Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).
Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
A 3.5 per cent colloidal solution containing urea-cross-linked polymerized peptides. It has a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 and is prepared from gelatin and electrolytes. The polymeric solution is used as a plasma expander.
Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
1,4-Dihydrazinophthalazine. An antihypertensive agent with actions and uses similar to those of HYDRALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p354)
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The consumption of liquids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Liquid components of living organisms.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
The posture of an individual lying face up.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
The position or attitude of the body.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Posture while lying with the head lower than the rest of the body. Extended time in this position is associated with temporary physiologic disturbances.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Glucose in blood.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
A change in cardiovascular function resulting in a reduction in BLOOD VOLUME, and reflex DIURESIS. It occurs frequently after actual or simulated WEIGHTLESSNESS.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.

Effect of portal-systemic anastomosis on renal haemodynamics in cirrhosis. (1/455)

In 12 patients with portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from oesophageal varices the central haemodynamics, portal pressure, and mean renal blood flow (RBF) were investigated immediately before and two to seven months after portal-systemic shunt. Cardiac output increased significantly, whereas arterial pressure was unchanged after operation. RBF, which was initially less than in controls, did not change. As portal pressure decreased significantly, a direct portal-renal, neural, or humoral reflex mechanism does not explain the subnormal RBF in cirrhosis. As plasma volume was large and unchanged after operation a "diminished circulating plasma volume" is an unlikely explanation. Therefore, on the basis of the present observations, previously postulated causes of renal hypoperfusion in cirrhosis need revision.  (+info)

Changes in haematological parameters and iron metabolism associated with a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon. (2/455)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate haematological variations and iron related changes in the serum of participants in a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon run. PARTICIPANTS: Seven male and two female participants in a 1600 km foot race. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from the participants before, after four and 11 days of running, and at the end of the event. Samples were analysed by standard methods for haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total red cell count, mean red cell volume, mean red cell haemoglobin, total white cell count and differential, platelets, reticulocytes, iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, percentage transferrin saturation, haptoglobin, and bilirubin and corrected for changes in plasma volume. RESULTS: The following variables decreased during the event (p < 0.05): haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean red cell volume, percentage lymphocytes, percentage monocytes, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and percentage transferrin saturation. Increases (p < 0.05) were found in plasma volume, total red cell count (day 4 only), total white cell count, percentage and absolute numbers of neutrophils and reticulocytes, absolute numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes (day 4 only), absolute numbers of eosinophils (day 11 and race end), absolute numbers of basophils (race end only), platelets, ferritin, haptoglobin, and bilirubin (day 4 only). CONCLUSION: Ultramarathon running is associated with a wide range of changes in haematological parameters, many of which are related to the normal acute phase response to injury. These should not be confused with indicators of disease.  (+info)

Evaluation of pulmonary volumetric morphometry at the light and electron microscopy level in several species of passerine birds. (3/455)

The lungs of 3 small passerine species, having similar body mass but different diurnal activity patterns, were analysed morphometrically to assess the relationship between diurnal activity and pulmonary volumetry at the light and electron microscope levels. The percentage volumes of the major lung and exchange tissue components of the 3 species--an aerial insectivore, a foliage gleaner/nectarivore and a ground forager--were strikingly similar, and consistent with literature values for other passerine species. The only significant difference found was exchange tissue plasma volume and pulmonary haematocrit, with the ground-foraging, low activity Malurus splendens having significantly lower values than the other 2 species. This may indicate that cardiovascular parameters are more important determinants of metabolic activity in small passerines than aspects of pulmonary anatomy.  (+info)

Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults: a four months double blind placebo controlled trial. (4/455)

OBJECTIVE: Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults. DESIGN: Twenty-four (18 male, 6 female) adult GH deficient patients aged 25-64 years were included and received either GH (n=11) or placebo (n=13) in a double blind parallel design. METHODS: Before and at the end of each 4 month period ECV and PV were assessed directly using 82Br- and 125I-albumin respectively, and blood samples were obtained. RESULTS: During GH treatment ECV increased significantly (before: 20.48+/-0.99 l, 4 months: 23.77+/-1.38 l (P<0.01)), but remained unchanged during placebo administration (before: 16.92+/-1.01 l, 4 months: 17.60+/-1.24 l (P=0.37)). The difference between the groups was significant (P<0.05). GH treatment also increased PV (before: 3.39+/-0.27 l. 4 months: 3.71+/-0.261 (P=0.01)), although an insignificant increase in the placebo treated patients (before: 2.81+/-0.18 l, 4 months: 2.89+/-0.20 l (P=0.37)) resulted in an insignificant treatment effect (P=0.07). Serum insulin-like growth factor-I increased significantly during GH treatment and was not affected by placebo treatment. Plasma renin (mIU/l) increased during GH administration (before: 14.73+/-2.16, 4 months: 26.00+/-6.22 (P=0.03)) and remained unchanged following placebo (before: 20.77+/-5.13, 4 months: 20.69+/-6.67 (P=0.99)) leaving no significant treatment effect (P=0.08). CONCLUSION: The long-term impact of GH treatment on body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients involves expansion of ECV and probably also PV. These data substantiate the role of GH as a regulator of fluid homeostasis in adult GH deficiency.  (+info)

Increased orthostatic tolerance following moderate exercise training in patients with unexplained syncope. (5/455)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a programme of simple, moderate exercise training increases blood volume and improves orthostatic tolerance in patients with attacks of syncope or near syncope related to orthostatic stress. DESIGN: An open study in 14 patients referred with unexplained attacks of syncope, who were shown to have a low tolerance to an orthostatic stress test. Measurements were made of plasma and blood volumes, orthostatic tolerance to a test of combined head up tilt and lower body suction, and baroreceptor sensitivity by applying subatmospheric pressures to a chamber over the neck. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from the relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake during a graded treadmill exercise test. Assessments were made before and after undertaking an exercise training programme (Canadian Air Force 5BX/XBX). RESULTS: After the training period, 12 of the 14 patients showed evidence of improved cardiorespiratory fitness. All 12 patients were symptomatically improved; they showed increases in plasma and blood volumes and in orthostatic tolerance, and decreases in baroreceptor sensitivity. Despite the improved orthostatic tolerance, values of blood pressure both while supine and initially following tilting were lower than before training. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training has a role in the management of patients with syncope and poor orthostatic tolerance. It improves symptoms and increases orthostatic tolerance without increasing resting blood pressure.  (+info)

Mechanism for the posture-specific plasma volume increase after a single intense exercise protocol. (6/455)

To test the hypothesis that exercise-induced hypervolemia is a posture-dependent process, we measured plasma volume, plasma albumin content, and renal function in seven healthy subjects for 22 h after single upright (Up) or supine (Sup) intense (85% peak oxygen consumption rate) exercise. This posture was maintained for 5 h after exercise. Plasma volume decreased during exercise but returned to control levels by 5 h of recovery in both postures. By 22 h of recovery, plasma volume increased 2.4 +/- 0.8 ml/kg in Up but decreased 2.1 +/- 0.8 ml/kg in Sup. The plasma volume expansion in Up was accompanied by an increase in plasma albumin content (0.11 +/- 0.04 g/kg; P < 0.05). Plasma albumin content was unchanged in Sup. Urine volume and sodium clearance were lower in Up than Sup (P < 0.05) by 5 h of recovery. These data suggest that increased plasma albumin content contributes to the acute phase of exercise-induced hypervolemia. More importantly, the mechanism by which exercise influences the distribution of albumin between extra- and intravascular stores after exercise is altered by posture and is unknown. We speculate that factors associated with postural changes (e.g., central venous pressure) modify the increase in plasma albumin content and the plasma volume expansion after exercise.  (+info)

Effects of moderate exercise training on plasma volume, baroreceptor sensitivity and orthostatic tolerance in healthy subjects. (7/455)

The effect of physical training on an individual's ability to withstand an orthostatic stress is unclear. This study was undertaken to determine the effects on orthostatic tolerance in healthy volunteers of training at a level appropriate for unfit subjects and cardiorespiratory patients. In 11 asymptomatic, untrained subjects the following assessments were made: plasma volume by Evans Blue dye dilution and blood volume derived from haematocrit; carotid baroreceptor sensitivity from the slope of the regression of change in cardiac interval against pressure applied to a neck chamber; orthostatic tolerance as time to presyncope in a test of head-up tilting combined with lower body suction; exercise test relating heart rate to oxygen consumption. Subjects were then given a training schedule (5BX/XBX, Royal Canadian Air Force) involving 11-12 min of mixed exercises per day until an age/sex related 'target' was reached. Following training all subjects showed evidence of improved fitness, seen as decreases in heart rate at an oxygen uptake (Vo2) of 1.5 1 min-1 and in the elevation of the regression line between heart rate and Vo2. All also had increases in plasma and blood volumes and decreases in baroreceptor sensitivity. Seven of the subjects showed increases in orthostatic tolerance. Improvement in orthostatic tolerance was related to a low initial tolerance, and was associated with increases in plasma volume and decreases in baroreceptor sensitivity. These results show that moderate exercise training increases orthostatic tolerance in subjects who do not already have a high initial tolerance and suggest that training may be of value in the management of untrained patients with attacks of syncope due to orthostatic intolerance.  (+info)

Physical performance and associated electrolyte changes after haemoglobin normalization: a comparative study in haemodialysis patients. (8/455)

BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of different haemoglobin (Hb) levels on exercise performance and associated electrolyte changes, a prospective, randomized, double-blinded crossover study was completed in 14 haemodialysis patients. METHODS: Performance and changes in arterial [K+] and lactate were compared at rest and during a maximal incremental cycling exercise at a Hb concentration ([Hb]) of 10 g/dl ([Hb]10) and 14 g/dl ([Hb]14) following an initial baseline test (Hb: 8.3 +/- 0.2 g/dl, mean +/- SEM). Ages ranged from 23 to 65 years and patients were divided into younger (age 23-45 years, n = 9) and older (aged 55-65 years, n = 5) groups. RESULTS: Peak work rate and VO2 peak were higher at [Hb]14 than at [Hb]10. 145 +/- 9 vs 134 +/- 9 W, mu +/- SEM, P < 0.01, and 1.90 +/- 0.11 vs 1.61 +/- 0.11 l/min, P < 0.01, respectively. Improvements were demonstrated in both younger and older groups at the higher target [Hb], with an improved aerobic performance evident particularly in younger patients. However, performance remained below that predicted for comparable sedentary controls. Resting plasma [K+] was raised at both [Hb]10 and [Hb]14 compared with baseline (P < 0.01) although the change in [K+] from rest to peak exercise (delta[K+]) was similar at each level. The delta[K+] per unit work performed (used as a marker of K+ regulation) was, however, inversely related to the [Hb] (baseline: 80 +/- 12 micromol/l/kJ vs [Hb]10, 61 +/- 8, P < 0.01, vs [Hb]14. 49 +/- 7, P < 0.05). Exercise induced a significant but similar rise in lactate concentration at both target [Hb] (P < 0.001), which remained markedly elevated for at least 10 min after exercise in both younger and older groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that a physiological [Hb] improves, but does not normalize, exercise performance in end-stage renal failure. Both younger and older patients appear to benefit similarly from the enhanced oxygen transport. Impaired K+ regulation is apparently related to [Hb] and could well contribute to the observed limitations in performance.  (+info)

Plasma volume refers to the total amount of plasma present in an individual's circulatory system. Plasma is the fluid component of blood, in which cells and chemical components are suspended. It is composed mainly of water, along with various dissolved substances such as nutrients, waste products, hormones, gases, and proteins.

Plasma volume is a crucial factor in maintaining proper blood flow, regulating body temperature, and facilitating the transportation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other essential components throughout the body. The average plasma volume for an adult human is approximately 3 liters, but it can vary depending on factors like age, sex, body weight, and overall health status.

Changes in plasma volume can have significant effects on an individual's cardiovascular function and fluid balance. For example, dehydration or blood loss can lead to a decrease in plasma volume, while conditions such as heart failure or liver cirrhosis may result in increased plasma volume due to fluid retention. Accurate measurement of plasma volume is essential for diagnosing various medical conditions and monitoring the effectiveness of treatments.

Blood volume refers to the total amount of blood present in an individual's circulatory system at any given time. It is the combined volume of both the plasma (the liquid component of blood) and the formed elements (such as red and white blood cells and platelets) in the blood. In a healthy adult human, the average blood volume is approximately 5 liters (or about 1 gallon). However, blood volume can vary depending on several factors, including age, sex, body weight, and overall health status.

Blood volume plays a critical role in maintaining proper cardiovascular function, as it affects blood pressure, heart rate, and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body. Changes in blood volume can have significant impacts on an individual's health and may be associated with various medical conditions, such as dehydration, hemorrhage, heart failure, and liver disease. Accurate measurement of blood volume is essential for diagnosing and managing these conditions, as well as for guiding treatment decisions in clinical settings.

Erythrocyte volume, also known as red cell volume or hematocrit, is the proportion of whole blood that is made up of erythrocytes or red blood cells. It is typically expressed as a percentage and can be measured using a centrifuge to separate the components of a blood sample by density.

The erythrocyte volume is an important clinical parameter because it can provide information about a person's health status, such as their hydration level, altitude acclimatization, and the presence of certain medical conditions like anemia or polycythemia. Changes in erythrocyte volume can also have significant effects on the body's oxygen-carrying capacity and overall cardiovascular function.

In the context of medicine, plasma refers to the clear, yellowish fluid that is the liquid component of blood. It's composed of water, enzymes, hormones, antibodies, clotting factors, and other proteins. Plasma serves as a transport medium for cells, nutrients, waste products, gases, and other substances throughout the body. Additionally, it plays a crucial role in the immune response and helps regulate various bodily functions.

Plasma can be collected from blood donors and processed into various therapeutic products, such as clotting factors for people with hemophilia or immunoglobulins for patients with immune deficiencies. This process is called plasma fractionation.

Hematocrit is a medical term that refers to the percentage of total blood volume that is made up of red blood cells. It is typically measured as part of a complete blood count (CBC) test. A high hematocrit may indicate conditions such as dehydration, polycythemia, or living at high altitudes, while a low hematocrit may be a sign of anemia, bleeding, or overhydration. It is important to note that hematocrit values can vary depending on factors such as age, gender, and pregnancy status.

Plasma substitutes are fluids that are used to replace the plasma volume in conditions such as hypovolemia (low blood volume) or plasma loss, for example due to severe burns, trauma, or major surgery. They do not contain cells or clotting factors, but they help to maintain intravascular volume and tissue perfusion. Plasma substitutes can be divided into two main categories: crystalloids and colloids.

Crystalloid solutions contain small molecules that can easily move between intracellular and extracellular spaces. Examples include normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride) and lactated Ringer's solution. They are less expensive and have a lower risk of allergic reactions compared to colloids, but they may require larger volumes to achieve the same effect due to their rapid distribution in the body.

Colloid solutions contain larger molecules that tend to stay within the intravascular space for longer periods, thus increasing the oncotic pressure and helping to maintain fluid balance. Examples include albumin, fresh frozen plasma, and synthetic colloids such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and gelatin. Colloids may be more effective in restoring intravascular volume, but they carry a higher risk of allergic reactions and anaphylaxis, and some types have been associated with adverse effects such as kidney injury and coagulopathy.

The choice of plasma substitute depends on various factors, including the patient's clinical condition, the underlying cause of plasma loss, and any contraindications or potential side effects of the available products. It is important to monitor the patient's hemodynamic status, electrolyte balance, and coagulation profile during and after the administration of plasma substitutes to ensure appropriate resuscitation and avoid complications.

Radio-iodinated serum albumin refers to human serum albumin that has been chemically bonded with radioactive iodine isotopes, typically I-125 or I-131. This results in a radiolabeled protein that can be used in medical imaging and research to track the distribution and movement of the protein in the body.

In human physiology, serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma, synthesized by the liver, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining oncotic pressure and transporting various molecules in the bloodstream. Radio-iodination of serum albumin allows for non-invasive monitoring of its behavior in vivo, which can be useful in evaluating conditions such as protein losing enteropathies, nephrotic syndrome, or liver dysfunction.

It is essential to handle and dispose of radio-iodinated serum albumin with proper radiation safety protocols due to its radioactive nature.

Hypovolemia is a medical condition characterized by a decreased volume of circulating blood in the body, leading to inadequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation. This can occur due to various reasons such as bleeding, dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive sweating, which result in a reduced amount of fluid in the intravascular space.

The severity of hypovolemia depends on the extent of fluid loss and can range from mild to severe. Symptoms may include thirst, dry mouth, weakness, dizziness, lightheadedness, confusion, rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and decreased urine output. Severe hypovolemia can lead to shock, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Blood volume determination is a medical procedure that involves measuring the total amount of blood present in an individual's circulatory system. This measurement is typically expressed in milliliters (mL) or liters (L) and provides important information about the person's overall cardiovascular health and fluid status.

There are several methods for determining blood volume, including:

1. Direct measurement: This involves withdrawing a known volume of blood from the body, labeling the red blood cells with a radioactive or dye marker, reinfusing the cells back into the body, and then measuring the amount of marked cells that appear in subsequent blood samples over time.
2. Indirect measurement: This method uses formulas based on the person's height, weight, sex, and other factors to estimate their blood volume. One common indirect method is the "hemodynamic" calculation, which takes into account the individual's heart rate, stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat), and the concentration of hemoglobin in their red blood cells.
3. Bioimpedance analysis: This non-invasive technique uses electrical signals to measure the body's fluid volumes, including blood volume. By analyzing changes in the body's electrical conductivity in response to a small current, bioimpedance analysis can provide an estimate of blood volume.

Accurate determination of blood volume is important for assessing various medical conditions, such as heart failure, shock, anemia, and dehydration. It can also help guide treatment decisions, including the need for fluid replacement or blood transfusions.

The dye dilution technique is a method used in medicine, specifically in the field of pharmacology and physiology, to measure cardiac output and blood volume. This technique involves injecting a known quantity of a dye that mixes thoroughly with the blood, and then measuring the concentration of the dye as it circulates through the body.

The basic principle behind this technique is that the amount of dye in a given volume of blood (concentration) decreases as it gets diluted by the total blood volume. By measuring the concentration of the dye at two or more points in time, and knowing the rate at which the dye is being distributed throughout the body, it is possible to calculate the cardiac output and blood volume.

The most commonly used dye for this technique is indocyanine green (ICG), which is a safe and non-toxic dye that is readily taken up by plasma proteins and has a high extinction coefficient in the near-infrared region of the spectrum. This makes it easy to measure its concentration using specialized equipment.

The dye dilution technique is a valuable tool for assessing cardiovascular function in various clinical settings, including during surgery, critical care, and research. However, it requires careful calibration and standardization to ensure accurate results.

Water-electrolyte balance refers to the regulation of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate) in the body to maintain homeostasis. This is crucial for various bodily functions such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance, and pH regulation. The body maintains this balance through mechanisms that control water intake, excretion, and electrolyte concentration in various body fluids like blood and extracellular fluid. Disruptions in water-electrolyte balance can lead to dehydration or overhydration, and imbalances in electrolytes can cause conditions such as hyponatremia (low sodium levels) or hyperkalemia (high potassium levels).

Dehydration is a condition that occurs when your body loses more fluids than it takes in. It's normal to lose water throughout the day through activities like breathing, sweating, and urinating; however, if you don't replenish this lost fluid, your body can become dehydrated.

Mild to moderate dehydration can cause symptoms such as:
- Dry mouth
- Fatigue or weakness
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Headache
- Dark colored urine
- Muscle cramps

Severe dehydration can lead to more serious health problems, including heat injury, urinary and kidney problems, seizures, and even hypovolemic shock, a life-threatening condition that occurs when your blood volume is too low.

Dehydration can be caused by various factors such as illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting), excessive sweating, high fever, burns, alcohol consumption, and certain medications. It's essential to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids, especially during hot weather, exercise, or when you're ill.

Polygeline is a colloidal plasma expander, which is a type of intravenous fluid used to increase blood volume in hypovolemia or shock. It is made up of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules that are cross-linked with divinyl sulfone and then suspended in an electrolyte solution. Polygeline works by drawing water into the circulation, thereby increasing the volume of the plasma.

It is important to note that polygeline has been associated with anaphylactic reactions and therefore should be used with caution. It is also not recommended for use in patients with renal impairment or those who are allergic to PVP. As with any medical treatment, it should only be administered under the direction of a qualified healthcare professional.

Fluid shifts, in a medical context, refer to the movement or redistribution of fluids between different compartments within the body. The human body is composed of two main fluid compartments: the intracellular fluid (ICF), which is present inside the cells, and the extracellular fluid (ECF), which is outside the cells. The ECF is further divided into interstitial fluid (present in the spaces between cells) and intravascular fluid (present within the blood vessels).

Fluid shifts can occur due to various physiological and pathological conditions, such as changes in hydrostatic pressure, oncotic pressure, or permeability of the capillary membranes. These shifts can have significant impacts on various body systems, particularly the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems. For example, fluid shifting from the intravascular space to the interstitial space can lead to edema (swelling), while fluid shifts into the alveoli in the lungs can cause pulmonary edema and impair breathing.

In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals monitor and manage fluid shifts through various strategies, such as administering intravenous fluids, using diuretics, or implementing mechanical ventilation, depending on the underlying cause and the specific effects of the fluid shift on the patient's condition.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, synthesized by the liver. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the oncotic pressure or colloid osmotic pressure of blood, which helps to regulate the fluid balance between the intravascular and extravascular spaces.

Serum albumin has a molecular weight of around 66 kDa and is composed of a single polypeptide chain. It contains several binding sites for various endogenous and exogenous substances, such as bilirubin, fatty acids, hormones, and drugs, facilitating their transport throughout the body. Additionally, albumin possesses antioxidant properties, protecting against oxidative damage.

Albumin levels in the blood are often used as a clinical indicator of liver function, nutritional status, and overall health. Low serum albumin levels may suggest liver disease, malnutrition, inflammation, or kidney dysfunction.

Isotonic solutions are defined in the context of medical and physiological sciences as solutions that contain the same concentration of solutes (dissolved particles) as another solution, usually the bodily fluids like blood. This means that if you compare the concentration of solute particles in two isotonic solutions, they will be equal.

A common example is a 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution, also known as normal saline. The concentration of NaCl in this solution is approximately equal to the concentration found in the fluid portion of human blood, making it isotonic with blood.

Isotonic solutions are crucial in medical settings for various purposes, such as intravenous (IV) fluids replacement, wound care, and irrigation solutions. They help maintain fluid balance, prevent excessive water movement across cell membranes, and reduce the risk of damaging cells due to osmotic pressure differences between the solution and bodily fluids.

Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It plays a key role in regulating sodium and potassium balance and maintaining blood pressure through its effects on the kidneys. Aldosterone promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys. This increases the osmotic pressure in the blood, which in turn leads to water retention and an increase in blood volume and blood pressure.

Aldosterone is released from the adrenal gland in response to a variety of stimuli, including angiotensin II (a peptide hormone produced as part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), potassium ions, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. The production of aldosterone is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving sodium levels in the blood. High sodium levels inhibit the release of aldosterone, while low sodium levels stimulate its release.

In addition to its role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure, aldosterone has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and primary hyperaldosteronism (a condition characterized by excessive production of aldosterone).

Renin is a medically recognized term and it is defined as:

"A protein (enzyme) that is produced and released by specialized cells (juxtaglomerular cells) in the kidney. Renin is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which helps regulate blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.

When the kidney detects a decrease in blood pressure or a reduction in sodium levels, it releases renin into the bloodstream. Renin then acts on a protein called angiotensinogen, converting it to angiotensin I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) subsequently converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor that narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

Additionally, angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium reabsorption in the kidneys and increases water retention, further raising blood pressure.

Therefore, renin plays a critical role in maintaining proper blood pressure and electrolyte balance in the body."

Dihydralazine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called vasodilators. It works by relaxing the muscles in the walls of blood vessels, which causes the vessels to widen and allows for increased blood flow. Dihydralazine is primarily used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), although it may also be used to manage heart failure.

The medical definition of Dihydralazine can be described as:

A synthetic pyridine derivative and a direct-acting vasodilator, which selectively relaxes arteriolar smooth muscle. It is used in the treatment of severe hypertension and chronic heart failure. The mechanism of its action is not fully understood, but it appears to block calcium channels and to result in the stimulation of nitric oxide release.

Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell that are derived from B cells (another type of white blood cell) and are responsible for producing antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that help the body to fight against infections by recognizing and binding to specific antigens, such as bacteria or viruses. Plasma cells are found in the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes, and they play a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection.

Plasma cells are characterized by their large size, eccentric nucleus, and abundant cytoplasm filled with rough endoplasmic reticulum, which is where antibody proteins are synthesized and stored. When activated, plasma cells can produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies into the bloodstream and lymphatic system, where they can help to neutralize or eliminate pathogens.

It's worth noting that while plasma cells play an important role in the immune response, abnormal accumulations of these cells can also be a sign of certain diseases, such as multiple myeloma, a type of cancer that affects plasma cells.

Body water refers to the total amount of water present in the human body. It is an essential component of life and makes up about 60-70% of an adult's body weight. Body water is distributed throughout various fluid compartments within the body, including intracellular fluid (water inside cells), extracellular fluid (water outside cells), and transcellular fluid (water found in specific bodily spaces such as the digestive tract, eyes, and joints). Maintaining proper hydration and balance of body water is crucial for various physiological processes, including temperature regulation, nutrient transportation, waste elimination, and overall health.

Electrolytes are substances that, when dissolved in water, break down into ions that can conduct electricity. In the body, electrolytes are responsible for regulating various important physiological functions, including nerve and muscle function, maintaining proper hydration and acid-base balance, and helping to repair tissue damage.

The major electrolytes found in the human body include sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate. These electrolytes are tightly regulated by various mechanisms, including the kidneys, which help to maintain their proper balance in the body.

When there is an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, it can lead to a range of symptoms and health problems. For example, low levels of sodium (hyponatremia) can cause confusion, seizures, and even coma, while high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) can lead to heart arrhythmias and muscle weakness.

Electrolytes are also lost through sweat during exercise or illness, so it's important to replace them through a healthy diet or by drinking fluids that contain electrolytes, such as sports drinks or coconut water. In some cases, electrolyte imbalances may require medical treatment, such as intravenous (IV) fluids or medication.

The term "drinking" is commonly used to refer to the consumption of beverages, but in a medical context, it usually refers to the consumption of alcoholic drinks. According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, "drinking" is defined as:

1. The act or habit of swallowing liquid (such as water, juice, or alcohol)
2. The ingestion of alcoholic beverages

It's important to note that while moderate drinking may not pose significant health risks for some individuals, excessive or binge drinking can lead to a range of negative health consequences, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and increased risk of injury or violence.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Diuresis is a medical term that refers to an increased production of urine by the kidneys. It can occur as a result of various factors, including certain medications, medical conditions, or as a response to a physiological need, such as in the case of dehydration. Diuretics are a class of drugs that promote diuresis and are often used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, and edema.

Diuresis can be classified into several types based on its underlying cause or mechanism, including:

1. Osmotic diuresis: This occurs when the kidneys excrete large amounts of urine in response to a high concentration of solutes (such as glucose) in the tubular fluid. The high osmolarity of the tubular fluid causes water to be drawn out of the bloodstream and into the urine, leading to an increase in urine output.
2. Forced diuresis: This is a medical procedure in which large amounts of intravenous fluids are administered to promote diuresis. It is used in certain clinical situations, such as to enhance the excretion of toxic substances or to prevent kidney damage.
3. Natriuretic diuresis: This occurs when the kidneys excrete large amounts of sodium and water in response to the release of natriuretic peptides, which are hormones that regulate sodium balance and blood pressure.
4. Aquaresis: This is a type of diuresis that occurs in response to the ingestion of large amounts of water, leading to dilute urine production.
5. Pathological diuresis: This refers to increased urine production due to underlying medical conditions such as diabetes insipidus or pyelonephritis.

It is important to note that excessive diuresis can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, so it should be monitored carefully in clinical settings.

Capillary permeability refers to the ability of substances to pass through the walls of capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels in the body. These tiny vessels connect the arterioles and venules, allowing for the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and gases between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

The capillary wall is composed of a single layer of endothelial cells that are held together by tight junctions. The permeability of these walls varies depending on the size and charge of the molecules attempting to pass through. Small, uncharged molecules such as water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide can easily diffuse through the capillary wall, while larger or charged molecules such as proteins and large ions have more difficulty passing through.

Increased capillary permeability can occur in response to inflammation, infection, or injury, allowing larger molecules and immune cells to enter the surrounding tissues. This can lead to swelling (edema) and tissue damage if not controlled. Decreased capillary permeability, on the other hand, can lead to impaired nutrient exchange and tissue hypoxia.

Overall, the permeability of capillaries is a critical factor in maintaining the health and function of tissues throughout the body.

Thirst, also known as dry mouth or polydipsia, is a physiological need or desire to drink fluids to maintain fluid balance and hydration in the body. It is primarily regulated by the hypothalamus in response to changes in osmolality and volume of bodily fluids, particularly blood. Thirst can be triggered by various factors such as dehydration, excessive sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, burns, certain medications, and medical conditions affecting the kidneys, adrenal glands, or other organs. It is a vital homeostatic mechanism to ensure adequate hydration and proper functioning of various bodily systems.

Hemodilution is a medical term that refers to the reduction in the concentration of certain components in the blood, usually referring to red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin. This occurs when an individual's plasma volume expands due to the infusion of intravenous fluids or the body's own production of fluid, such as during severe infection or inflammation. As a result, the number of RBCs per unit of blood decreases, leading to a lower hematocrit and hemoglobin level. It is important to note that while hemodilution reduces the concentration of RBCs in the blood, it does not necessarily indicate anemia or blood loss.

Stroke volume is a term used in cardiovascular physiology and medicine. It refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart during each contraction (systole). Specifically, it is the difference between the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole (when the ventricle is filled with blood) and the volume at the end of systole (when the ventricle has contracted and ejected its contents into the aorta).

Stroke volume is an important measure of heart function, as it reflects the ability of the heart to pump blood effectively to the rest of the body. A low stroke volume may indicate that the heart is not pumping efficiently, while a high stroke volume may suggest that the heart is working too hard. Stroke volume can be affected by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and physical fitness level.

The formula for calculating stroke volume is:

Stroke Volume = End-Diastolic Volume - End-Systolic Volume

Where end-diastolic volume (EDV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, and end-systolic volume (ESV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of systole.

Body fluids refer to the various liquids that can be found within and circulating throughout the human body. These fluids include, but are not limited to:

1. Blood: A fluid that carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body via the cardiovascular system. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in plasma.
2. Lymph: A clear-to-white fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system, helping to remove waste products, bacteria, and damaged cells from tissues while also playing a crucial role in the immune system.
3. Interstitial fluid: Also known as tissue fluid or extracellular fluid, it is the fluid that surrounds the cells in the body's tissues, allowing for nutrient exchange and waste removal between cells and blood vessels.
4. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): A clear, colorless fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord, providing protection, cushioning, and nutrients to these delicate structures while also removing waste products.
5. Pleural fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found in the pleural space between the lungs and the chest wall, allowing for smooth movement during respiration.
6. Pericardial fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found within the pericardial sac surrounding the heart, reducing friction during heart contractions.
7. Synovial fluid: A viscous, lubricating fluid found in joint spaces, allowing for smooth movement and protecting the articular cartilage from wear and tear.
8. Urine: A waste product produced by the kidneys, consisting of water, urea, creatinine, and various ions, which is excreted through the urinary system.
9. Gastrointestinal secretions: Fluids produced by the digestive system, including saliva, gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice, and intestinal secretions, which aid in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food particles.
10. Reproductive fluids: Secretions from the male (semen) and female (cervical mucus, vaginal lubrication) reproductive systems that facilitate fertilization and reproduction.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Osmolar concentration is a measure of the total number of solute particles (such as ions or molecules) dissolved in a solution per liter of solvent (usually water), which affects the osmotic pressure. It is expressed in units of osmoles per liter (osmol/L). Osmolarity and osmolality are related concepts, with osmolarity referring to the number of osmoles per unit volume of solution, typically measured in liters, while osmolality refers to the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent. In clinical contexts, osmolar concentration is often used to describe the solute concentration of bodily fluids such as blood or urine.

Water-electrolyte imbalance refers to a disturbance in the balance of water and electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate) in the body. This imbalance can occur when there is an excess or deficiency of water or electrolytes in the body, leading to altered concentrations in the blood and other bodily fluids.

Such imbalances can result from various medical conditions, including kidney disease, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, severe dehydration, burns, excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, and certain medications. Symptoms of water-electrolyte imbalance may include weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, seizures, confusion, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and correcting the electrolyte and fluid levels through appropriate medical interventions.

Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), also known as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), is a hormone that is primarily produced and secreted by the atria of the heart in response to stretching of the cardiac muscle cells due to increased blood volume. ANF plays a crucial role in regulating body fluid homeostasis, blood pressure, and cardiovascular function.

The main physiological action of ANF is to promote sodium and water excretion by the kidneys, which helps lower blood volume and reduce blood pressure. ANF also relaxes vascular smooth muscle, dilates blood vessels, and inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), further contributing to its blood pressure-lowering effects.

Defects in ANF production or action have been implicated in several cardiovascular disorders, including heart failure, hypertension, and kidney disease. Therefore, ANF and its analogs are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Chromium isotopes are different forms of the chemical element Chromium (Cr), which have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. This results in each isotope having a different atomic mass, although they all have the same number of protons (24) and therefore share the same chemical properties.

The most common and stable chromium isotopes are Chromium-52 (Cr-52), Chromium-53 (Cr-53), Chromium-54 (Cr-54), and Chromium-56 (Cr-56). The other less abundant isotopes of Chromium, such as Chromium-50 (Cr-50) and Chromium-51 (Cr-51), are radioactive and undergo decay to become stable isotopes.

Chromium is an essential trace element for human health, playing a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. It is also used in various industrial applications, such as in the production of stainless steel and other alloys.

Evans Blue is not a medical condition or diagnosis, but rather a dye that is used in medical research and tests. It is a dark blue dye that binds to albumin (a type of protein) in the bloodstream. This complex is too large to pass through the walls of capillaries, so it remains in the blood vessels and does not enter the surrounding tissues. As a result, Evans Blue can be used as a marker to visualize or measure the volume of the circulatory system.

In research settings, Evans Blue is sometimes used in studies involving the brain and nervous system. For example, it may be injected into the cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord) to help researchers see the distribution of this fluid in the brain. It can also be used to study blood-brain barrier function, as changes in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier can allow Evans Blue to leak into the brain tissue.

It is important to note that Evans Blue should only be used under the supervision of a trained medical professional, as it can be harmful if ingested or inhaled.

Cardiac output is a measure of the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute. It is defined as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle during each contraction) and heart rate (the number of contractions per minute). Normal cardiac output at rest for an average-sized adult is about 5 to 6 liters per minute. Cardiac output can be increased during exercise or other conditions that require more blood flow, such as during illness or injury. It can be measured noninvasively using techniques such as echocardiography or invasively through a catheter placed in the heart.

Hydroxyethyl starch derivatives are modified starches that are used as plasma expanders in medicine. They are created by chemically treating corn, potato, or wheat starch with hydroxylethyl groups, which makes the starch more soluble and less likely to be broken down by enzymes in the body. This results in a large molecule that can remain in the bloodstream for an extended period, increasing intravascular volume and improving circulation.

These derivatives are available in different molecular weights and substitution patterns, which affect their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. They are used to treat or prevent hypovolemia (low blood volume) due to various causes such as bleeding, burns, or dehydration. Common brand names include Hetastarch, Pentastarch, and Voluven.

It's important to note that the use of hydroxyethyl starch derivatives has been associated with adverse effects, including kidney injury, coagulopathy, and pruritus (severe itching). Therefore, their use should be carefully monitored and restricted to specific clinical situations.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Fluid therapy, in a medical context, refers to the administration of fluids into a patient's circulatory system for various therapeutic purposes. This can be done intravenously (through a vein), intraosseously (through a bone), or subcutaneously (under the skin). The goal of fluid therapy is to correct or prevent imbalances in the body's fluids and electrolytes, maintain or restore blood volume, and support organ function.

The types of fluids used in fluid therapy can include crystalloids (which contain electrolytes and water) and colloids (which contain larger molecules like proteins). The choice of fluid depends on the patient's specific needs and condition. Fluid therapy is commonly used in the treatment of dehydration, shock, sepsis, trauma, surgery, and other medical conditions that can affect the body's fluid balance.

Proper administration of fluid therapy requires careful monitoring of the patient's vital signs, urine output, electrolyte levels, and overall clinical status to ensure that the therapy is effective and safe.

Sweating, also known as perspiration, is the production of sweat by the sweat glands in the skin in response to heat, physical exertion, hormonal changes, or emotional stress. Sweat is a fluid composed mainly of water, with small amounts of sodium chloride, lactate, and urea. It helps regulate body temperature by releasing heat through evaporation on the surface of the skin. Excessive sweating, known as hyperhidrosis, can be a medical condition that may require treatment.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Blood proteins, also known as serum proteins, are a group of complex molecules present in the blood that are essential for various physiological functions. These proteins include albumin, globulins (alpha, beta, and gamma), and fibrinogen. They play crucial roles in maintaining oncotic pressure, transporting hormones, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals, providing immune defense, and contributing to blood clotting.

Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood, accounting for about 60% of the total protein mass. It functions as a transporter of various substances, such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs, and helps maintain oncotic pressure, which is essential for fluid balance between the blood vessels and surrounding tissues.

Globulins are divided into three main categories: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Alpha and beta globulins consist of transport proteins like lipoproteins, hormone-binding proteins, and enzymes. Gamma globulins, also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies, are essential for the immune system's defense against pathogens.

Fibrinogen is a protein involved in blood clotting. When an injury occurs, fibrinogen is converted into fibrin, which forms a mesh to trap platelets and form a clot, preventing excessive bleeding.

Abnormal levels of these proteins can indicate various medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, malnutrition, infections, inflammation, or autoimmune disorders. Blood protein levels are typically measured through laboratory tests like serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and immunoelectrophoresis (IEP).

Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb) is the main oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells, which are responsible for delivering oxygen throughout the body. It is a complex molecule made up of four globin proteins and four heme groups. Each heme group contains an iron atom that binds to one molecule of oxygen. Hemoglobin plays a crucial role in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, and also helps to carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation.

There are several types of hemoglobin present in the human body, including:

* Hemoglobin A (HbA): This is the most common type of hemoglobin, making up about 95-98% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two beta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2): This makes up about 1.5-3.5% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two delta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin F (HbF): This is the main type of hemoglobin present in fetal life, but it persists at low levels in adults. It consists of two alpha and two gamma globin chains.
* Hemoglobin S (HbS): This is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause sickle cell disease when it occurs in the homozygous state (i.e., both copies of the gene are affected). It results from a single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain.
* Hemoglobin C (HbC): This is another abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause mild to moderate hemolytic anemia when it occurs in the homozygous state. It results from a different single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain than HbS.

Abnormal forms of hemoglobin, such as HbS and HbC, can lead to various clinical disorders, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and other hemoglobinopathies.

Body fluid compartments refer to the distribution of body fluids in the human body, which are divided into two main compartments: the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular fluid compartment. The intracellular fluid compartment contains fluid that is inside the cells, while the extracellular fluid compartment contains fluid that is outside the cells.

The extracellular fluid compartment is further divided into two sub-compartments: the interstitial fluid compartment and the intravascular fluid compartment. The interstitial fluid compartment is the space between the cells, while the intravascular fluid compartment is the fluid inside the blood vessels.

These body fluid compartments are essential for maintaining homeostasis in the human body, as they help to regulate the balance of water and electrolytes, transport nutrients and waste products, and provide a medium for immune cells to travel through the body. Abnormalities in the distribution of body fluids can lead to various medical conditions, such as edema, dehydration, and heart failure.

Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating water balance and blood pressure in the body.

AVP acts on the kidneys to promote water reabsorption, which helps maintain adequate fluid volume and osmotic balance in the body. It also constricts blood vessels, increasing peripheral vascular resistance and thereby helping to maintain blood pressure. Additionally, AVP has been shown to have effects on cognitive function, mood regulation, and pain perception.

Deficiencies or excesses of AVP can lead to a range of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus (characterized by excessive thirst and urination), hyponatremia (low sodium levels in the blood), and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

Lung volume measurements are clinical tests that determine the amount of air inhaled, exhaled, and present in the lungs at different times during the breathing cycle. These measurements include:

1. Tidal Volume (TV): The amount of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing, usually around 500 mL in resting adults.
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal inspiration, approximately 3,000 mL in adults.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): The extra air that can be exhaled after a normal expiration, about 1,000-1,200 mL in adults.
4. Residual Volume (RV): The air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation, approximately 1,100-1,500 mL in adults.
5. Total Lung Capacity (TLC): The total amount of air the lungs can hold at full inflation, calculated as TV + IRV + ERV + RV, around 6,000 mL in adults.
6. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration, equal to ERV + RV, about 2,100-2,700 mL in adults.
7. Inspiratory Capacity (IC): The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal expiration, equal to TV + IRV, around 3,500 mL in adults.
8. Vital Capacity (VC): The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration, calculated as IC + ERV, approximately 4,200-5,600 mL in adults.

These measurements help assess lung function and identify various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Albumins are a type of protein found in various biological fluids, including blood plasma. The most well-known albumin is serum albumin, which is produced by the liver and is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. Serum albumin plays several important roles in the body, such as maintaining oncotic pressure (which helps to regulate fluid balance in the body), transporting various substances (such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs), and acting as an antioxidant.

Albumins are soluble in water and have a molecular weight ranging from 65,000 to 69,000 daltons. They are composed of a single polypeptide chain that contains approximately 585 amino acid residues. The structure of albumin is characterized by a high proportion of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, which give it a stable, folded conformation.

In addition to their role in human physiology, albumins are also used as diagnostic markers in medicine. For example, low serum albumin levels may indicate liver disease, malnutrition, or inflammation, while high levels may be seen in dehydration or certain types of kidney disease. Albumins may also be used as a replacement therapy in patients with severe protein loss, such as those with nephrotic syndrome or burn injuries.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Polycythemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal increase in the total red blood cell (RBC) mass or hematocrit (the percentage of RBCs in the blood). This results in a higher-than-normal viscosity of the blood, which can lead to various complications such as impaired circulation, increased risk of blood clots, and reduced oxygen supply to the tissues.

There are two main types of polycythemia: primary and secondary. Primary polycythemia, also known as polycythemia vera, is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm caused by genetic mutations that lead to excessive production of RBCs in the bone marrow. Secondary polycythemia, on the other hand, is a reactive condition triggered by various factors such as chronic hypoxia (low oxygen levels), high altitude, smoking, or certain medical conditions like sleep apnea, heart disease, or kidney tumors.

Symptoms of polycythemia may include fatigue, headaches, dizziness, shortness of breath, itching, and a bluish or reddish tint to the skin (cyanosis). Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition and may involve phlebotomy, medications to reduce RBC production, and management of associated complications.

Orthostatic hypotension is a type of low blood pressure that occurs when you stand up from a sitting or lying position. The drop in blood pressure causes a brief period of lightheadedness or dizziness, and can even cause fainting in some cases. This condition is also known as postural hypotension.

Orthostatic hypotension is caused by a rapid decrease in blood pressure when you stand up, which reduces the amount of blood that reaches your brain. Normally, when you stand up, your body compensates for this by increasing your heart rate and constricting blood vessels to maintain blood pressure. However, if these mechanisms fail or are impaired, orthostatic hypotension can occur.

Orthostatic hypotension is more common in older adults, but it can also affect younger people who have certain medical conditions or take certain medications. Some of the risk factors for orthostatic hypotension include dehydration, prolonged bed rest, pregnancy, diabetes, heart disease, Parkinson's disease, and certain neurological disorders.

If you experience symptoms of orthostatic hypotension, it is important to seek medical attention. Your healthcare provider can perform tests to determine the underlying cause of your symptoms and recommend appropriate treatment options. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, such as increasing fluid intake, avoiding alcohol and caffeine, and gradually changing positions from lying down or sitting to standing up. In some cases, medication may be necessary to manage orthostatic hypotension.

The extracellular space is the region outside of cells within a tissue or organ, where various biological molecules and ions exist in a fluid medium. This space is filled with extracellular matrix (ECM), which includes proteins like collagen and elastin, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans that provide structural support and biochemical cues to surrounding cells. The ECM also contains various ions, nutrients, waste products, signaling molecules, and growth factors that play crucial roles in cell-cell communication, tissue homeostasis, and regulation of cell behavior. Additionally, the extracellular space includes the interstitial fluid, which is the fluid component of the ECM, and the lymphatic and vascular systems, through which cells exchange nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules with the rest of the body. Overall, the extracellular space is a complex and dynamic microenvironment that plays essential roles in maintaining tissue structure, function, and homeostasis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plasma Gases" is not a recognized medical term or concept. Plasma is a state of matter, like solid, liquid, or gas, and it is often referred to as the fourth state of matter. It consists of ionized particles, or particles that have been stripped of some of their electrons.

In the context of medicine, plasma is most commonly discussed in relation to blood plasma, which is the yellowish fluid in which blood cells are suspended. Plasma carries cells, hormones, nutrients, and waste products throughout the body.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or concepts, I'd be happy to help further if I can!

Colloids are a type of mixture that contains particles that are intermediate in size between those found in solutions and suspensions. These particles range in size from about 1 to 1000 nanometers in diameter, which is smaller than what can be seen with the naked eye, but larger than the molecules in a solution.

Colloids are created when one substance, called the dispersed phase, is dispersed in another substance, called the continuous phase. The dispersed phase can consist of particles such as proteins, emulsified fats, or finely divided solids, while the continuous phase is usually a liquid, but can also be a gas or a solid.

Colloids are important in many areas of medicine and biology, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, and tissue engineering. They are also found in nature, such as in milk, blood, and fog. The properties of colloids can be affected by factors such as pH, temperature, and the presence of other substances, which can influence their stability and behavior.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Bed rest is a medical recommendation for a person to limit their activities and remain in bed for a period of time. It is often ordered by healthcare providers to help the body recover from certain medical conditions or treatments, such as:

* Infections
* Pregnancy complications
* Recent surgery
* Heart problems
* Blood pressure fluctuations
* Bleeding
* Bone fractures
* Certain neurological conditions

The duration of bed rest can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and response to treatment. While on bed rest, patients are typically advised to change positions frequently to prevent complications such as bedsores, blood clots, and muscle weakness. They may also receive physical therapy, occupational therapy, or other treatments to help maintain their strength and mobility during this period.

Indocyanine green (ICG) is a sterile, water-soluble, tricarbocyanine dye that is used as a diagnostic agent in medical imaging. It is primarily used in ophthalmology for fluorescein angiography to examine blood flow in the retina and choroid, and in cardiac surgery to assess cardiac output and perfusion. When injected into the body, ICG binds to plasma proteins and fluoresces when exposed to near-infrared light, allowing for visualization of various tissues and structures. It is excreted primarily by the liver and has a half-life of approximately 3-4 minutes in the bloodstream.

Ascites is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs within it. This buildup of fluid can cause the belly to swell and become distended. Ascites can be caused by various medical conditions, including liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, and kidney disease. The accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity can lead to complications such as infection, reduced mobility, and difficulty breathing. Treatment for ascites depends on the underlying cause and may include diuretics, paracentesis (a procedure to remove excess fluid from the abdomen), or treatment of the underlying medical condition.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Metabolic clearance rate is a term used in pharmacology to describe the volume of blood or plasma from which a drug is completely removed per unit time by metabolic processes. It is a measure of the body's ability to eliminate a particular substance and is usually expressed in units of volume (e.g., milliliters or liters) per time (e.g., minutes, hours, or days).

The metabolic clearance rate can be calculated by dividing the total amount of drug eliminated by the plasma concentration of the drug and the time over which it was eliminated. It provides important information about the pharmacokinetics of a drug, including its rate of elimination and the potential for drug-drug interactions that may affect metabolism.

It is worth noting that there are different types of clearance rates, such as renal clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the kidneys) or hepatic clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the liver). Metabolic clearance rate specifically refers to the elimination of a drug through metabolic processes, which can occur in various organs throughout the body.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

Osmotic pressure is a fundamental concept in the field of physiology and biochemistry. It refers to the pressure that is required to be applied to a solution to prevent the flow of solvent (like water) into it, through a semi-permeable membrane, when the solution is separated from a pure solvent or a solution of lower solute concentration.

In simpler terms, osmotic pressure is the force that drives the natural movement of solvent molecules from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, across a semi-permeable membrane. This process is crucial for maintaining the fluid balance and nutrient transport in living organisms.

The osmotic pressure of a solution can be determined by its solute concentration, temperature, and the ideal gas law. It is often expressed in units of atmospheres (atm), millimeters of mercury (mmHg), or pascals (Pa). In medical contexts, understanding osmotic pressure is essential for managing various clinical conditions such as dehydration, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and dialysis treatments.

Indicator dilution techniques are a group of methods used in medicine and research to measure various physiological variables, such as cardiac output or cerebral blood flow. These techniques involve introducing a known quantity of an indicator substance (like a dye or a radioactive tracer) into the system being studied and then measuring its concentration over time at a specific location downstream.

The basic principle behind these techniques is that the concentration of the indicator substance will be inversely proportional to the flow rate of the fluid through which it is moving. By measuring the concentration of the indicator substance at different points in time, researchers can calculate the flow rate using mathematical formulas.

Indicator dilution techniques are widely used in clinical and research settings because they are relatively non-invasive and can provide accurate and reliable measurements of various physiological variables. Some common examples of indicator dilution techniques include thermodilution, dye dilution, and Fick principle-based methods.

Dextrans are a type of complex glucose polymers that are formed by the action of certain bacteria on sucrose. They are branched polysaccharides consisting of linear chains of α-1,6 linked D-glucopyranosyl units with occasional α-1,3 branches.

Dextrans have a wide range of applications in medicine and industry. In medicine, dextrans are used as plasma substitutes, volume expanders, and anticoagulants. They are also used as carriers for drugs and diagnostic agents, and in the manufacture of immunoadsorbents for the removal of toxins and pathogens from blood.

Dextrans can be derived from various bacterial sources, but the most common commercial source is Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512(F) or L. dextranicum. The molecular weight of dextrans can vary widely, ranging from a few thousand to several million Daltons, depending on the method of preparation and purification.

Dextrans are generally biocompatible and non-toxic, but they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Therefore, their use as medical products requires careful monitoring and testing for safety and efficacy.

A hypertonic saline solution is a type of medical fluid that contains a higher concentration of salt (sodium chloride) than is found in the average person's blood. This solution is used to treat various medical conditions, such as dehydration, brain swelling, and increased intracranial pressure.

The osmolarity of a hypertonic saline solution typically ranges from 1500 to 23,400 mOsm/L, with the most commonly used solutions having an osmolarity of around 3000 mOsm/L. The high sodium concentration in these solutions creates an osmotic gradient that draws water out of cells and into the bloodstream, helping to reduce swelling and increase fluid volume in the body.

It is important to note that hypertonic saline solutions should be administered with caution, as they can cause serious side effects such as electrolyte imbalances, heart rhythm abnormalities, and kidney damage if not used properly. Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients receiving these solutions to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Physical exertion is defined as the act of applying energy to physically demandable activities or tasks, which results in various body systems working together to produce movement and maintain homeostasis. It often leads to an increase in heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature, among other physiological responses. The level of physical exertion can vary based on the intensity, duration, and frequency of the activity.

It's important to note that engaging in regular physical exertion has numerous health benefits, such as improving cardiovascular fitness, strengthening muscles and bones, reducing stress, and preventing chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. However, it is also crucial to balance physical exertion with adequate rest and recovery time to avoid overtraining or injury.

Extracellular fluid (ECF) is the fluid that exists outside of the cells in the body. It makes up about 20-25% of the total body weight in a healthy adult. ECF can be further divided into two main components: interstitial fluid and intravascular fluid.

Interstitial fluid is the fluid that surrounds the cells and fills the spaces between them. It provides nutrients to the cells, removes waste products, and helps maintain a balanced environment around the cells.

Intravascular fluid, also known as plasma, is the fluid component of blood that circulates in the blood vessels. It carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body, and helps regulate temperature, pH, and osmotic pressure.

Maintaining the proper balance of ECF is essential for normal bodily functions. Disruptions in this balance can lead to various medical conditions, such as dehydration, edema, and heart failure.

The supine position is a term used in medicine to describe a body posture where an individual is lying down on their back, with their face and torso facing upwards. This position is often adopted during various medical procedures, examinations, or when resting, as it allows for easy access to the front of the body. It is also the position automatically assumed by most people who are falling asleep.

It's important to note that in the supine position, the head can be flat on the surface or raised with the use of pillows or specialized medical equipment like a hospital bed. This can help to alleviate potential issues such as breathing difficulties or swelling in the face and head.

The Radioisotope Dilution Technique is a method used in nuclear medicine to measure the volume and flow rate of a particular fluid in the body. It involves introducing a known amount of a radioactive isotope, or radioisotope, into the fluid, such as blood. The isotope mixes with the fluid, and samples are then taken from the fluid at various time points.

By measuring the concentration of the radioisotope in each sample, it is possible to calculate the total volume of the fluid based on the amount of the isotope introduced and the dilution factor. The flow rate can also be calculated by measuring the concentration of the isotope over time and using the formula:

Flow rate = Volume/Time

This technique is commonly used in medical research and clinical settings to measure cardiac output, cerebral blood flow, and renal function, among other applications. It is a safe and reliable method that has been widely used for many years. However, it does require the use of radioactive materials and specialized equipment, so it should only be performed by trained medical professionals in appropriate facilities.

Diuretics are a type of medication that increase the production of urine and help the body eliminate excess fluid and salt. They work by interfering with the reabsorption of sodium in the kidney tubules, which in turn causes more water to be excreted from the body. Diuretics are commonly used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease. There are several types of diuretics, including loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, and osmotic diuretics, each with its own mechanism of action and potential side effects. It is important to use diuretics under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can interact with other medications and have an impact on electrolyte balance in the body.

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

"Animal pregnancy" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, in biological terms, animal pregnancy refers to the condition where a fertilized egg (or eggs) implants and develops inside the reproductive tract of a female animal, leading to the birth of offspring (live young).

The specific details of animal pregnancy can vary widely between different species, with some animals exhibiting phenomena such as placental development, gestation periods, and hormonal changes that are similar to human pregnancy, while others may have very different reproductive strategies.

It's worth noting that the study of animal pregnancy and reproduction is an important area of biological research, as it can provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of embryonic development, genetics, and evolution.

A portal system in medicine refers to a venous system in which veins from various tissues or organs (known as tributaries) drain into a common large vessel (known as the portal vein), which then carries the blood to a specific organ for filtration and processing before it is returned to the systemic circulation. The most well-known example of a portal system is the hepatic portal system, where veins from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and stomach merge into the portal vein and then transport blood to the liver for detoxification and nutrient processing. Other examples include the hypophyseal portal system, which connects the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland, and the renal portal system found in some animals.

"Space flight" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general, it refers to the act of traveling through space, outside of Earth's atmosphere, aboard a spacecraft. This can include trips to the International Space Station (ISS), lunar missions, or travel to other planets and moons within our solar system.

From a medical perspective, space flight presents unique challenges to the human body, including exposure to microgravity, radiation, and isolation from Earth's biosphere. These factors can have significant impacts on various physiological systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, sensory, and immune systems. As a result, space medicine has emerged as a distinct field of study focused on understanding and mitigating these risks to ensure the health and safety of astronauts during space flight.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Altitude is the height above a given level, especially mean sea level. In medical terms, altitude often refers to high altitude, which is generally considered to be 1500 meters (about 5000 feet) or more above sea level. At high altitudes, the air pressure is lower and there is less oxygen available, which can lead to altitude sickness in some people. Symptoms of altitude sickness can include headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, and fatigue. It's important for people who are traveling to high altitudes to allow themselves time to adjust to the lower oxygen levels and to watch for signs of altitude sickness.

Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body. It is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When the body is dehydrated or experiencing low blood pressure, vasopressin is released into the bloodstream, where it causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of urine they produce and helps to constrict blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. This helps to maintain adequate fluid volume in the body and ensure that vital organs receive an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood. In addition to its role in water balance and blood pressure regulation, vasopressin also plays a role in social behaviors such as pair bonding and trust.

Intravenous (IV) infusion is a medical procedure in which liquids, such as medications, nutrients, or fluids, are delivered directly into a patient's vein through a needle or a catheter. This route of administration allows for rapid absorption and distribution of the infused substance throughout the body. IV infusions can be used for various purposes, including resuscitation, hydration, nutrition support, medication delivery, and blood product transfusion. The rate and volume of the infusion are carefully controlled to ensure patient safety and efficacy of treatment.

Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due to the force of gravity. In medical terms, hydrostatic pressure is often discussed in relation to body fluids and tissues. For example, the hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries (tiny blood vessels) is the force that drives the fluid out of the blood vessels and into the surrounding tissues. This helps to maintain the balance of fluids in the body. Additionally, abnormal increases in hydrostatic pressure can contribute to the development of edema (swelling) in the tissues.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Swan-Ganz catheterization is a medical procedure in which a Swan-Ganz catheter, also known as a pulmonary artery catheter, is inserted into a patient's vein and guided through the heart to the pulmonary artery. The procedure is named after its inventors, Dr. Jeremy Swan and Dr. William Ganz.

The Swan-Ganz catheter is a thin, flexible tube that is equipped with sensors that measure various cardiac functions, such as blood pressure in the heart chambers and lungs, oxygen saturation of the blood, and cardiac output. This information helps doctors evaluate heart function, diagnose heart conditions, and monitor treatment effectiveness.

Swan-Ganz catheterization is typically performed in a hospital setting by trained medical professionals, such as cardiologists or critical care specialists. The procedure may be used to diagnose and manage various heart conditions, including heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and shock. It may also be used during major surgeries or other medical procedures to monitor the patient's hemodynamic status.

Like any medical procedure, Swan-Ganz catheterization carries some risks, such as infection, bleeding, and damage to blood vessels or heart structures. However, these complications are relatively rare when the procedure is performed by experienced medical professionals.

Body temperature regulation, also known as thermoregulation, is the process by which the body maintains its core internal temperature within a narrow range, despite varying external temperatures. This is primarily controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain, which acts as a thermostat and receives input from temperature receptors throughout the body. When the body's temperature rises above or falls below the set point, the hypothalamus initiates responses to bring the temperature back into balance. These responses can include shivering to generate heat, sweating to cool down, vasodilation or vasoconstriction of blood vessels to regulate heat loss, and changes in metabolic rate. Effective body temperature regulation is crucial for maintaining optimal physiological function and overall health.

The anaerobic threshold (also known as the lactate threshold or anaerobic threshold) is a medical and exercise term that refers to the maximum intensity of exercise that can be sustained without an excessive buildup of lactic acid in the blood. It is the point at which oxygen consumption reaches a steady state and cannot increase any further, despite an increase in exercise intensity. At this point, the body begins to rely more heavily on anaerobic metabolism, which produces energy quickly but also leads to the production of lactic acid. This threshold is often used as a measure of cardiovascular fitness and can be improved through training.

Bicycling is defined in medical terms as the act of riding a bicycle. It involves the use of a two-wheeled vehicle that is propelled by pedaling, with the power being transferred to the rear wheel through a chain and sprocket system. Bicycling can be done for various purposes such as transportation, recreation, exercise, or sport.

Regular bicycling has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including improving cardiovascular fitness, increasing muscle strength and flexibility, reducing stress and anxiety, and helping with weight management. However, it is important to wear a helmet while bicycling to reduce the risk of head injury in case of an accident. Additionally, cyclists should follow traffic rules and be aware of their surroundings to ensure their safety and the safety of others on the road.

Potassium is a essential mineral and an important electrolyte that is widely distributed in the human body. The majority of potassium in the body (approximately 98%) is found within cells, with the remaining 2% present in blood serum and other bodily fluids. Potassium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Regulation of fluid balance and maintenance of normal blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone and sodium excretion.
2. Facilitation of nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction by participating in the generation and propagation of action potentials.
3. Protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and glycogen metabolism.
4. Regulation of acid-base balance through its role in buffering systems.

The normal serum potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter) or mmol/L (millimoles per liter). Potassium levels outside this range can have significant clinical consequences, with both hypokalemia (low potassium levels) and hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) potentially leading to serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and respiratory failure.

Potassium is primarily obtained through the diet, with rich sources including fruits (e.g., bananas, oranges, and apricots), vegetables (e.g., leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes), legumes, nuts, dairy products, and meat. In cases of deficiency or increased needs, potassium supplements may be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Head-down tilt (HDT) is a positioning technique often used in medical settings, particularly during diagnostic procedures or treatment interventions. In this position, the person lies down on a specially designed table with their head tilted below the horizontal plane, typically at an angle of 6 degrees to 15 degrees, but sometimes as steep as 90 degrees. This posture allows for various medical evaluations such as carotid sinus massage or intracranial pressure monitoring. It is also used in space medicine to simulate some effects of weightlessness on the human body during spaceflight. Please note that prolonged exposure to head-down tilt can have physiological consequences, including changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and eye function, which should be monitored and managed by healthcare professionals.

Cardiovascular physiological phenomena refer to the various functions and processes that occur within the cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels. These phenomena are responsible for the transport of oxygen, nutrients, and other essential molecules to tissues throughout the body, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide.

Some examples of cardiovascular physiological phenomena include:

1. Heart rate and rhythm: The heart's ability to contract regularly and coordinate its contractions with the body's needs for oxygen and nutrients.
2. Blood pressure: The force exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels, which is determined by the amount of blood pumped by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.
3. Cardiac output: The volume of blood that the heart pumps in one minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped per beat) and heart rate.
4. Blood flow: The movement of blood through the circulatory system, which is influenced by factors such as blood pressure, vessel diameter, and blood viscosity.
5. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation: The narrowing or widening of blood vessels in response to various stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and changes in temperature or oxygen levels.
6. Autoregulation: The ability of blood vessels to maintain a constant blood flow to tissues despite changes in perfusion pressure.
7. Blood clotting: The process by which the body forms a clot to stop bleeding after an injury, which involves the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade.
8. Endothelial function: The ability of the endothelium (the lining of blood vessels) to regulate vascular tone, inflammation, and thrombosis.
9. Myocardial contractility: The strength of heart muscle contractions, which is influenced by factors such as calcium levels, neurotransmitters, and hormones.
10. Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical properties of the heart, including the conduction system that allows for the coordinated contraction of heart muscle.

Altitude sickness, also known as mountain sickness or hypobaropathy, is a condition that can occur when you travel to high altitudes (usually above 8000 feet or 2400 meters) too quickly. At high altitudes, the air pressure is lower and there is less oxygen available for your body to use. This can lead to various symptoms such as:

1. Headache
2. Dizziness or lightheadedness
3. Shortness of breath
4. Rapid heart rate
5. Nausea or vomiting
6. Fatigue or weakness
7. Insomnia
8. Swelling of the hands, feet, and face
9. Confusion or difficulty with coordination

There are three types of altitude sickness: acute mountain sickness (AMS), high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE). AMS is the mildest form, while HAPE and HACE can be life-threatening.

Preventive measures include gradual ascent to allow your body time to adjust to the altitude, staying hydrated, avoiding alcohol and heavy meals, and taking it easy during the first few days at high altitudes. If symptoms persist or worsen, immediate medical attention is necessary.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Natriuresis is the process or condition of excreting an excessive amount of sodium (salt) through urine. It is a physiological response to high sodium levels in the body, which can be caused by various factors such as certain medical conditions (e.g., kidney disease, heart failure), medications, or dietary habits. The increased excretion of sodium helps regulate the body's water balance and maintain normal blood pressure. However, persistent natriuresis may indicate underlying health issues that require medical attention.

Rehydration solutions are medically formulated drinks designed to restore fluid and electrolyte balance in the body, particularly when someone is dehydrated due to vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive sweating. These solutions typically contain water, glucose (or sucrose), and essential electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate in specific concentrations to match the body's needs. Common examples of rehydration solutions include oral rehydration salts (ORS) and sports drinks, which help replenish the body's water and electrolyte levels, promoting rapid and effective rehydration.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Kidney function tests (KFTs) are a group of diagnostic tests that evaluate how well your kidneys are functioning by measuring the levels of various substances in the blood and urine. The tests typically assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is an indicator of how efficiently the kidneys filter waste from the blood, as well as the levels of electrolytes, waste products, and proteins in the body.

Some common KFTs include:

1. Serum creatinine: A waste product that's produced by normal muscle breakdown and is excreted by the kidneys. Elevated levels may indicate reduced kidney function.
2. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): Another waste product that's produced when protein is broken down and excreted by the kidneys. Increased BUN levels can suggest impaired kidney function.
3. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): A calculation based on serum creatinine, age, sex, and race that estimates the GFR and provides a more precise assessment of kidney function than creatinine alone.
4. Urinalysis: An examination of a urine sample to detect abnormalities such as protein, blood, or bacteria that may indicate kidney disease.
5. Electrolyte levels: Measurement of sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate in the blood to ensure they're properly balanced, which is essential for normal kidney function.

KFTs are often ordered as part of a routine check-up or when kidney disease is suspected based on symptoms or other diagnostic tests. Regular monitoring of kidney function can help detect and manage kidney disease early, potentially preventing or slowing down its progression.

Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors (PDE4 inhibitors) are a class of drugs that work by increasing the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in cells. They do this by blocking the phosphodiesterase 4 enzyme, which is responsible for breaking down cAMP.

Cyclic AMP is an important intracellular signaling molecule that plays a role in various physiological processes, including inflammation and immune response. By increasing cAMP levels, PDE4 inhibitors can help to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune system.

PDE4 inhibitors have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in a range of conditions, including asthma, COPD, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and depression. Some examples of PDE4 inhibitors include roflumilast, apremilast, crisaborole, and ditropan.

It's important to note that while PDE4 inhibitors have shown promise in clinical trials, they can also have side effects, such as gastrointestinal symptoms, headache, and dizziness. Additionally, their long-term safety and efficacy are still being studied.

I couldn't find a specific medical definition for "running" as an exercise or physical activity. However, in a medical or clinical context, running usually refers to the act of moving at a steady speed by lifting and setting down each foot in turn, allowing for a faster motion than walking. It is often used as a form of exercise, recreation, or transportation.

Running can be described medically in terms of its biomechanics, physiological effects, and potential health benefits or risks. For instance, running involves the repetitive movement of the lower extremities, which can lead to increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and metabolic demand, ultimately improving cardiovascular fitness and burning calories. However, it is also associated with potential injuries such as runner's knee, shin splints, or plantar fasciitis, especially if proper precautions are not taken.

It is important to note that before starting any new exercise regimen, including running, individuals should consult their healthcare provider, particularly those with pre-existing medical conditions or concerns about their ability to engage in physical activity safely.

Vascular resistance is a measure of the opposition to blood flow within a vessel or a group of vessels, typically expressed in units of mmHg/(mL/min) or sometimes as dynes*sec/cm^5. It is determined by the diameter and length of the vessels, as well as the viscosity of the blood flowing through them. In general, a decrease in vessel diameter, an increase in vessel length, or an increase in blood viscosity will result in an increase in vascular resistance, while an increase in vessel diameter, a decrease in vessel length, or a decrease in blood viscosity will result in a decrease in vascular resistance. Vascular resistance is an important concept in the study of circulation and cardiovascular physiology because it plays a key role in determining blood pressure and blood flow within the body.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

Physical endurance is the ability of an individual to withstand and resist physical fatigue over prolonged periods of strenuous activity, exercise, or exertion. It involves the efficient functioning of various body systems, including the cardiovascular system (heart, blood vessels, and blood), respiratory system (lungs and airways), and musculoskeletal system (muscles, bones, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage).

Physical endurance is often measured in terms of aerobic capacity or stamina, which refers to the body's ability to supply oxygen to muscles during sustained physical activity. It can be improved through regular exercise, such as running, swimming, cycling, or weightlifting, that challenges the body's major muscle groups and raises the heart rate for extended periods.

Factors that influence physical endurance include genetics, age, sex, fitness level, nutrition, hydration, sleep quality, stress management, and overall health status. It is essential to maintain good physical endurance to perform daily activities efficiently, reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and enhance overall well-being.

Cardiovascular deconditioning is a condition that results from a decrease in the body's ability to adapt to physical stress due to a lack of regular physical activity and exercise. This leads to changes in the cardiovascular system, including reduced blood volume, stroke volume, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), as well as increased heart rate and systolic blood pressure during exercise.

Physical deconditioning can occur in individuals who are bedridden, sedentary, or have undergone prolonged periods of inactivity due to illness, injury, or other factors. It is also a concern for astronauts who experience reduced physical activity and muscle atrophy during spaceflight.

Cardiovascular deconditioning can lead to decreased exercise tolerance, fatigue, shortness of breath, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise and physical activity are essential for maintaining cardiovascular fitness and preventing deconditioning.

Edema is the medical term for swelling caused by excess fluid accumulation in the body tissues. It can affect any part of the body, but it's most commonly noticed in the hands, feet, ankles, and legs. Edema can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, or venous insufficiency.

The swelling occurs when the capillaries leak fluid into the surrounding tissues, causing them to become swollen and puffy. The excess fluid can also collect in the cavities of the body, leading to conditions such as pleural effusion (fluid around the lungs) or ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity).

The severity of edema can vary from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by other symptoms such as skin discoloration, stiffness, and pain. Treatment for edema depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

The higher surface/volume ratio leads to better catalyst performances. Higher adsorption probability. Change in the catalyst ... A nonthermal plasma, cold plasma or non-equilibrium plasma is a plasma which is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, because the ... ", "plasma pencil", "plasma needle", "plasma jet", "dielectric barrier discharge", "piezoelectric direct discharge plasma", etc ... also called post-plasma catalysis (PPC) and one-stage configuration, also called in-plasma catalysis (IPC) or plasma enhanced ...
An article was published in the August 1965 volume of Solid State Electronics. Plasma deposition is often used in semiconductor ... A plasma is any gas in which a significant percentage of the atoms or molecules are ionized. Fractional ionization in plasmas ... Chemical reactions are involved in the process, which occur after creation of a plasma of the reacting gases. The plasma is ... The high density, low energy plasma is exploited for the epitaxial deposition at high rates in Low-Energy Plasma-Enhanced ...
CS1: long volume value, Plasma physics, Ion source). ... A temporal plasma refers to an afterglow from a plasma source ... An advantage that remote plasma has over temporal plasma is that remote plasma can be used as a continuous plasma source and ... A plasma afterglow can either be a temporal, due to an interrupted (pulsed) plasma source, or spatial, due to a distant plasma ... The afterglow of a plasma is still a plasma and as thus retains most of the properties of a plasma. The first published ...
"High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet", Annales Geophysicae, Volume 17 Number 12, pg. 1592-1601 G. Allan Gary ... However, in any real-world design, the strength of the field varies over the volume of the plasma, so to be specific, the ... 363 F. Troyon et al., Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Volume 26, pg. 209 Friedberg, pg. 397 T. Taylor, "Experimental ... The beta of a plasma, symbolized by β, is the ratio of the plasma pressure (p = n kB T) to the magnetic pressure (pmag = B²/2μ0 ...
Using ABO compatible plasma, while not required, may be recommended. Use as a volume expander is not recommended. It is given ... The phrase "FFP" is often used to mean any transfused plasma product. The other commonly transfused plasma, plasma frozen ... cryoprecipitate reduced plasma, thawed plasma, and solvent detergent plasma. In the United States it refers to the fluid ... Crystalloid or colloid solutions such as human serum albumin or plasma protein fraction, are preferable to FFP for volume ...
Atmospheric pressure plasmas: A review; Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy; Volume 61, Issue 1, January 2006, pp 2 ... Atmospheric-pressure plasma (or AP plasma or normal pressure plasma) is a plasma in which the pressure approximately matches ... Atmospheric-pressure plasmas matter because in contrast with low-pressure plasma or high-pressure plasma, no reaction vessel is ... This kind of atmospheric-pressure plasmas is different. The plasma is only top of the electrode. That is the reason the ...
The word plasma signals that color charged particles (quarks and/or gluons) are able to move in the volume occupied by the ... ALICE results display a smooth volume dependence of total yield of all studied particles as function of volume, there is no ... Strangeness and the quark-gluon plasma: thirty years of discovery, Berndt Müller, 2012. Quark-gluon plasma Quark matter ... When quark-gluon plasma disassembles into hadrons in a breakup process, the high availability of strange antiquarks helps to ...
As a result, approximately 12% of blood plasma volume will cross into the extravascular compartment. This plasma shift causes ... Blood plasma fractionation Chromatography in blood processing Diag Human Hypoxia preconditioned plasma Intravascular volume ... Blood plasma and blood serum are often used in blood tests. Some tests can be done only on plasma and some only on serum. Some ... The blood plasma is then poured or drawn off. For point-of-care testing applications, plasma can be extracted from whole blood ...
CS1: long volume value, Plasma processing, Semiconductor device fabrication, Cleaning methods). ... Plasma ashing is a process that uses plasma cleaning solely to remove carbon. Plasma ashing is always done with O2 gas. Plasma ... Plasma cleaning is the removal of impurities and contaminants from surfaces through the use of an energetic plasma or ... For example, oxygen plasma emits a light blue color. A plasma's activated species include atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, ...
ISBN 3-437-11514-6). (also published as Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, volume 27, no. 3). Murphy, C.R. and T.J. ... The plasma membrane transformation is a concept introduced by Christopher R. Murphy of The University of Sydney to encapsulate ... Plasma membrane transformation: a common response of uterine epithelial cells during the peri-implantation period. Cell Biology ... The plasma membrane transformation facilitates pregnancy in both reptiles and lizards. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology ...
Short-lived chemical species, produced within the plasma volume, as well as the ions, produced within the thin layer, where the ... Plasma activation (or plasma functionalization) is a method of surface modification employing plasma processing, which improves ... Due to the high electron-ion and electron-molecule collision energies, the plasma volume acts as an efficient chemical reactor ... The processed area is smaller compared with the surface or volume DBD discharges. Micro plasma jets produced in capillary tubes ...
Since most of the plasma volume consists of the cold neutral gas, the plasma is cold. However, the very energetic electrons and ... Temperature of the neutral gas within the plasma volume remains lower than 50 C. At the same time, the electrons and the ions ... Piezoelectric direct discharge (PDD) plasma is a type of cold non-equilibrium plasma, generated by a direct gas discharge of a ... This allows the whole plasma generator to be made exceptionally compact and cheap, enabling construction of hand-held plasma ...
The plasma window (not to be confused with a plasma shield) is a technology that fills a volume of space with plasma confined ... Where the Plasma Window was invented News on the Plasma Window Plasma Window Patent Plasma Valve Patent (All articles with ... List of plasma physics articles Tractor beam BNL Wins R&D 100 Award for `Plasma Window' Ady Hershcovitch. Plasma Window ... A related technology is the plasma valve, invented shortly after the plasma window. A plasma valve is a layer of gas in the ...
In plasma physics, plasma confinement refers to the act of maintaining a plasma in a discrete volume. Confining plasma is ... List of plasma (physics) articles v t e (Plasma physics, All stub articles, Plasma physics stubs). ...
The greatest challenge is to generate a large area or volume of plasma with good energy efficiency. Plasma stealth technology ... but plasma interaction with microwaves is a well explored area of general plasma physics. Standard plasma physics reference ... A plasma can, at least in principle, absorb all the energy in an incoming wave, and this is the key to plasma stealth. However ... Plasma stealth is a proposed process to use ionized gas (plasma) to reduce the radar cross-section (RCS) of an aircraft. ...
This led to a series of experiments using C and D-shaped plasma volumes.[citation needed]. By increasing the current in one (or ... is the plasma minor radius, and b {\displaystyle b} is the height of the plasma measured from the equatorial plane, the plasma ... Plasma shaping is the study of the plasma shape in such devices, and is particularly important for next step fusion devices ... In the simple case of a plasma with up-down symmetry, the plasma cross-section is defined using a combination of four ...
... so there are nearly equal numbers of ions and electrons in each unit volume of plasma. The ICPs have two operation modes, ... "Plasma". Plasma-Universe.com. Retrieved 2020-11-23. Lee, Hyo-Chang (2018). "Review of inductively coupled plasmas: Nano- ... Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that uses an inductively coupled plasma to ... An inductively coupled plasma is a plasma that is energized (ionized) by inductively heating the gas with an electromagnetic ...
Outside a finite volume of QGP the color-electric field is not screened, so that a volume of QGP must still be color-neutral. ... Quark-gluon plasma was detected for the first time in the laboratory at CERN in the year 2000. Quark-gluon plasma is a state of ... Using the result of a head-on collision in the volume approximately equal to the volume of the atomic nucleus, it is possible ... The strength of the color force means that unlike the gas-like plasma, quark-gluon plasma behaves as a near-ideal Fermi liquid ...
81, 1353 (2009) (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Plasma types, ... dusty plasmas are also known as complex plasmas.: 2 Dusty plasmas are encountered in: Space plasmas The mesosphere of the Earth ... Dusty plasmas are often studied in laboratory setups. The dust particles can be grown inside the plasma, or microparticles can ... A dusty plasma is a plasma containing micrometer (10−6) to nanometer (10−9) sized particles suspended in it. Dust particles are ...
Blood plasma is the liquid component of whole blood, and makes up approximately 55% of the total blood volume. It is composed ... In addition to the clinical uses of a variety of plasma proteins, plasma has many analytical uses. Plasma contains many ... When the ultimate goal of plasma processing is a purified plasma component for injection or transfusion, the plasma component ... and separation of plasma is a necessary step in the expansion of the human plasma proteome. Plasma contains an abundance of ...
Artz treated the patient using a dried powdered form of blood plasma, as an alternative to blood transfusion, which was a new ... Volume III. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1955 Cotlar, Alvin M. (1975-10-20). "Management of Surgical ... The patients were the subject of four volumes of published research. In 1956, Artz suffered a heart attack and was medically ... Zaza, Mouayyad; Kalkwarf, Kyle J.; Holcomb, John B. (2019-05-06). "Dried Plasma". Damage Control Resuscitation: 145-162. doi: ...
Akhiezer, A. I.; Akhiezer, I. A.; Polovin, R. V.; Sitenko, A. G.; Stepanov, K.N. (2017) [1975]. Plasma Electrodynamics. Volume ... Akhiezer, A. I.; Akhiezer, I. A.; Polovin, R. V.; Sitenko, A. G.; Stepanov, K.N.; ter Haar, D. (2017) [1975]. Plasma ... With Pomeranchuk he studied neutron scattering and plasma physics at the Kurchatov nuclear physics institute in Moscow (1944-52 ... and the theory of plasma. He was the brother of the mathematician Naum Akhiezer. Akhiezer was born in Cherykaw, Russian Empire ...
Read "Memorial Tributes: Volume 2" at NAP.edu. 1984. doi:10.17226/565. ISBN 978-0-309-03482-1 - via www.nap.edu. "Pioneers in ... "Gould Bio". plasma.caltech.edu. Memorial Tributes. 2016. doi:10.17226/23394. ISBN 978-0-309-43729-5. Read "Memorial Tributes: ... Read "Memorial Tributes: Volume 20" at NAP.edu. 2016. doi:10.17226/23394. ISBN 978-0-309-43729-5 - via www.nap.edu. "AE Chair ... Read "Memorial Tributes: Volume 5" at NAP.edu. 1992. doi:10.17226/1966. ISBN 978-0-309-04689-3 - via www.nap.edu. "Mary E. ...
... as the largest plasma focus. Of course the larger machine will produce the larger volume of focused plasma with a corresponding ... The plasma focus is similar to the high-intensity plasma gun device (HIPGD) (or just plasma gun), which ejects plasma in the ... 2] The Plasma Focus-Trending into the Future([3]) Dimensions and Lifetime of the Plasma Focus ([4]) Plasma Radiation Source Lab ... plasma focus as neutron source for nuclear fusion-fission hybrid reactors, and the use of plasma focus devices as plasma ...
... where the plasma is exhausted from the confinement volume to reduce the heat and particle loads on the PFCs. The divertor ... which in turn affect the plasma behavior. The interactions between plasma and PFCs are strongly influenced by the plasma ... Plasma-Surface Interaction (PSI) studies study the interaction at the interface between plasma and materials. Focus of the ... Plasma-surface interactions refer to the complex physical, chemical, and mechanical processes at the interface between plasma ...
Problems of stability, emission of radiation and evolution of a dense pinch" (1984) Physics Reports, Volume 104, Issue 5, p. ... 86, 95) Trubnikov, Boris A (1992). "A new hypothesis of cosmic ray generation in plasma pinches". IEEE Transactions on Plasma ... Lee, S. (1983). "Energy balance and the radius of electromagnetically pinched plasma columns". Plasma Physics. 25 (5): 571-576 ... The plasma is assumed to be non-rotational, and the kinetic pressure at the edges is much smaller than inside. Chart regions: ( ...
Plasma Fusion Res. 1: 3-8. Princeton Alumni Weekly, Volume 57. April 19. p9 Johnson, John L.; Greene, John M. (September 2000 ... The total length (of the tube axis?) was 1.2m. The plasma could have a 5-7.5 cm minor radius. Magnetic coils could produce a ... Planned since 1952, construction began in 1961 at what is today the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The Model C ...
"Cold Spray System PCS-1000". www.plasma.co.jp. "VRC Metal Systems - Making Metals Work". "Powders on Demand". www. ... CS1: long volume value, 3D printing, Metalworking). ... Centerline HERMLE AG Impact Innvoatios GmbH Inovati Plasma ...
"PLA volume 79 issue 3 Cover and Back matter". Journal of Plasma Physics. 79 (3): b1-b4. June 2013. doi:10.1017/ ... Volume I, II(1964); Volume III(1965)". AIChE Journal. 10 (6): 794. doi:10.1002/aic.690100602. ISSN 0001-1541. De Shalit, Amos ( ... The Feynman Lectures on Physics also include a volume on electromagnetism that is available to read online for free, through ...
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science. Volume: 31, issue: 5, Oct 2003. Kartsev, V.P. (1983). Shea, William R. (ed.). Nature ... solid-liquid-gas-plasma; the gas is gradually turned into a thermal plasma. A thermal plasma is in thermal equilibrium; the ... The gas becomes a plasma and guides the arc. By constructing the plasma path between the electrodes with different laser beams ... The current through a normally nonconductive medium such as air produces a plasma, which may produce visible light. An arc ...
Volume 12, Number 6-June 2006 Letter. H5N1 Influenza A Virus and Infected Human Plasma On This Page ... The virus titer obtained from the plasma was 3.08 × 103 copies/mL. The plasma specimen was processed for virus isolation by ... H5N1 Influenza A Virus and Infected Human Plasma. Volume 12, Number 6-June 2006 ... The plasma from the EDTA blood sample was separated 2 days later and stored at -20°C for 12 days. The sample was subsequently ...
Plasma Gvn Vol. Display Name. Plasma given [Vol]. Consumer Name Alpha Get Info. Volume of Plasma given. Basic Attributes. Class ... Plasma , Administré:. Volume:. Temps ponctuel:. ^Patient:. Quantitatif:. fr-BE. French (Belgium). Plasma Administré:. Volume:. ... Plasma given [Volume] Active Part Description. LP14596-8 Plasma. The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of ... volume:. moment:. ^patiënt:. kwantitatief:. Synonyms: gegeven. pt-BR. Portuguese (Brazil). Plasma transfundido:. Volume:. Pt:. ...
... "In fact, we found that the EXATEC plasma coating process is at least 30 times faster than other plasma coating technologies ... state-of-the-art ULGLAZE system for high-volume production of plasma-coated polycarbonate (PC) components for automotive ... This new high-volume production capability is based on the benefits of three advanced technologies: the efficiencies of the ...
Primary fatty amides in plasma associated with brain amyloid burden, hippocampal volume, and memory in the European Medical ... Methods: This study analyzed 593 plasma samples selected from the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimers ... Keywords: Alzheimers disease; Amyloid; Biomarkers; Brain volume measurements; CSF; Cognitive function measurements; Dementia; ... From these, PFAMs, glutamate, and aspartate also associated with hippocampal volume and memory. ...
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal , All issues , Volume 15, 2009 , Volume 15, issue 6 , Plasma homocysteine levels in ... fasting plasma homocysteine correlated inversely with plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels in the vegetarian group. This ... associations with low plasma holotranscobalamin II and elevated serum methylmalonic acid and plasma homocysteine concentrations ... The mean total plasma homocysteine level was 7.85 (SD 3.39) µmol/L, and was significantly higher in males [8.42 (SD 4.09) µmol/ ...
Results-Serial dilution of plasma samples from foals 12 and 24 to 36 hours of age with presuckle plasma yielded percentage ... Plasma IgG concentrations were determined via a commercial single radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay. By use of goat anti- ... Measurements of IgG in plasma and serum samples via TIA did not differ. When samples were assayed multiple times, the ... Conclusion and Clinical Relevance-Plasma IgG concentrations in foals determined via the TIA and RID assay were highly ...
The median plasma volume exchanged was 140 mL/kg (range 110-175) and removal of 8 L plasma was possible in 15 (75%) patients. ... feasibility, Guillain-Barré syndrome, safety, small volume plasma exchange Persistent URL doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022862, ... Small volume plasma exchange for Guillain-Barré syndrome in resource-limited settings: A phase II safety and feasibility study ... Objective To assess the safety and feasibility of small volume plasma exchange (SVPE) for patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome ...
49th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics Volume 52, Number 11. Monday-Friday, November 12-16, 2007; Orlando, ... Session PT1: Tutorial: Scientific Challenges of Burning Plasmas. Show Abstracts. Chair: Chuck Greenfield, General Atomics. Room ...
52nd Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Plasma Physics Volume 55, Number 15. Monday-Friday, November 8-12, 2010; Chicago, ... Plasmas 1 (5), 1626 (1994).}$^,$\footnote{V. Alexander Stefan, Bulletin APS-DPP, 2006;2007.} Laser-REB, relativistic electron ... Abstract: JP9.00137 : Laser Burnt-through Cone for the Control of Plasma Instabilities in Fast Ignition Thermonuclear Fusion ... I propose a laser burnt-through cone for the suppression, (elimination), of plasma instabilities in fast ignition pellets.\ ...
This plasma volume calculator estimates the patients blood plasma volume based on hematocrit and weight. ... Does plasma have a definite volume?. No, plasma doesnt have a definite volume. However, we can roughly assess the plasma ... How do I calculate blood plasma volume?. To calculate blood plasma volume, multiply total blood volume (TBV) by (1-Hct), where ... What is the volume of plasma in a healthy person?. Plasma is a liquid that makes up around 55% of our blood volume. In ...
Minimum Test Volume. 1 mL Serum or Plasma. Processing Instructions. Complete a NMS Labs requisition and submit with specimen ... Plasma collected an EDTA (lavender-top) or sodium heparin (green-top) tube is also acceptable. Serum or plasma separator tubes ...
Read the current issue of Physics of Plasmas. ... Inertially Confined Plasmas, Dense Plasmas, Equations of State ... Low-Temperature Plasmas, Plasma Applications, Plasma Sources, Sheaths Characterization of transversely confined electron beam- ... Erratum: "Diagnostics of plasma-liquids systems: Challenges and their mitigation" [Phys. Plasmas 30, 033507 (2023)] Shurik ... View articletitled, Erratum: "Diagnostics of plasma-liquids systems: Challenges and their mitigation" [Phys. Plasmas ,strong,30 ...
Imaging of ECR Plasmas With A Pinhole X-Ray Camera, Review of Scientific Instruments (Accessed September 28, 2023) ... https://www.nist.gov/publications/imaging-ecr-plasmas-pinhole-x-ray-camera ...
Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) is a prototype design for the MPEX, a steady-state linear device ... The primary purpose of Proto-MPEX is developing the plasma heating source concepts for MPEX. A power accounting study of Proto- ... Plasma material interaction (PMI) studies are crucial to the successful development of future fusion reactors. ... Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) is a prototype design for the MPEX, a steady-state linear device ...
Plasma-facing components (PFCs) are among the most critical gaps for fusion energy to establish technical and economic ... Plasma-facing components (PFCs) are among the most critical gaps for fusion energy to establish technical and economic ... A novel design of transitional layer structure between reduced activation ferritic martensitic steels and tungsten for plasma ... spark plasma sintering (SPS) as proof of concept was used to bond the individual layers. Interfaces were investigated using ...
High velocity plasma in the transition region of AU Mic: A stellar analog of solar explosive events. ... Linsky, J. and Wood, B. (1994), High velocity plasma in the transition region of AU Mic: A stellar analog of solar explosive ... https://www.nist.gov/publications/high-velocity-plasma-transition-region-au-mic-stellar-analog-solar-explosive-events ...
Journal Volume: 77; Journal ID: ISSN 0885-7474. Publisher: Springer. Country of Publication: United States. Language: English. ... Detailed comparison of simulated and measured plasma profiles in the scrape-off layer and edge plasma of DIII-D journal, ... 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; IMEX time integration; plasma physics; gyrokinetic ... High-order, finite-volume methods in mapped coordinates journal, April 2011 * Colella, P.; Dorr, M. R.; Hittinger, J. A. F. ...
Changes of sperm morphology, volume, density and motility and seminal plasma composition in Barbus barbus (Teleostei: ... ionic composition and osmolality of the seminal plasma, and sperm volume and density) during the spawning season. Stripping was ... Sperm volume also decreased from 0.42 in March to 0.15 ml in May, and density from 18.81 in March to 12.45 × 109 spz ml−1 in ... Volume 21 / No 1 (January-March 2008) Aquat. Living Resour., 21 1 (2008) 75-80 Abstract ...
Plasma TMAO, methionine, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) were quantified by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography ... Plasma carotenoids, lutein, and zeaxanthin were measured using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. There ... Following egg intake, the observed increases in plasma lutein and zeaxanthin may suggest additional protection against ... and plasma carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in MetS. This randomized, controlled crossover clinical trial included 23 subjects ...
This review compiles previous findings of plasma effects in wound healing. It discusses new links between plasma treatment of ... Cold physical plasmas are particularly effective in promoting wound closure, irrespective of its etiology. These partially ... This field of plasma medicine reanimates the idea of redox repair in physiological healing. ... cells and tissues, and the perception and intracellular translation of plasma-derived reactive species via redox signaling ...
High-latitude plasma convection during Northward IMF as derived from in-situ magnetospheric Cluster EDI measurements ... Volume: 26 Issue: 9 Page: 2685-2700 Year: 2008 Copyright: EGU In this study, we investigate statistical, systematic variations ... High-latitude plasma convection during Northward IMF as derived from in-situ magnetospheric Cluster EDI measurements ... High-latitude plasma convection during Northward IMF as derived from in-situ magnetospheric Cluster EDI measurements. ...
The higher surface/volume ratio leads to better catalyst performances. Higher adsorption probability. Change in the catalyst ... A nonthermal plasma, cold plasma or non-equilibrium plasma is a plasma which is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, because the ... ", "plasma pencil", "plasma needle", "plasma jet", "dielectric barrier discharge", "piezoelectric direct discharge plasma", etc ... also called post-plasma catalysis (PPC) and one-stage configuration, also called in-plasma catalysis (IPC) or plasma enhanced ...
... platform for measuring the total amount of OT in human plasma/serum. OT binds strongly to plasma proteins, but a reduction/ ... The method (R/A + robust nanoLC-MS) was used to determine total OT plasma/serum levels to startlingly high concentrations (high ... The injection volume was 10 μL. The SPE was equilibrated with 4 μL 0.1% FA in LC-MS grade water at a constant flow rate of 3 μL ... Effect of reducing and alkylation on oxytocin measurement in plasma.. (A) OT binds to plasma/serum proteins and co-precipitate ...
We find that these receptors are intermixed nonhomogenously on the plasma membrane. Stimulation by EGF does not appear to ... but less is known about receptor clusters that form in plasma membranes composed of many different RTKs with the potential to ... structures displaying 48 Exchange-PAINT docking strands were self-assembled in a one-pot reaction with 50 µl total volume ... It is clear that there is much yet to be learned about the organization of RTKs in the plasma membrane and we believe that ...
Plasma evolution in laser-irradiated hollow microcylinders - Volume 8 Issue 1-2 ... Laser and Particle Beams , Volume 8 , Issue 1-2 , January 1990 , pp. 327 - 337 ... A comparison of kinetic and multifluid simulations of laser-produced colliding plasmas. Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, Issue. 8, p ... Modeling ion interpenetration, stagnation, and thermalization in colliding plasmas. Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. ...
Click for pictures, reviews, and tech specs for the LG 50 (127cm) Full HD Plasma TV with THX® Certified Display ... The INFINIA PK750 has taken expectations about plasma and redefined them. A seamless design thats Wireless 1080p Ready. ... Auto Volume Limiter Yes CONVENIENCE FEATURES. * Language English Smart Energy Saving Yes ...
Colloid plasma volume expansion also works well since one delivers one third less chloride per cc of plasma volume expansion ... Plasma Volume Expansion Considerations. Recently, significant attention has been focused on the sequelae of plasma volume ... was identified as a consequence of plasma volume expansion with solutions rich in chloride relative to human plasma. Acute ... The most robust data support the use of NaHCO3 (D5 W+150 mEq/L NaHCO3) plasma volume expansion prior to and following ...
Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) injection has become a desirable alternative to Partial Plantar Fasciotomy (PPF) surgery and steroid ... Comparison of Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment and Partial Plantar Fasciotomy Surgery in Patients with Chronic Plantar Fasciitis ... Comparison of Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment and Partial Plantar Fasciotomy Surgery in Patients with Chronic Plantar Fasciitis ... Comparison of Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment and Partial Plantar Fasciotomy Surgery in Patients with Chronic Plantar Fasciitis ...
... traffic volume, upgrades, overload of requests to servers, general network failures or delays, or any other cause that may from ... Standard Test Method for Analysis of Nickel Alloys by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (Performance- ... 1.1 This test method describes the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric analysis of nickel alloys, such as ... Standard Test Method for Analysis of Nickel Alloys by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (Performance- ...
In situ-formed SiO2 was introduced into HfO2 gate dielectrics on Ge substrate as interlayer by plasma-enhanced atomic layer ... volume 12, Article number: 370 (2017) Download PDF You have full access to this open access article ... Pure O2 gas (99.999%) was used as O2 plasma source. The plasma power and O2 gas flow rate were 2500 W and 160 sccm, ... In situ-formed SiO2 was introduced into HfO2 gate dielectrics on Ge substrate as interlayer by plasma-enhanced atomic layer ...
  • Erratum: "Diagnostics of plasma-liquids systems: Challenges and their mitigation" [Phys. (aip.org)
  • The term cold plasma has been recently used as a convenient descriptor to distinguish the one-atmosphere, near room temperature plasma discharges from other plasmas, operating at hundreds or thousands of degrees above ambient (see Plasma (physics) § Temperature). (wikipedia.org)
  • Physics of Fluids B: Plasma Physics, Vol. 4, Issue. (cambridge.org)
  • Aerodynamic active flow control solutions involving technological nonthermal weakly ionized plasmas for subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic flight are being studied, as plasma actuators in the field of electrohydrodynamics, and as magnetohydrodynamic converters when magnetic fields are also involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies conducted in wind tunnels involve most of the time low atmospheric pressure similar to an altitude of 20-50 km, typical of hypersonic flight, where the electrical conductivity of air is higher, hence non-thermal weakly ionized plasmas can be easily produced with a fewer energy expense. (wikipedia.org)
  • I propose a laser burnt-through cone for the suppression, (elimination), of plasma instabilities in fast ignition pellets. (aps.org)
  • may prove to be, (if the burnt-through laser intensity is 20{\%} of the total intensity), an effective tool for the control of variety of plasma instabilities, in particular for instabilities leading to the generation of colossal B-fields: Weibel instabilities and filamentation of the REB. (aps.org)
  • While a kinetic model is necessary for weakly-collisional high-temperature plasmas, high collisionality in colder regions render the equations numerically stiff due to disparate time scales. (osti.gov)
  • Wave number perpendicular to the static magnetic field increases with the plasma density, and it enhances the finite Larmor radius effect in the second harmonic heating. (or.jp)
  • Observation and analysis of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field. (nasa.gov)
  • This paper presents a limited study of the physical nature of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field based on 19 day's data from the Pioneer 6 spacecraft. (nasa.gov)
  • A particular and unusual case of "inverse" nonthermal plasma is the very high temperature plasma produced by the Z machine, where ions are much hotter than electrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The propagation of linear and nonlinear electron acoustic waves (EAWs) in an unmagnetized plasma, comprising dynamical inertial electrons, hot ( r , q ) distributed electrons, warm electron beam, and immobile ions is studied. (frontiersin.org)
  • Power accounting of plasma discharges in the linear device Proto-MPEX. (ornl.gov)
  • You are playing a bolt of electricity, and the electrical discharges produced by the PLASMA Tube are instantly converted back into audio signal. (fret12.com)
  • It was shown that the high power absorption occurs in the plasma core with the second harmonic heating in the case of high-density deuterium plasma in LHD by the calculation with a simple model of the ICRF heating. (or.jp)
  • Comparison of Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment and Partial Plantar Fasciotomy Surgery in Patients with Chronic Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized, Prospective Study. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) injection has become a desirable alternative to Partial Plantar Fasciotomy (PPF) surgery and steroid injection for patients with chronic plantar fasciitis (CPF) due to its potential for shorter recovery times, reduced complications, and similar activity scores. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a product widely used in sports medicine, tissue repair, and general surgery. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Plasmas 1 (5), 1626 (1994). (aps.org)
  • The method (R/A + robust nanoLC-MS) was used to determine total OT plasma/serum levels to startlingly high concentrations (high pg/mL-ng/mL). (nature.com)
  • There were no differences among the groups for plasma calcium concentrations. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Average plasma concentrations were compared across different diagnostic groups. (springer.com)
  • In nine hyperthyroid women studied in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle basal plasma LH concentrations and LH and FSH responses to GnRH were increased compared to those in nine normal women. (lu.se)
  • Coadministration of tucatinib (a CYP2C8 substrate) with a strong or moderate CYP2C8 inhibitors increases tucatinib plasma concentrations and risk of toxicities. (medscape.com)
  • In preparation for the process of donating blood or in a laboratory blood test called hematocrit, blood plasma is separated by centrifugation from the formed elements of blood. (omnicalculator.com)
  • The results of present study may be beneficial to comprehend the interaction between two EASWs in laboratory, space and astrophysical plasmas. (frontiersin.org)
  • article{osti_1458696, title = {Kinetic Simulation of Collisional Magnetized Plasmas with Semi-implicit Time Integration}, author = {Ghosh, Debojyoti and Dorf, Mikhail A. and Dorr, Milo R. and Hittinger, Jeffrey A. F.}, abstractNote = {Plasmas with varying collisionalities occur in many applications, such as tokamak edge regions, where the flows are characterized by significant variations in density and temperature. (osti.gov)
  • Eighteen spermiating males were randomly selected from a hatchery-reared stock and electronically tagged to record changes in their sperm quality parameters (spermatozoa morphology, ultrastructure and motility, ionic composition and osmolality of the seminal plasma, and sperm volume and density) during the spawning season. (alr-journal.org)
  • and preservation of seminal plasma. (cdc.gov)
  • The plasma specimen was processed for virus isolation by embryonated egg injection, according to the standard protocol described by Harmon ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The primary purpose of Proto-MPEX is developing the plasma heating source concepts for MPEX. (ornl.gov)
  • Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) heating is one of the plasma heating methods in the Large Helical Device (LHD). (or.jp)
  • Note: Due to the circadian rhythm of cortisol levels in serum and plasma, the sample collection time must be noted. (akronchildrens.org)
  • The miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit is designed for purification of cell-free total RNA - primarily miRNA and other small RNA - from small volumes of serum and plasma. (qiagen.com)
  • The presence of relatively stable, extracellular miRNAs in serum and plasma has generated great interest in the potential use of changes in these miRNA levels as noninvasive biomarkers for a variety of diseases. (qiagen.com)
  • Serum and plasma contain primarily small RNAs, therefore separate purification of small and large RNA fractions is not necessary. (qiagen.com)
  • The mandibular incisor enamel in each of these groups showed microradiographic evidence of fluorotic changes which was most severe in the minipump group with an average plasma fluoride concentration of 3.1 µM. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Fried and Gould first predicted the existence of electron acoustic waves (EAWs) while studying the numerical solutions of electrostatic dispersion relation in an unmagnetized, homogeneous plasma ( Fried and Gould, 1961 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We describe a robust nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) platform for measuring the total amount of OT in human plasma/serum. (nature.com)
  • In preliminary experiments with a standard nanoLC-MS set-up (i.e. trap column for extraction + separation column), injecting protein precipitated pooled human plasma clogged the column(s) (see Fig. 1A ). (nature.com)
  • Octaplas is a sterile, pyrogen free, frozen solution of solvent/detergent (S/D) treated pooled human plasma. (rxlist.com)
  • Octaplas is manufactured from human plasma collected in US licensed plasma donation centers. (rxlist.com)
  • OT binds strongly to plasma proteins, but a reduction/alkylation (R/A) procedure breaks this bond, enabling ample detection of total OT. (nature.com)
  • The active ingredient comprises plasma proteins such as albumin , immunoglobulins, other globulins, coagulation factors, complement proteins and protease inhibitors. (rxlist.com)
  • The content and distribution of plasma proteins in Octaplas are comparable to reference ranges for healthy blood donors, except for Protein S and alpha2-antiplasmin. (rxlist.com)
  • Depending on the beam density, temperature and velocity, we get a critical condition for which the quadratic nonlinearity vanishes from the plasma system. (frontiersin.org)
  • This comprehensive analysis of data from the ziprasidone clinical trial database demonstrates limited evidence of any clinically significant adverse effects of ziprasidone on weight and consistent evidence of a neutral effect on fasting plasma lipids and glucose. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Plasma lipids and lipoproteins are reduced due to S/D treatment and subsequent oil and solid phase extraction. (rxlist.com)
  • As plasma contains coagulation factors, some prone to bleeding patients will require plasma infusion. (omnicalculator.com)
  • [ 1 ] Urine osmolality is greater than plasma osmolality. (medscape.com)
  • Plasma material interaction (PMI) studies are crucial to the successful development of future fusion reactors. (ornl.gov)
  • The spatial regime for the two soliton interaction is found to vary in accordance with the variation of single soliton for various plasma parameters. (frontiersin.org)
  • cells are activated by interaction with antigens and obtain T indicated that the cell lines representing a defined cell help, they mature into terminally differentiated plasma stage generally presented a high similarity in over- cells secreting large amounts of antibodies [10 -12]. (lu.se)
  • citation needed] Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma can be used to promote chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-thermal plasma is also used in conjunction with a catalyst to further enhance the chemical conversion of reactants or to alter the products chemical composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paper presents preliminary thermal analyses for two critical components in LP#02, the diagnostic rack and a mirror box on the divertor cassette, which will be exposed to the harsh thermal load from plasma. (or.jp)
  • Serum or plasma separator tubes (SST/PST) are unacceptable. (rchsd.org)
  • After just one plasma injection, it was not possible to reuse the columns, even after extensive washing attempts. (nature.com)
  • To illustrate, only a minimal increase in back pressure between the first to the hundredth plasma injection was observed ( Fig. 1A ). (nature.com)
  • Pittsfield, MA, October 31, 2012 --( PR.com )-- SABIC's Innovative Plastics business, a world leader in engineering thermoplastics and advanced material solutions, and ULVAC Inc., a leader in mass-production vacuum technologies, today announced the commercial availability of the new, state-of-the-art ULGLAZE system for high-volume production of plasma-coated polycarbonate (PC) components for automotive glazing applications. (pr.com)
  • With the availability of this high-volume coating technology, PC glazing is now ready to play a much larger role in automotive design and make a greater contribution to improved fuel economy, reduced emissions and increased vehicle range," said Amanda Roble, lead executive, SABIC's automotive PC glazing unit. (pr.com)
  • Finally, we implement semi-implicit additive Runge-Kutta methods in COGENT, a high-order finite-volume gyrokinetic code and test the accuracy, convergence, and computational cost of these semi-implicit methods for test cases with highly-collisional plasmas. (osti.gov)
  • High resolution structures are available for individual receptors dimers, but less is known about receptor clusters that form in plasma membranes composed of many different RTKs with the potential to interact. (nature.com)
  • The wave injected from the ICRF antenna can propagate in the plasma even if the plasma density is extremely high. (or.jp)
  • High-quality RNA is then eluted in a small volume of RNase-free water. (qiagen.com)
  • Sample preparation using the QIAcube follows the same steps as the manual procedure (i.e., lyse, bind, wash, and elute), enabling you to continue using the miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit for purification of high-quality RNA. (qiagen.com)
  • The plasma from the EDTA blood sample was separated 2 days later and stored at -20°C for 12 days. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasma collected an EDTA (lavender-top) or sodium heparin (green-top) tube is also acceptable. (rchsd.org)
  • The composition of each interlayer was selected based on computational thermodynamics and diffusion kinetics to ensure a body-centered cubic (bcc) single-phase structure and prevent the formation of a brittle intermetallic phase region in the temperature range of 600-1150 °C. Although the transitional layer structure was designed for additive manufacturing, spark plasma sintering (SPS) as proof of concept was used to bond the individual layers. (ornl.gov)
  • Thus serial measurements of plasma MMP/TIMP levels may hold diagnostic/prognostic significance in CHF patients. (duke.edu)
  • Plasmas with varying collisionalities occur in many applications, such as tokamak edge regions, where the flows are characterized by significant variations in density and temperature. (osti.gov)
  • While the applications of nonthermal plasma were initially focused on microbiological disinfection, newer applications such as enzyme inactivation, biomolecule oxidation, protein modification, prodrug activation, and pesticide dissipation are being actively researched. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Plasma Launcher lets you quickly and easily launch applications, but it can do much more -- convenient tasks like bookmarking applications, searching for documents as you type, or navigating to common places help you get straight to the point. (kde.org)
  • Give your eyes some rest by switching Plasma and its applications to a built-in dark theme. (kde.org)
  • The miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit is intended for molecular biology applications. (qiagen.com)
  • The plasma volume calculation is usually performed on the assumption that the patient's total blood volume (TBV) is 70 mL per kg body weight for males and 65 mL per kg body weight for females. (omnicalculator.com)
  • The purpose of this long-term study was to investigate disturbances in enamel mineralization associated with low, but relatively constant, plasma fluoride levels produced by constant infusion or with fluctuating plasma fluoride levels caused by drinking fluoridated water. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The terminal plasma fluoride levels of the 10-ppm water group was 3.0 µM, and of the two minipump groups were 1.5 and 3.1 µM, respectively. (fluoridealert.org)
  • 1990) reported methodologies for sample manipulation and fluoride analysis on very small sample volumes. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasma NTS has the potential to be a non-invasive biomarker for colorectal neoplasia. (springer.com)
  • In our blood volume calculator , we use far more complicated methods of estimating TBV. (omnicalculator.com)
  • Optional - fill in height if you want to calculate plasma volume with other methods. (omnicalculator.com)
  • This paper considers the nitriding behavior of hard chromium electroplated steel by conventional plasma nitriding (CPN) and active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) methods. (dtu.dk)
  • The negative panel comprises 181 plasma units collected from the USA. (who.int)
  • Interventions SVPE involves blood cell sedimentation in a blood bag and removal of supernatant plasma after blood cells are retransfused. (eur.nl)
  • Improved Estimation of Total Blood Volume Can Provide a Reliable Prediction of Dilutional Hematocrit and Oxygen Delivery during Cardiopulmonary Bypass. (omnicalculator.com)
  • Prediction of blood volume in normal human adults. (omnicalculator.com)
  • Estimating blood volume in obese and morbidly obese patients. (omnicalculator.com)
  • The plasma volume calculator finds the blood plasma volume using the patient's hematocrit and weight . (omnicalculator.com)
  • Please note that this is a calculator of blood plasma for adults. (omnicalculator.com)
  • Plasma is a liquid that makes up around 55% of our blood volume . (omnicalculator.com)
  • How does the blood plasma volume calculator work? (omnicalculator.com)
  • We can also estimate it from the patient's blood volume (plasma makes up ~55% of the blood volume). (omnicalculator.com)
  • How do I calculate blood plasma volume? (omnicalculator.com)
  • To calculate blood plasma volume, multiply total blood volume (TBV) by (1-Hct), where Hct (hematocrit) is a fraction. (omnicalculator.com)
  • Salmon blood plasma: effective inhibitor of protease-laden Pacific whiting surimi and salmon mince. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Each lot of Octaplas is manufactured from pooled plasma of a single AB0 blood group (A, B, AB, or 0). (rxlist.com)
  • Complete blood cell counts (CBC), plasma chemistries were run as economics allowed and results are summarized in Table 1. (vin.com)
  • The average adult has between 5 and 6 liters of blood or blood volume. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Half the blood consists of a watery, protein-laden fluid called plasma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sperm volume also decreased from 0.42 in March to 0.15 ml in May, and density from 18.81 in March to 12.45 × 10 9 spz ml −1 in May. (alr-journal.org)
  • The MS instrument allows unambiguous identification/quantification of e.g. peptides, by first recording the molecular mass of a compound (single MS) and then creating a "molecular fingerprint" by fragmenting the compound to smaller parts (MS/MS). Separating compounds in a mixture (e.g. plasma) prior to MS detection further strengthens identification and sensitivity. (nature.com)
  • Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and normal saline were used as replacement fluid. (eur.nl)
  • Frozen plasma units are thawed and pooled. (rxlist.com)
  • Our Octaplas, Pooled Plasma (human), Solvent/Detergent Treated Solution for Intravenous Infusion Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (rxlist.com)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Plasma matrix metalloproteinase and inhibitor profiles in patients with heart failure. (duke.edu)
  • The virus titer obtained from the plasma was 3.08 × 10 3 copies/mL. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, the manufacturing plasma pool may not contain a titer of human Parvovirus B19 DNA exceeding 10.0 IU per microliter and must have a negative result in a test for human Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) RNA by NAT PCR with a sensitivity of ≤ 2.5 log 10 IU/mL. (rxlist.com)
  • Optimized for LEXAN™ resin and EXATEC™ plasma coatings from SABIC, this unique solution now enables automotive OEMs and tiers to mass produce lightweight, durable and aerodynamic glazing components - like rear quarter and side windows, backlite windows, rear spoilers and sunroofs - that deliver exceptional performance and aesthetics over the life of the vehicle. (pr.com)
  • and the unmatched weatherability and abrasion resistance of EXATEC plasma coatings. (pr.com)
  • Morphological studies show that surface particles formed oil active screen plasma nitrided samples have orderly formed geometrical shapes while in conventional plasma nitriding they are in cauliflower shape. (dtu.dk)
  • We find that these receptors are intermixed nonhomogenously on the plasma membrane. (nature.com)
  • Objective To assess the safety and feasibility of small volume plasma exchange (SVPE) for patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). (eur.nl)
  • However, we can roughly assess the plasma volume with the patient's weight and hematocrit. (omnicalculator.com)
  • The miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit enables RNA purification from small volumes of plasma or serum. (qiagen.com)
  • This study evaluated the diagnostic potential of plasma NTS for colorectal polyps and cancers. (springer.com)
  • Plasma NTS had an optimal sensitivity of 60.4% and specificity of 71.6% for the diagnosis of colorectal polyps and cancers. (springer.com)
  • Using RNA purified from serum or plasma, unique expression of several miRNAs has been shown for some cancers. (qiagen.com)