Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Protein PrecursorsMutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Ferrichrome: A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Caveolins: The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Clathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.TritiumMacromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Cytoplasmic Vesicles: Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Purple Membrane: Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Qa-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Fusion with the plasma membrane; ribonucleocapsid is released in the cytoplasm. Sequential transcription, viral mRNAs are ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host cell surface receptors through HN ... The ribonucleocapsid binds to the matrix protein and buds via the host ESCRT complexes occurs at the plasma membranehost ...
Fusion with the plasma membrane to release the core into the host cytoplasm. Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... Assembly of progeny virions starts in cytoplasmic viral factories, producing an spherical immature particle. This virus ... or can acquire a second double membrane from trans-Golgi and bud as external enveloped virion (EEV)host receptors, which ...
They localise to the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. Plant KIN10 and KIN11 proteins, catalytic subunits of the ...
Replication is cytoplasmic and the virons mature by budding from plasma membrane. The viruses in this family infect domestic ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, ...
Fusion with the plasma membrane to release the core into the host cytoplasm. Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... This is because it has adapted to living in the dry mucous membranes of an infected host's upper respiratory tract. The effects ... Lesions of the skin and diphtheritic membrane of the respiratory tract are common when domesticated and wild birds are infected ...
The H subunit, shown in gold, lies on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. A cytochrome subunit, here not shown, ... both span the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane. They are structurally similar to one another, both having 5 transmembrane ... The process starts when light is absorbed by two BChl molecules (a dimer) that lie near the periplasmic side of the membrane. ... In the process the reducing power of the QH2 is used to pump protons across the membrane to the periplasmic space. The ...
1998). "Expression of GTPase-deficient Gialpha2 results in translocation of cytoplasmic RGS4 to the plasma membrane". J. Biol. ... "Expression of GTPase-deficient Gialpha2 results in translocation of cytoplasmic RGS4 to the plasma membrane". J. Biol. Chem. ... Srinivasa SP, Bernstein LS, Blumer KJ, Linder ME (1998). "Plasma membrane localization is required for RGS4 function in ... Structure, membrane association, regulation by Galphaz phosphorylation, and relationship to a Gz gtpase-activating protein ...
"Expression of GTPase-deficient Gialpha2 results in translocation of cytoplasmic RGS4 to the plasma membrane". J. Biol. Chem. ... "Human brain synembryn interacts with Gsalpha and Gqalpha and is translocated to the plasma membrane in response to ... "Palmitoylation is required for signaling functions and membrane attachment of Gq alpha and Gs alpha". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (33): ... "Differential distribution of alpha subunits and beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins on Golgi membranes of the ...
The α and β subunits each penetrate the plasma membrane and possess small cytoplasmic domains. Variants of some subunits are ... The exception is the beta-4 subunit, which has a cytoplasmic domain of 1,088 amino acids, one of the largest of any membrane ... The α and β integrin chains are both class-I transmembrane proteins: they pass the plasma membrane as single transmembrane ... The integrins thus serve to link two networks across the plasma membrane: the extracellular ECM and the intracellular actin ...
... plasma membrane is compartmentalized by actin-based membrane-skeleton "fences", that occur when cytoplasmic domains collide ... thermal fluctuations of the membrane and following creation of spaces between cytoplasmic membrane layer and cytoskeleton, ... Hop diffusion - is a non-Brownian diffusion of proteins and lipid molecules within the plasma membrane. Hop diffusion occurs ... February 7, 2005). "Paradigm shift of the plasma membrane concept from the two-dimensional continuum fluid to the partitioned ...
... may contribute to cell elongation since they have an active cytoplasmic protein kinase domain that span the plasma membrane, ... They usually link the plasma membrane to the protein and carbohydrate that composed the cell wall. The receptor-like proteins ... Under conditions that collapse the turgor of a plant cell so as to separate the membrane from the wall (plasmolysis), the WAKs- ... WAKL12 also contains an EGF-Ca2+ domain, but unlike WAKL8, it contains a trans-membrane domain. WAKL16 contains a transmembrane ...
RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven ... 2006). "Functions of the cytoplasmic tails of the human receptor activity-modifying protein components of calcitonin gene- ... RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. ...
The encoded protein is found on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles in the plasma membrane. Two transcript variants ... "Interactions of the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin ... "ATM binds to beta-adaptin in cytoplasmic vesicles". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
Immunoglobulin superfamily, member 1 is a plasma membrane glycoprotein encoded by the IGSF1 gene, which maps to the X ... It was predicted to contain 12 Ig loops, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. However, during translation of ... Pathogenic mutations in the IGSF1 gene block the transport of the CTD to the plasma membrane. Mutations in IGSF1 cause a ... Only the CTD is trafficked to the plasma membrane. The NTD is trapped within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ...
Na+/K+-ATPase can no longer maintain sodium/potassium ion concentration gradients across the plasma membrane. Glutamate ... In addition, cell death via lysis or apoptosis releases cytoplasmic glutamate outside of the ruptured cell. These two forms of ... Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) indirectly activate ion channels on the plasma membrane through a signaling cascade ... Glutamate receptors are synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal cells. Glutamate (the conjugate base ...
KIN1 and KIN2 protein kinases localize to the cytoplasmic face of the yeast plasma membrane. Exp Cell Res 213:93-99. Tibbetts, ...
RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CALCRL) to the plasma membrane. CALCRL, a receptor with ... RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. ...
... helices and three cytoplasmic domains define the functional unit of ATP-coupled proton transport across the plasma membrane, ... In the cell, they are situated in the plasma membrane (animals and plants) and the internal membranes (plants). Plasma membrane ... P3A ATPases (or Type IIIA) contain the plasma membrane H+-ATPases from prokaryotes, protists, plants and fungi. Plasma membrane ... they are present in the plasma membranes or endoplasmic reticular membranes. In prokaryotes, they are localized to the ...
Fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane releases the viral core into the host cytoplasm. Expression of early- ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... the virion is transported to the plasma membrane via microtubules. Some Orthopoxviruses, including monkeypox, cowpox and ... Assembly of progeny virions begins in cytoplasmic viral factories, producing an spherical immature particle. This virus ...
1989). "Lymphocyte-specific Ca2+-binding protein LSP1 is associated with the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane". Mol. ...
InterPro: IPR012269) These proteins form water-specific channels that provide the plasma membranes of red cells, as well as ... which facilitates the movement of glycerol non-specifically across the cytoplasmic membrane. Salmonella typhimurium propanediol ... One of the plant clusters includes only tonoplast (TIP) proteins, while another includes plasma membrane (PIP) proteins. The ... AqpZ, a homotetramer (tAqpZ) of four water-conducting channels that facilitate rapid water movements across the plasma membrane ...
Necrosis is characterised by cytoplasmic swelling, irreversible damage to the plasma membrane, and organelle breakdown leading ... Membrane damage: damage to the cell membrane disturbs the state of cell electrolytes, e.g. calcium, which when constantly ... Cytosolic components that leak through the damaged plasma membrane into the extracellular space can incur an inflammatory ... The most notable components of the cell that are targets of cell damage are the DNA and the cell membrane. ...
"Recycling of furin from the plasma membrane. Functional importance of the cytoplasmic tail sorting signals and interaction with ... adaptor-receptor recognition and binding of alpha-adaptin subunits to the plasma membrane contribute to recruitment of adaptor ... "Interactions of the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin ...
The extensions of plasma membrane from thymic nurse cells form a cage-like structure, which trap (Hendrix et. al., 2010) triple ... Similarly, the cytoplasmic vacuoles present in the cytoplasm near the membrane network also facilitate the uptake of thymocytes ... They have their own nucleus and are known to internalize thymocytes through extensions of plasma membrane. The cell surfaces of ... "Thymic Nurse Cells Exhibit Epithelial Progenitor Phenotype and Create Unique Extra-Cytoplasmic Membrane Space for Thymocyte ...
2006). "Integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein-1 (ICAP-1) interacts with the ROCK-I kinase at the plasma membrane". J. ... The cytoplasmic domains of integrins are essential for cell adhesion. The protein encoded by this gene binds to the beta1 ... The shorter form of this protein does not interact with the beta1 integrin cytoplasmic domain. The longer form is a ... Chang DD, Wong C, Smith H, Liu J (October 1997). "ICAP-1, a novel beta1 integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein, binds ...
... s are proteins that interact with, or are part of, biological membranes. They include integral membrane proteins that are permanently anchored or part of the membrane and peripheral membrane proteins that are only temporarily attached to the lipid bilayer or to other integral proteins.[1][2] The integral membrane proteins are classified as transmembrane proteins that span across the membrane and integral monotopic proteins that are attached to only one side of the membrane. Membrane proteins are a common type of proteins along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.[3] They are targets of over 50% of all modern medicinal drugs.[4] It is estimated that 20-30% of all ...
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells. It is a compartment of the endocytic membrane transport pathway originating from the trans Golgi membrane. Molecules or ligands internalized from the plasma membrane can follow this pathway all the way to lysosomes for degradation, or they can be recycled back to the plasma membrane. Molecules are also transported to endosomes from the trans-Golgi network and either continue to lysosomes or recycle back to the Golgi. Endosomes can be classified as early, sorting, or late depending on their stage post internalization. Endosomes represent a major sorting compartment of the endomembrane system in cells. In HeLa cells, endosomes are approximately 500 nm in diameter when fully mature. ...
The gag-onc fusion protein (also written as Gag-v-Onc, with "v" indicating that the Onc sequence resides in a viral genome) is a general term for a fusion protein formed from a group-specific antigen ('gag') gene and that of an oncogene ('onc'), a gene that plays a role in the development of a cancer. Onc is a generic placeholder for a given specific oncogene, such as C-jun. (In the case of a fusion with C-jun, the resulting "gag-jun" protein is known alternatively as p65). Gag genes are part of a general architecture for retroviruses, viruses that replicate through reverse transcription, where the gag region of the genome encodes proteins that constitute the matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid of the mature virus particles. Like in HIV's replication cycle, these proteins are needed for viral budding from the host cell's plasma membrane, where the fully formed virions leave the cell to infect other cells. As a specific case, a Gag-v-Onc fusion protein from the ...
... (Ca-AEP or Ca-2AEP) is a vital component in the structure of cell membranes in the human body. It is the calcium salt of phosphorylethanolamine. It was discovered by the eminent biochemist Erwin Chargaff in 1941. Ca-AEP has been shown to help maintain cell membrane integrity and improve cellular functions. It was patented by Hans Alfred Nieper and Franz Kohler. Calcium 2-amino ethyl phosphoric acid (Ca-AEP or Ca-2AEP) is also called calcium ethylamino-phosphate (calcium EAP), calcium colamine phosphate, calcium 2-aminoethyl ester of phosphoric acid, and calcium 2-amino ethanol phosphate 2-AEP plays a role as a component in the cell membrane and at the same time has the property to form complexes with minerals. This mineral transporter goes into the outer layer of the outer cell membrane where it releases its associated mineral and is itself metabolized with the ...
Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database provides spatial positions of membrane protein structures with respect to the lipid bilayer.[1][2][3][4] Positions of the proteins are calculated using an implicit solvation model of the lipid bilayer.[5][6] The results of calculations were verified against experimental studies of spatial arrangement of transmembrane and peripheral proteins in membranes.[4][7][8][9][10][11][12] Proteins structures are taken from the Protein Data Bank. OPM also provides structural classification of membrane-associated proteins into families and superfamilies, membrane topology, quaternary structure of proteins in membrane-bound state, and the type of a destination membrane for each protein. The coordinate ...
While Robert Hooke's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell Theory, Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the time.[8] Microscopists focused on the cell wall for well over 150 years until advances in microscopy were made. In the early 19th century, cells were recognized as being separate entities, unconnected, and bound by individual cell walls after it was found that plant cells could be separated. This theory extended to include animal cells to suggest a universal mechanism for cell protection and development. By the second half of the 19th century, microscopy was still not advanced enough to make a distinction between cell membranes and cell walls. However, some microscopists correctly identified at this time that while invisible, it could be inferred that cell membranes existed in animal cells due to ...
While Robert Hooke's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell Theory, Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the time.[7] Microscopists focused on the cell wall for well over 150 years until advances in microscopy were made. In the early 19th century, cells were recognized as being separate entities, unconnected, and bound by individual cell walls after it was found that plant cells could be separated. This theory extended to include animal cells to suggest a universal mechanism for cell protection and development. By the second half of the 19th century, microscopy was still not advanced enough to make a distinction between cell membranes and cell walls. However, some microscopists correctly identified at this time that while invisible, it could be inferred that cell membranes existed in animal cells due to ...
There are many different types of membranes in a cell. The cell membrane, also called the plasma membrane, covers one cell. Membranes also divide the cell into different spaces called organelles. Organelles are special areas of the cell that do different work. For example, the nucleus holds the DNA in a cell. The mitochondria make energy for the cell. Membranes in cells are made of lipids (fats) and protein. The lipids keep the inside of the cell or the organelle separate from the outside. The proteins do many things. Plasma membranes give the cell messages from outside. They let some things (like glucose, calcium, and potassium) go into and out of the cell. ...
A vesicle is a bubble of liquid within a cell. More technically, a vesicle is a small, intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances within a cell. Vesicles form naturally because of the properties of lipid membranes. Vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane, and release their contents outside the cell. Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell. A vesicle is sometimes formed when the cell is doing endocytosis. Endocytosis is a process in which a cell's membrane takes in a particle from the outside and brings it inside the cell with a vesicle around it. Vesicles are also more commonly known as nuclear membranes, because their very similar to the cell membrane. ...
A vesicle is a bubble of liquid within a cell. More technically, a vesicle is a small, intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances within a cell. Vesicles form naturally because of the properties of lipid membranes. Vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane, and release their contents outside the cell. Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell. A vesicle is sometimes formed when the cell is doing endocytosis. Endocytosis is a process in which a cell's membrane takes in a particle from the outside and brings it inside the cell with a vesicle around it. Vesicles are also more commonly known as nuclear membranes, because their very similar to the cell membrane. ...
... s are an important link in the chain from electrical excitation of a cell to its subsequent contraction (excitation-contraction coupling). When contraction of a muscle is needed, stimulation from a nerve or an adjacent muscle cell causes a characteristic flow of charged particles across the cell membrane known as an action potential. At rest, there are fewer positively charged particles on the inner side of the membrane compared to the outer side, and the membrane is described as being polarised. During an action potential, positively charged particles (predominantly sodium and calcium ions) flow across the membrane from the outside to the inside. This reverses the normal imbalance of charged particles and is referred to as depolarisation. One region of membrane depolarises adjacent regions, and the resulting wave of depolarisation then ...
... is one of cell membrane classes, occurring as set of parallel elemernts with duble same dimensional membranes, as the nuclear envelope. These lamella have pore complexes which are identical to those of the nuclear cover. It is arranged in highly ordered structure with a regular specing between themselves. These lamella are characteristic for the oocytes, spermatocytes, some somatic and cancer cels. They are characteristic of actively growing cells, including many functions in genetic information transfer and storage. They are probably formed from the nuclear envelope. Similar membranes are found in both the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. In the nucleoplasm, they are small, irrrgular, as well as short-living. It have been established that, in some condition, ribosomes being directly connected to the annulate lamellar membrane, supposing a role in the process of protein ...
ލައިޓް މައިކްރަސްކޯޕަކުން ބަލައިފިނަމަ ޕްލޭޓްލިޓްތައް ހުންނާނީ ވަށް ނުވަތަ ކުކުޅު ބިސް ބުރުގެ ބައްޓަމަށެވެ. ޕްލޭޓްލިޓް އުފެދިފައިވަނީ ސާފު ހުދުކުލައިގެ އަރިމަތީ ބަޔަކާއި، ކުލަ އެކުލެވޭ މެދު ބައެއްގެ މަައްޗަށެވެ. މިބުނި ސާފު ހުދުކުލައިގެ އަރިމަތީބަޔަށް ކިޔަނީހައިއަލޯމީރް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Hyalomere) އެވެ.ކުލަ އެކުލެވޭ މެދުގައިވާ ބަޔަށް ކިޔަނީ ގްރެނިއޫލޯމީރް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Granulomere)ނުވަތަ ކްރޯމަމީރް(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Chromomere) އެވެ. އިލެކްޓްރޯން މައިކްރޯސްކޯޕަކުން ބަލައިފިނަމަ ޕްލޭޓްލިޓްގެ ބޭރުފަށަލަ(އިނގިރޭސި ބަހުން: Cell membrane)ހުންނަނީ ...
... to the surrounding plasma membrane (b) and even the bacteria lying on the surface of the cell (d). ... Scrolling through we can identify different organelles/ components from the inner core: the nucleus (a) to its cytoplasmic ...
Binding of the cytoplasmic domain of CD28 to the plasma membrane inhibits Lck recruitment and signaling ... Binding of the cytoplasmic domain of CD28 to the plasma membrane inhibits Lck recruitment and signaling ... Binding of the cytoplasmic domain of CD28 to the plasma membrane inhibits Lck recruitment and signaling ... Binding of the cytoplasmic domain of CD28 to the plasma membrane inhibits Lck recruitment and signaling ...
The cytoplasmic domains of the TCR signaling subunits CD3ε and CD3ζ both interact with the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane ... We showed that the cytoplasmic domain of CD28 was bound to the plasma membrane in resting cells and that ligand binding to CD28 ... Binding of the cytoplasmic domain of CD28 to the plasma membrane inhibits Lck recruitment and signaling ... Binding of the cytoplasmic domain of CD28 to the plasma membrane inhibits Lck recruitment and signaling ...
... of Prolactin to the Apical Plasma Membrane in Primary Rabbit Lacrimal Acini is Facilitated by Microtubules and Cytoplasmic ... Here we explore the mechanisms responsible for stimulated traffic of PRL to the apical plasma membrane in lacrimal acini. ... Nocodazole and Ad-Dynt but not Ad-LacZ impaired CCH-stimulated accumulation of PRL beneath the apical plasma membrane. Further ... of Prolactin to the Apical Plasma Membrane in Primary Rabbit Lacrimal Acini is Facilitated by Microtubules and Cytoplasmic ...
Effect of Local Anesthetic on Neuronal Cytoplasmic Calcium and Plasma Membrane Lysis (Necrosis) in a Cell Culture Model. ... Effect of Local Anesthetic on Neuronal Cytoplasmic Calcium and Plasma Membrane Lysis (Necrosis) in a Cell Culture Model ... Effect of Local Anesthetic on Neuronal Cytoplasmic Calcium and Plasma Membrane Lysis (Necrosis) in a Cell Culture Model ... Effect of Local Anesthetic on Neuronal Cytoplasmic Calcium and Plasma Membrane Lysis (Necrosis) in a Cell Culture Model. ...
... or extracellular side of the plasma membrane. Populations of predominantly in-side-in plasma membrane vesicles were subjected ... These experiments indicated that the NPA-binding site is on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane in zucchini (Cucurbita ... Marker activities for inside-out vesicles also increased, indicating that these treatments act by altering the membrane ... A new tool to obtain inside-out (cytoplasmic side-out) plasma membrane vesicles.. *Fredrik Johansson, M Olbe, Marianne Sommarin ...
... coordination of membrane core and cytoplasmic plaque domain assembly at the plasma membrane. M Pasdar, M Pasdar ... coordination of membrane core and cytoplasmic plaque domain assembly at the plasma membrane.. J Cell Biol 1 May 1991; 113 (3): ... They consist of at least eight different cytoplasmic and integral membrane proteins that are organized into two biochemically ... and then titrate into an insoluble pool before their arrival at the plasma membrane (Pasdar, M., and W. J. Nelson. 1988. J. ...
Ergosterol is mainly located in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the yeast plasma membrane. I: Traffic. 2018 ; Bind 19, Nr. 3. s. 198 ... Ergosterol is mainly located in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the yeast plasma membrane. / Solanko, Lukasz M.; Sullivan, David P ... Ergosterol is mainly located in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the yeast plasma membraneAccepteret manuskript, 1,33 MB ... title = "Ergosterol is mainly located in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the yeast plasma membrane", ...
The membrane and cytoplasmic fractions were separated from the pooled supernatants at 100,000 × g for 60 min at 4°C. The ... E, Membrane and cytoplasmic fractions of PB and SF T lymphocytes were prepared. LAT was immunoprecipated and then detected by ... 5⇓C). After 72 h of BSO treatment, we did not observe any expression of LAT in the plasma membrane, while the cytoplasm showed ... Preparation of membrane and cytoplasmic cell fractions. A total of 10 × 106 T lymphocytes were disrupted in 500 μl extraction ...
... although ABA is known to enhance the increase in cytoplasmic calcium by promoting calcium influxes across the plasma membrane ... Plasma membrane depolarization induced by ABA occurred even in the presence of H+-ATPase inhibitors. Plasma membrane potential ... Modulations of other ion transport systems could also lead to the plasma membrane depolarization. Inhibition of plasma membrane ... an activator of plasma membrane H+-ATPase (FC, ΔpH = 0.22 ± 0.12 unit; n =9). For E, maximal variations of the plasma membrane ...
apical plasma membrane IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info. cytoplasmic vesicle IEA Inferred from Electronic ... IGFBP-2 plasma levels outperformed the established risk score for prediction of one-year mortality in aortic stenosis patients ...
cytoplasmic vesicle ISO Inferred from Sequence Orthology. more info. plasma membrane IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ...
A membrane skeleton at the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane of young plant cells. / Emons, A.M.C.; Kieft, H.; Sonesson, ... Emons, A.M.C. ; Kieft, H. ; Sonesson, A. ; Widell, S. / A membrane skeleton at the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane of ... Emons AMC, Kieft H, Sonesson A, Widell S. A membrane skeleton at the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane of young plant ... Emons, AMC, Kieft, H, Sonesson, A & Widell, S 1993, A membrane skeleton at the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane of young ...
Cytoplasmic and plasma membranes Site of Virion Accumulation. Extracellular Inclusion Bodies. Other. ...
T1 - A tyrosine-based sorting signal in the β2 integrin cytoplasmic domain mediates its recycling to the plasma membrane and is ... A tyrosine-based sorting signal in the β2 integrin cytoplasmic domain mediates its recycling to the plasma membrane and is ... A tyrosine-based sorting signal in the β2 integrin cytoplasmic domain mediates its recycling to the plasma membrane and is ... A tyrosine-based sorting signal in the β2 integrin cytoplasmic domain mediates its recycling to the plasma membrane and is ...
The p36 substrate of pp60src kinase is located at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane of fibroblasts; an ... The p36 substrate of pp60src kinase is located at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane of fibroblasts; an ... kinase is located at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane of fibroblasts; an immunoelectron microscopic analysis. ...
ECM, extracellular matrix; PM, plasma membrane; Exc, extracellular, secreted; Cyt, cytoplasmic; Nuc, nuclear; ER, endoplasmic ... Mitochondrial membrane organization is essential for maintaining correct mitochondrial function. The inner membrane protein ... Mitochondria consist of four components: an outer membrane, an intermembrane space, an inner membrane, and a matrix. These ... Membranes were blocked in Tris-buffered saline (pH 7.4) containing 0.1% Tween 20 (TBST) and 5% nonfat dried milk for 60 min at ...
IPR023299 P-type ATPase, cytoplasmic domain N. IPR018303 P-type ATPase, phosphorylation site ... IPR034304 Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 4. IPR022141 Plasma membrane calcium transporting P-type ATPase, C- ...
6A, all particles within 23.5 nm of the plasma membrane were defined as membrane-associated and considered to signal epitopes ... 5). The ordinate indicates number of gold particles per bin (bin width, 4 nm; cytoplasmic side negative). The gold particle ... Müller cell membranes in the outer plexiform layer; MüMv, membranes of Müller cell microvilli; PhIs, membranes of photoreceptor ... luminal membranes of endothelial cells; EndAb, abluminal membranes of endothelial cells; MüEf, membranes of Müller cell endfeet ...
... on lysosomal membranes (9), and on intracellular vesicles in cerebellar neurons (42), as well as on the plasma membrane. ... Spectrin is an important structural component of the plasma membrane skeleton. Heretofore-unidentified isoforms of spectrin ... βIII spectrin cosegregates with Golgi membranes and other vesicle markers. Fresh rat-liver membranes were floated in a sucrose ... MAD2, membrane association domains of spectrin;. ManII,. mannosidase II;. MDCK,. Madin Darby canine kidney cells;. NRK,. ...
Fusion with the plasma membrane to release the core into the host cytoplasm. Early phase: early genes are transcribed in the ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host ... Assembly of progeny virions starts in cytoplasmic viral factories, producing an spherical immature particle. This virus ... or can acquire a second double membrane from trans-Golgi and bud as external enveloped virion (EEV)host receptors, which ...
3 Membrane Signaling; The Tonoplast and Plasma Membrane; 4 Cytoplasmic Regulatory Mechanisms; Signaling to the Nucleus. For ... THE TONOPLAST AND PLASMA MEMBRANE JULIAN SCHROEDER * University of California-San Diego WOLF FROMMER, Inst for Genbiol ... at the Plasma Membrane COFFEE BREAK MAARTEN CHRISPEELS, University of California-San Diego Aquaporins: Water Channel Proteins ... Tonoplast and the Plasma Membrane HEVEN SZE, University of Maryland Structural & Functional Diversity of Endomembrane ...
Plasma Membrane. *plasma membrane Source: Ensembl. *. Other locations. *cytoplasmic vesicle Source: Ensembl ... Plasma membrane. Cytoskeleton. Lysosome. Endosome. Peroxisome. ER. Golgi apparatus. Nucleus. Mitochondrion. Manual annotation. ...
Plasma Membrane. *caveola Source: Ensembl. *. Other locations. *cytoplasmic vesicle Source: Ensembl. *integral component of ... Plasma membrane. Cytoskeleton. Lysosome. Endosome. Peroxisome. ER. Golgi apparatus. Nucleus. Mitochondrion. Manual annotation. ... It denotes the presence of both alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of beta-barrel ... section describes the extent of a membrane-spanning region of the protein. ...
Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence ... apical plasma membrane. IEA. --. GO:0031410. cytoplasmic vesicle. IBA. 21873635. Genes that share ontologies with AMOTL2: view ...
  • CD1d contains a tyrosine-based sorting signal in its cytoplasmic tail that is necessary for internalization. (jimmunol.org)
  • We investigated the potential of IMAC in combination with capillary liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the identification of plasma membrane phosphoproteins of Arabidopsis . (mcponline.org)
  • During CHIKV RNA replication, nsP3 localizes to punctate cytoplasmic foci concurrently with G3BP. (asm.org)
  • Cleavage either by α-secretase, β-secretase or θ-secretase leads to generation and extracellular release of soluble APP peptides, sAPP-α and sAPP-β, and the retention of corresponding membrane-anchored C-terminal fragments, C80, C83 and C99. (biolegend.com)
  • Without chemical modification of peptides, over 75% pure phosphopeptides were isolated from plasma membrane digests and detected and sequenced by mass spectrometry. (mcponline.org)
  • The problem of membrane protein insolubility can be circumvented by proteolytic digestion of the intact membranes and analysis of peptides released from extramembrane domains ( 22 ). (mcponline.org)
  • These functions require the integrity of the short β subunit cytoplasmic domains, which contain multiple, highly conserved tyrosine-based endocytic signals, typically found in receptors undergoing regulated, clathrin-dependent endocytosis. (elsevier.com)
  • The enzyme is composed of two essential subunits, a catalytic α subunit and a glycosylated β subunit which is responsible for membrane targeting of the enzyme. (biologists.org)
  • Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) is a multifunctional matricellular receptor composed of a large ligand-binding subunit (515-kDa α-chain) associated with a short trans-membrane subunit (85-kDa β-chain). (frontiersin.org)
  • E) Mature virus particles (VP) and dense bodies (DB) exit the cell by fusion of the transporting vacuole and the plasma membrane to release its content to the extracellular space. (asm.org)
  • Secondary antibodies marked with colloidal gold were used to visualize the staining of gB (A), mannosidase II (B) Rab 3 (C), and Rab 5 (D). The HCMV gB, Rab 3, and mannosidase II antibodies stained the envelope membrane of virus particles (VP), dense bodies (DB), and the vacuole membrane (V). (asm.org)
  • Ligand binding to CD28 triggered the release of the cytoplasmic domain, thus making the basic residues available for binding to the effector kinase Lck and recruiting downstream components of the signaling pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mutation of the basic clusters in the CD28 cytoplasmic domain reduced the recruitment to the CD28-Lck complex of protein kinase Cθ (PKCθ), which serves as a key effector kinase in the CD28 signaling pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • The identification of signaling processes and phosphoproteins at the plasma membrane is thus of great interest. (mcponline.org)
  • Viral replication is cytoplasmic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assembly and budding of influenza virus proceeds in the viral budozone, a domain in the plasma membrane with characteristics of cholesterol/sphingolipid-rich membrane rafts. (hindawi.com)
  • Virus assembly is orchestrated by the matrix protein M1, binding to all viral components and the membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we summarize the experimental evidence for this model with emphasis on the raft-targeting features of HA, NA, and M2 and review the functional importance of raft domains for viral protein transport, assembly and budding, environmental stability, and membrane fusion. (hindawi.com)
  • Among the identified sequences, six originated from different isoforms of the plasma membrane H + -ATPase and defined two previously unknown phosphorylation sites at the regulatory C terminus. (mcponline.org)
  • The classical type of intercellular communication is attributed to cell-membrane surface based receptor-ligand interactions. (plos.org)
  • Conversely, the non-conservative F754A substitution in the membrane-proximal NPLF sequence abrogates ligand-dependent adhesion and spreading without affecting receptor recycling. (elsevier.com)
  • Both of these mutants display a severe impairment in ligand-supported migration, suggesting the existence in integrin cytoplasmic domains of independent signals regulating apparently unrelated functions that are required to sustain cell migration over specific ligands. (elsevier.com)
  • The neutrophil serine protease proteinase 3 (PR3) is a main autoantigen in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. (mdc-berlin.de)