most frequent cause of benign tertian malaria). *Plasmodium ovale (the other, less frequent, cause of ... Plasmodium malariae (the cause of benign quartan malaria). *Plasmodium knowlesi (the cause of severe quotidian malaria in South ... This was followed by the recognition of the other two species of Plasmodium which infect humans: Plasmodium ovale (1922) and ...
The plasmodium also has the ability to subdivide and establish separate plasmodia. Conversely, separate plasmodia that are ... Myxomycete plasmodia are multinucleate masses of protoplasm that move by cytoplasmic streaming. In order for the plasmodium to ... This process results in the plasmodium advancing in fan-like fronts. As it moves, plasmodium also gains nutrients through the ... The amoebae and the plasmodia engulf microorganisms.[8] The plasmodium grows into an interconnected network of protoplasmic ...
"Plasmodium". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 4 May 2014. "Ettore Marchiafava". Whonamedit?. Ole Daniel Enersen. Retrieved 4 May ... Their works helped to differentiate different types of malaria as a result of infection with different species of Plasmodium. ... In 1885 they gave the formal scientific name Plasmodium for these parasites. They also discovered meningococcus as the ... They called the new microorganism Plasmodium in 1885. ...
Plasmodium spp. "Division of AIDS Anti-HIV/OI/TB Therapeutics Database". National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of ...
... is a species of blood parasite related to Plasmodium and other malaria parasites. Haemoproteus columbae ... "From Original "Table 2 Summary of Malaria Sequencing Completed or Planned"" (PDF). Plasmodium Genomics Resource. Retrieved 26 ... Plasmodium and closely related genera): Evolution of life-history traits and host switches". Molecular Phylogenetics and ... sister to Plasmodium malaria parasites. Haemoproteus columbae is transmitted by the pigeon louse fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis ...
... exclusively found in infections caused by Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium vivax. Plasmodium vivax induces morphologic ... "Immunoelectron microscopy of Schüffner's dots in Plasmodium vivax-infected human erythrocytes". The American Journal of ... ". "Microscopy of Plasmodium species". Udagama, P. V.; Atkinson, C. T.; Peiris, J. S.; David, P. H.; Mendis, K. N.; Aikawa, M ...
See Plasmodium (life cycle). Ciliates have cells that contain two nuclei: a macronucleus and a micronucleus. The schizont of ... Fungi portal Colony (biology) Plasmodium (life cycle) Syncytium Dikaryon Daubenmire, R. F. (1936). "The Use of the Terms ... apicomplexan parasites is a form of a coenocyte (i.e. a plasmodium in the general sense) as well as the plasmodia of ...
Duru V, Witkowski B, Menard D (2016). "Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives and piperaquine: a major ... Haldar K, Bhattacharjee S, Safeukui I (2018). "Drug resistance in Plasmodium". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 16 (3): 156-170. ...
Vincke IH, Lips M (1948). "Un nouveau plasmodium d'un rongeur sauvage du Congo: Plasmodium berghei n.sp". Annales de la Société ... Humans may have originally caught Plasmodium falciparum from gorillas. P. vivax, another malarial Plasmodium species among the ... Marchiafava and Celli called the new microorganism Plasmodium. H. vivax was soon renamed Plasmodium vivax. In 1892, Marchiafava ... Plasmodium cynomolgi in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used in the 1960s to test drugs active against P. vivax. Growth of ...
Plasmodium spp.). His lab uses Toxoplasma to model conserved aspects of apicomplexan biology, and recently used CRISPR-based ...
"Plasmodium Diversity Network Africa , Centre for Genomics and Global Health". www.cggh.org. Retrieved 2018-06-10. Ghansah, ... where he and his research group are trying to identify how variation of the genome of plasmodium falciparum and anopheles ... including MalariaGEN and the Plasmodium Diversity Network Africa (PDNA). The PDNA has connected 11 countries in Sub-Saharan ...
Some protists are significant parasites of animals (e.g.; five species of the parasitic genus Plasmodium cause malaria in ... Some species, for example Plasmodium falciparum, have extremely complex life cycles that involve multiple forms of the organism ... Talman AM, Domarle O, McKenzie FE, Ariey F, Robert V (July 2004). "Gametocytogenesis: the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum". ... However, it is unclear how frequently sexual reproduction causes genetic exchange between different strains of Plasmodium in ...
"The Plasmodium genome resource". PlasmoDB.org. Retrieved 2015-05-07. UCSC Malaria Genome Browser UCSC Genome Browser for human ... This site contains the reference genome sequence and working draft assembly for Plasmodium falciparum from PlasmoDb, the ... Plasmodium sp.), alongside experimental results and previously discovered genes collected from the literature. The program ... Plasmodium genome database build 5.0. Chakrabarti K.; Pearson, M; Grate, L; Sterne-Weiler, T; Deans, J; Donohue, JP; Ares Jr, M ...
The plasmodium is white. The fruit bodies are grouped densely. They are orange brown to dull brown, occasionally pink, short ...
Plasmodium and Entamoeba species). William Roush has received numerous awards and honors including: Phi Beta Kappa, 1974 Merck ...
It is specifically caused by the Plasmodium malariae species, one of the six species of the protozoan genus Plasmodium. Quartan ... Peripheral blood films stained with Giemsa stain are a method of blood examination used to diagnose the presence of Plasmodium ... Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) are used to diagnosis Plasmodium malariae (cause of quartan fever) as well as to distinguish ... Collins, William E. (2007). "Plasmodium malariae: Parasite and Disease". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 20 (4): 579-592. doi: ...
Species of blood parasites that infect humans include Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodiun ovale, and Plasmodium ... Plasmodium and Leucozytozoon displace the nucleus of the host cell so that the parasite can take control of the cell where as ... The study of Plasmodium parasites has been significant in serving the role as a model organism for human malaria research. ... Plasmodium, a genus consisting of over 170 species, infects mammals, reptiles, birds, and amphibians. Blood parasites of the ...
Rubio, J P; Thompson, J K; Cowman, A F (1 August 1996). "The var genes of Plasmodium falciparum are located in the subtelomeric ... The advantages of subtelomeres have been studied in different species such as Plasmodium falciparum, Drosophila melanogaster, ... Scherf, Artur; Lopez-Rubio, Jose Juan; Riviere, Loïc (October 2008). "Antigenic Variation in Plasmodium falciparum". Annual ... The subtelomeres of such diverse species as humans, Plasmodium falciparum, Drosophila melanogaster, and Saccharomyces ...
The vegetative plasmodium will stay in one location while eating until surrounding food sources have been depleted. Once devoid ... Plasmodia of this genera have only been seen to undergo mitosis in culture conditions. Asexual reproduction through multiple ... The Reticulomyxa plasmodium may encyst for dispersal or in response to adverse environmental conditions. Cysts with and without ... Under different conditions the plasmodium will take on various morphologies. When transferred to an aqueous environment, the ...
Dalexandri, F.; Kimura, E.; Peres, V.; Katzin, A. (2006). "Protein dolichylation in Plasmodium falciparum". FEBS Letters. 580 ( ... including the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Hjertman, M.; Wejde, J.; Dricu, A.; Carlberg, M.; Griffiths, W. J.; ...
... and plasmodia. Diseases caused by Apicomplexa include: Babesiosis (Babesia) Malaria (Plasmodium) Cryptosporidiosis ( ... Martinsen ES, Perkins SL, Schall JJ (April 2008). "A three-genome phylogeny of malaria parasites (Plasmodium and closely ... Hypnozoites are found in Karyolysus lacerate and most species of Plasmodium; transovarial transmission of parasites occurs in ... doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(03)00152-6. Escalante AA, Ayala FJ (June 1995). "Evolutionary origin of Plasmodium and other Apicomplexa ...
... is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parasitic unicellular eukaryotes. The subgenus was created ... Plasmodium juxtanucleare Valkiunas, G. (1997). Bird Haemosporidia. Institute of Ecology, Vilnius Valkiunas, Gediminas (2004-10- ...
For example, the malaria plasmodium. An intermediate or secondary host is exploited by the parasite only for a short transition ...
Plasmodium species. *Babesia species. Complement deficiency. Complement system. *Congenital deficiencies. *Neisseria species ...
Plasmodium species Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) Marburg virus Measles Measles virus Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) ...
Glycophorin B acts as a receptor for erythrocyte binding Ligand (EBl-1) of Plasmodium falciparum involved in malaria. Both the ... Field SP, Hempelmann E, Mendelow BV, Fleming AF (February 1994). "Glycophorin variants and Plasmodium falciparum: protective ... Facer CA (1983). "Erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins and Plasmodium falciparum invasion". Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77 (4): ... "Glycophorin B as an EBA-175 independent Plasmodium falciparum receptor of human erythrocytes". Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 64 (1 ...
For instance, the malaria parasite Plasmodium feeds by pinocytosis during its immature trophozoite stage of life (ring phase), ... Wiser, Mark F. "Biochemistry of Plasmodium". The Wiser Page. Archived from the original on 2017-07-04. Retrieved 2018-03-22. ... A number of protozoan pathogens are human parasites, causing diseases such as malaria (by Plasmodium), amoebiasis, giardiasis, ... Examples of protozoan meiotic sexuality are described in the articles Amoebozoa, Giardia lamblia, Leishmania, Plasmodium ...
Plasmodium accipiteris Plasmodium bambusicolai Plasmodium corradettii Plasmodium delichoni Plasmodium globularis Plasmodium ... homonucleophilum Plasmodium jiangi Plasmodium kempi Plasmodium lucens Plasmodium megaglobularis Plasmodium merulae Plasmodium ... Plasmodium papernai Plasmodium parahexamerium Plasmodium paranucleophilum Plasmodium stellatum Plasmodium tenue Plasmodium ... Novyella is a subgenus of the genus Plasmodium - all of which are parasites. The subgenus was created in 1963 by Corradetti et ...
His best known publication is probably the description of Plasmodium knowlesi in 1927. Antinori S, Milazzo L, Corbellino M ( ... October 2011). "Plasmodium knowlesi: an overlooked Italian discovery?". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 53 (8): 849. doi:10.1093/ ...
Plasmodium inui, Plasmodium rhodiani, Plasmodium schweitzi, Plasmodium semiovale, and Plasmodium simium. ... Plasmodium vivax (the most frequent cause of benign tertian malaria). *Plasmodium ovale (the other, less frequent, cause of ... Plasmodium malariae (the cause of benign quartan malaria). *Plasmodium knowlesi (the cause of severe quotidian malaria in South ... This was followed by the recognition of the other two species of Plasmodium which infect humans: Plasmodium ovale (1922) and ...
List of Plasmodium species. Notes[edit]. *^ The plural of Plasmodium is not Plasmodia. Instead multiple species of the genus ... Plasmodium. Marchiafava & Celli, 1885 Plasmodium is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes that are obligate parasites of ... The Plasmodium genome is separated into 14 chromosomes contained in the nucleus. Plasmodium parasites maintain a single copy of ... Within Apicomplexa, Plasmodium is in the order Haemosporida and family Plasmodiidae. Over 200 species of Plasmodium have been ...
... Life-cycle. Plasmodium parasites have an elaborate life-cyle with multiple stages:. *Infective stage, when the ... Plasmodium malariae. Human. Africa, Asia, South/Central America. Plasmodium brasilianum. Spider/Howler/Night Monkey. South ... Phylogenetic analysis of CSP and MSP-9 gene sequences demonstrates the close relationship of Plasmodium coatneyi to Plasmodium ... Plasmodium Malaria Parasites. Martine Zilversmit and Susan Perkins Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new ...
Plasmodium, in fungi (kingdom Fungi), a mobile multinucleate mass of cytoplasm without a firm cell wall. A plasmodium is ... The plasmodium of a slime mold is formed from ... Plasmodium. mycology. Written By: *The Editors of Encyclopaedia ... Plasmodium, in fungi (kingdom Fungi), a mobile multinucleate mass of cytoplasm without a firm cell wall. A plasmodium is ... The plasmodium of a slime mold is formed from the fusion of myxamoebae or of swarm cells (gametes). Myxamoebae are spores ...
The 5 Plasmodium species known to cause malaria in humans are P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, P malariae, and P knowlesi.{ref3 ... encoded search term (Which Plasmodium species cause malaria?) and Which Plasmodium species cause malaria? What to Read Next on ... Adverse pregnancy outcomes in an area where multidrug-resistant plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections are ... The 5 Plasmodium species known to cause malaria in humans are P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, P malariae, and P knowlesi. [3, 4 ...
Plasmodium är ett släkte protister som sprids med myggor till olika värddjur. Här återfinns bland annat de arter som hos ... Hämtad från "https://sv.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plasmodium_(släkte)&oldid=29416885" ...
... Malaria transmission in the United States was largely ... Mosquito collections following local transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Westmoreland County, Virginia. J Am Mosq ... Probable locally acquired mosquito-transmitted Plasmodium vivax infection---Suffolk County, New York, 1999. MMWR 2000;49:495--8 ... of two cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria that occurred in northern Virginia in August 2002, and underscores the need for ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Plasmodium gallinaceum. P. gallinaceum is an avian malaria parasite. It is phylogenetically closer to P. falciparum than many ...
Plasmodium chabaudi. P. chabaudi is one of the four malaria species that infect murine rodents from Central Africa that are ...
We report 11 cases of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bikaner (western India). Patients exhibited cerebral malaria, renal ... Plasmodium vivax malaria Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jan;11(1):132-4. doi: 10.3201/eid1101.040519. ... We report 11 cases of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bikaner (western India). Patients exhibited cerebral malaria, renal ...
Plasmodium reproduces both in its mosquito hosts and in animal cells; the reproduction in mosquitoes is sexual, with two cells ... Plasmodium is the genus of the organism that causes malaria. The genus has about 200 species in it, of which at least 10 infect ... Plasmodium reproduces both in its mosquito hosts and in animal cells; the reproduction in mosquitoes is sexual, with two cells ...
Plasmodium. Mosquito gut stages D. Exflagellation P. Oocyst development D. Oocysts xs P. Oocysts, xs detail P. Sporozoite P. Exoerythrocytic stage D. Exoerythrocytic stage P. Erythrocytic stages D. P. vivax. Trophozoite P. P. falciparum. Trophozoite P. Gametocyte P. P. malariae. Trophozoite P. P. yoelli. Schizont P ...
Plasmodium falciparum Database of Clustered ESTs. The Plasmodium falciparum Database contains consensus sequences generated ... BLAST queries of Plasmodium sequences (both consensus and EST libraries are available). *TEXT SEARCH to identify Plasmodium ... ID QUERY using Plasmodium Consensus ID numbers or genbank identifiers for specific EST sequences. *VIEW a poster presentation/ ... from aligning the Plasmodium falciparum sequences contained in dbEST as of February 5, 1998. *DESCRIPTION of the database, how ...
... genus Plasmodium, genus Plasmodium and species falciparum (Karapelou, 1987). ... Plasmodium falciparum has proven itself to be extremely resilient and highly resistant to any form of immunization. By means of ... Corcoran, L. et al.; 1986,Chromosome Size Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum can Involve Deletions and are frequent in ... Plasmodium falciparum consists of a sexual and asexual form, which have hindered genetic analyses, but with conventional ...
Transgenic Plasmodium parasites stably expressing Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase as in vitro and ... Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale infections in the China-Myanmar border area ... Selection of drug resistant mutants from random library of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase in Plasmodium berghei ... Novel alleles of Plasmodium falciparum dhfr that confer resistance to chlorcycloguanil. Sonia Y. Hunt, Brian B. Rezvani, Carol ...
Targeting the redox metabolism of Plasmodium falciparum to create a fatal overload of oxidative stress is a route to explore ... Targeting the redox metabolism of Plasmodium falciparum.. Nepveu F1, Turrini F. ...
Make research projects and school reports about plasmodium easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... The genus consists predominantly of four species: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium ... plasmodium, name for a stage in the life cycle of a slime mold. Also, Plasmodium is the name given to the genus of the ... plasmodia / plazˈmōdēə/ ) 1. a parasitic protozoan of a genus (Plasmodium) that includes those causing malaria. 2. Biol. a form ...
encoded search term (Which Plasmodium species have known resistance to antimalarial agents?) and Which Plasmodium species have ... Adverse pregnancy outcomes in an area where multidrug-resistant plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections are ... Severe Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in a tertiary care hospital, Sabah, Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Jul. 17(7):1248-55. [ ... Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans is widely distributed and potentially life threatening. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 15. 46( ...
With an improved separation procedure for Plasmodium berghei sporozoites, up to 2000 mosquitoes can be processed in 3 to 4 hr. ... With an improved separation procedure for Plasmodium berghei sporozoites, up to 2000 mosquitoes can be processed in 3 to 4 hr. ... AntibodyAntigens, sporozoiteGel electrophoresisGradient centrifugationMalaria, rodentPercollPlasmodium bergheiProtein AProtozoa ... Vermeulen, A. N., Van Munster, J. C., & Meuwissen, J. H. E. T. (1982). Plasmodium berghei: Immunologically active proteins on ...
Plasmodium bambusicolai is a species of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Novyella. As in all species of this genus, it has both ...
Plasmodium Malaria Merozoite Surface proteins Complement evasion Factor H 6 Cysteine proteins Parasite invasion ... Arredondo SA, Cai M, Takayama Y, MacDonald NJ, Anderson DE, Aravind L, Clore GM, Miller LH (2012) Structure of the plasmodium 6 ... Kaul DK, Roth EF, Nagel RL, Howard RJ, Handunnetti SM (1991) Rosetting of plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells with ... Lin CS, Uboldi AD, Epp C, Bujard H, Tsuboi T, Czabotar PE, Cowman AF (2016) Multiple plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface ...
Plasmodium rouxi synonyms, Plasmodium rouxi pronunciation, Plasmodium rouxi translation, English dictionary definition of ... Plasmodium rouxi. n. pl. plas·mo·di·a 1. A multinucleate, often large mass of protoplasm that moves and ingests food and is ... plasmodium - parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans. malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax ... plasmodium. (redirected from Plasmodium rouxi). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. plas·mo·di·um. (plăz-mō′dē-əm) ...
Plasmodium berghei: cloning of the circumsporozoite protein gene.. Weber JL, Egan JE, Lyon JA, Wirtz RA, Charoenvit Y, Maloy WL ... A DNA fragment encoding the carboxy terminal 80% of the Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite protein was selected from a genomic ...
Transfection of Plasmodium falciparum within human red blood cells. Y Wu, C D Sifri, H H Lei, X Z Su, and T E Wellems ... Transfection of Plasmodium falciparum within human red blood cells Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from PNAS ... Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites within human red blood cells (RBCs) have been successfully transfected to produce ...
Plasmodium berghei synonyms, Plasmodium berghei pronunciation, Plasmodium berghei translation, English dictionary definition of ... Plasmodium berghei. n. pl. plas·mo·di·a 1. A multinucleate, often large mass of protoplasm that moves and ingests food and is ... plasmodium - parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans. malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax ... Related to Plasmodium berghei: Plasmodium falciparum plas·mo·di·um. (plăz-mō′dē-əm). n. pl. plas·mo·di·a (-dē-ə) 1. A ...
... Amit Roy,1 Ilda DAnnessa,2,3 Christine J. F. Nielsen,1 ... T. Mita, K. Tanabe, and K. Kita, "Spread and evolution of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance," Parasitology International, ... inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum triosephosphate isomerase by interface peptides," FEBS Letters, vol. 501, no. 1, pp. 19-23 ...
  • Africans who were thought to be protected against malaria infection by the Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) parasite now seem to be at risk for the. (healthmap.org)
  • Genetic linkage mapping of the mosquito vector (Anopheles gambiae) in Africa has identified a small genomic region in the mosquito that controls most of the natural genetic variation for resistance to mosquito infection with the human malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Between May and September 2011, twenty cases of Plasmodium vivax infection were reported in Greek citizens without reported travel history. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Infection with plasmodia is known as malaria , a deadly disease widespread in the tropics . (wn.com)
  • Using a natural system, we explore the effects of a Wolbachia-Plasmodium co-infection on mosquito fecundity. (cambridge.org)
  • Wolbachia , on the other hand, increases fecundity by roughly 10%, but does not alter the tolerance (fecundity-burden relationship) of mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection. (cambridge.org)
  • Simultaneous microarray-based transcription analysis of 4987 Anopheles stephensi midgut and Plasmodium berghei infection stage specific cDNAs was done at seven successive time points: 6, 20 and 40h, and 4, 8, 14 and 20 days after ingestion of malaria infected blood. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Temporal correlation between transcription profiles of both organisms identifies putative gene clusters of interacting processes, such as Plasmodium invasion of the midgut epithelium, Anopheles immune responses to Plasmodium infection, and apoptosis and expulsion of invaded midgut cells from the epithelium. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Suppression of adaptive immunity to heterologous antigens during plasmodium infection through haemozoin-induced failure of DC function. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the importance of key blood group molecules in the clinical outcome of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in children. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection and glycemic control in adults: results from a population-based survey in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We investigated the cross-sectional associations of Plasmodium infection (PI) with fasting glucose (FG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in malaria-endemic south-central Côte d'Ivoire. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Infection of the mammalian host with malaria is initiated when Plasmodium sporozoites, present in the salivary glands of an infected Anopheles mosquito, are introduced into the skin with the saliva as the mosquito probes for blood. (wiley.com)
  • Preliminary assessment of anti-α-Gal IgG and IgM levels in patients with patent Plasmodium vivax infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Comparison of conventional and non-invasive diagnostic tools for detecting Plasmodium falciparum infection in southwestern Cameroon: a cross-sectional study. (harvard.edu)
  • Less Severe Cases of COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa: Could Co-infection or a Recent History of Plasmodium falciparum Infection Be Protective? (harvard.edu)
  • Background: Both host and pathogen factors contribute to disease outcome in Plasmodium falciparum infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Release of mature Plasmodium merozoites results in further infection and produces bouts of shivering fever (paroxysms) and sweating that may be fatal. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The red blood cell membrane has small distinct knobs (orange) that are characteristic of the infection by certain strains of Plasmodium falciparum. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Multiple studies have provided strong evidence that Plasmodium falciparum -specific MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells are important for sterile protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plasmodium was first identified when Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran described parasites in the blood of malaria patients in 1880. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Soon thereafter, Giovanni Batista Grassi and Raimondo Filetti named the parasites causing two different types of human malaria Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodium is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes that are obligate parasites of vertebrates and insects . (wikipedia.org)
  • The life cycles of Plasmodium species involve development in a blood-feeding insect host which then injects parasites into a vertebrate host during a blood meal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodium parasites were first identified in the late 19th century by Charles Laveran . (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodium parasites maintain a single copy of their genome through much of the life cycle, doubling the genome only for a brief sexual exchange within the midgut of the insect host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms that belong to the genus Plasmodium are obligate eukaryotic parasites, best known as the etiological agent of human malaria. (tolweb.org)
  • Although Plasmodium parasites infect a variety of vertebrate hosts (including primates, rodents, ungulates, birds, and lizards), they rarely cause severe disease in any vertebrate hosts other than humans. (tolweb.org)
  • Organisms of the genus Plasmodium are defined as distinct from other Apicomplexa, and other organisms sometimes considered malaria parasites (Peréz-Tris et al. (tolweb.org)
  • Parasites are generally introduced into a vertebrate host by the bite of an insect host (generally a mosquito, with the exception of some Plasmodium species of reptiles). (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of the latter species, Plasmodium are parasites of humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The central two-thirds of AMA1 is relatively conserved among Plasmodium species as well as more distantly related apicomplexan parasites, and contains two clusters of disulfide-bonded cysteines termed domains I and II. (rcsb.org)
  • 2. Any of various protozoans of the genus Plasmodium, which includes the parasites that cause malaria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plasmodium berghei ANKA parasites maintained through serial blood passage in mice were used to assess in vivo antimalarial activity of AVELE. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A Singapore-India collaborative research project between the Singapore University of Technology & Design (SUTD) and CSIR-National Chemical Laboratories (NCL) completed phenotypic screening of a large collection of potent chemical inhibitors (known as MMV Malaria Box), against pathogenic parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum , causative agents of human toxoplasmosis and malaria. (eurekalert.org)
  • Plasmodium parasites cause malaria and morbidly impact the economies of the developing world. (eurekalert.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum is one of the two protozoan parasites responsible for most of the world's cases of human malaria (the other being P. vivax ). (eol.org)
  • Plasmodium , the parasite responsible for human malaria, is among the most researched genera of parasites in the world. (kenyon.edu)
  • Here, we collate what is known about the various cell cycle events and their regulators throughout the Plasmodium life-cycle, highlighting the differences between Plasmodium , model organisms and other apicomplexan parasites and identifying areas where further study is required. (springer.com)
  • The multinucleate developmental stages of some intracellular parasites , namely Microsporidia (now in Fungi ) and Myxosporidia (now in Cnidaria ), former cnidosporans , are also sometimes called plasmodia. (wn.com)
  • The apicomplexan parasites Plasmodium spp. (malariaworld.org)
  • This liver stage (LS) is poorly understood compared to other Plasmodium life stages, which has hindered our ability to target these parasites for disease prevention. (malariaworld.org)
  • Novel RNA viruses associated with Plasmodium vivax in human malaria and Leucocytozoon parasites in avian disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The populations found in the Americas of Plasmodium vivax, one of the main human malaria parasites, are as genetically diverse as those found in Southeast Asia, where malaria transmission is much more frequent. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Six birds infected with Plasmodium vaughani were used to study periodicity in the asexual cycle, and in four of them variations in the proportion of reticulocytes and the relative numbers of parasites occurring in reticulocytes at different times were determined. (ajtmh.org)
  • However, little is known regarding the genetics of these parasites and the similarity between them could be because until now there are only a very few genomic sequences available from these Plasmodium species. (usp.br)
  • In the progression of the life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum , a small proportion of asexual parasites differentiate into male or female sexual forms called gametocytes. (asm.org)
  • The 5 Plasmodium species known to cause malaria in humans are P falciparum , P vivax , P ovale , P malariae , and P knowlesi . (medscape.com)
  • Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium ovale , and Plasmodium malariae . (encyclopedia.com)
  • These cycles can vary from 48 hours with Plasmodium vivax to about 72 hours with Plasmodium malariae . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The most common forms of human malaria are caused by Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium ovale , and Plasmodium malariae . (wikipedia.org)
  • First of all there are four, not 11, species of human-specific Plasmodium: P. vivax, P. malariae, P. falciparum and P. ovale. (northcoastjournal.com)
  • Plasmodium malariae é um parasita protozoário que causa malária em humanos e é geneticamente indistinguível de P. brasilianum, um parasita que infecta macacos do Novo Mundo nas Américas do Sul e Central. (usp.br)
  • Nossos dados também mostram que há uma possível ausência de dimorfismo alélico na MSP1 de P. malariae e P. brasilianum, ao contrário de outras espécies de Plasmodium. (usp.br)
  • Plasmodium malariae is a protozoan parasite that causes malaria in humans and is genetically indistinguishable from P. brasilianum, a parasite infecting New World monkeys in Central and South America. (usp.br)
  • Our data also show that there is a likely absence of allelic dimorphism of MSP1 from P. malariae and P. brasilianum, as opposed to other Plasmodium species. (usp.br)
  • Four species have long been known to cause malaria in humans: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Plasmodium is a genus of protozoa that has a life cycle that includes a human host and a mosquito. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While the four major species of Plasmodium differ in some ways from each other, they all share the same complex life cycle involving the insect (mosquito) vector and the human host. (kenyon.edu)
  • Plasmodium gametogenesis within the mosquito midgut is a complex differentiation process involving signaling mediated by phosphorylation, which modulate metabolic routes and protein synthesis required to complete this development. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • While Plasmodium is known to frequently express its virulence by partially castrating its mosquito vectors, the effects of Wolbachia infections on mosquito fecundity are, in contrast, highly variable. (cambridge.org)
  • In parallel, the analysis provide detailed expression patterns of Plasmodium genes encoding essential developmental and metabolic factors and proteins implicated in interaction with the mosquito vector and vertebrate host such as kinases, transcription and translational factors, cytoskeletal components and a variety of surface proteins, some of which are potent vaccine targets. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Plasmodium sporozoites make a remarkable journey from the skin, where they are deposited by an infected Anopheline mosquito, to the liver, where they invade hepatocytes and develop into exoerythrocytic stages. (wiley.com)
  • The protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most severe form of human malaria and causes a tremendous economic burden [ 1 ], leading to at least one million deaths per year, particularly in developing countries where failure to eradicate the anopheline mosquito vector leads to occasional epidemics [ 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Higher gametocyte production and mosquito infectivity in chronic compared to incident Plasmodium falciparum infections. (harvard.edu)
  • Plasmodium falciparum cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PfCelTOS) is an advanced vaccine candidate that has a crucial role in the traversal of the malaria parasite in both mosquito and mammalian hosts. (asm.org)
  • We performed a forward genetic screen, using Drosophila as a surrogate mosquito, to identify host factors required for the growth of the avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium gallinaceum . (genetics.org)
  • Loss of function of four of these genes in the mosquito affected Plasmodium growth, suggesting that Drosophila can be used effectively as a surrogate mosquito to identify relevant host factors in the mosquito. (genetics.org)
  • Recent advances in RNA interference (RNAi) technology make it possible to manipulate mosquito gene function in vivo and to determine the effects of mosquito gene regulation on the ability to support the growth of Plasmodium. (genetics.org)
  • The movement and development of Plasmodium in the mosquito is a dangerous and difficult journey for the microbe and results in substantial parasite losses. (genetics.org)
  • We can anticipate two general types of physiological changes in the mosquito that will alter Plasmodium growth. (genetics.org)
  • Plasmodium is dependent upon the mosquito for nutrition and changes in available nutrients in the host will presumably affect parasite development in positive and negative ways. (genetics.org)
  • Plasmodium can tolerate great losses in the early stages of development in the mosquito because the parasite population expands during the oocyst stage. (genetics.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum Standard Membrane Feeding Assay ( Pf SMFA) is the current gold standard mosquito based confirmatory transmission blocking (TrB) assay for human malaria. (nature.com)
  • Malaria, the deadly infectious disease caused by the apicomplexan Plasmodium parasite and transmitted to humans by the Anopheline mosquito vector, has resulted in an estimated 216 million cases and 445,000 deaths globally in 2016, affecting the poorest of countries, mostly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions and the most vulnerable people (pregnant women, infants and children under the age of five years) 1 . (nature.com)
  • Additionally, the emergence and spread of resistance of Plasmodium to anti-malarial drugs is a major impediment towards global eradication efforts, and there is an urgent need to develop novel medicines that not only treat symptomatic malaria and cure the patient but which can interfere with transmission by the mosquito vector. (nature.com)
  • We observe compensatory mutations and intermediate states in populations of the malaria parasite Plasmodium ovale . (genetics.org)
  • We investigated the ribosomal RNA sequence from different isolates of Plasmodium ovale for compensatory changes and report the presence of not only compensatory mutations, but also the intermediate state in the population. (genetics.org)
  • Rare malaria genus Plasmodium ovale reported in Kerala, soldier who came from Sudan. (wn.com)
  • Resistance of the protozoa, particularly Plasmodium falciparum , to the drugs such as chloroquinine and pyrimethamine that have previously been an effective control was first reported in 1961. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Plasmodium , commonly known as the malaria parasite , is a large genus of parasitic protozoa . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Apicomplexa - the phylum to which Plasmodium belongs - are thought to have originated within the Dinoflagellates - a large group of photosynthetic protozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • This disease is caused by protozoa parasite in genus Plasmodium, especially P. falciparum and P. vivax which are major cause of death. (omicsonline.org)
  • The condition is caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Within Apicomplexa, Plasmodium is in the order Haemosporida and family Plasmodiidae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine compared with quinine in pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial. (medscape.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum ( P falciparum ) malaria. (cochrane.org)
  • In an effort to explore the effectiveness of producing and crystallizing proteins on a genome-scale using a standardized methodology, over 400 distinct Plasmodium falciparum target genes were chosen representing different cellular classes, along with select orthologues from four other Plasmodium species as well as Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii. (rcsb.org)
  • The genome of the most common form of Plasmodium which causes human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum , has been sequenced completely, yielding 14 chromosomes and 5,300 genes--a large number of which are responsible for dodging the host's immunities. (kenyon.edu)
  • Accuracy of prediction of Plasmodium falciparum protein coding genes is about 98% on the nucleotide level. (bio.net)
  • It is known that point mutations in Plasmodium falciparum crt , dhfr and dhps genes contribute to resistance to CQ, pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine, respectively. (plos.org)
  • None of the identified genes have been previously implicated in innate immune responses or interactions with Plasmodium. (genetics.org)
  • Baum J, Chen L, Healer J, Lopaticki S, Boyle M, Triglia T, Ehlgen F, Ralph SA, Beeson JG, Cowman AF (2009) Reticulocyte-binding protein homologue 5-an essential adhesin involved in invasion of human erythrocytes by plasmodium falciparum. (springer.com)
  • Cao J, Kaneko O, Thongkukiatkul A, Tachibana M, Otsuki H, Gao Q, Tsuboi T, Torii M (2009) Rhoptry neck protein RON2 forms a complex with microneme protein AMA1 in plasmodium falciparum merozoites. (springer.com)
  • Plasmodium berghei: cloning of the circumsporozoite protein gene. (nih.gov)
  • A DNA fragment encoding the carboxy terminal 80% of the Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite protein was selected from a genomic DNA expression library. (nih.gov)
  • Dr Rita Tewari of the University of Nottingham has completed what she describes as a 'Herculean study', has said that the latest study identifies how protein phosphatases regulate parasite development and differentiation and the research provides a systematic functional analysis for all the 30 phosphatases in Plasmodium berghei , which is the parasite responsible for causing malaria in rodents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Protein phosphorylation during Plasmodium berghei gametogenesis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We analyzed protein phosphorylation during Plasmodium berghei gametogenesis in vitro in serum-free medium using bidimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with immunoblotting (IB) and antibodies specific to phosphorylated serine, threonine and tyrosine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Identification of Plasmodium knowlesi Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (PkMSP-1 ) novel binding peptides from a phage display library. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Diversity pattern of Plasmodium knowlesi merozoite surface protein 4 (MSP4) in natural population of Malaysia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Antibodies to Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein 2b are associated with protection against P. vivax malaria in populations living in low malaria transmission regions of Brazil and Thailand. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein (PvRBP) family is involved in red blood cell recognition and members of this family are potential targets for antibodies that may block P. vivax invas. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is an important malaria virulence factor. (asm.org)
  • Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans is widely distributed and potentially life threatening. (medscape.com)
  • 2. any parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium, causing malaria in humans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The four species of Plasmodium that affect humans are different morphologically , slightly in terms of their life cycles , in terms of their host erythrocite preferences, and varying clinical symptoms. (kenyon.edu)
  • Of the over 200 known species of Plasmodium , at least 11 species infect humans. (phys.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite , one of the species of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodia have been around for millions of years longer than humans, so these four species obviously evolved to infect humans. (northcoastjournal.com)
  • Plasmodium knowlesi, the fifth human malaria parasite, has caused mortality in humans. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Eukaryotes of the genus Plasmodium cause malaria, a parasitic disease responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in humans. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Plasmodium vivax is the most commonly human malaria parasite of the four species affecting humans. (scielo.br)
  • Trafficked Proteins-Druggable in Plasmodium falciparum? (hindawi.com)
  • Parasite-derived proteins expressed on the surface of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum are important virulence factors, since they mediate binding of infected cells to diverse receptors on vascular endothelium and are targets of a protective immune response. (pnas.org)
  • Predictably, orthologous proteins from different Apicomplexan genomes behaved differently in expression, purification and crystallization, although the overall success rates of Plasmodium orthologues do not differ significantly. (rcsb.org)
  • Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Proteins for invasion into reticulocytes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Plasmodium is a member of the phylum Apicomplexa , a large group of parasitic eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Plasmodium consists of all eukaryotes in the phylum Apicomplexa that both undergo the asexual replication process of merogony inside host red blood cells and produce the crystalline pigment hemozoin as a byproduct of digesting host hemoglobin . (wikipedia.org)
  • During a blood meal, female Anopheles mosquitoes are potentially exposed to diverse microbes in addition to the malaria parasite, Plasmodium. (malariaworld.org)
  • It is not known whether exposure of Anopheles to trypanosomes influences their fitness or ability to transmit Plasmodium. (malariaworld.org)
  • The study reveals the molecular components of several Anopheles processes relating to blood digestion, midgut expansion and response to Plasmodium-infected blood such as digestive enzymes, transporters, cytoskeletal and structural components and stress and immune responsive factors. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that volunteers can be safely and reproducibly infected with Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) by the bites of experimentally infected Anopheles dirus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The functions of five Anopheles gambiae homologs were tested by using RNAi to knock down gene function followed by measuring the growth of the rodent parasite, Plasmodium berghei . (genetics.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum consists of a sexual and asexual form, which have hindered genetic analyses, but with conventional methods, such as micro-manipulation in which cells containing a single parasite can be identified, cloning and studying of the genome has been performed (Walliker, 1983) and information in regards to the genome of P. falciparum has been collected. (ubc.ca)
  • The cell cycle in Plasmodium falciparum , as in any malarial parasite takes place in two stages or cycles as mentioned earlier, the sexual and asexual cycle. (ubc.ca)
  • Bannister LH, Hopkins JM, Fowler RE, Krishna S, Mitchell GH (2000) A brief illustrated guide to the ultrastructure of plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stages. (springer.com)
  • The merozoite is the invasive form of the asexual stage of Plasmodium species. (nih.gov)
  • Inside the host's liver cell the Plasmodium cell undergoes asexual replication. (kenyon.edu)
  • Direct microscopic quantification of dynamics of Plasmodium berghei sporozoite transmission from mosquitoes to mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intriguing transcription patterns for highly variable Plasmodium surface antigens may indicate parasite strategies to avoid recognition by the mosquito's immune surveillance system. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • For the multinucleate stage of some microorganisms, see plasmodium (life cycle) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodium , in fungi (kingdom Fungi), a mobile multinucleate mass of cytoplasm without a firm cell wall. (britannica.com)
  • As a myxamoeba moves across a moist surface, it engulfs bacteria and eventually fuses with a second myxamoeba, thereby initiating the development of a multinucleate plasmodium. (britannica.com)
  • A plasmodium is an amoeboid , multinucleate and naked mass of cytoplasm that contains many diploid nuclei . (wn.com)
  • In a study published today in the open access journal Journal of Biology, researchers show that if dendritic cells, the key cells involved in initiating immunity, are exposed to red blood cells infected with Plasmodium chabaudi, they initiate a sequence of events that result in compromised antibody responses. (rxpgnews.com)
  • In a study funded by the Wellcome Trust, Owain Millington and colleagues from the University of Strathclyde, UK, studied the effects of Plasmodium chabaudi, the mouse Plasmodium, on mice antigen-presenting dendritic cells in culture and confirmed their findings in live mice. (rxpgnews.com)
  • At least two polymorphic glycoproteins have been found on its surface in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (nih.gov)
  • The Plasmodium genome is separated into 14 chromosomes contained in the nucleus . (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of the Plasmodium is very complex, and genetic alteration to new environmental pressures occurs quickly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Click here for a complete analysis of Plasmodium falciparum' s genome sequence. (kenyon.edu)
  • The Plasmodium falciparum genome is a difficult one to sequence because it is very complicated. (citizendium.org)
  • The Plasmodium falciparum genome is approximately 23 mega base pairs long. (citizendium.org)
  • The life-cycles of Plasmodium species involve several different stages both in the insect and the vertebrate host. (wikipedia.org)
  • The life cycle of Plasmodium involves several distinct stages in the insect and vertebrate hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daily Rhythms of TNFa Expression and Food Intake Regulate Synchrony of Plasmodium Stages with the Host Circadian Cycle. (harvard.edu)
  • Plasmodium falciparum is the deadliest of the 5 different species of Plasmodium that can cause human malaria, and transmissible sexual stages or gametocytes of this species comprise five distinct morphological stages which mature slowly over a period of 8-10 days. (nature.com)
  • Pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum: what next? (pnas.org)
  • Which Plasmodium species have known resistance to antimalarial agents? (medscape.com)
  • We sequenced 234 Cambodian Plasmodium falciparum isolates for the dhps codons S436A/F, A437G, K540E, A581G and A613S/T implicated in sulfadoxine resistance. (plos.org)
  • Recent co-infections with multiple Plasmodium spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasmodium falciparum causes the most virulent form of human malaria, resulting in 200 million to 300 million infections and 1 million to 3 million deaths annually ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Human infections due to the monkey malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi are increasingly being reported from Malaysia. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Plasmodium vivax is responsible for most of the malaria infections outside Africa and is currently the predominant malaria parasite in countries under elimination programs. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, the biological role of such antibodies is still unknown during Plasmodium vivax infections. (bioportfolio.com)
  • CDC has recently reviewed data on the reported incidence in the United States of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and has evaluated information on the effective management of severe life-threatening infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The genus Plasmodium was first described in 1885. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Plasmodium was described in 1885 by Ettore Marchiafava and Angelo Celli. (phys.org)
  • Severe Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in a tertiary care hospital, Sabah, Malaysia. (medscape.com)
  • Acute kidney injury is a common complication of severe Plasmodium knowlesi malaria, and an important contributor to mortality. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Distribution of the Duffy genotypes in Malaysian Borneo and its relation to Plasmodium knowlesi malaria susceptibility. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the erythrocytic stage of the life cycle, the hemoglobin in the host's blood is used as food for Plasmodium falciparum . (citizendium.org)
  • In the same stage of the life cycle, the erythrocytic stage, Plasmodium falciparum makes it energy by the process of anaerobic glycolysis whereby the pyruvate molecule is converted to lactate . (citizendium.org)
  • [2] Plasmodium species contain many features that are common to other eukaryotes, and some that are unique to their phylum or genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report 11 cases of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bikaner (western India). (nih.gov)
  • Severe malaria is mostly caused by Plasmodium falciparum, resulting in considerable, systemic inflammation and pronounced endothelial activation. (asm.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum , the causative agent of malaria , lives in human red blood cells . (citizendium.org)
  • RxPG] Plasmodium, the parasite responsible for malaria, impairs the ability of key cells of the immune system to trigger an efficient immune response. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Laboratory values revealed pancytopenia (platelet count: 48,000/ µ L, hemoglobin: 11.6 g/dL, and white blood cell count: 3,200/ µ L). A malaria smear revealed Plasmodium sp. (cdc.gov)
  • The researchers show that this is due to the presence of hemozoin, a by-product of the digestion of hemoglobin by Plasmodium, in infected red blood cells. (rxpgnews.com)
  • a parasitic protozoan of a genus ( Plasmodium ) that includes those causing malaria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Plasmodium bambusicolai is a species of the genus Plasmodium subgenus Novyella. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus species of the genus are known as plasmodia . (wn.com)
  • The Duffy blood group plays a key role in Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax invasion into human erythrocytes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • During pregnancy, Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes (IE) accumulate in the intervillous spaces of the placenta by binding to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and elicit inflammatory responses that are associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. (asm.org)
  • Can Wolbachia modulate the fecundity costs of Plasmodium in mosquitoes? (cambridge.org)
  • Here, we show that Plasmodium drastically decreases the fecundity of mosquitoes by ca. 20%, and we provide the first evidence that this decrease is independent of the parasite's burden. (cambridge.org)
  • Although Wolbachia- infected mosquitoes fare overall better than uninfected ones, Wolbachia does not confer a sufficiently high reproductive boost to mosquitoes to compensate for the reproductive losses inflicted by Plasmodium. (cambridge.org)
  • Thus, replication in Plasmodium appears to be an excellent drug target: its mechanisms and regulators are distinct from those of the host organisms, the scale of reproductive output is directly crucial to pathogenicity, and it offers the possibility of interfering with the transmissibility of the parasite. (springer.com)
  • As for the Plasmodium parasite: It is one of the most versatile and interesting organisms on the planet. (northcoastjournal.com)
  • Background: Evidence for decreasing chloroquine (CQ) efficacy against Plasmodium vivax has been reported from many endemic countries in the world. (diva-portal.org)
  • In Africa each year around 24 million wom- women have acquired substantial protec- en become pregnant in malaria-endemic ar- tive immunity to malaria through repeated eas. (who.int)
  • Plasmodium vivax is endemic to many areas of Afghanistan. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Plasmodium is the genus of the organism that causes malaria. (reference.com)
  • In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the var multigene family encoding for the major blood-stage antigen Pf EMP1 has evolved enormous genetic diversity through ectopic recombination and mutation. (nature.com)
  • Genetic variability of Plasmodium falciparum underlies its transmission success and thwarts efforts to control disease caused by this parasite. (sciencemag.org)
  • Genetic characterization of Plasmodium vivax in the Kyrgyz Republic. (bioportfolio.com)