Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Bacteriocin Plasmids: Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Kanamycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Plant Tumor-Inducing Plasmids: Plasmids coding for proteins which induce PLANT TUMORS. The most notable example of a plant tumor inducing plasmid is the Ti plasmid found associated with AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Lactose Factors: Plasmids which determine the ability of a bacterium to ferment lactose.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Shigella sonnei: A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Deoxyribonuclease HindIII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Mice, Inbred BALB CGreen Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Rhodococcus equi: A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Hemolysin Factors: Plasmids controlling the synthesis of hemolysin by bacteria.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Biolistics: Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.Recombinases: A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.DNA Restriction-Modification Enzymes: Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Transposases: Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.Novobiocin: An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189)Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Yersinia enterocolitica: A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.Erwinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Pili, Sex: Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Single-Strand Specific DNA and RNA Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
Bristol (strain N2)". Plasmid. 22 (1): 10-21. PMID 2550981. Goodier, John L.; Davidson, William S. (1994). "Tc1 Transposon-like ... PMC 310809 . Jacobson JW, Medhora MM, Hartl DL (November 1986). "Molecular structure of a somatically unstable transposable ... Molecular & general genetics : MGG. 222 (1): 65-70. PMID 1978238. Harris, L. J.; Rose, A. M. (1989). "Structural analysis of ... Sequences are Widely Distributed in Salmonids". Journal of Molecular Biology. 241 (1): 26-34. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1994.1470. PMID ...
E. coli plasmid vectors. Methods in Molecular Biology. 235. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-58829-151-6. Romanos MA, Scorer CA, Clare JJ ( ... E. coli plasmid vectors (PDF). Methods in Molecular Biology. 235. pp. 21-22. ISBN 978-1-58829-151-6. TA Brown. Gene Cloning and ... E. coli plasmid vectors. Methods in Molecular Biology. 235. pp. 19-20. ISBN 978-1-58829-151-6. Nicola Casali; Andrew Preston. E ... Other cloning vectors include the pUC series of plasmids, and a large number of different cloning plasmid vectors are available ...
The end product of the libraries is double stranded DNA, which may be inserted into plasmids. Hence, cDNA libraries are a ... Molecular biology of the gene (Seventh edition. ed.). Boston: Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-32176243-6.. .mw ... In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle ... Wan, KH; Yu, C; George, RA; Carlson, JW; Hoskins, RA; Svirskas, R; Stapleton, M; Celniker, SE (2006). "High-throughput plasmid ...
Hinnenbusch, Joe; Kit Tilly (1993). "Linear plasmids and chromosomes in bacteria". Molecular Microbiology. 10 (5): 917-922. doi ... Fertility plasmids, or f plasmids, allow for conjugation to occur whereas resistance plasmids, or r plasmids, contain genes ... Circular bacterial plasmids are classified according to the special functions that the genes encoded on the plasmid provide. ... Circular bacterial plasmids are also the basis for the production of DNA vaccines. Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically ...
Plasmid. 65 (2): 118-124. doi:10.1016/j.plasmid.2010.11.002. ISSN 0147-619X. Thwaites, R., et al. "Streptomyces turgidiscabies ... "Streptomyces turgidiscabies possesses a functional cytokinin biosynthetic pathway and produces leafy galls." Molecular plant- ...
Cleavage of a plasmid in Halobacterium halobium.resulted in the loss of the ability to biosynthesize gas vesicles, indicating ... de Marsac, Nicole Tandeau; Mazel, Didier; Bryant, Donald A.; Houmard, Jean (1985-10-25). "Molecular cloning and nucleotide ... doi:10.1016/0147-619x(79)90021-0. DasSarma, S.; Damerval, T.; Jones, J. G.; Marsac, N. Tandeau de (1987-07-01). "A plasmid- ... Although there is evidence suggesting the early evolution of gas vesicles, plasmid transfer serves as an alternate explanation ...
Kellenberger-Gujer, G.; Boy de la Tour, E.; Berg, D. E. (1974-04-01). "Transfer of the lambda dv plasmid to new bacterial hosts ... In 1971, she returned to Geneva and worked in Lucien Caro's lab in the Department of Molecular Biology until her retirement in ... Berg, D. E.; Kellenberger-Gujer, G. (1974-11-01). "N protein causes the lambda dv plasmid to inhibit heteroimmune phage lambda ... She was a pioneer in the genetic analysis of bacteriophages and contributed to the early development of molecular biology. ...
Plasmid. 61 (3): 171-175. doi:10.1016/j.plasmid.2008.12.002. Labes, G.; Bibb, M.; Wohlleben, W. (1 May 1997). "Isolation and ... MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 211 (3): 424-429. doi:10.1007/BF00425695. editors, Thomas J. Bach, Michel Rohmer, (2013). ... Plasmid. 61 (3): 171-175. doi:10.1016/j.plasmid.2008.12.002. ATCC Type strain of Streptomyces ghanaensis at BacDive - the ... Muth, Gunter; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Pohler, Alfred (March 1988). "The minimal replicon of the Streptomyces ghanaensis plasmid ...
ISBN 81-8424-407-X. Juo, Pei-Show (2001). Concise Dictionary of Biomedicine and Molecular Biology (2nd ed.). Hoboken: CRC Press ... Plasmids in Bacteria. Boston, MA: Springer US. ISBN 1-4613-2447-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Roberts, edited ...
Dhruba K. Chattoraj (2000). "Control of plasmid DNA replication by iterons: no longer paradoxical". Molecular Biology. 37 (3): ... If a plasmid contains an extra supply of iterons outside of the saturation site it has been shown this can decrease plasmid ... Iterons have an important role in plasmid replication. An iteron-containing plasmid origin of replication can be found ... Usually, iterons on the same plasmid are highly conserved, whereas comparing iterons on different plasmids still exhibit ...
... site must be located on the plasmid itself to allow recognition of the plasmid and initiation of transfer. A plasmid with no ... Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 67 (2): 277-301. doi:10.1128/MMBR.67.2.277-301.2003. PMC 156469 . PMID 12794193. ... Figurski D, Helinski D (1979). "Replication of an origin-containing derivative of plasmid RK2 dependent on a plasmid function ... they may be located in a variety of places including the plasmid in question, another plasmid in the same host cell, or even in ...
E. coli Plasmid Vectors: Methods and Applications. Methods in Molecular Biology. Volume No.: 235. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-58829-151-6 ... However, when 2 or more plasmids are used, each plasmid needs to use a different antibiotic selection as well as a different ... a p15A replicon-based plasmid such as the pACYC series of plasmids. Another approach would be to use a single two-cistron ... Many commonly used plasmids are based on the ColE1 replicon and are therefore incompatible with each other; in order for a ...
"Linear plasmids and chromosomes in bacteria". Molecular Microbiology. 10 (5): 917-22. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.1993.tb00963.x ... "Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 64 (4): 847-67. doi:10.1128/MMBR.64.4.847-867.2000. PMC 99016. PMID 11104821.. ... "Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 64 (3): 548-72. doi:10.1128/MMBR.64.3.548-572.2000. PMC 99004. PMID 10974126.. ... "Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 68 (4): 686-91. doi:10.1128/MMBR.68.4.686-691.2004. PMC 539005. PMID 15590780.. ...
"The virulence plasmid of Yersinia, an antihost genome". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 62 (4): 1315-1352. ISSN ... Plasmids of Y. pestis were detected in archaeological samples of the teeth of seven Bronze Age individuals, in the Afanasievo ... Together, these plasmids, and a pathogenicity island called HPI, encode several proteins that cause the pathogenesis, for which ... In addition, it also hosts two other plasmids, pPCP1 (also called pPla or pPst) and pMT1 (also called pFra) that are not ...
Bi, S.; Liu, L. F. (1994). "recA-independent and recA-dependent Intramolecular Plasmid Recombination". Journal of Molecular ... The AMY1 gene was the first gene to provide strong evidence for evolution on a molecular genetics level. Moreover, using ... There are two main types of molecular mechanism for the formation of copy number variations: homologous based and non- ... Note that although this has been experimentally observed and is a widely accepted mechanism, the molecular interactions that ...
In the process known as molecular cloning, researchers can amplify the DNA fragments by inserting plasmids into bacteria and ... With the newfound molecular understanding of inheritance came an explosion of research. A notable theory arose from Tomoko Ohta ... "Cell and Molecular Biology", Pragya Khanna. I. K. International Pvt Ltd, 2008. p. 221. ISBN 81-89866-59-1, ISBN 978-81-89866-59 ... Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes are still primary principles of genetics in the 21st century, ...
Paulsson, J; M.Ehrenberg (2000). "Molecular clocks reduce plasmid losses: the R1 case". J. Mol. Biol. 297 (1): 179-92. doi: ... Paulsson, J; K. Nordström; and M.Ehrenberg (1998). "Requirements for rapid plasmid copy number adjustments". Plasmid. 39: 215. ... in Molecular Biology in 2000 on stochasticity in intracellular circuits, in particular in plasmid copy control, under the ... He studied at Uppsala University, where he obtained a BSc in Mathematics in 1996, a Masters of Science in Molecular Biology in ...
Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2007). Molecular Biology of the Cell (5th ed.). Garland Science. p ... Bristol (strain N2)". Plasmid. 22 (1): 10-21. PMID 2550981.. *^ "Caenorhabditis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.. ... In 1974, he began research into the molecular and developmental biology of C. elegans, which has since been extensively used as ... Schafer WR (September 2005). "Deciphering the neural and molecular mechanisms of C. elegans behavior". Current Biology. 15 (17 ...
Bussiere DE, Bastia D (March 1999). "Termination of DNA replication of bacterial and plasmid chromosomes". Molecular ... Journal of Molecular Biology. 106 (4): 963-81. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(76)90346-6. PMID 789903. Drake JW (1970) The Molecular ... Journal of Molecular Biology. 31 (3): 519-540. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(68)90425-7. ISSN 0022-2836. PMID 4866337. Leonard, Alan C ... International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 14 (4): 8517-37. doi:10.3390/ijms14048517. PMC 3645759 . PMID 23595001. McCarthy D ...
Plasmid Restriction map Vector (molecular biology) CGView Dong, X; Stothard P; Forsythe IJ; Wishart DS. (July 2004). " ... It is a particularly useful online service for molecular biologists wishing to generate plasmid maps without having to purchase ... PlasMapper accepts plasmid/vector DNA sequence as input (FASTA format) and uses sequence pattern matching and BLAST sequence ... PlasMapper (Plasmid Mapper) is a freely available web server that automatically generates and annotates high-quality circular ...
"Plasmids from Food Lactic Acid Bacteria: Diversity, Similarity, and New Developments". International Journal of Molecular ... but have significant molecular differences most notably in their membrane structure and ribosomal RNA.[18][19] By sequencing ... plasmids can be exchanged through the use of a pilus in a process known as conjugation.[11] ... Plasmids can carry genes responsible for novel abilities, of current critical importance being antibiotic resistance.[11] ...
Lipps G (2008). "Archaeal Plasmids". Plasmids: Current Research and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-35 ... Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS) 54 (4): 305-308. doi:10.1007/s000180050156. ... yang disebut plasmid, juga ditemukan dalam arkea. Plasmid dapat ditransfer antara sel dengan kontak fisik, dalam proses yang ... "Plasmids: Current Research and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. isbn=978-1-904455-35-6. ...
Cornelis P (editor). (2008). Pseudomonas: Genomics and Molecular Biology (1st ed.). Caister Academic Press. ISBN 1-904455-19-0 ... Marqués, Silvia; Ramos, Juan L. (1993). "Transcriptional control of the Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid catabolic pathways". ... Molecular Microbiology. 9 (5): 923-9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.1993.tb01222.x. PMID 7934920. Gomes, NC; Kosheleva, IA; Abraham, ...
YpM molecular weight is about 14 kDa. Structurally, it is unlike any other superantigen, but is remarkably similar to the ... Cornelis GR, Boland A, Boyd AP, Geuijen C, Iriarte M, Neyt C, Sory MP, Stainier I (1998). "The virulence plasmid of Yersinia, ... Brubaker RR (1983). "The Vwa+ virulence factor of yersiniae: the molecular basis of the attendant nutritional requirement for ... ISBN 978-0-203-91206-5. Lindler, L. (2004). "Virulence plasmids of Yersinia: characteristics and comparison". In Funnell, B.E ...
... or alkaline extraction is a method used in molecular biology to isolate plasmid DNA from bacteria. Bacteria ... The plasmid-containing supernatant is carefully removed and can be further purified or used for analysis, such as gel ... This acidifies the solution and allows the renaturing of plasmid DNA, but not chromosomal DNA, which is precipitated out of ... Cloninger, 2008 #100} Alkaline Lysis at Mama Ji's Molecular Kitchen Birnboim HC, Doly J (November 1979). "A rapid alkaline ...
Molecular structureEdit. The 154 kb chloroplast DNA map of a model flowering plant (Arabidopsis thaliana: Brassicaceae) showing ... though those of dinophyte algae are a notable exception-their genome is broken up into about forty small plasmids, each 2,000- ... Alberts B (2002). Molecular biology of the cell (4. ed.). New York [u.a.]: Garland. ISBN 978-0-8153-4072-0. .. ... Wakasugi T, Sugita M, Tsudzuki T, Sugiura M (1998). "Updated gene map of tobacco chloroplast DNA". Plant Molecular Biology ...
Antibiotic susceptibility tests, plasmid profiling and ribotyping were performed to investigate the clonal relationship among ... Antibiotic susceptibility tests, plasmid profiling and ribotyping were performed to investigate the clonal relationship among ... Fatality due to shigellosis with special reference to molecular analysis of Shigella sonnei strains isolated from the fatal ...
Topics: Molecular Pathogenesis Publisher: American Society for Microbiology. Year: 2002. DOI identifier: 10.1128/IAI.70.7.3768- ... A proteomic approach showed that four polypeptides present in the wild-type strain (85F) are missing in the plasmid-cured ... H(2)O(2), Which Causes Macrophage-Related Stress, Triggers Induction of Expression of Virulence-Associated Plasmid Determinants ... strain 85F(P-), and by using a DNA macroarray, we identified two plasmid-encoded vap genes, vapA and vapG, whose expression was ...
Top : Forum Archives: : Molecular Biology. unpredictable plasmid - can digest but not sequence. . . (Oct/17/2005 ). We are ... The plasmids have been prepped using both the Qiagen and Promega Wizard kits, all with the same kooky results. Thanks for any ...
plasmid extraction - (Feb/08/2012 ). Pages: Previous 1 2 I have another question I am curious about: You let the pellet dry ...
... an introduction to molecular biology. [E C C Lin; Richard Goldstein; Michael Syvanen] ... Bacteria, plasmids, and phages : an introduction to molecular biology. Author:. E C C Lin; Richard Goldstein; Michael Syvanen. ... schema:name "Bacteria, plasmids, and phages : an introduction to molecular biology"@en ;. schema:productID "10182998" ;. schema ... Add tags for "Bacteria, plasmids, and phages : an introduction to molecular biology". Be the first. ...
In this study of plasmid R1 we investigated the role of plasmid proteins in the initiation of gene transfer. We find that TraI ... In this study of plasmid R1 we investigated the role of plasmid proteins in the initiation of gene transfer. We find that TraI ... We conclude that low copy plasmid R1 has evolved an active segregation system that optimizes both its vertical and lateral ... These interactions stimulate TraI catalyzed relaxation of plasmid DNA in vivo and in vitro and increase ParM ATPase activity. ...
The molecular bases of the thermostabilizing effect of Mn2+ on the N-terminal domain of the protein as well as the potential ... The crystal structure of RepB, the initiator protein of the streptococcal plasmid pMV158, constitutes the first example of a ... The crystal structure of RepB, the initiator protein of the streptococcal plasmid pMV158, constitutes the first example of a ... Initiation of plasmid rolling circle replication is catalyzed by a plasmid-encoded Rep protein that performs a Tyr- and metal- ...
Molecular cloning of the plasmid RP4 primase region in a multi-host-range tacP expression vector.. Fürste JP, Pansegrau W, ... Plasmid RP4 primase was overproduced by utilizing autoregulated high-level expression vector systems in Escherichia coli and in ... The vector system used in E. coli is based on the plasmid pKK223-3 (Brosius and Holy, 1984), a ColE1-type replicon which ... The gene for the lac repressor (lacIQ) was inserted to render the use of the plasmid independent from repressor-overproducing ...
In 2004, an ESBL-carrying IncK plasmid (pCT) was isolated from cattle in the United Kingdom. The sequence was a 93,629-bp ... showing that the plasmid has disseminated worldwide in bacteria from humans and animals. Complete DNA sequences can be used as ... plasmid encoding a single antimicrobial drug resistance gene, blaCTX-M-14. From this information, PCRs identifying novel ... a platform to develop rapid epidemiologic tools to identify and trace the spread of plasmids in clinically relevant pathogens, ...
tags: plasmids x evolution x cell & molecular biology x The Scientist. » plasmids, evolution and cell & molecular biology ...
Molecular analysis of the F plasmid traVR region: traV encodes a lipoprotein.. T J Doran, S M Loh, N Firth, R A Skurray ... Molecular analysis of the F plasmid traVR region: traV encodes a lipoprotein. ... Molecular analysis of the F plasmid traVR region: traV encodes a lipoprotein. ... Molecular analysis of the F plasmid traVR region: traV encodes a lipoprotein. ...
Molecular cloning and characterization of a sym plasmid locus that regulates cultivar-specific nodulation of soybean by ...
Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid Mediated AmpC β-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and ... Mai M. Helmy and Reham Wasfi, "Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid Mediated AmpC β-Lactamases among ...
Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid Mediated AmpC β-Lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and ... N. O. Yilmaz, N. Agus, E. Bozcal, O. Oner, and A. Uzel, "Detection of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase in Escherichia coli and ... Y. Doi and D. L. Paterson, "Detection of plasmid-mediated class C β-lactamases," International Journal of Infectious Diseases, ... Y. T. Thean, L. S. Y. Ng, J. He, H. K. Tse, and Y. H. Li, "Evaluation of screening methods to detect plasmid-mediated AmpC in ...
Molecular and Cellular Biology Aug 1987, 7 (8) 2745-2752; DOI: 10.1128/MCB.7.8.2745 ... High-efficiency transformation of mammalian cells by plasmid DNA. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Molecular and Cellular Biology Aug 1987, 7 (8) 2745-2752; DOI: 10.1128/MCB.7.8.2745 ... Thank you for sharing this Molecular and Cellular Biology article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the ...
Structural biology of plasmid partition: uncovering the molecular mechanisms of DNA segregation. Maria A. Schumacher ... Structural biology of plasmid partition: uncovering the molecular mechanisms of DNA segregation ... Structural biology of plasmid partition: uncovering the molecular mechanisms of DNA segregation ... Structural biology of plasmid partition: uncovering the molecular mechanisms of DNA segregation ...
Identification and classification of bacterial plasmids.. M Couturier, F Bex, P L Bergquist, W K Maas ... Identification and classification of bacterial plasmids. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Thank you for sharing this Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to ... Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. ...
... molecular cloning vector, plasmid, plasmid vector, snapfast vector, vector; find Sigma-Aldrich-OGS2828 MSDS, related peer- ... AND 6 HIS DUAL TAG BACTERIAL PLASMID plasmid vector for molecular cloning; Synonym: cloning vector, expression vector, ... plasmid vector for molecular cloning Synonym: cloning vector, expression vector, molecular cloning vector, plasmid vector, ... PSF-TEF1-NH2-FLAG®-6HIS-EKT - N-TERMINAL FLAG® AND 6 HIS DUAL TAG YEAST PLASMID, plasmid vector for molecular cloning pricing ...
Molecular characterization of a new plasmid-encoded SHV-type beta-lactamase (SHV-2 variant) conferring high-level cefotaxime ... The resistance gene responsible was shown to be encoded on a conjugative 66 kb plasmid designated pZMP1. The MIC values for ... A 3.6 kb BamHI fragment containing the beta-lactamase gene was cloned into pLG339 resulting in the recombinant plasmid pZMP1-1 ...
Molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing SHV-5 beta- lactamase: parallel outbreaks due to multiple plasmid ... Molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing SHV-5 beta- lactamase: parallel outbreaks due to multiple plasmid ... Molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing SHV-5 beta- lactamase: parallel outbreaks due to multiple plasmid ... Molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing SHV-5 beta- lactamase: parallel outbreaks due to multiple plasmid ...
Intramuscular delivery of a plasmid-encoded molecular adjuvant elicits immune responses at mucosal sites in a macaque model ( ... Intramuscular delivery of a plasmid-encoded molecular adjuvant elicits immune responses at mucosal sites in a macaque model ( ... Intramuscular delivery of a plasmid-encoded molecular adjuvant elicits immune responses at mucosal sites in a macaque model ( ... Intramuscular delivery of a plasmid-encoded molecular adjuvant elicits immune responses at mucosal sites in a macaque model ( ...
Plasmid Replication, Maintenance and Incompatibility. * Sturcture-Function Relationships in Essential Regions for Plasmid ... Epidemiology and Ecology of Bacterial Plasmids. * Evolution among Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids in the Hospital Environment ... Chromosomal and Plasmid-Mediated Transfer of Clindamycin Resistance in Bacteroides fragilis F. P. Tally, M. J. Shimell, G. R. ... Plasmid Mobilization as a Tool for in Vivo Genetic Engineering J. Leemans, D. Inzé, R. Villarroel, G. Engler, J. P. ...
Plasmid DNA was isolated using the Qiagen Plasmid Midi kit (Qiagen) using 60°C prewarmed eluting buffer. Uncut plasmid DNA was ... Combining the molecular epidemiology of strain and resistance plasmid typing with classic epidemiological evaluation of CRE ... Molecular epidemiology of plasmid spread among extended broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates ... Investigations of so-called "plasmid outbreaks" are difficult for all but sophisticated molecular epidemiology labs. Analysis ...
  • A proteomic approach showed that four polypeptides present in the wild-type strain (85F) are missing in the plasmid-cured strain 85F(P-), and by using a DNA macroarray, we identified two plasmid-encoded vap genes, vapA and vapG, whose expression was highly induced by H(2)O(2) treatment. (core.ac.uk)
  • A receptor, called the type IV coupling protein (T4CP), is positioned at the cytoplasmic entrance of the secretion channel to recognize specific plasmid-bound protein complexes and deliver them to the channel. (frontiersin.org)
  • The crystal structure of RepB, the initiator protein of the streptococcal plasmid pMV158, constitutes the first example of a Rep protein structure from RCR plasmids. (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular bases of the thermostabilizing effect of Mn 2+ on the N-terminal domain of the protein as well as the potential location of additional metal binding sites in the entire RepB are discussed. (frontiersin.org)
  • This reaction is catalyzed by the metal-dependent endonucleolytic activity of the plasmid-encoded Rep protein, which yields a free 3′-OH end that serves as primer for initiation of the leading-strand synthesis by a host DNA polymerase. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, in the present review, the known Par protein and Par-protein complex structures are discussed with regard to their functions in DNA segregation in an attempt to begin to define, at a detailed atomic level, the molecular mechanisms involved in plasmid segregation. (biochemj.org)
  • This plasmid also contains a secondary Flag protein tag. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The amount of transfected plasmid does not correlate at all with the protein expression level. (stackexchange.com)
  • In general, plasmids with low copy numbers correlate with lower protein expression compared to plasmids with high copy number. (stackexchange.com)
  • We found that plasmid dynamics are driven by transient protein gradients or patterns that coat the DNA carpet (top right panel). (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • low copy number plasmid partitioning is driven by protein patterns. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • A plasmid containing KLF6 cDNA was used to increase the level of KLF6 protein in rat lens epithelial cells (rLEC) which can lead to consequent degradation of p21 and p27 kip1 . (molvis.org)
  • The linear plasmids of prokarykotes are found either containing a hairpin loop or a covalently bonded protein attached to the telomeric ends of the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear plasmids which contain a protein that has been covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA strands are known as invertrons and can range in size from 9 kb to over 600 kb consisting of inverted terminal repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • These types of linear plasmids represent the largest class of extrachromosomal DNA as they are not only present in certain bacterial cells, but all linear extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells also take on this invertron structure with a protein attached to the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cDNA sequence is 2,106 bp long and it encodes a polypeptide of 701 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 76,617 D. Analysis of the amino-terminal sequence indicates that acyl-CoA synthetase is synthesized as a larger precursor containing a cleavable amino-terminal presequence so that the mature polypeptide size is 663 amino acids. (plantphysiol.org)
  • plasmid stnds linearized, cDNA clean-up. (biotechniques.com)
  • Animal research has demonstrated that administration of HGF cDNA plasmids into ischemic cardiac tissue can increase cardiac function (improved left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening compared to control subjects) after induced MI or ischemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our evidence for multiple events of R-plasmid transfer between species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in this nosocomial outbreak stresses the need for plasmid typing, especially because SHV-5 beta-lactamase seems to be regionally spread predominantly via plasmid transfer. (asm.org)
  • B. burgdorferi is distinguished from other prokaryotes by the extraordinary complexity of its genome, which is composed of a linear chromosome and a variable plasmid complement consisting of as many as 21 linear and circular plasmids ( 6 , 18 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • The Fast Ion™ Plasmid Midi Advanced Kit is designed to isolate high-quality plasmid DNA for use in eukaryotic transfection and in vitro expression experiments. (lifebiomedical.com)
  • Transfection with HGF plasmids in damaged cardiac tissue also promotes angiogenesis (increased capillary density compared to control subjects), as well as decreasing detrimental remodelling of the tissue at the site of injury (decreased fibrotic deposition). (wikipedia.org)
  • These interactions stimulate TraI catalyzed relaxation of plasmid DNA in vivo and in vitro and increase ParM ATPase activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Synthesis of RNA b as well as the larger RNA plasmid, RNA a, was resistant to heparin, suggesting that, for both RNAs, preformed complexes between an RNA template and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase capable of elongating in vivo preinitiated RNA plasmid strands, were present in the lysate. (deepdyve.com)
  • polymerase capable of elongating in vivo preinitiated RN A plasmid strands, were present in the lysate. (deepdyve.com)
  • We discriminated between these different models by varying some key parameters in vivo using the F plasmid partition system. (embopress.org)
  • An in vivo plasmid DNA repair analysis was employed to discriminate between two possible mechanisms of target site location: a processive DNA scanning mechanism or a distributive random diffusion mechanism. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that low copy plasmid R1 has evolved an active segregation system that optimizes both its vertical and lateral modes of dissemination. (frontiersin.org)
  • In prokaryotes, partition is best understood for plasmids, which serve as tractable model systems to study the mechanistic underpinnings of DNA segregation at a detailed atomic level owing to their simplicity. (biochemj.org)
  • The process is cell contact-dependent, yet the mechanisms enabling extracellular events to trigger plasmid transfer to begin inside the cell remain obscure. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we changed the architecture of a multicopy model expression plasmid, creating six isoforms (same size, same DNA content but different positions and orientations of the expression block) and studied mitotic stability, copy number, as well as reporter yEGFP3 expression between isoforms. (springer.com)
  • This plasmid was used to construct CPV C62B23, ATCC VR-2209, which produces immunogenic VP-2 when inoculated into Spodoptera frugiperda cells. (atcc.org)
  • In the last few years, several viral and nonviral (plasmid DNAs) have been standardized and optimized for this purpose. (medgadget.com)